Sounds of some familiar languages

Transcription

Sounds of some familiar languages
Sounds of some familiar
languages
French oral vowels
Height
High
Mid: tense
Mid: lax
Low:
Vowel
Front unrounded
i
e
E
example
vie
blé
tête
Vowel
Front rounded
y
ö
œ
example
du
peu
peur
Vowel
Back
u
o
O
a
example
tout
mot
donne
plat
French nasal vowels
[ε̃ ]
plein
[ɔ̃ ]
bon
[œ̃ ]
brun
[ã ]
dans
French nasal vowels
Height
Mid: lax
Low:
Vowel
Front unrounded
Ẽ
French glides
y
yeux, paille, pied
w oui, Ouagadougou
4
huile, lui
example
Vowel
Front rounded
œ̃
example
Vowel
Back
Õ
ã
example
bon
dans
IPA cardinal vowel system
Source: KHWagner
French consonants
The other glides (IPA)
Spanish vowels
Sounds of Spanish
Castilian
Mexico
Porteño
Caribbean
German obstruents
Source: KHWagner
German diphthongs
Source: KHWagner
French
• Bourgeois educated Parisian French
• Educated Bordeaux French (a kind of
southern French)
• Québécois (le français canadien)
Issues involving French mid vowels
Gloss
give (3rd sg.)
give (infinitive)
beautiful (masc.)
Paul
Paula
shoulder
thing
left (opp. of right)
dress
hot
telephone
to telephone
hot (fem.)
Bordeaux
Parisian
[dɔn]
[dɔn]
[done]
[dɔne]
[bo]
[bo]
[pɔl]
[pɔl]
[pɔl]
[pol]
[epɔl]
[epol]
[ʃɔz]
[ʃoz]
[gɔʃ]
[goʃ]
[rɔb]
[rɔb]
[ʃo]
[ʃo]
[telefɔn]
[telefɔn]
[telefone]
[telefɔne]
[ʃɔd]
[ʃod]
Spelling
petit
tiroir
diable
Adèle
terre
tâche
tout
il dit
elle dit
planter
torchon
tiens
tuer
dur
diable
dans
petite image
English
small
drawer
devil
(name)
earth
task
all
he says
she says
to plant
dish towel
hold, take
to kill
hard
devil
in
small picture
Québécois
pţi
ţirwaK
dzjab
adEl
tEK
ta:S(or tawS)
tUt
i dzi
adzi
plãnte
tOKSõ
ţjẽ
ţye
dzyr
dzjab
dã
pţitima:Z
Continental
[email protected]
tirwaK
[email protected]
adEl
tEK
taS
tu
i(l)di
Eldi
plãnte
tOKSõ
tjẽ
tye
dyr
[email protected]
dã
[email protected]
Table 1: Québécois affrication (abstracting away from diphthongization)
Spelling
tout, toute
vous, nous
riz
du
vite
parler
Colette
English
all
you, us
rice
of the, some
quickly
to speak
(name)
Québécois
tUt
vu, nu
ri
dzy
vIt
paKle
kOlEt
Continental
tu, tut
vu, nu
ri
dy
vit
paKle
kOlEt
Table 2: Québécois laxing (relâchement vocalique
Spanish stop/spirants
[bala]
ball
[beso]
kiss
[suβeso]
his/her kiss
[umbeso]
a kiss
[elβeso]
the kiss
[darβesos]
to give kisses
[deðo]
finger
[eldeðo]
the finger
[suðeðo]
his/her finger
[miðeðo]
my finger
[undeðo]
a finger
[gato]
cat
[uŋgato]
a cat
[miγato]
my cat
[elγato]
the cat
Zulu
Clicks from IPA
c
q
x
[ǀ]
ukucula [uɠuˈǀu:la]
[ǀʰ]
ukuchaza [uɠuˈǀʰa:za]
[g͡ǀ]
isigcobo [isiˈg͡ǀɔ:ɓo]
[n͡ǀ]
incwancwa [iˈn͡ǀwa:n͡ǀwa]
[ŋ͡ǀ]
ukungcwaba [uɠuˈŋ͡ǀwa:ɓa]
[ǃ]
iqaqa [iˈǃa:ǃa]
[ǃʰ]
iqhude [iˈǃʰu:de]
[g͡ǃ]
ugqozi [uˈg͡ǃo:zi]
[n͡ǃ]
inqola [iˈn͡ǃɔ:la]
[ŋ͡ǃ]
ingqondo [iˈŋ͡ǃɔ:ndo]
[ǁ]
xoxa [ˈǁɔ:ǁa]
[ǁʰ]
ukuxhasa [uɠuˈǁʰa:sa]
[g͡ǁ]
ukugxoba [uɠuˈg͡ǁɔ:ɓa]
[n͡ǁ]
inxeba [iˈn͡ǁɛ:ɓa]
[ŋ͡ǁ]
ingxenye [iˈŋ͡ǁɛ:ɲe]
Vowels
a
ukuthanda
to love
e
leli
this
o
olubisini
in the milk
u
thuma
send
i
nina
you
stop
nasal
bilabi
al
p ph
bh
m
labiodental
alveolar palato- velar glottal
alveolar
t th d
k kh
g
ɲ (ny)
ŋ
n
(ng)
fricative
lateral
affricate
semivowels
fv
mf mv
ʃ (sh)
sz
l hl dl
ts ns nz č (tsh)
ǰ
y
h
w
[a]
amakhaza [amaˈkʰaza]
[e]
[ɛ]
[i]
umgibeli [umgiˈɓe:li]
ihembe [iˈhɛ:mbe]
isibili [isiˈɓi:li]
[ɔ]
[u]
[ɓ]
[b]
[d]
[ɮ]
[ʤ]
ogogo [ɔˈgɔ:go]
ubusuku [uɓuˈsu:ɠu]
ubisi [uˈɓi:si]
ubhuti [uˈbu:ti]
dade [ˈda:de]
ukudla [uˈɠu:ɮa]
uju [ˈu:ʤu]
[o]
iGoli [iˈgo:li]
[f]
ifu [ˈi:fu]
[ɠ]
ukupheka [uɠuˈpʰɛ:ɠa]
[g]
ogogo [ɔˈgɔ:go]
[k]
iKapa [iˈka:pa]
[kʰ]
ikhanda [iˈkʰa:nda]
[h]
ihembe [iˈhɛ:mbe]
[h̬]
ihhovisi [ih̬oˈvi:si]
[ɬ]
isihlahla [isiˈɬa:ɬa]
[j]
yebo [ˈjɛ:ɓo]
[l]
leli [ˈle:li]
[m]
mama [ˈma:ma]
[n]
nina [ˈni:na]
[ŋ]
amanga [aˈma:ŋa]
[ɲ]
inyosi [iˈɲo:si]
[p]
ipentshisi [ipenˈtʃi:si]
[pʰ]
isiphukuphuku [isipʰuɠuˈpʰu:ɠu]
[r]
none found
[s]
isisu [iˈsi:su]
[ʃ]
ishiya [iˈʃi:ya]
[t]
isitambu [isiˈta:mbu]
[tʰ]
isithathu [isiˈtʰa:tʰu]
[v]
iva [ˈi:va]
[w]
wena [ˈwe:na]
[z]
umzuzu [umˈzu:zu]