Appraisal of the Government of Ghana Education Sector Plan 2010

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Appraisal of the Government of Ghana Education Sector Plan 2010
Appraisal of the
Government of
Ghana Education
Sector Plan
2010-2020
March 2012
Global Partnership for Education
Ghana Development Partner Group
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Exchange rate
US$1 = GH¢1.681
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table of contents
1
Appraisal and Endorsement of the Education Sector Plan 2010-2020 ......................................... 11
1.1
Country:
Ghana ................................................................................................................ 11
1.2
Overall Comments: .............................................................................................................. 11
1.3
Strengths.............................................................................................................................. 11
1.4
Concerns .............................................................................................................................. 12
1.5
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 12
2
Signature by partners who recommend the sector plan for FTI endorsement ............................ 13
3
Background ................................................................................................................................... 14
4
Country Background ..................................................................................................................... 16
5
Education Sector Background ....................................................................................................... 18
5.1
Sector Status 2008/09 ......................................................................................................... 18
5.2
Ghana’s Progress on Education for All (EFA) Goals and Education Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) ............................................................................................................. 24
5.3
General Balance of the Sector ............................................................................................. 25
5.4
Financing of the Sector ........................................................................................................ 28
5.5
Reform Capacity .................................................................................................................. 35
6
Sector Documentation and Knowledge Gaps ............................................................................... 37
7
Consultation Process..................................................................................................................... 40
8
Overview of the Education Strategic Plan, 2010 to 2020 ............................................................. 42
8.1
Structure of the Strategic Plan ............................................................................................ 42
8.2
Legislation and Policies underpinning the ESP .................................................................... 43
8.3
Improved Access to Educational Services ........................................................................... 44
8.4
Improved Quality and Relevance of Basic Education .......................................................... 44
8.5
Teachers .............................................................................................................................. 45
8.6
Construction of Facilities for Basic Education ..................................................................... 45
8.7
Balance of Sub-Sector Development ................................................................................... 45
8.8
Gender ................................................................................................................................. 46
8.9
argets of the ESP .................................................................................................................. 46
8.10
Decentralised Administration of Education ........................................................................ 48
8.11
Efficiency Measures ............................................................................................................. 48
8.12
Capacity Development ........................................................................................................ 49
8.13
The Monitoring Process ....................................................................................................... 49
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
9
Appraisal of the Education Strategic Plan, 2010 to 2020 ............................................................. 50
9.1
Structure and Coverage of the Plan .................................................................................... 50
9.2
Legislation and Policies underpinning the ESP .................................................................... 51
9.3
Improved Access to Educational Services ........................................................................... 52
9.4
Improved Quality and Relevance of Basic Education .......................................................... 53
9.5
Teachers .............................................................................................................................. 56
9.6
Construction of Facilities for Basic Education ..................................................................... 63
9.7
The Balance of Sub-Sector Development ............................................................................ 65
9.8
Gender ................................................................................................................................. 65
9.9
Targets of the ESP ................................................................................................................ 66
9.10
Decentralised Administration of Education ........................................................................ 67
9.11
Efficiency Measures ............................................................................................................. 68
9.12
Capacity Development ........................................................................................................ 70
9.13
Monitoring Progress ............................................................................................................ 71
10
Issues for the Education Strategic Plan.................................................................................... 73
10.1
Structure and Coverage of the Plan .................................................................................... 73
10.2
Legislation and Policies underpinning the ESP .................................................................... 74
10.3
Improved Access to Educational Services ........................................................................... 74
10.4
Improved Quality and Relevance of Basic Education .......................................................... 75
10.5
Teachers .............................................................................................................................. 75
10.6
Construction of Facilities for Basic Education ..................................................................... 76
10.7
The Balance of Sub-Sector Development ............................................................................ 76
10.8
Gender ................................................................................................................................. 76
10.9
Targets of the ESP ................................................................................................................ 76
10.10
Decentralised Administration of Education .................................................................... 76
10.11
Efficiency Measures ........................................................................................................ 77
10.12
Capacity Development .................................................................................................... 77
10.13
Monitoring Progress ........................................................................................................ 77
11
Conclusions .............................................................................................................................. 79
ANNEX: APPRAISAL OF AESOP 2012-2014…………………………………………………………………………….…………81
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Tables
Table 1 Human development indicators for Ghana ............................................................................. 16
Table 2 Deprived districts .................................................................................................................... 17
Table 3 School enrolment ratios (percentages) ................................................................................... 19
Table 4 Enrolment disparities at primary level for selected regions (Percentages) ............................ 19
Table 5 Tertiary enrolment, 2007/2008............................................................................................... 20
Table 6 Performance of primary pupils on the National Education Assessment (NEA) ...................... 22
Table 7 Progress on MDG Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education by 2015............................... 25
Table 8 Progress on MDG Goal 3: Elimination of gender disparity at all levels of education ............. 25
Table 9 Total costs (GHc million) and percentages by sub-sector ....................................................... 27
Table 10 Recurrent expenditure by student excl. admin (in multiples of GDP per capita) ................. 28
Table 11 Resource envelope for ESP funding, by source (Selected years to 2020) ............................. 30
Table 12 Estimated ESP expenditure in relation to resource envelopes (GHcm) ................................ 30
Table 13 Cost of meeting Aide Memoire and AESOP priorities, 2011-2013 ........................................ 32
Table 14 Principal targets of the ESP ................................................................................................... 47
Table 15 ESP interventions for improved quality teaching and learning ............................................. 54
Table 16 PTR in public primary schools, 2008/09 and 2009/10 .......................................................... 58
Table 17 Percentage of trained teachers in public primary schools, 2009/10 .................................... 60
Table 18 Percentage of basic education schools with toilets and drinking water ............................... 63
Table 19 Construction of facilities in ESP Vol. 2 and AESOP ................................................................ 64
Table 20 Number of schools and classrooms, 2009/10 ....................................................................... 65
Figures
Figure 1 Schools with toilets and drinking water ................................................................................. 24
Figure 2 "Mini Max ESP" (2007 base year + 2 years' inflation) ............................................................ 29
Figure 3 "Updated ESP" (2009 base year) ............................................................................................ 31
Figure 4 Sub-sector share of expenditure, 2011-2013 ........................................................................ 33
Annex: GPE Tables for Ghana
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Abbreviations and Acronyms
AESOP
AM
BE
BECE
BoG
CBT
CD
CF
CoE
COTVET
CRDD
DA
DEO
DFID
DP
DPG
EFA
EFSM
EMIS
ESP
ESPR
ESWG
FCUBE
FPMU
FTI
GAR
GDP
GER
GES
GETFund
GEU
GoG
GPI
GPRS
GPS
GSS
HDI
HIV&AIDS
HQ
ICT
INSET
IS
JICA
JHS
KG
Annual Education Sector Operational Plan
Aide Memoire
Basic Education
Basic Education Certificate Examination
Board of Governors (Senior High)
Competency Based Training
Capacity Development
Catalytic Fund
College(s) of Education
Council for Technical and Vocational Education and Training
Curriculum Research and Development Division (of GES)
District Assembly
District Education Office/Officer
Department for International Development
Development Partner(s)
Development Partner Group
Education for All
Education Finance Simulation Model
Education Management Information System
Education Strategic Plan
Education Sector Performance Report
Education Sector Working Group
Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education
Funds and Procurement Management Unit
Fast Track Initiative
Gross Admission Rate
Gross Domestic Product
Gross Enrolment Ratio
Ghana Education Service
Ghana Education Trust Fund
Girls Education Unit
Government of Ghana
Gender Parity Index
Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy
Global Positioning System
Ghana Statistical Service
Human Development Index
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Head Quarters
Information and Communication Technology
In-Service Education of Teachers
Inclusive and Special (Education)
Japan International Cooperation Agency
Junior High School
Kindergarten
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
M&E
MDAs
MDBS
MDG
MoE
MoFEP
MTEF
n.a.
NCTE
NDP
NEA
NER
NESAR
NF
NGO
NIB
NIU
NSS
PBME
PESPR
PETS
PPP
PPVA
PTPDM
PTR
REO
SC
SFL
SMC
SMTDP
SpED
STD
STME
SWOT
TA
TE
TED
TVET
UIS
UNESCO
UNICEF
USAID
UTDBE
WAEC
WFP
Monitoring and Evaluation
Ministries, Departments, and Agencies
Multi-Donor Budget Support
Millennium Development Goal
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning
Medium Term Expenditure Framework
Not available
National Council for Tertiary Education
National Development Plan
National Education Assessment
Net Enrolment Ratio
National Education Sector Annual Review
Non-Formal (Education)
Non-Governmental Organisation
National Inspection Board
National INSET Unit
National Service Scheme
Planning, Budgeting, Monitoring and Evaluation
Preliminary Education Sector Performance Report
Public Expenditure Tracking Survey
Public-Private Partnership
Participatory Poverty and Vulnerability Assessment
Pre-Tertiary Teacher Professional Development and Management
Pupil Teacher Ratio
Regional Education Office/Officer
Second Cycle
School for Life
School Management Committee
Sector Medium-Term Development Plan
Special Education Division (of GES)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Science, Technology and Mathematics Education
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
Technical Assistance
Tertiary Education
Teacher Education Division (of GES)
Technical and Vocational Education and Training
UNESCO Institute for Statistics
United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
United Nations Children’s Fund
United States Agency for International Development
Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education
West African Examinations Council
World Food Programme
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Prefatory Note
The draft Appraisal Report was completed in February 2011, at which time Ghana’s
GPE funding application lost momentum because of the lack of a firm decision on the
Supervising Entity and because GPE funds were very low.
In October 2011 the process was revived with the agreement that the World Bank
would accept the role of Supervising Entity, and with the prospect of funds being
available following the November 2011 pledging meeting.
The Education Sector Group was agreed that there had been no substantial changes
to the planning documents or to the state of basic education in Ghana which would
justify doing a fresh Appraisal of the Sector Plan. Consequently, only the following
sections of this Appraisal Report have been changed in any material way since the
GPE Secretariat saw, and commented on, the draft report in February 2011:
1
Appraisal and endorsement of the Education Sector Plan 2010-2020.
5.4
Financing of the sector: A paragraph has been added.
10
Issues for the Education Sector Plan: Extensively revised.
11
Conclusions: The third paragraph has been added for consistency with the
paragraph added to 5.4.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
1 Appraisal and Endorsement of the Education Sector Plan
2010-2020
1.1 Country:
Ghana
1.2 Overall Comments:
The local Development Partner (DP) Group has reviewed Ghana’s Education Strategic
Plan (ESP), covering the period from 2010 to 2020, through a series of informal
consultations and discussions of the Education Sector Working Group. The ESP
outlines the policy framework and strategies for attaining the sector goals, and
includes broad cost estimates. For the full Plan period there is a GH¢7.2 billion
shortfall. The three-year Annual Education Sector Operational Plan (AESOP) for
2011-13 projected a GH¢2,478 million shortfall for that period, of which GH¢1,346
million represented the basic education funding gap (averaging GH¢449 million p.a.).
The AESOP for 2012-14 projects a funding gap of GH¢386 million for the single year
2012 for basic education (combined with special education).
1.3 Strengths
The ESP is comprehensive. It builds on the previous ESP (which was designed for the
period 2003 to 2015) and is aligned to national planning documents such as the
Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRSII), and to international undertakings
such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Education for All (EFA)
Dakar goals.
The period 2010-12 has seen a consensus on the problem of teacher absenteeism and
has resulted in a consolidation of effort to address the issue including the
establishment of the National Inspectorate Board and greater emphasis on the SMCs
(a randomised evaluation of this is underway) and the launch of a nationwide teacher
report card system.
The costs are determined not only by efforts to expand access and to improve quality,
but also by measures that will bring greater efficiency and equity to the education
system, although the interventions in the interests of efficiency are not expected to
make a large impact in the short term.
The three-year operational plan (AESOP) is strongly influenced by the priorities set
during the most recent National Education Sector Annual Review (NESAR).
The GPE Fund (FTI) application process and resources provide a catalyst to help
Ghana move to more coordinated and harmonized programme implementation. In
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
this manner the resource provided would be multiplied in terms of the impact this
would have on the more efficient use of funds flowing to the sector, significantly
increasing value for money and reducing transaction costs on government staff.
1.4 Concerns
Available finance is unlikely to allow full implementation of the plan over the ten-year
period, which will require a careful approach to prioritisation. There is the danger
that, if deliberate decisions are not taken on what is to be funded, the main priorities
may be missed. The financing model needs clear milestones for cost savings and
increased value for money if the targets are to stay on track.
Ghana has a strong evidence base, including a recent Participatory Poverty and
Vulnerability Assessment (PPVA). This available data corroborates the need for
greater prioritisation of the resources to the North and measures for gender equity
and improving pedagogy.
Several of the policy documents which should be giving firm support to the ESP
include provisions for which implementation costs have not been determined.
The equitable deployment of teachers was identified as a problem eight years ago,
and has still not been adequately addressed. Political leadership will be required to
implement agreed reforms.
The ESP expects expenditure on the tertiary sector, as a proportion of the MoE
budget, to decline by nearly a third over the Plan period. There are as yet no clear
procedures for ensuring that this will happen; and if it does not, other sub-sectors
will suffer.
1.5 Conclusion
The ESP can be regarded as credible. But implementation will have to be carefully
monitored at more frequent intervals than the annual review, with remedial action as
soon as slippage is detected. The government is defining stretching but achievable
targets along with capacity building interventions. The Education Sector Working
Group (ESWG) should play a role in this monitoring, not just of targets, but also of
processes.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
2 Signature by partners who endorsed the Education
Strategic Plan 2010-2020
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
3 Background
Ghana is a signatory to the Education for All (EFA) goals adopted in Jomtien in 1990,
and since 20041 has been a member of the EFA Fast Track Initiative (FTI) and
recipient of financial assistance from the EFA FTI Catalytic Fund (CF). These benefits
were based on a positive appraisal of the country’s Education Strategic Plan (ESP)
covering the period 2003 to 2015.
Following the publication in 2007 of a Government White Paper on the reform of the
Education Sector and the enactment of new Education legislation in 2008, the Ministry
of Education (MoE) prepared a new ESP to cover the period 2010 to 2020. This plan
is now appraised for the country’s continued membership of the Fast Track Initiative
and for the submission of a proposal for further assistance from the EFA Fund.2
In his foreword to the Plan the Minister of Education states that it aims to ensure that
education makes a positive and permanent contribution to Ghana’s national
development plans and to achieving the international development goals. It is aligned
to the broad goals of universal basic education and poverty reduction. It attempts to
actualise the Ministry’s mission “To provide relevant education with emphasis on
science, information, communication and technology to equip individuals for selfactualisation, peaceful coexistence as well as skills for the workplace for national
development”.
The Development Partner Group (DPG) has cooperated with the Ministry of
Education since 2003, and took responsibility for the 2003 appraisal. The DPG meets
regularly with members of Government to form the Education Sector Working Group
(ESWG), which addresses educational matters of mutual interest. It is chaired by the
Chief Director and the Ministers attend for specific topics. The Ministry prepares an
annual preliminary education sector performance report (PESPR) which is discussed
during the mid-year national education sector annual review meeting (NESAR), after
which a final version of the sector performance report (ESPR) is produced, together
with an Aide Memoire which captures the most important matters to be followed up.
NESARs have been held annually since 2004. There is agreement that these need to
be brought forward to align with other MDAs’ views and the MDBS PAF. The
momentum to pool resources builds on the recommendations from the GoG donor
partner and civil society meeting in Akosombo in 2010 to discuss the new Aid Policy
and financing plans.
During the regional education reviews in April 2009, and at the 2009 NESAR,
technical working groups provided inputs to a draft of the ESP 2010-2020.
1
Ghana was invited in 2002 to join the EFA FTI, and submitted a proposal in August 2003 which was appraised
by DPs in November 2003.
2
Previously the EFA Catalytic Fund.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
International and national academics with a strong research history on education in
Ghana also provided inputs. An education finance simulation model (EFSM) was used
to project the likely resource envelope and likely costs for the plan period and began
the political debate on the more detailed cost savings required.
This appraisal report is prepared in accordance with the FTI Guidelines for Appraisal
of the Primary Education Component of the Education Sector Plan, adapted to the
Ghanaian context where necessary.
The appraisal has been ongoing since the second quarter of 2010, with inconsistencies
and omissions in the ESP documents brought to the attention of the MoE. Some of the
most serious have been rectified in the most recent draft of the Plan, while others are
being jointly addressed by the MoE and DPG.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
4 Country Background
On the 20093 Human Development Index (HDI) Ghana was ranked 152nd out of 182, two
places ahead of Mauritania and six places ahead of Nigeria which, apart from Cape
Verde in 121st place, were the only other West African countries in the “Medium Human
Development” grouping of countries. The following year (2010) Ghana was ranked
130th out of 169, and had slipped into the “Low Human Development” category, along
with Mauritania and Nigeria. Preliminary results of the 2010 Population and Housing
Census giver the total population as 24.2 million, of which 51.3% is female.4
Human development indicators for Ghana are summarised in Table 1.
Table 1 Human development indicators for Ghana
Indicator
2000
2007
2008
19.3
22.9
24.3
--
--
--
0.495
0.526
0.467
Life expectancy at birth (Female)
58.1
57.4
Life expectancy at birth (Male)
55.5
55.6
Adult literacy rate (Female)
62.9
58.3
Adult literacy rate (Male)
80.3
71.7
GDP per capita (US$ PPP)
1964
1334
1385
36
20
18
Population below income poverty line of $1.00 per day
44.8
--
--
Population below income poverty line of $1.25 per day
-78.5
30
30
Population below income poverty line of $2.00 per day
53.6
--
Population below national poverty line 2000-2006
31.4
28.5
28.5
Gini index
40.7
42.8
42.8
Population (million)
% female
HDI
Population not using an improved water source (%)
}
57.1
}
65.8
Source: UN. Human Development Reports 2002 (for 2000 data), 2009 (2007), 2010 (2008).
Note: Population for 2008 is estimate for 2010. Poverty line data for 2000 is for "most recent
year in the 1983 to 2000 range".
The country reported a 4.7% growth in real GDP for 2009, with the agricultural sector
exceeding expectations at 6.2% growth, while the industrial and services sectors, at
3.8% and 4.6% respectively, fell short of targets.5
The most recent Living Standards Survey, using 2005 data, reported that the lowest
quintile, with an average household size of 6 members, accounts for less than 10% of
total annual expenditure, while the highest quintile, with an average household of 3
members, accounts for 46%. Regional averages for mean annual per capita
expenditure ranged from GH¢166 (for the Upper West Region) to GH¢1,050 (Greater
3
The 2009 Human Development Report uses 2007 data. The HDI is a composite measure of life expectancy,
adult literacy, and per capita income.
4
Based on the 2000 Census the population projection for mid-2010 was 23.95 million.
5
MoFEP, Nov. 2009. Macroeconomic performance for 2009.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Accra), with a national average of GH¢644. 6 The final draft of the Medium-Term
National Development Policy Framework: Ghana Shared Growth And Development
Agenda (GSGDA), 2010-2013,7 has recently been released, … … The PPVA indicates
wide geographical disparities and food insecurity with some regions experiencing a
move from two to one crop per year. This has increased seasonal migration
particularly for girls and has affected the ability of families to enrol or retain their
children in the education system.
The country is divided into 170 administrative districts, of which 61 are classified by
the MoE as “deprived”, being the lowest 61 on a ranked list based on average ranking
on a dozen criteria, such as percentage of schools needing major repairs and number
of core textbooks per pupil, but not on socio-economic criteria. As the number of
districts has increased, no reassessment has been done: 8 a deprived district split in
two resulted in two deprived districts. The number of deprived districts per region is
indicated in Table 2.9
Table 2 Deprived districts
Districts
Region
Total
Deprived
Ashanti
27
5
Brong Ahafo
22
7
Central
17
5
Eastern
21
3
Greater Accra
10
-
Northern
20
19
Upper East
9
7
Upper West
9
3
18
17
4
8
170
61
Volta
Western
Total
Source: Undated list from MoE.
Line ministries have delegated a range of functions to district education offices, some
of which have been operating fairly independently of the district administrations
which is directly responsible to the district council. The goal is to achieve devolution
of functions to an integrated district administration.
6
GLSS 5, pp.94-5.
This replaces the GPRS II, which covered the years 2006 to 2009.
8
Districts have not been reassessed since 2001: those at the bottom of the ranking list were then declared
deprived, and have remained “deprived”. An MoE spokesperson explained that no re-assessment has been
done because the classification of districts into deprived and non-deprived was for the implementation of the
Component 1 of the Pilot Programmatic Scheme(PPS) of the Education Sector Project (EdSEP), which will end
in October 2011. Thereafter, an evaluation of the project will enable a re-assessment of districts.
UPDATE: In February/March 2012, as part of the GPE application process, reassessment was being undertaken.
9
EMIS 2009/10 reports on 138 districts.
7
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
5 Education Sector Background
5.1 Sector Status 2008/09
Basic education in Ghana consists of two years of kindergarten followed by six years of
primary and three years of junior high school. The Government’s intention is that all
children should have the opportunity to complete eleven years of basic education. After
junior high there are limited opportunities for further study in a senior high school or
vocational training institution.10
Formal education is provided in public and private institutions, with private enrolment
accounting for 19.5% of the total in kindergarten, 18.6% in primary, 17.4% in junior
high, 10.8% in senior high, and 39.7% in technical and vocational institutions.11 EMIS
has no data on private tertiary institutions.12
Trends in school enrolment and the flow of pupils through the system are given in Table
2A of the annex to this report. Some of the significant data are highlighted in this
section.
5.1.1 Enrolment in kindergarten, primary and high schools
Between 2002/0313 and 2008/09 primary and junior high enrolments increased
dramatically, partly as a result of the elimination of school fees. Primary gross
enrolment ratio (GER) was only 75.7% in 2002/03, while junior high GER was 64%.
Table 3 shows the GER and net enrolment ratio (NER) data at national level, for
2008/09 and 2009/10. The NER for the primary level suggests that the target of full
primary enrolment by 2015 may be unattainable, despite the good progress made from
an NER of 59.1% in 2004/05 to 88.5% in 2008/09. The gross admission rate (GAR) for
the first grade of primary was 102.9% in 2008/09 and 101.3% in 2009/10.
With Government’s intention of encouraging full transition to junior high school (JHS)
and a high completion rate, both the GER and NER for junior high are discouraging. In
fact, the NER has stagnated in recent years at around 48%.
10
The total full-time enrolment in 2009/10 in public and private SHI and TVET Intermediate was roughly 68% of
JH3 enrolment in the same year. A spokesperson for the MoE stated that “Government has indicated recently
that when the demand is high it can provide the facilities to cater for the need,” which might mean that socioeconomic factors restrict passage to SHS/TVET.
11
Calculated from enrolment data for 2009/10, EMIS. TVET data for full-time students (26.6% for part-time
students). EMIS has no data on private tertiary institutions.
12
Data on private tertiary institutions collected by the National Council for Tertiary Education (NCTE) was not
made available when this Appraisal was being prepared.
13
The academic year runs from September to August.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table 3 School enrolment ratios (percentages)
GER
Level
NER
2008/09
2009/10
2008/09
2009/10
Kindergarten
92.9
97.3
63.6
58.7
Primary
94.9
94.9
88.5
83.6
Junior High
80.6
79.5
47.8
47.5
Senior High
33.9
36.1
17.7
18.5
Source: EMIS 2008/09, EMIS 2009/10
Table 4 shows the variation across four selected regions for measures of primary
enrolment. The enrolment data for the Northern and for the Upper West regions
illustrate gender disparities, in the one case favouring boys, and in the other girls. The
Central Region apparently has an NER close to 100%; in 2008/09 it was reported as
104.5% for boys and 102.7% for girls, which calls in question the accuracy of the
population projections by age cohort14 that are used for the calculation of the GER and
NER.15 The statistics for the Greater Accra Region show that urban areas do not
necessarily provide easier access to education. Variations are even greater when
districts are compared, showing the importance of using strategies appropriate to the
particular situation when trying to increase enrolment.
Table 4 Enrolment disparities at primary level for selected regions (Percentages)
Region
GER Male
GER Female
NER Male NER Female
Central
110.8
107.6
97.9
96.0
Greater Accra
86.6
85.1
76.5
75.1
Northern
102.4
89.4
88.1
77.4
Upper West
98.1
102.4
83.7
88.0
National
96.7
93.0
84.9
82.3
Source: EMIS 2009/10
Children with special needs16 are catered for in special schools or units, or are
mainstreamed in appropriately equipped schools. In 2008/09 5,969 pupils (40.6%
female) were enrolled in 200 special schools or units.17
Those of primary school age who are not yet in school, or who have dropped out, will be
among the most difficult to reach, and special measures appropriate to their particular
circumstances, may have to be devised to get them into school.18
14
The 2009 ESPR notes that migration into or out of a district will not necessarily have been properly reflected
in projections of national census data. Para.2.11.
15
Age cohort projections are based on the 2000 population census.
16
Information in this paragraph is from the ESPR 2009, Tables 14, 15 and 16.
17
And, from the same source, 339 pupils (36.9% female) were reportedly mainstreamed in 479 “inclusive”
primary and junior high schools. A correction of this data could not be obtained.
18
ESP Vol. 2, BE2 addresses the plight of the excluded: “out-of-school, hard-to-reach, truants, intra-cycle
dropouts and adolescent mothers”. NF1 adds street children to the list.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
5.1.2 Adult literacy and non-formal education
The adult literacy rate in 2007/08 was only 62.0%, up from 53.4% in 2003/04.19
5.1.3 Post-basic education
Access to senior high school is constrained by a shortage of facilities. Pupils wishing to
proceed from junior high to public senior high schools are placed by a newly introduced
computer system, which has apparently caused widespread dissatisfaction. Female
enrolment as a proportion of total enrolment stagnated around 44% for the three years
up to 2008/09.20 rising marginally to 44.7% in 2009/10. There are wide regional
disparities in the gender inequality across the country.
In a bid to promote technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and make it
more relevant to national needs, a Council for Technical and Vocational Education and
Training (COTVET) was established in 2006, managed by a board of which half the
members are not from the public sector. Since vocational institutions attract adults and
youths who have not necessarily done well in formal school, the curriculum is also
intended to ensure that graduates are functionally literate and numerate.21 In 2009/10
the proportion of female full-time students at public and private institutions was 37.2%
and 64.9% respectively.22
Tertiary enrolment in public institutions is shown in Table 5. There are six public
universities and ten polytechnics. As the graduate unemployment rate climbed, with
absorption capacity of the economy and the poor quality of graduates cited as the
reasons, Government decided to move to a 60:40 ratio in favour of science and
technology.23 It will be observed from the table that the gender balance is strongly
skewed in favour of males.
Table 5 Tertiary enrolment, 2007/2008
Total
% female
% of total in
science/technology
Public universities
93,973
33.7
37.7
Polytechnics
34,448
29.6
29.9
4,183
44.3
0.0
132,604
33.0
34.5
Professional institutions
Total
Source: ESPR, 2009, Tables 12 & 13.
19
This is the most recent data available, from the PESPR 2010. ESP, Vol. 2, NF2 deals with adult literacy, but
with little sense of urgency.
20
ESPR, 2009, para.2.5.
21
ESPR, 2009, para.2.6 (which is noted in the Report as being “incomplete”).
22
EMIS 2009/10.
23
ESPR, 2009, para.2.7.
20
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Government intends to establish two new universities (TE4),24 with a large portion of
the cost to be derived from a public private partnership (PPP),25 as well as an Open
University (TE5).
5.1.4 Teacher education
Teacher training colleges have been reclassified as colleges of education (CoE) and are
regarded as part of the tertiary sub-sector. The ESP 2010-2020 has set the target for the
proportion of qualified primary and junior high teachers at 95% (BE14).
The pre-service training course for primary and junior high teachers is of three years’
duration, of which the first two years are spent at the college, and the third year attached
to a school for practical training. Teachers are prepared to teach all subjects in the
curriculum and techniques for multi-grade teaching are included. Seven of the 38 public
CoEs offer specialised training in kindergarten teaching. A four-year distance education
programme, the Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education (UTDBE), was
introduced in 2004 to provide all untrained teachers with a qualification.
5.1.5 Quality of primary education
The National Education Assessment (NEA) tests pupil proficiency in English and in
mathematics in the third and sixth grades of primary school (Table 6). While the
performance in 2007 was poorer than that in 2005 for P3, it was slightly better for P6.
The most recent results show an overall improvement, but the results are still well below
what would be acceptable.26
24
References to targets, strategies, and activities in the ESP, Vol. 2, are to the numbered strategies (BE, SC, IS,
NF, TE, EM) rather than to page numbers.
25
MoFEP, Nov. 2009. Highlights of 2010 budget.
26
Table 5 gives the percentage of pupils achieving proficiency; Table 2B of the Annex gives mean scores.
21
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table 6 Performance of primary pupils on the National Education Assessment (NEA)
Subject
English P3
Mathematics P3
English P6
Mathematics P6
% achieving
Minimum
Proficiency
competency
Year
Mean score
(%)
2005
38.1
50.5
16.4
2007
37.6
50.1
15.0
2009
40.2
57.6
20.0
2005
36.6
47.2
18.6
2007
35.0
42.6
14.6
2009
41.8
61.2
25.2
2005
43.1
63.9
23.6
2007
44.2
69.7
26.1
2009
48.2
76.9
35.6
2005
34.4
42.7
9.8
2007
35.7
46.2
10.8
2009
39.6
61.9
13.8
Source: ESPR, 2009. Table 26 (2005 & 2007); BECAS report summary 2009, NEA.
Among the main inputs that influence quality are teacher qualifications, pupil teacher
ratios (PTR), time on task, and the availability of appropriate teaching and learning
materials, including textbooks.
The proportion of trained teachers in public primary schools is given in Table 16.27 For
the country as a whole, fewer than 60% of teachers were qualified28 in 2009/10, with a
significantly higher proportion of female teachers than male teachers being qualified.
The Northern Region had the poorest showing, and Greater Accra the best. Teachers on
the payroll are supplemented by National Youth Employment Programme (NYEP) and
National Service Scheme (NSS) teachers who are assigned to schools for a one- to twoyear period.
With kindergarten having only recently been expanded, close to 70% of kindergarten
teachers lack formal qualifications.29
The pupil teacher ratio (PTR) at primary level (public schools only) is given in Table
15.30 The national average is 31 pupils per teacher for 2009/10. But national averages
hide a wide range of disparities. Regional averages ranged from 28 (Ashanti and Brong
Ahafo) to 40 (Upper East). Districts show even greater variation: in 2009/10 the district
that was best off had an average PTR of 15, while the worst-off district had a PTR of 64.
For kindergartens the regional range in PTR is from 27 (Brong Ahafo) to 54 (Upper East),
27
In section 9.5.4, below.
On the assumption that the EMIS reference to “trained” teachers is equivalent to “qualified”.
29
EMIS 2009/10.
30
In section 9.5.1, below.
28
22
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
a range of 27 percentage points, with the national average at 34.31 With the increasing
importance of two years of kindergarten as a means to ensuring quality primary
education, the trend will have to be watched carefully to ensure that teachers are not
faced with the impossible challenge of over-large classes.
Owing largely to a high level of teacher absenteeism, time on task has been estimated to
be as low as 39% of available class time.32
Textbooks for the three core subjects are purchased in bulk and distributed to schools
with no provision for supplementary orders or deliveries. Even though primary pupils
are not allowed to take textbooks home, it is inevitable that the book stock of some
schools will have to be topped up to cater for increased enrolment. In 2008/09 the
average number of textbooks per primary pupil in the three core subjects was 1.6, and
per junior high pupil, 2.1. In 2009/10 the same ratio was reported for primary pupils,
but for junior high pupils the ratio had dropped to1.5.33 The textbook policy has
subsequently been revised and funding examined for re-stocking on a periodic basis.
Physical conditions also play a role. In 2009 2,502 primary schools had classes taught
under trees,34 which would make teaching impossible in wet weather. Government
pledged to provide additional classrooms over the three years from 2010 to eliminate
the need to teach “under trees”.35
The proportion of basic education schools with toilet facilities and with drinking water is
shown in Figure 1. Almost half the public schools lack toilet facilities.36
31
Public kindergartens only. EMIS 2009/10, Table 3.1.14.
ESP, BE16. Note: References to “ESP” are to the ESP 2010-2020 unless otherwise stated.
33
EMIS. Regional variations for 2008/09 were in the range 1.4 to 1.8 for primary, and 1.9 to 2.3 for junior high.
For 2009/10 the ranges were 1.4 to 1.7 and 1.3 to 1.6, respectively.
34
MoFEP, 18 November 2009.Budget speech for 2010 fiscal year, para.140-4.
35
Budget speech, para.144.
36
Update: According to 2010/2011 EMIS data, the target for access to drinking water in the ESP has been
achieved, though the proportion of schools lacking toilets remains virtually unchanged.
32
23
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Figure 1 Schools with toilets and drinking water
100%
80%
60%
Kindergarten
Primary
40%
Junior High
20%
0%
Toilets
Drinking
Water
Public Schools
Toilets
Drinking
Water
Private Schools
5.2 Ghana’s Progress on Education for All (EFA) Goals and Education
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Ghana has pledged to achieve tangible and quantifiable progress by 2015 in key
development areas, as embodied in the six Education for All (EFA) goals and in the
Education Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Progress towards achieving the six EFA goals has been uneven. The Government has
addressed the expansion of early childhood care and education and is striving to
provide free and compulsory primary education for all. There has been reasonable
progress with expanded access, but access for children from disadvantaged
communities and those with special educational needs lags behind.
The provision of education of good quality in public schools is still proving elusive and
lessons from major quality initiatives, such as USAID’s EQUALL, need to be applied on a
national scale. DFID funded research from EdQual37 showed the need for better focus on
school management and leadership if any of the improvements in pedagogy are to be
realised.
The goal of gender equality among pupils in basic education is likely to be achieved – at
least at national level - by 2015 if investments are sustained. The challenge is for access
and retention at the secondary level and beyond. Addressing gender based violence in
schools still requires a concerted effort. Adult literacy is not showing the required level
of improvement, nor is the promotion of life skills for adults, which is often linked to
literacy programmes. Life skills for children in basic education are addressed in the
curriculum, but are dependent upon the quality of teaching. A national focus on
pedagogy and associated learning and teaching materials is required with efforts to
37
E.g. Oduro, G. a.o.: Examining education leadership and quality in developing countries, EdQual, 2007; Bosu,
R. a.o.: School leadership and social justice: evidence from Ghana and Tanzania, EdQual, 2009.
24
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
bring down unit costs of existing programme so that they are affordable for wide scale
implementation and sustainability.
Ghana’s progress towards meeting the two education MDGs may be judged by the proxy
indicators in Tables 7 and 8. Using the gross enrolment rate for the sixth year of primary as
a measure of completion38 gives a more generous result than would be achieved by using
the reconstructed cohort method (i.e., survival rate to final grade of primary education,
which is a global MDG indicator). From Table 8 it is clear that female students are still
strongly under-represented in tertiary education, and to a lesser extent in senior high
school.
Table 7 Progress on MDG Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education by 2015
Indicator
Year
2002
2005
2008
2009
Primary gross enrolment rate (GER) (%)
80
88
95
95
Primary net enrolment rate (NER) (%)
56
69
89
84
Primary completion rate (%) (GER P6)
66
79
88
87
Source: Education Strategic Plan 2010-2020; EMIS 2009/10
Table 8 Progress on MDG Goal 3: Elimination of gender disparity at all levels of education
Indicator
Year
% female
2002
2005
2008
2009
Primary school
47
47
49
49
Junior high school
45
44
47
46
Senior high school
41
43
44
44
University
29
35
34
37
Source: Education Strategic Plan 2010-2020; EMIS 2009/10
5.3 General Balance of the Sector
The preface to the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2006-2009 states the need for a
labour force “which is equipped with more than the basic levels of educational attainment,
as defined in the MDG goals. This is in order to support an economy which can then
realistically aim to achieve rapid progress in the income status of its citizens.”39 It is to be
expected, then, that the proposed education interventions40 would include senior high
school, TVET, and tertiary education besides basic education and the training of teachers
for this level.
38
This measure also assumes that those enrolled in P6 will successfully complete the year.
GPRSII, Vol. 1, p.vi, para.27.
40
GPRSII, Vol. 1, p.42-5.
39
25
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
A similar all-embracing approach is followed with the “policy objectives” of the ESP 20102020:41

Improve equitable access to and participation in quality education at all levels

Improve quality of teaching and learning
Bridge gender gap in access to education


Improve access to quality education for people with disability
Promote science and technical education at all levels

Strengthen links between tertiary education and industry

Mainstream issues of population, family life, gender, health, HIV/AIDS/STI,
conflicts, fire & road safety, civic responsibility, human rights, and
environment in the curricula at all levels
Improve management of education service delivery.


All but the sixth objective are very broad, relating to “all levels”, and none gives any
indication of where the priorities lie. As the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy
observes, “a holistic package of interventions have been identified as priorities”.42
Within the broader framework, the following are given as “guiding principles” for the
ESP:43


To eliminate gender and other disparities that arise from exclusion and
poverty
To cater for excluded children in mainstream schools whenever possible

To improve the quality of learning and teaching, and to promote the culture of
lifelong learning at all levels and for all ages

To modernise and extend ICT, science education, technical and vocational
education and training, and skills development at all levels

To strengthen all forms of tertiary education

To develop an effective, efficient and properly rewarded teaching service

To devolve delivery and fiscal systems of 1st and 2nd cycle of education to
District Assemblies
To ensure periodic review of education grants and allowances



To make efficiency savings in the education system
To strengthen monitoring and accountability in the education sector,
with a note that “[ensuring] universal access to 11 years of quality basic education with
increased, affordable, equitable access to senior and tertiary education” remains an
41
Volume 1, p.14.
GRPSII, para.4.3.
43
Volume 1, p.22.
42
26
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
essential priority.44
The ESP attempts to do justice to the many priorities by allocating relative weightings to
the recurrent budget for the different sub-sectors, taking into account the targets set in the
Plan, as shown in Table 9.
Table 9 Total costs (GHc million) and percentages by sub-sector
Sub-Sector
Recurrent And Capital
2011
2013
2015
2020
% of total (in
2015)
1,550
1,794
2,072
2,017
62.4%
Kindergarten
207
253
300
406
9.0%
Primary
819
943
1,069
1,031
32.2%
Junior High
524
599
702
580
21.1%
444
536
629
777
18.9%
Senior High
358
392
415
503
12.5%
TVET
80
138
205
264
6.2%
Apprenticeship
6
7
8
10
0.3%
Colleges of Ed
51
46
38
34
1.2%
Study leave
42
27
12
13
0.4%
6
10
13
23
0.4%
Special Education
19
27
37
67
1.1%
Tertiary Education
391
382
363
434
10.9%
Management
157
158
158
156
4.8%
2,658
2,981
3,322
3,524
100%
Basic Education
Second Cycle Edn.
Non-formal Edn.
Total
Source: ESP, Vol.1, Table 5.3
From this overall budget for the full ESP and the projected number of students at the
various levels of the system, it is possible to extract the recurrent expenditure per student,
as set out in Table 10.45
44
Ibid.
Per pupil costs for ISE in dedicated institutions had not been calculated. Pupils mainstreamed are included in
the relevant sub-sector.
45
27
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table 10 Recurrent expenditure by student excl. admin (in multiples of GDP per capita)
2009 2011 2013 2015 2020 2015
Rank
8
Kindergarten
0.04
0.08
0.10
0.11
0.10
Primary education
0.18
0.17
0.17
0.18
0.15
6
Junior high
0.29
0.32
0.29
0.26
0.19
5
Senior high
0.70
0.54
0.50
0.47
0.43
3
0.85
0.64
0.44
0.61
4
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.73
2
0.05
2.44
0.08
2.01
0.11
1.71
0.13
1.45
0.19
1.08
7
1
Teacher education
Technical/vocational
ISE (not available)
NFE
Higher education
Source: Volume 1, Table 5.4a.
5.4 Financing of the Sector
Cost projections associated with the ESP 2010-2020 were prepared using the Education
Financial Simulation Model (EFSM)46 of the Planning, Budgeting, Monitoring and
Evaluation (PBME) division of the Ministry of Education, as a follow-up to discussions
initiated during the 2009 Education Sector Annual Review about the financial
sustainability of the proposed Education Strategic Plan 2010-2020. Using 2007 as the
base year three scenarios were initially projected to generate further discussion: “Full
ESP”, “Cost conscious ESP”, and “Frugal” or “Mini Max ESP”. The last and most
economical of these, apparently with discussions with a wide range of stakeholders but
unclear political commitment, was incorporated into Chapter 5 of the ESP. It was noted
that, although the “Mini Max ESP” scenario generated a surplus of resources over
expenditure (which the other two scenarios did not), there were a number of high
priority programmes whose costs had not yet been determined. Figure 2 illustrates the
difference between the resource envelope and expenditure in the “Mini Max ESP”
scenario.47
46
EFSM is an Excel-based model, which allows the user to manipulate variables to prepare a variety of cost
scenarios.
47
The figures have been inflation adjusted to shift the base year from 2007 to 2009.
28
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Figure 2 "Mini Max ESP" (2007 base year + 2 years' inflation)
Million Ghana Cedi
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
Year
Envelope
Expenditure
Some gaps, and queries regarding data and assumptions, were left for the Ministry to
resolve. By July 2010 commitment across the Ministry led to a request to development
partners to provide a consultant to assist with this further work. As a consequence a new
scenario was developed, here termed the “Updated ESP”, drawing on 2009 for baseline
data. At the same time the capacity of staff members in the planning directorate (PBME) to
use the model was enhanced. As with the 2009 exercise it proved impossible to build all
the activities into the model. A revised Chapter 5 was drafted for inclusion in the ESP.
The information provided in Chapter 5 of the Plan is supplemented by two other
documents prepared by the consultant, “Financial model notes and users guide” and
“Review of targets used in ESP documents”. In the former the need to update the model
annually is stressed, while the latter highlights areas that are being rapidly addressed and
incorporated into revisions to the ESP.
5.4.1 Resource envelope
In 2009 over 90% of spending on public education came from domestic sources, with only
6.5% coming from DPs and other external sources. Since donor commitments for the early
years of the Plan period were uncertain, the “Updated ESP” in its projections does not rely
on external sources providing more than 6.5% of the overall envelope. The MoE, however,
expects that external resources may account for up to 9% of the envelope for the period up
to 2013. The projection assumes that GDP growth will remain constant at 5% for the Plan
period, that education expenditure as a percentage of GDP will reduce from 9% in 2009 to
7.8% in 2020, and that capital expenditure will increase from 10% in 2009 to 20% in
2020. It is anticipated that oil revenues will be paid into a special fund and will not be used
to bolster the budgets of line ministries. The projected resources (“Updated ESP”) are
shown in Table 11.
29
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table 11 Resource envelope for ESP funding, by source (Selected years to 2020)
Baseline
Sources
Projected Resources (GH¢ million )
2009
2011
2013
2015
2020
Domestic sources:
1,829
1,960
2,107
2,264
2,705
External sources:
121
136
146
157
188
1,950
2,097
2,254
2,422
2,893
TOTAL
Source: ESP, Vol. 1, Table 5.6
The private sector contribution to education is substantial; in 2007 nineteen percent of
kindergarten pupils, 17% of primary and junior high pupils, 56% of TVET and 13% of
tertiary students were privately educated.48 The state provides teacher training
opportunities, the curriculum, and textbooks in line with provision to government
schools. Most of the private schools are beyond the financial reach of the poorest
quintile. A comprehensive mapping and registration process is required to ensure a full
grasp of the extent, user fees and educational outcomes of the private schools. At
present these schools represent a considerable saving of public funds and make a
positive contribution to admissions and enrolment ratios.
5.4.2 ESP Expenditure
The expenditure required to implement the ESP exceeds the resource envelope, as will
be seen from Table 12. Over the ten-year period the Plan is underfunded in the amount
of GH¢7.2 billion.
Table 12 Estimated ESP expenditure in relation to resource envelopes (GHcm)
Year
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
Resource envelope
Recurrent
1,790
1,838
1,888
1,937
1,988
2,040
2,093
2,147
2,202
2,258
2,314
Capital
232
258
286
316
348
381
416
454
493
535
579
Total
2,022
2,097
2,174
2,253
2,336
2,421
2,509
2,601
2,695
2,792
2,893
Recurrent
1,772
1,909
2,021
2,112
2,221
2,316
2,365
2,441
2,523
2,609
2,685
Capital
699
749
806
869
940
1,006
724
767
813
840
839
Total
2,471
2,659
2,827
2,981
3,151
3,322
3,089
3.209
3,336
3,449
3,524
Expenditures
Balance of Expenditures less Resources
Recurrent
18
-71
-133
-175
-222
-276
-272
-294
-321
-352
-371
Capital
-467
-491
-519
-553
-592
-625
-308
-314
-320
-305
-260
Total
-449
-562
-653
-727
-815
-901
-580
-608
-641
-657
-631
Source: ESP, Vol.1, Table 5.7
The ESP notes the three factors which have made the greatest contribution to increased
sector costs as (1) the requirement for trained teachers in basic education, (2) the cost
48
EFSM.
30
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
of new facilities and the maintenance of existing infrastructure, and (3) the expansion of
second cycle education, particularly TVET. EMIS provides estimates of the number of
classrooms in need of major repair, but this data is of doubtful value.49 When budgetary
provision for capital works is limited, it is generally applied to new buildings while
those needing repair become more dilapidated.
The main efficiency gains which the ESP introduces are (1) the increased PTR at all
levels of the school system, (2) the removal of the subsidy for teachers in training and
the reduction in the numbers who will be allowed paid study leave, (3) a reduction in
funding to the tertiary sector, from21% of sector expenditure in 2009 to 15% in 2020,
and (4) an increase to 25% in the extent to which the private sector will cater for
kindergarten and tertiary education.
Efficiency gains will be made only if these measures are implemented, failing which, the
budgetary deficit will grow. (1) Between 2008/09 and 2009/10 the primary PTR moved
in the wrong direction, from 34 to 31. Without a clearly defined deployment procedure
which is understood by all districts, there is likely to be little movement towards the
target. (2) The policy on subsidies or loans to teachers in training and on fee-free
tertiary education is currently confused, with different documents stating different
things. If subsidies are replaced by loans, and most of the loans are not repaid, there will
be no saving. (3) While the broad policy statement on the funding of tertiary education
is clear, there is no indication as to how tertiary institutions will cope with the projected
reduction in spending on the sub-sector (as a proportion of the overall budget). If costs
are allowed to escalate during the initial years of the Plan, the target will become more
difficult of attainment. (4) Government has no direct control over the number of
students that will be absorbed by private educational institutions; it can only hope that
this will happen.
Assuming that the efficiency measures are implemented at the projected rate, the
difference between the resource envelope and expenditure will match the graph in
Figure 3, with the deficit peaking in 2015, after which it takes a dip before increasing at
a slower rate.
The deficit will also be reduced if the Government can maintain education expenditure
at 9% of GDP, as in 2009.
Million Ghana Cedi
Figure 3 "Updated ESP" (2009 base year)
4,000
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
2010
2011
2012 2013
2014
2015
2016
2017 2018
2019
2020
Year
Expenditure
Envelope
49
EMIS 2009/10, Table 4a reported 100% of kindergarten classrooms to be in need of major repair, as against
44% in the previous year’s report.
31
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Under the ESWG, a new public financial management sub-sector group has been
initiated and attended by members from across government and a range of DPs. This
will be an important mechanism for moving forward reforms and securing political buyin required to push through the strengthening of country systems.
5.4.3 The Three-Year Implementation Plan
The detailed costing of the annual education sector operational plan (AESOP) for the
period 2010 to 2012, based on the ESP 2010 to 2020, was not completed. The AESOP
consequently had little or no impact on activities during FY2010.
The AESOP for FY2011 to FY2013 has benefited from the “Updated ESP”. Core costs
were drawn from the EFSM, supplemented by programmatic costing for Aide Memoire
priorities not covered by the EFSM. Some costs were drawn from the MoE’s 2011
budget request to the MoFEP; in particular, the amount included for remuneration is
aligned to historical costs, which have consistently exceeded the amount allocated by
the MoFEP. Over the period 2004 to 2009 overspending on remuneration has varied
from 16% to 50%, and on the budget as a whole by between 12% and 45%.50 The 2011
budget requirement to Treasury exceeded the MoFEP ceiling by 1.5 billion Ghana cedi.51
The estimated cost of the AESOP in millions of Ghana cedi is set out in Table 13, with the
sub-sector share of the expenditure illustrated in Figure 4.
Table 13 Cost of meeting Aide Memoire and AESOP priorities, 2011-2013
Baseline
MoE
MoFEP
This Projection
request to
Ceiling
MoFEP
Sub-Sector
2009
2011
2011
2011
2012
Basic
953.0
1,743.0
963.6
1,736.6
1,739.5
SC (&TVET)
373.0
825.0
279.1
537.2
588.9
ISE
7.5
16.6
11.5
11.9
11.9
NFE
3.7
35.7
8.1
9.4
9.4
Tertiary
451.0
990.0
323.3
344.2
344.2
Management and
Sub-vented
Total
2013
1,784.8
627.2
11.9
9.4
344.2
161.0
228.0
672.0
297.0
297.2
297.6
1,949.2
3,838.3
2,359.6
2,936.0
2,991.0
3,075.0
2,097.0
2,174.0
2,253.0
Projected Resource
Envelope
Total Finance Gap
Basic Education
Gap
(839.0)
(817.0)
(822.0)
(478.0)
(435.0)
(433.0)
Figures in millions of GH cedi. Not Inflation Adjusted for 2012, 2013. The 2011 Management ceiling
includes GET Fund Allocation
Source: AESOP 2011-2013 (5 December 2010 draft), Table A.1
50
51
AESOP 2011-2013, p.12, from ESPR 2010.
AESOP, p.11.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Figure 4 Sub-sector share of expenditure, 2011-2013
70
60
Percentage
50
40
2011
30
2012
2013
20
Management
and Subvented
Tertiary
ISE
SC (&TVET)
Basic
0
NFE
10
Inevitably, in the absence of detailed programmatic costing, some of the estimates are
rough. Equally clearly, if money is spent strictly according to the AESOP budget, the MoE
will end the financial year with a deficit. It is likely that some activities will be sacrificed
to allow for overspending on the Personnel Emoluments (PE) line. There are various
ways in which the cuts may happen, for example:

A strong effort may be made to keep to the proportional share of each subsector
as set out in the ESP. Since the PE line is underfunded and basic education draws
the largest share of PE and has the largest infrastructure needs, the effect would
be to restrict severely the basic education programmes that will contribute to
enhancing quality, unless these can be funded from external sources.

Cuts may be made by denying spending to those activities for which proper
implementation plans have not yet been developed.

Activities implemented early in the financial year may absorb available funds,
leaving nothing for activities which were intended to take place later in the year.
If the ESP as a whole is to move forward in an orderly way, any cuts should be carefully
planned cuts, and any delays should be planned delays that will ensure that spending
brings value for money. In subsequent years, as the plan is rolled forward, detailed
budgeting for all activities should be included, and delayed activities should be brought
back for implementation, if the overall objectives of the ESP are to be achieved. But also,
priorities need to be reviewed on an annual basis, to avoid losing the essentials while
non-necessities are paid for.
The AESOP cautions against allowing personnel and capital expenditure to crowd out
other priority spending, pointing out by way of illustration that the implementation of
the literacy programme, the upgrading of untrained teachers, and the establishment of
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
the NIB together would absorb less than 0.62% of the total budget, but could contribute
significantly to improving quality in basic education.52
5.4.4 Funding provided by Development Partners
One of the assumptions of the EFA Fast Track Initiative is that the development partners
endorsing a country’s bid for membership will themselves be committed to continuing
their support to that country and will even be prepared to increase their level of
assistance. On this basis, in the EFSM an assumption was made that donors would
continue to fund the same proportion of the budget as in 2009.
Attempts to obtain forward commitments from education sector donors as part of this
appraisal exercise have met with limited success.53 Only two development partners were
able to provide budget estimates for 2011 or 2012, and none beyond that date. Other DPs
had not yet finalised their budgets.
For support already committed, funding modalities included “project assistance”, “extrabudgetary support”, “cooperative agreement”, “earmarked funding”, and “transfers
through national and regional accounts”. Much of the project or programme type
assistance is not reflected in the AESOP while nevertheless aligning with the broad ESP
strategies for enhanced access or quality.
5.4.5 February 2012 Update on the Funding Gap
The funding gap in respect of Basic and Special Education (the focus of GPE) for the single
financial year 2012 has been looked at critically, with the Budget Allocation (from the
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning - MoFEP) and the “Need” (Combined
Education Sector Finance Model – EFSM - and AESOP) contrasted in the table below.
Both the “need” and “provision” columns take account of Government as well as Donor
funding.
Salary costs in both columns are those included in the MoE’s Budget Request. This figure
has been used in preference to either the figure from the EFSM or the figure in the Budget
Allocation since, historically, the MoFEP pays the salaries, even though this always results
in an overrun on the budget. The comparison is thus, effectively, between capital
expenditure and recurrent expenditure other than salaries.
It would appear that the MoE’s Budget Request for capital and other recurrent expenditure
was not realistic. As the MoFEP had already warned that there would be no funds for new
capital works, the MoE budgeted only for continuation of capital projects already under
way. Under “other recurrent” the MoE requested funds (additional to the salary request)
for a 20% incentive to retain teachers in deprived areas, and this amount was included in
52
AESOP 2011-2013, p.13.
Development partners were requested at the end of June 2010 to complete a questionnaire on their
financial contributions to the sector and their capacity development interventions.
53
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
the Budget Allocation, even though it is not clear whether such top up salaries can be
incorporated into the Single Spine Salary Structure.54 On the other hand, some of the
programmatic activities included in the Aide Memoire following the NESAR, and in the
AESOP, were omitted from the Budget Request.
Budget
Allocation
(GHS mil)
Salaries (Budget Request)
Other Recurrent
Capital
Total without salaries
Total with salaries
Combined
FM & AESOP
(GHS mil)
1736.79
1736.79
215.70
279.69
72.90
394.36
288.60
674.05
2025.39
2410.84
Funding Gap
GHS million
385.45
USD million
240.91
% Gap Salaries Included
16.0
% Gap Salaries Excluded
57.2
The funding gap as reflected in the table is the best estimate that can be made under the
circumstances. The difference between the funding gap in this Table and that in Table 13 is
accounted for mainly by the inclusion of the realistic amount for remuneration in both
columns of this table.
5.5 Reform Capacity
The most obvious evidence of the Ministry’s lack of capacity to reform is its inability to
resolve the inequitable nature of teacher deployment, even though the issue has regularly
been flagged by the Ministry itself during performance reports and annual review
meetings. With continuing progress on the path of decentralisation, it has become
increasingly urgent that a solution be found.
The annual performance report is intended to be the instrument by which the Ministry
measures its own progress in a spirit of accountability and transparency. For this process
to be credible, it is essential that the report should use up to date and reliable information.
As the 2010 preliminary ESPR contains very little information that is recent, it is a poorer
report than was the 2009 ESPR, which itself was a less thorough document than was the
54
Nor, since the MoE has not worked out criteria for deprived communities or areas (as opposed to deprived
districts), is there any agreement, two months into the financial year, on which teachers would qualify for the
incentive.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
2008 report. If there is little expectation that identified problems will be dealt with, it may
encourage an indifferent attitude towards reporting.
The predictability of financial releases rests largely with the MoFEP; but it is difficult to
implement reforms when there is uncertainty about the availability of funds which are
essential for implementation. Delays in the implementation of activities impact on the
timing of other activities, and may lead to complete failure of a planned intervention. The
functioning of district offices is equally dependent on the timely receipt of approved
resources. If it happens repeatedly that resources are received late or not at all, the entire
budget process is undermined.
Equally important for successful reform is the clear identification of priorities. The ESP in
its current form makes no distinction between what is of first importance and what is
relatively unimportant either within or between sub-sectors.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
6 Sector Documentation and Knowledge Gaps
6.1.1 Ministry of Education documents
The Ministry has developed a number of documents, some of which remain in draft, which
tends to undermine their status. All policy documents provided by the Ministry for this
appraisal, even those developed some years back, were still in draft. The 2009 ESPR, which
should have been finalised following the 2009 sector review, was still incomplete.55
The EMIS is the primary source of data and statistics; however it is not always able to
process data in a timely manner. The 2010 Education Sector Annual Review was
postponed because of delays in the processing of EMIS data,56 which is coordinated at
district and at regional level before being submitted to the head office. The ESP aims to
strengthen the EMIS in order to establish orderly, timely, localised electronic data
collection.
EMIS data was available in a volume providing data at national, regional and district levels,
with disaggregation by gender where appropriate. It is an essential source of information
on basic education; even though private schools are not obliged to submit returns, many of
them do.
There are plans for running a school mapping exercise that will assign schools their GPS
coordinates, to be quoted in all data collection exercises. This should ensure full
compatibility of school level data. However, the wording in the ESP suggests that this data
will be updated periodically rather than regularly. Annual updating would be the efficient
approach.
Information and documents requested for this appraisal but which could not be made
available included:

Guidelines and training materials for School Management Committees


Broad curriculum for primary and junior high school
Primary and junior high science curriculum/syllabus

2007 education reform.
6.1.2 Independent studies of the sector
Ghana was fortunate in being one of the countries selected for a case study as part of the
55
For example, section 2.6 on TVET is noted as being incomplete.
It is understood that the delay was directly caused by the late release by the MoFEP of the funds needed for
printing the census questionnaires.
56
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
mid-term review of the EFA FTI. A report dated September 2009 is available57 which,
while it focuses on the EFA goals, provides well-founded insights into the working of the
education system, of the progress made by the Government in owning its programmes,
and of the resistance of donors to harmonising their approaches and to aligning them with
the expressed wishes of the Government, resulting at times in high transaction costs for
the Ministry.
Other relatively recent studies of the sector, or aspects of the sector, include:

Education in Ghana: Improving Equity, Efficiency and Accountability of
Education Service Delivery – World Bank. Draft, September 2010.

Analysis of Out Of School Children in Ghana: Demographic Health Survey 20032008, UNICEF, 2010.

Access to basic education in Ghana: the evidence and the issues – Akyeampong
a.o., CREATE, 2007.

The Financing and Outcomes of Education in Ghana - Thompson & CaselyHayford, RECOUP, 2008.
Strengthening the Chain of Accountability to Improve Quality and Performance
in Ghanaian Primary Schools – Casely-Hayford a.o., Link Community
Development external assessment, August 2009.


Ghana Public Expenditure Tracking Survey, 2007, Ghana Steering Committee
for 2007 Public Expenditure Tracking Survey, 2007.

Basic Education in Ghana: Progress and Problems, Final report – USAID, June
2009.
Other independent studies are of less recent date.

The importance of posting in becoming a teacher in Ghana – Hedges, MUSTER,
2000. This study, though it was undertaken ten years ago, describes
difficulties with teacher deployment which have apparently not yet been
adequately addressed.
6.1.3 Critical Knowledge and Data Gaps
Although the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) released a new set of population projections
in July 2007, there is some doubt about the credibility of projections used in the calculation
of net and gross admission and enrolment ratios, or on the primary completion rate, for
which a GER proxy is used. With a national census planned for 26 September 2010,
accurate data, which will allow the re-calculation of measures of enrolment and
completion, will become available in due course.
There is disparity amongst the data sets for education sector planning and budgeting
which are currently available from various sources: EMIS, GES Finance, Textbook
57
Although this draft version still invites comments from interested parties, it has no gaps, and all conclusions
are supported by evidence.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Development, West Africa Examinations Council (WAEC). Steps will be taken to ensure
that a consistent and integrated system of data collection and categorisation is
established, as this will strengthen the monitoring and reporting processes.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
7 Consultation Process
7.1.1 Consultation during the annual review process
The education sector annual review is part of a consultative process which normally
includes regional review meetings in each of the ten regions during the course of April,
and a national meeting in June. The regional reviews include representatives of all the
districts in the region as well as civil society representatives. The invitation list for the
national review includes:

Senior representatives of the Ministry of Education and the Ghana Education Service

Heads of agencies of the Ministry, such as COTVET

All regional directors of education

A total of thirty representatives of the 170 district administrations

Representatives of each of the sector development partners

Representatives of the NGOs active in the sector

Representatives of associations of teachers

Representatives of tertiary institutions

Members of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Education

Members of the Ministerial Advisory Board.
In 2010 the national meeting did not take place until the first week of August, as a result
of difficulties in finalising reports, largely because of delays in the collection and
processing of EMIS data. The Ministry plans to bring the national meetings earlier in the
financial year to better match other MDAs and the MDBS review process.
7.1.2 Consultation during the compilation of the ESP 2010-2020
The preparation of the new ESP commenced in 2008.58 Concept papers and studies
were commissioned in key areas. A SWOT analysis was conducted on thematic areas
and inputs were received from the Ministry’s agencies and regional and district
directorates of education.
The draft ESP document was circulated to a wide range of stakeholders including
national and international academics for debate at the regional and national review
meetings during 2009, after which the document was revised and submitted to
Development Partners and senior Management within the Ministry for discussion.
58
PESPR 2010, p.18-19.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
During 2010 the “final” ESP document and the derivative AESOP and M&E plans were
distributed for comments. Further comments were made during the 2010 ESAR, and
PBME has led the process of tabling and obtaining political agreement on amendments
to the plan.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
8 Overview of the Education Strategic Plan, 2010 to 2020
This chapter describes the structure of the Strategic Plan and the main interventions
proposed to achieve the Ministry of Education’s goals, particularly those relating to
basic education. It also takes note of the way in which the implementation of the plan
will be monitored. The plan is appraised in chapter 9, which follows the same sequence
of sub-headings as does this chapter.
8.1 Structure of the Strategic Plan
The Strategic Plan is set out in four volumes.
The version of the Plan which was appraised is that dated December 2010,59 the result
of revision of earlier drafts during October, November and early December 2010. The
AESOP, Volume 3 of the Plan, dated March 2010, was completely superseded by a new
version dated 5 December 2010. The Monitoring and Evaluation Plan, referred to as
Volume 4, but not labelled as such, is dated December 2010.

Volume 1 of the ESP is comprehensive for the ten-year period 2010 to 2020. Section
1.1 refers to the four areas of focus of ESP 2003-2015 and notes the rationale for
moving to a sub-sector approach in the structure of the new plan. In successive
chapters it covers the background to the plan, the policy basis, the broad strategic
framework, decentralised delivery, the financial framework, and “Monitoring,
evaluation, accountability and efficiency”. In the Minister’s Foreword, but not in the
plan itself, reference is made to the nation-wide consultations which contributed to
the plan. There are five annexes, providing an organogram of the system, details of
the SWOT analysis conducted during the development of the plan, more extensive
information on decentralised delivery, a detailed account of the cost modelling
exercise, and the performance indicators and targets (including the UNESCO EFA
indicators).

Volume 2, also intended to cover the period 2010 to 2020, provides a detailed
strategic framework, arranged under six “focal” or “thematic” areas, five of which
represent sub-sectors of the system, while within each focal area sub-objectives and
strategies are grouped under three headings, “socio-humanistic”, “educational”, and
“economic”. Information is organised in seven columns.
The main function of the volume is “to identify strategies, priorities, scopes of work
and technical requirements for District Officers, and Working Groups designated by
MOE and its Subvented Agencies”. These units and bodies are expected to be guided
by the information in the volume as they prepare their work programmes and
operational plans.60
59
Except that the version of Volume 2 provided for the Appraisal was an earlier draft.
UPDATE: Volumes 1 and 2 now bear the date “February 2012”. They differ from the appraised versions only in
respect of some minor editorial changes.
60
AESOP, p.2.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012

The third volume is the AESOP,61 the Annual Education Sector Operational Plan,
which covers a three-year implementation period and is revised annually. The
AESOP for 2010 to 2012 was never completed, and followed much the same format
as Volume 2 of the Plan.
The AESOP for 2011 to 2013 was developed to a different format. It consists of
spreadsheets for each of the six focal areas of the ESP, and a narrative document
with three annexes. The narrative links the AESOP to the ESP and to the priorities
for 2011 as captured in the Aide Memoire of the 2010 sector review (ESAR). It also
takes account of the MoE’s 2011 budget request to Treasury. (Had the AESOP been
prepared on time, the AESOP would have informed the request to Treasury, and this
is what should happen in subsequent years.)
A summary of the priority sub-sector activities is included in the AESOP, with an
Annex setting these out more fully. A further two annexes provide information on
financing the AESOP and on the process of developing the AESOP.
The approach taken by the MoE with support from a consultant “suggests an
evolution [of the AESOP] … toward a costed work-plan that (i) uses the ESP logical
framework to link priority strategies and activities with expected outcome and
output targets and (ii) includes projected costs for each priority activity” (Annex 3,
p.32). The resulting plan takes account of the actual activities to be implemented
during the year, rather than providing a list of “indicative activities” (taken from
Volume 2 of the ESP) as was the case with the previous iteration of the AESOP.

The Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) plan, 2010 to 2013, describes a multi-level
monitoring approach, and contains tables for “policy level” M&E and “operational
level” M&E. The roles and responsibilities of various units in relation to M&E are
described.62
8.2 Legislation and Policies underpinning the ESP
Education takes place in accordance with the Education Act, 2008 (Act 778), which was
the legal outcome of the 2007 National Education Reform programme.63 In addition the
Ghana Education Service Act, 1955 (Act 506), the National Council for Tertiary
Education and Training Act, 1993 (Act 454), the Council for Technical and Vocational
Education Act, 2006 (Act 718), and the National Accreditation Board Act, 2007 (Act
744) regulate aspects of educational provision.
The plan summarises six of the policies developed since 2003:64

Science, technology and mathematics education (STME)

ICT in education
61
The … draft for 2010-2012 was replaced by the 5 December draft for 2011-2013. The structure of the latter
is outlined in Section 5.4, above.
62
Pages 31-36.
63
ESP, Vol.1, p.14.
64
ESP, vol 1, p.15-19.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012

Technical and vocational education and training (TVET)

Inclusive education (IE) and special educational needs (SpED)

Tertiary education

Pre-tertiary teacher professional development and management.
Policy decisions have also resulted in the reclassification of teacher training colleges as
colleges of education (CoE), and their inclusion in the tertiary sub-sector. The Plan
indicates that a policy on distance education was to be developed in 2010 (NF7)65 and
that bills for the establishment of an Open University (TE5) and two new public
universities (TE4)66 were to be prepared.
8.3 Improved Access to Educational Services
The Government of Ghana has introduced a two-year kindergarten course and is
encouraging full enrolment for children of the appropriate age-group. Where possible,
kindergartens have been attached to primary schools. It is believed that participation in
the two-year kindergarten course will allow children to obtain greater benefits from
their primary education than would otherwise have been the case.
The Government continues to work towards achieving completion of primary education
by all children, and has also set the goal of universal completion of junior high school,
which will give all children eleven years of basic education. This goal automatically
subsumes that of full enrolment for girls.
Children with special educational needs are to be catered for as far as possible through
mainstreaming but, where disabilities are severe, through special schools.
Mainstreamed special education pupils may require the school to have special facilities
(IS2).
For improving access to kindergarten, to primary and junior high school, and to special
education (where mainstreaming is not possible), the MOE proposes (1) to construct
classrooms, (2) to provide transport for children in the age-range 3 to 7 years who live
more than 3 km from school, (3) to provide “complementary or alternative” schooling,
and (4) to assist with school feeding and the provision of uniforms.
8.4 Improved Quality and Relevance of Basic Education
As part of Ghana’s efforts to reduce poverty, an undertaking was given “to put the lost
quality back into the basic education that is offered to children in deprived and rural
areas.”67
65
Vol. 2, p.28.
Vol. 2, p.39.
67
GPRSII, Volume 1, p.1.
66
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Interventions to promote quality are spread across the three columns of the “outline
strategies” table of the ESP: socio-humanistic, educational, and economic. They address
the improvement of facilities, curriculum and teaching materials, contact time and
supervision. To avoid duplication, they are covered in detail only in the appraisal
chapter, section 9.4, below.
8.5 Teachers
Teacher deployment, absenteeism, and training are covered in the ESP. For primary
schools it is proposed to change the pupil to teacher ratio (from 34:1 in 2007) to 45:1 by
2020 (BE21), the justification being economic. Deployment is to be improved by
recruiting teachers from deprived areas (BE14) and providing incentives (BE14, BE15).
Absenteeism is addressed partly through shifting in-service training to the school
holidays (BE15), and partly by expecting better supervision by head teachers and
school management committees (SMCs) (BE19). Paid study leave is to be discontinued
and replaced by an as yet undefined incentive scheme (BE18). The strategies are
discussed in the appraisal chapter, below.
8.6 Construction of Facilities for Basic Education
The ESP proposes the construction of additional classrooms (BE1) to expand access to
schooling, or to improve the quality of education as in cases where classes are currently
conducted in the open air or during an afternoon shift. The provision of toilet facilities
(BE6), separate for boys and girls, is to be extended to schools presently lacking such
facilities, and will apparently be automatically included when new classrooms are built.
Potable water will be provided where possible.
8.7 Balance of Sub-Sector Development
The ESP structures the strategic framework around five sub-sectors and the crosscutting area of education management:

Basic education (BE), which includes kindergarten, primary and junior high school.

Second cycle (SC) education, which includes senior high and technical and
vocational education and training (TVET).

Non-formal (NF) education (which includes some references to TVET).

Inclusive and special education (IS). This section has a particular focus on learners
whose needs have to be met in special schools and units, including those who are
out of school, noting that the preferred option is for learners to be mainstreamed.68

Tertiary education (TE), which includes teacher education.
68
See, for example, BE2, BE3.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012

Education management (EM).
Other cross-cutting issues such as gender, including the elimination of sexual
harassment (See section 8.8), adolescent mothers (BE2, NF1), HIV and AIDS (BE8, SC4,
SC5, SC8, NF10, TE7), and preventive health care (BE5, SC4) are covered within subsectors to a greater or lesser extent.
The relative weightings of the sub-sectors for recurrent expenditure are captured in
Tables 9 and 10.69
8.8 Gender
The first of the “guiding principles” of the ESP is stated as the elimination of gender and
other disparities arising from exclusion and poverty.70 It is also stated that Ghana
subscribes to the Dakar Education for All goals and the Millennium Development
Goals.71
In the second volume of the Plan there are several outline strategies or indicative
targets relating to gender: gender parity in BE enrolment and completion by 2012 (BE4)
and in second cycle enrolment (SC1), senior high graduation rates “on a par” for males
and females by 2018 (SC6), girl-friendly guidance and counselling systems in all
districts (BE10, SC10), “gender appropriate” ICT skills development (SC13, NF12),
improved training and deployment of teachers “with emphasis on female … teachers”
(BE14), at least 40% of cohort entering tertiary education (all kinds) to be female by
2015 (TE6), with stereotyping in tertiary coursework to be eliminated (TE12).
8.9 Targets of the ESP
There is no summary table of targets in Volume 1 or Volume 2 of the ESP. Table 6 of
Volume 4, the M&E Plan, summarises the main targets for 2020 or 2015 which are
scattered through Volume 2. (The targets in Tables 1.2.1 to 1.2.5, 1.4.1, 5.1, and 5.4 of
Volume 1 are those which were set for the ESP for the period 2003 to 2015.)
69
In section 5.3, above.
ESP, Vol. 1, p.22.
71
Ibid., pp.19-20.
70
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table 14 Principal targets of the ESP
Policy Objectives
Indicator
Target
Year
100%
2015
95%
2015
35
2020
Kindergarten
Equitable access
GER
Improved teaching & learning
% trained teachers
PTR
Bridge gender gap
% girls enrolment
50%
2015
Service delivery
Proportion of enrolment in private KG
25%
2020
GER
107.4%
2012
GAR
100%
2006
NAR
90%
2009
NER
90%
2015
P6 completion rate
100%
2012
% trained teachers
90%
2015
45
2020
Primary
Equitable access
Improved teaching & learning
PTR
Core textbook ratio
1:1
2015
1000
2013
1
2015
GER
100%
2015
GAR
100%
2015
NAR
90%
2012
Community learning centres (ICT)
Bridge gender gap
Gender parity
Junior High School
Equitable access
NER
Improved teaching & learning
90%
2015
JHS completion rate
100%
2015
% trained teachers
95%
2020
PTR
35
2020
Core textbook ratio
1:1
2015
2000
2013
Community learning centres (ICT)
Bridge gender gap
Gender parity
1
2015
Service delivery
Teaching hours per week
28
2020
GER (SHS)
40%
2015
GER (TVET)
15%
2015
PTR
30
2020
Gender parity (SHS)
1
2015
Gender parity (TVET)
1
2015
Teaching hours per week
25
2020
GER
12%
2015
Proportion of enrolment in private
universities
25%
2015
% female enrolment
40%
2015
60%
2020
Second Cycle
Equitable access
Improved teaching & learning
Bridge gender gap
Service delivery
% trained teachers
Tertiary
Equitable access
Bridge gender gap
Enrolment in science & technical
Promote science & technical education
disciplines
Source: ESP, Vol. 4, Tables 6a to 6e
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
In the EFSM the targets for 2020 (or for 2015) are linearly scaled for the intervening
years, starting with the baseline data in 2009. These targets are currently under
revision to be made more realistic but stretching.
8.10 Decentralised Administration of Education
One of the “guiding principles” of the ESP is that delivery and fiscal systems of first and
second cycle education should devolve to District Assemblies.72 By 201573 or 202074
this process should be complete. The third annex to Volume 1 of the ESP, Annex C
“Decentralisation transition plan” (drafted October 2009), contains detailed plans for
progressive capacity building and handing over of functions to district authorities.
However, there is little in the Education Management section of Volume 2 that deals
directly with decentralisation.
At the school level, School Management Committees (SMCs) in basic education schools
and Boards of Governors (BoGs) in second cycle schools are expected to play a stronger
role in administering their schools (BE16, BE19, SC14, IS11, EM6).
8.11 Efficiency Measures
The ESP sets out strategies for making efficiency gains75 on the principle that recurrent
expenditures, “especially those that appear to reward a relative few at the expense of a
relatively deprived majority” are to be reduced.
Targeted areas are:

Over-staffing in schools and district offices, as well as a reduction in non-teaching
staff, and a review of staffing levels at tertiary institutions.

Study leave, which is to be replaced by distance-education packages.

Examination fees, where third and subsequent re-sits will not be subsidised.

Boarding costs at senior high schools, where those who have the capacity to pay are
currently subsidised.

The number of scholarships for university fees to be reduced, subsistence
scholarships to be replaced by low-interest loans, and foreign students to pay full
economic fees.

Public-private partnership programmes and projects.
72
Vol. 1, p.22.
Vol. 2, EM2.
74
Vol. 1, p.33.
75
Volume 1, section 3.4 and Table 3.4.
73
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
8.12 Capacity Development
Capacity development is frequently touched on in the ESP, and is variously to be
addressed by the distribution of guidelines, the provision of training, an increase in
staffing, or the allocation of financial or material resources. The challenges are
discussed in the appraisal chapter, below.
8.13 The Monitoring Process
The approach to monitoring is described in the ESP as “results-oriented”.76 The
intention is that monitoring should take place at all levels of the system: institution,
district, region, and national.
School report cards, the results of examinations, the periodic National Education
Assessment (NEA), and the statistical data captured in the annual education census
provide regular information on what is happening at the school level.
The annual review process provides an opportunity for the performance of the sector to
be assessed in all its dimensions. The National Education Sector Annual Review
(NESAR) is preceded by a round of regional reviews. A Preliminary Education Sector
Performance Report (PESPR) is tabled at the NESAR, and subsequently finalised with
the inclusion of insights gained during the national review. The most recent annual
education census provides the review with critical data on progress on the various
indicators.
76
Volume 1, p.42.
49
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
9 Appraisal of the Education Strategic Plan, 2010 to 2020
The topics are covered in the same sequence as in Chapter 8 of this report.
9.1 Structure and Coverage of the Plan
The Plan has a logical structure, with the second volume providing indicative targets,
outline strategies, and indicative activities for achieving the policy objectives of Volume
1. A number of inconsistencies between earlier drafts of Volumes 1 and 2 were
eliminated in the course of 2010. There are still places where statements should have
been dropped or modified, but if all the volumes of the Plan are taken together, the
broad sense is clear. Time which could be devoted to editing these inconsistencies could
be better spent on fleshing out aspects of the Plan for implementation.
The Plan may be criticised for being over-ambitious and having no clearly articulated
priorities; but this need not necessarily be a weakness, provided that the short-term
work plans clearly articulate priorities. The value of a comprehensive ten-year plan is
that it reminds the Ministry that there is a great deal to be done. The downside is that
interventions may not be sufficiently aggressive to achieve the objectives, since
planners and implementers may persuade themselves that what is in the Plan is
unattainable. This may be countered by having realistic short-term plans (especially for
the first year of each AESOP) and ensuring that they are fully implemented.
The time frame for many activities is given in Volume 2 as “From Year x”, with no clear
indication of what, if anything, should be done in that year. It is noted in the
introduction to the volume that the given time frame “shows the year intended for the
commencement of a particular activity. In some cases the activity may be completed
within a year but in most cases it is likely to be ongoing over a longer period within, or
frequently exceeding, the duration of the plan”. An impossibly large number of activities
is indicated for commencement in 2010, almost making this column meaningless.
The earlier version of Volume 2 was intended to include the costs of the various
interventions, but this column of the table was never completed. The revised version no
longer has this column.77 This is a positive move, as the listed activities are only
“indicative”. The Education Sector Finance Model (EFSM) should be used in conjunction
with Volume 2 to get a sense of likely costs.
An example of more serious inconsistencies which remain in the Plan is the reference to
the number of textbooks required. Outline strategy BE11 has a target of “Primary
textbook ratio of 1:1 for core subjects by 2012,”78 but fails to indicate the number of
core subjects. EMIS 2009/10 notes that the core subjects are mathematics, English, and
77
There are still statements on p.1 of which lead one to expect the costs of activities to be included in the
volume.
78
Volume 2, p.10.
50
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
integrated general science,79 and reports the textbook to pupil ratio as, for example, “3”.
The EMIS use of the ratio, taking all the core subjects together, is less ambiguous, and
provides a more helpful indicator for determining costs.
Since ASEOP is to be the basis for implementation in a particular year, it should be
available to implementing units sufficiently far in advance of the start of the year for
them to finalise their own detailed implementation plans. Failing this, implementation
at, for example, district level may be delayed to such an extent that targets for the year
cannot be met. The AESOP for 2011 to 2013 was completed only in the first week of
December 2010. For subsequent years implementing units should have a copy of the
AESOP not later than the middle of October, by which time the draft AESOP should have
been adjusted to fall within the budgetary ceiling set by the MoFEP.
With a credible plan it may sometimes be necessary to drop or postpone an activity
because of unforeseen difficulties, unforeseen shortages of funds, resignation or
transfer of critical staff, etc.; but at the time when the operational plan (AESOP) is
compiled there should be a reasonable expectation of being able to implement all its
activities.
Much of the Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan, though dated “2010 to 2013”,
covers the general principles and approaches which are to be used in M&E. As with the
overall Plan, these provisions are ambitious, and there is the danger that much time and
energy will be spent on monitoring without adequate analysis of the causes of not
meeting targets or any substantial effort to remedy the defects exposed by the
monitoring and evaluation.80 EMIS should be a major source of data for the Ministry’s
M&E, and steps should be instituted to undertake random verification of EMIS data
submitted by institutions and districts.
9.2 Legislation and Policies underpinning the ESP
Policy documents take different forms, and distinctions between policies, plans,
programmes and even practices are sometimes blurred. Ideally a policy may be
considered as a consistent statement of goals, objectives, plans and resources whose
content is intended to guide and perhaps change future practices. When resources for
implementation are neither identified nor allocated, the “policy” cannot be taken
seriously.81
Several of the policies which are supposed to underpin the ESP are still in “draft” form,
which calls into question their value as beacons to guide ESP objectives and strategies.
At least five of the six policies summarised in Volume 1 are still in draft.
79
The note appears at the foot of every page on which “pedagogical tools” are reported.
See, for example, section 9.5, below, on teacher deployment.
81
Adapted from Little, A W: EFA politics, policies and progress, p.4.
80
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012

Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (STME). The policy is prominently
marked “draft” and is undated, but in the activity table the “start by” dates vary
between 2005 and 2010. One of the objectives of the policy is to “[lift] Ghana to a
Middle Level income country by the year 2015”.

The ICT in Education policy is a 2006 draft with its tables of strategies aligned to the
ESP 2003-2015.

The Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) policy is a 2004 draft
which, among other things, proposes that the focus of basic education be on generic
skills, especially literacy and numeracy and a scientific approach to understanding,
and that training in specific skills be postponed to post-basic education levels.

The Special Educational Needs (SpED) policy framework is a 2004 draft.

Tertiary Education Policy. It was not possible to obtain a copy of the document.

The Pre-Tertiary Teacher Professional Development and Management (PTPDM)
policy has just been prepared (draft June 2010).
It is noted that the new administration has accepted most of the education policies of
the previous administration, but that some new policies are proposed.82 Some of these
will require investigations to be undertaken and incorporation into the budget before
they can be implemented.83 But, apart from a reference to developing a policy on
Distance Education (NF7), there are no objectives or activities in the ESP related to
finalising or adopting policies that have been drafted. The status of the policies referred
to above thus remains uncertain, as is also the case with apparently existing policies on
textbook procurement and distribution (BE11, SC11), language in education (BE12),
teacher promotion (IS12) and paid study leave for teachers (BE14), School Management
Committees and Boards of Governors (BE16, SC14, IS11), and the policy for the
admission of students to boarding facilities (SC3), some of which are to be “reviewed”.
9.3 Improved Access to Educational Services
Access data at national level for both kindergarten and primary education generally
show reasonably high levels, even if targets have not been met, but conceal some wide
disparities across regions and districts. It is important that interventions should target
those districts which present the greatest challenges. “To eliminate gender and other
disparities that arise from exclusion and poverty” is one of the ESP guiding principles,
and “No child to be disadvantaged by location, sex, SEN or poverty” is one of the
indicative targets of the AESOP. However, no specific strategies or interventions are
provided for deprived districts as such.
An indication of the disparities in primary enrolment is given in Table 4.84 Gender
imbalances favouring boys are significant in the Northern and Volta regions, while girls
82
ESP, Vol 1, p.19.
E.g. provision of school uniform to needy children. ESP, Vol 2, BE9.
84
Section 5.1.1, above.
83
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
are favoured in the Upper West region. Total NER is 86% or lower in six of the ten
regions, including the Greater Accra region. An even greater range will be evident in
district level data.
In pursuit of the goal of universal primary (or basic) education, the plan lists as an
activity:
Reach and educate excluded children (i.e. the “unobtainable” last 10% - 20%
of NER – i.e. out-of-school, hard-to-reach, truants, street children, intra-cycle
dropouts (e.g. after JHS) and adolescent mothers) either within the formal
system or within complementary/alternative schooling.85
Responsibility is assigned to the Basic Education Department and regional and district
offices (BE2) and to the Non-Formal Education Department with COTVET (NF1). The
Schools for Life (SFL) project is specifically mentioned as needing to be evaluated and
possibly built on as a means to reaching more children.86
The provision of transport for children who do not live close to a school is proposed,
with a target for eligible children of 50% by the year 2014.87 This is one of the
interventions for which no costs have been provided in the EFSM. Indicative activities in
the plan are inviting tenders from local transport providers, but not providing them
with guidelines and timetables until the following year. The impression conveyed is that
the logistical implications have not been thought through, nor whether the intervention
would be sustainable.
The expansion of school feeding and covering the cost of school uniforms for needy
children are also included in the plan.88 The Ghana School Feeding Programme (under
the Ministry of Local Government) and the World Food Programme have been covering
the cost of school meals, and provision is made in the EFSM for school uniforms. School
feeding and take home rations for school girls should be retained as a strategy to
improve access, attendance and learning performance and reduce gender disparity.
Classroom construction is dealt with separately, in section 9.6, below.
9.4 Improved Quality and Relevance of Basic Education
The 2009 ESPR declares that “Quality of education remains an unaddressed issue in
Ghana”.89
85
Volume 2, p.26: NF1.
Volume 2, p.6: BE2; p.26: NF1.
87
Volume 2, p.8: BE7.
88
Volume 2, p.7: BE3.
89
P.24.
86
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
The mean scores in the 2007 National Education Assessment (NEA) in mathematics and
English for the third and sixth years of primary school testify to the need for corrective
interventions. In primary 3 (P3) only 15% of pupils demonstrated proficiency in
mathematics and in English, while in P6 the respective percentages for mathematics and
English were 11% and 26%.90 These rates of proficiency clearly jeopardise the pupils’
further educational progress and restrict their career options, unless adequate remedial
measures can be applied. For those able to attend three years of JHS, around 60%
achieved a pass in English, mathematics, science and social studies in the Basic
Education Certificate Examination (BECE) in 2008, with boys outperforming girls in all
subjects except English.91 2009 saw a marked improvement in the NEA results, with
20% and 25% of P3 pupils demonstrating proficiency in mathematics and in English
respectively, and 36% of P6 demonstrating proficiency in English. In P6 mathematics
there was little improvement, with only 14% of pupils showing proficiency. While the
improvements are to be welcomed, the “lost quality” can still not be said to have been
put back into the system.92
Table 15 lists, with comments, some of the interventions from the ESP which might
contribute to better learning. The overall impression is that there is a lack of urgency, of
coherence and of attention to sustainability in the envisaged strategies, together with a
lack of up-to-date information to confirm the scale of the problem or to measure
progress in addressing it.93
Table 15 ESP interventions for improved quality teaching and learning
“Outline strategy” from the ESP
Comment
Provide all BE schools with an
up-to-date relevant curriculum
(BE9).

There is a cycle for the routine review and revision of the
curriculum.

The NEA results point, not to the inadequacy of the
current curriculum, but to the fact that it is not effectively
taught.

The PESPR, 2010, refers to the primary timetable being
“congested with too many subjects”.94
90
See Table 5, above.
ESPR, 2009, Table 24.
92
See Section 8.4, above.
93
Teacher qualifications are omitted, as they are covered in the next section.
94
PESPR, 2010, p.39.
91
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
“Outline strategy” from the ESP
Ensure that BE pupils have
access to relevant up-to-date
teaching/ learning materials
(BE11).
Ensure that all P6 graduates
are literate and numerate in
English and a Ghanaian
language (BE12).
Revise the time table to
increase time for literacy and
numeracy … (BE12).
Comment

Although textbooks alone will not guarantee the
acquisition of skills and knowledge, textbook shortages
may restrict learning.

While EMIS 2008/09 reported severe textbook shortages,
the ESPR reported that books were procured in the
course of 2009 and distributed to schools to achieve the
core textbook ratio (three subjects) of 3:1.95 However,
EMIS 2009/10 reported that the ratios for primary and
JHS were 1.6:1 and 1.5:1 respectively. What happened to
all the new textbooks?

No information could be obtained on measures to ensure
that the ratio is maintained, e.g. in schools where
enrolment increases.

Pupils are not normally permitted to take textbooks
home. It is not clear whether pupils have access to
textbooks in schools when teachers are absent. The
PESPR 2010 refers to effective utilisation of textbooks as
being a challenge.96

It is not clear how literacy in a Ghanaian language is to be
achieved without texts in the language (The core subjects
are English, mathematics and integrated general science.).

Nothing has been said about teaching materials that aid
teachers to instruct well.

Volume 2 includes among its indicative activities the
development of effective methodologies for teaching in
local languages in P1 to P3 and in English for P4 to P6.

A donor supported project has developed and distributed
teaching materials for the teaching of eleven Ghanaian
languages and English in KG and P1 to P3, and provided
brief in-service training to teachers.

The effectiveness of the intervention will depend in large
measure on contact time between teachers and learners,
the use of pupil-centred activity-based learning
approaches, and on further in-service training for
sustainability.

This is referred to the CRDD for action. It appears to be
one of the easier changes to implement, but is another one
of the activities marked “ongoing from 2010” rather than
having a definite (early) target date.
95
ESPR, 2009, p.35. The Preliminary ESPR, 2010, p.38, surprisingly, gives no update; instead it quotes 2004 and
2008 studies on inadequate levels of textbook availability.
96
Page 10.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
“Outline strategy” from the ESP
Ensure that the teaching
service provides value for
money in terms of pupil
contact time and effective
learning (BE15).
Develop effective operational
SMCs in BE schools (BE16).
Comment

The PESPR, 2010, quotes figures from studies undertaken
in 2003 and in 2008 on contact time,97 but nothing more
recent. The ESPR, 2009, reported that “Teacher
motivation appears consistently at the top of the problem
list. … The two most quoted causes of teacher lateness or
absenteeism are commute time and course-work for
distance learning programmes”.98

Volume 2 estimates pupil time on task at 39% in 2008,
and sets a target of 80% in 2015.99 This is not a rigorous
approach to what appears to be the chief underlying
cause of abysmal pupil performance, especially as the
ESPR, 2009, indicates that the distance learning
programmes for teachers are designed not to disrupt their
teaching programmes.100 It is not clear what sanctioning
mechanisms are to be used against teachers and head
teachers guilty of unwarranted absenteeism or tardiness.

On the other hand, ESP, Vol. 2, suggests that the
scheduling of in-service training courses during the
school term contributes to teacher absenteeism and that
schools lack guidance on time-tabling.101

A management handbook is to be developed in 2010, and
training based on the handbook to be implemented
between 2010 and 2020.

It proved impossible to get a clear response from MoE or
GES personnel on the term of office of SMC members; but
with training spread over a ten-year period, it is to be
doubted that this intervention will make a significant
impact on school management.

Head teachers, who might be expected to exercise
oversight, themselves have a full teaching load in many
schools. In such cases the time they spend on supervising
their staff members will inevitably be contact time lost
with their own pupils.
9.5 Teachers
The 2009 ESPR reports a high proportion of unqualified teachers and records problems
with teacher deployment and teacher absenteeism.
97
P.39.
P.50. Compare p.6 of the same report on the estimated cost to Government of teacher absenteeism.
99
Volume 2, p.13: BE15.
100
P.50.
101
P.13:BE15.
98
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
9.5.1 Teacher deployment
The widespread inequities in the deployment of teachers have been highlighted in
ESPRs since 2005,102 and are illustrated in a series of scatterplots in the ESPR 2009,
using EMIS data from 2008/09.103
Basic education teacher deployment is addressed in the plan (BE15) by shifting
responsibility for recruitment to the districts, proposing financial incentives, and
suggesting a pupil teacher scheme which will also be district-based. Confusingly,
though, a teacher “rotation” system is also proposed to “supply remote rural areas with
qualified teachers on an equitable basis”. If this is to operate across districts, it negates
the district’s responsibility for recruitment. At the same time, it is unlikely that
understaffed districts will receive much relief while other districts have large numbers
of teachers above the average. There is currently no plan for resolving the existing
imbalances in teacher deployment; whether, for example, an overstaffed district will be
unable to hire new staff until the situation has normalised.
The 2009/10 national average pupil teacher ratios (PTR) for public schools were 31:1
and 15:1 for primary and JH schools respectively,104 as against 34:1 and 18:1 in
2008/09. Movement is away from, rather than towards, the target ratios.
The average PTRs in public primary schools for the best off and worst off district in each
region are given in Table 16.105 Within each district again there will be schools with
PTRs below and above the average for the district.
102
ESPR 2009, p.5.
Page 44.
104
EMIS, 2009/2010 education profiles, p.103.
105
The number of districts, 138 at the time of the education census, was subsequently increased to 170 by the
division of some districts.
103
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Table 16 PTR in public primary schools, 2008/09 and 2009/10
Regional District PTR 08/09
Regional
Region
PTR
PTR
Best
Worst
08/09
09/10
District PTR 09/10
Best
Worst
Ashanti
32
25
39
28
18
39
Brong Ahafo
32
18
44
28
15
37
Central
36
31
43
30
24
35
Eastern
30
23
38
30
21
63
Greater Accra
40
37
42
35
28
45
Northern
33
22
44
29
19
49
Upper East
48
37
64
40
25
59
Upper West
42
34
57
37
29
44
Volta
30
23
48
29
20
64
Western
37
29
44
33
24
38
National
34
18
64
31
15
64
Source: EMIS 2008/09; EMIS 2009/10.
Deployment would have to be according to agreed norms, defined by PTR106 or
otherwise. BE21 gives the target ratio as 45:1 for primary, but acknowledges that there
will be schools where, even with multi-grade teaching, a lower ratio will be required.
The implication is that other schools will have to accept a higher ratio to achieve a 45:1
average. Unless there are clear guidelines for districts to follow, many schools might
become “special cases”, requiring a more generous ratio than 45:1, to the detriment of
other schools. There is also a suggestion in the ESP that small schools might be merged,
which raises two problems: whether the selected campus would have sufficient
classrooms, and how the closing of small schools would impact on the desire to provide
schools closer to the users (BE2). Disparities cannot be significantly reduced without a
deliberate and transparent plan which cuts across districts.107
National Youth Employment Programme (NYEP) teachers, who serve for up to two
years, are not paid from the MoE payroll.108 They are excluded from any count of
teachers which is based on the payroll, but are apparently included in the EMIS count of
unqualified teachers and are consequently included in the calculation of the PTR for
106
The PTR may be used to determine the staffing of schools, or it may merely reflect the consequence of
staffing policies or practices (based, for example, on the range of subjects taught at the school).
107
John Hedges in 2000 discussed inequitable treatment in the posting of newly qualified teachers in Ghana
under the heading “rational system or ‘unsavoury ritual’”. (University of Sussex Institute of Education;
MUSTER) Anecdotal evidence suggests that in 2010 little has changed.
108
The Programme is allocated close to 10% of the GET Fund, which is used to cover the costs for the
education workers serving in the MoE.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
institutions and districts.109 There were 15,000 NYEP teachers allocated to schools
across the country in 2010. On completion of their service some remain at the school as
untrained teachers on the MoE payroll, and possibly enrol in the UTDBE110
programme.111 In addition, all tertiary graduates are required to give one year’s service
under the National Service Scheme, and a proportion of them will serve as teachers. It is
not clear whether NYEP and NSS teachers are allocated to schools where it has not been
possible to fill vacancies.
9.5.2 Incentives
Two types of incentive are suggested for improving the deployment of teachers to
remote rural areas (BE14). A “deprived area incentive package” might include a
financial incentive and might also include accommodation or other benefits. The second
approach would be to recruit potential teachers from such an area and appoint them on
a reduced salary while also providing them with teacher training through the UTDBE
programme. Since they were already accustomed to the area and already had
accommodation, it is assumed that they would be willing to remain there, at least for
several years after qualifying.
The “Updated ESP” scenario makes provision for financial incentives to be paid to
teachers in deprived areas from 2011, on the basis of a 15% allowance for 30% of the
primary teaching force.
9.5.3 Teacher absenteeism and time on task
Teacher absenteeism (BE15) is to be addressed by holding in-service training (INSET)
activities during school vacations and monitoring attendance. This suggests that INSET
is the main reason for the high level of teacher absence. However, the study by Hedges
suggests that unwillingness to work in a remote rural environment and having to cope
with unduly large class groups may also encourage absenteeism. Although the study
was undertaken in 2000, it is likely that these causes are still applicable, at least in some
districts. The indicative activity of drawing up and circulating guidelines on “timetabling
that ensures maximum teacher-pupil contact time” with SMC oversight of time on task
suggests that even when teachers are not absent from the school, they may not be
teaching. There is further discussion of the oversight role of SMCs under section 9.9,
below.
There is a need for further research into the reasons for teacher absence from the
classroom, but equally, there is a need for measures (or interim measures) to address
the problem. Monitoring by the head teacher should ensure as far as possible that the
109
Nationally the difference in PTR as a result of including NSS teachers might be slight, but unless they were
evenly spread across districts their presence might either conceal or exaggerate inequities.
110
See (d), below.
111
Information provided by Mr Pele Abuga, National Coordinator National Youth Employment Programme, to
Ms Fiscian on 15 July 2010.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
teacher in the classroom is productively engaged with the pupils. The launch of a
nationwide school report card system will bring the data and scale of the attendance
issue firmly into the public domain and will provide a focus for the renewed efforts
and financing of the School Performance Assessment Meetings at school level.
9.5.4 Teacher training and qualifications
Also relevant in the quest for quality learning are teacher qualifications. Table 17 gives
the percentage of trained teachers in public primary schools by region.
Table 17 Percentage of trained teachers in public primary schools, 2009/10
Region
Qualified Teachers
Male
Female
Ashanti
53.1
81.8
Brong Ahafo
48.2
66.2
Central
44.3
74.4
Eastern
62.3
85.6
Greater Accra
84.8
96.9
Northern
31.2
49.9
Upper East
45.4
56.2
Upper West
47.0
59.0
Volta
63.0
80.4
Western
32.0
62.8
National
47.8
76.5
Number trained
Number untrained
30,869
33,749
28,094
8,609
Source: EMIS 2009/10
There are inconsistencies in the planning documents on the numbers (and proportion)
of teachers to be trained, the adequacy of pre-service and distance training, and the
relative value of a three-year CoE qualification as against a four-year university
qualification.
The ESP sets the target for trained teachers at 95% of teachers on the GES payroll
(BE14). In 2009/10 48% of male primary teachers were trained and 77% of female
teachers.112 The “Updated ESP” scenario uses 2009 baseline data (58% of primary
teachers as trained), and aims at 95% of primary teachers being qualified by 2015. As
the salary of an untrained teacher is on average 39% of the salary of a trained teacher,
an increase in the proportion of trained teachers has budgetary implications.
Under the tertiary education component of the plan the only references to teacher
education are the upgrading of teacher training colleges to colleges of education (CoE),
with a (reduced) annual intake of 5,000 students (TE1) for basic education, but an
112
EMIS 2009/10.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
increase in the number of colleges to at least 50 by 2015 from 38 in 2009.113 The
“Updated ESP” allows for 50% of the new teachers for kindergarten, primary and junior
high school to be produced by the CoEs, which will require an increase in intake to
around 9,500 in 2014/15 before dropping to less than 5,000 in 2016/17 and
subsequent years. The CoE intake in 2007/08 was 8,588.114 Any need for additional
teaching space in CoEs would thus be for a very short period, after which the colleges
would have to retrench staff. This again points to policy implications not having been
projected or clearly thought through.
An Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education (UTDBE) distance programme
aimed at increasing the proportion of trained teachers was introduced in 2004.115
Around 25,000 teachers were enrolled in the programme, which was implemented in
four phases by 35 of the 38 education colleges.116 By February 2010 graduates
numbered 7,496 with diplomas and 5,188 with Certificate A. 12,311 teachers were still
participating in the third and fourth (“final”) phases of the programme, and it was
established that a further 6,000 untrained teachers throughout the country were
interested in participating in the programme if it were to be continued. The “pupil
teacher” scheme (BE14) envisages that the recruits will be trained through the UTDBE.
An external review of the programme conducted in the last quarter of 2009 was not yet
available, but the Teacher Education Division (TED) of GES reported “weak organisation
of field support”, absenteeism of trainees during face to face sessions, and financial
difficulties of trainees, as constraints to the success of the programme. Earlier it had
been reported that teacher training colleges needed “to design realistic action plans”
and that “mentors and tutorial staff need[ed] to be adequately motivated to perform
their expected role efficiently”,117 which apparently means that they expected to be paid
more. The “Updated ESP” scenario envisages that 50% of the need for trained teachers
in basic education will be met through the UTDBE.
Whether through pre-service or INSET, basic education teachers are to receive training
in multi-grade teaching and special education needs (BE2, BE4), primary health care
(BE6), STD and HIV/AIDS counselling, prevention, care and support (BE8), new primary
curricula (from 2013) (BE9), and literacy and numeracy118 in Ghanaian languages
(BE12). It is not clear whether these aspects are presently adequately covered in college
courses. Given that pre-service training covers only two years of college training
113
EMIS 2009/10.
EMIS, 2009/10.
115
ESPR, 2009, p.32.
116
GES, TED, February 2010. Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education (UTDBE) programme. Draft status
report.
117
GES, TED, September 2008. Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education (UTDBE) programme. Status
report.
118
“Numeracy in Ghanaian languages” does not yet appear to have been thought through. If KG and P1 to P3
pupils are taught a Ghanaian language instead of English, mathematical concepts will also have to be taught
through this medium. It is not clear whether teachers and college lecturers are aware of this.
114
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followed by one year of practical training in a school, it may be questioned whether
some level of specialization during training would not produce more effective primary
teachers. The PESPR, 2010, reports the “neglect of participatory and interactive
teaching methods” as a “key structural problem”119 in schools, which calls in question
the relevance of pre-service, distance programmes, and in-service training for teachers.
There are also anomalies in the arrangements for pre-service training as envisaged in
the new policy draft on “Pre-Tertiary Teacher Professional Development and
Management (PTPDM) in Ghana”. A teacher holding a diploma from a College of
Education will have to complete an induction year and a further six years before being
eligible to be appointed as a “senior teacher”, while graduate teachers “will have further
on the job training to prepare them to move directly to Senior Teacher Level after the
first year of induction”.120 It is seriously doubted whether “on the job” training provided
by unspecified persons to a graduate could successfully compensate for six years of
teaching experience. It is likely that this measure would also cause resentment among
teachers holding diplomas or certificates and intensify their desire to move out of basic
education. While the ESP envisages “fee free” education in polytechnics (TE2), it is silent
on fees in CoEs and universities (TE1, TE3). The PTPDM draft states that “all training
costs [pre-service, distance, and in-service] will be borne by persons receiving
training”.121 Yet some teachers will still be allowed to take paid study leave,122 even
though allowing qualified teachers to take paid study leave after teaching for a couple of
years frequently leads to their opting out of teaching in basic education schools once
they have their new qualification. The ESP on the other hand proposes replacing paid
study leave123 by sponsored part-time training, but mainly as an efficiency measure, and
not to keep teachers in primary schools (BE18). The overall message which the policy
carries is that no competent teacher would wish to remain a primary teacher for long.
9.5.5 In-service training
Although in-service training of teachers is mentioned in the plan, INSET that is
infrequent or of too short duration is generally no more effective than no in-service
training at all. While there are no firm guidelines on “how much, how often”, any inservice training provided under the plan should be deliberately structured in a way
which is calculated to bring about a sustainable improvement in quality teaching and
learning. This will require a focus on instructional methods for teaching particular
skills; and a school-based focus – teachers need to observe effective instruction of pupils
similar to theirs.
119
P.39.
MoE GES, June 2010. Pre-Tertiary Teacher Professional Development and Management in Ghana. Policy
framework draft, p.10.
121
PTPDM, p.13.
122
PTPDM, p.13.
123
“Study leave to be cancelled by 2011 following IEC and national publicity”. Volume 2, BE18.
120
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Starting in mid-2009 an attempt has been made to strengthen the quality of in-service
training in mathematics and science, with the intention that the improved management
system for INSET would impact favourably on training in other subjects as well. Under
the project the capacity of the National INSET Unit (NIU) to manage INSET is being
strengthened, the capacity of national trainers and of district teams is enhanced, and
monitoring and evaluation is improved. In the initial months there was some slippage
because of budgetary constraints and discretionary spending by districts.124 Much of the
emphasis is on the district taking responsibility for the in-service training of its
teachers,125 which will be possible only if it is able to budget realistically for the activity.
9.6 Construction of Facilities for Basic Education
Classrooms are needed to accommodate children taught “under trees” and to allow the
discontinuation of double shifts. The construction of additional teaching rooms may be
necessary if access is to increase, while the construction of toilets, laboratories, and ICT
facilities and the provision of potable water improve the quality of the educational
experience. From Table 18126 it will be seen that 40% of public schools have no potable
water on site, and that more than 40% lack toilet facilities. Junior high schools are only
slightly better off than are kindergartens and primary schools.
Table 18 Percentage of basic education schools with toilets and drinking water
Public Schools
Private Schools
Level
Schools
(number)
With
Toilets
With
Drinking
Water
Schools
(number)
With
Toilets
With
Drinking
Water
Kindergarten
12 481
52
60
4 990
80
77
Primary
13 835
52
59
4 744
81
77
7 969
56
60
2 799
86
79
Junior High
Source: EMIS 2009/10, Table 4a.
Table 19 draws together all the references in the ESP and AESOP tables to the
construction of facilities. In the likely case of a shortage of funds to cover everything,
there is no indication of priorities between or within activities. Even for primary
classrooms there should be an indication of whether the elimination of double shifts is a
higher or lower priority than phasing out classes “under trees” or providing extra rooms
to increase enrolment. Reporting should clearly show that the districts with the greatest
needs are enjoying priority.
124
GoG/JICA, February 2010. Project for strengthening the capacity of INSET management. First progress
report, p.vii-ix.
125
GoG/JICA. Module 2: Operational manual for district level INSET, p.6.
126
See Figure 1 in section 5.1.5, above, for a graphic representation of the situation.
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Table 19 Construction of facilities in ESP Vol. 2 and AESOP
ESP Volume 2
a
b
c
d
e
KG classroom construction within 3 km of communities at a
rate to be decided, from 2010 (BE1).
Construction, refurbishment, & maintenance of primary & JHS
classrooms (BE1).
Ensure that infrastructure accommodates children with
special needs (BE4, SC6, NF8, IS2, IS6, TE6).
Provide adequate safety, sanitation and basic health care
facilities at schools by 2015 (BE6, SC7, IS6).
Ensure potable water within 250m of BE school sites (100m
of SC sites; “available within special schools & units”) &
adequate sanitation facilities at all institutions (BE6, SC7,
IS6).
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
AESOP 2011 to 2013 from
NESAR 2010 Aide Memoire
GH¢200 m and GH¢93.3 m p.a.
respectively for construction
and refurbishment of basic
education facilities.
GH¢6 m p.a.
GH¢100 m p.a.
Teacher Housing - Based on
EFSM. GH¢12.5 m p.a. Notes
that expenditure is “not likely”
in 2011.
Continue SHS construction & refurbishment to achieve at
least one SHS per district by 2020 (SC1)
Provide female friendly toilets in all SC institutions from 2010
(SC6).
Construct & stock SC, SSU libraries, by 2015 (SC12, IS8).
Provision of school & community libraries (SC12).
Provide science laboratories in General SH, technical
facilities/workshops in Technical SH, and TVI and computer
rooms and internet in all SC as appropriate (SC11), from
2012.
Establish 5 additional TVIs regionally on needs basis between
2010 & 2015 (NF3).
Construct &/or rehabilitate 10 regional libraries between
2010 & 2015 (NF4).
Provide a minimum of 5 CoEs per region by 2015 (from
2011) (TE1).
Construction & refurbishment of facilities at polytechnics and
universities (TE2, TE3).
Establish two new universities, first phase construction by
2014 (TE4).
Tender for OU facilities (head and regional offices) in 2011
(TE5).
Akyeampong estimated a need for around 7,500 schools in 2006.127 Over the past three
years around 3,900 primary and junior high schools were built, but the enrolment
increased by around 760,000 over the same period,128 suggesting a need for an
additional 19,000 or more classrooms, the equivalent of some 3,300 schools;129 a
backlog of 6,900 schools at the end of 2009. Table 20 gives the current basic education
127
2007, p.13.
ESPR 2009, p.9-11. The comparison is between the years 2005/06 and 2008/09, and includes public and
private schools.
129
The assumptions used in this calculation are that a classroom would be needed for every 40 children
enrolled, and that a complete school consists of six classrooms.
128
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teaching facilities, both public and private. A standard furnished classroom can
accommodate 46 pupils. The national average number of pupils per classroom in public
schools was 40 in 2009/10.130
Table 20 Number of schools and classrooms, 2009/10
Level
Public Schools
Schools
ClassAverage
rooms
Rooms
per
School
Private Schools
Schools
ClassAverage
rooms
Rooms
per
School
Kindergarten
12,481
20,202
2
4,990
8,943
2
Primary
13,835
77,490
6
4,744
25,256
5
7,969
28,939
4
2,799
8,729
3
Junior High
Source: EMIS 2009/10.
ESPR 2009 reports that “The execution rate for Investment was shockingly low at 19%”.
While the capital budget covers more than construction, the report suggests that funds
intended for construction were used for other purposes.
There should be a consistent approach to determining needs, they should be prioritised,
and constraints to spending the capital budget should be addressed in the plan.
9.7 The Balance of Sub-Sector Development
As observed in section 5.3, above, it is difficult to get any sense of the balance of subsector development apart from the relative per capita expenditures for respective levels
as incorporated into the “MiniMax” cost scenario, which does not include costs for all
the activities in the plan.
The EFA goal of adult literacy is unlikely to be met because of the continued underfunding of the non-formal education (NFE) sub-sector.
9.8 Gender
While there is a clear intention to reduce gender disparities at all levels of the system,
the target dates are generally vague (“from 2010”) or unrealistic. Nor does the AESOP
capture any specific activities that will bring about a definite improvement.
On the positive side, because EMIS data is disaggregated by gender, it is possible for GES
to determine which districts are most in need of assistance, and for districts to learn
which are the schools requiring special interventions. This is the level of detail that is
proper to annual operational plans at district level, with a measure of oversight from
regional and head offices.
130
EMIS 2009/10.
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9.9 Targets of the ESP
Targets used in the education finance simulation model (EFSM) are for 2015 or 2020. In
the AESOP, targets are set for the three years covered by the AESOP.
There are a few targets in the plan where the approach appears to lack urgency, e.g. the
Volume 2 targets for reducing teacher absenteeism and for increasing pupil time on task
(BE15). Recent initiatives such as the introduction of the National Inspectorate Board
are more appropriate to the seriousness of these issues. A scaled up approach to the
training of SMCs (BE16) is necessary to bring about the required degree of change in
their effectiveness.
In the stated interventions there is insufficient evidence that deprived districts are to be
treated with any greater urgency than non-deprived districts. However, closer
examination of the budgets reveals that key interventions such as SMC training are
focused to the deprived districts.
If targets are to guide the pace of development it is important that they are genuinely
believed to be attainable with the human and financial resources expected to be
available. Ten-year targets may be unrealistic and if so, this should become apparent as
the linearly scaled targets for intermediate years are either exceeded or missed. This
should also lead to the revision of the targets for subsequent years based on the most
recent results and, again, on anticipated human and financial resources. The problems
with EMIS data in 2010 have led the Ministry to recognise the need to revise the targets
to be realistic but stretching. This process is already well underway with a committee
chaired by PBME and attended by the EMIS team, Ministry of Finance and key DPs.
Agreement has been reached on the need for the reasons for missing targets to be
explored as an essential part of the M&E process. Implementing units will have to report
back to the sector group on the rate of progress of their programmes on a quarterly
basis, so that deviation from a target can be discussed and timely action taken,
otherwise problems may come as a surprise at the end of the year.
The M&E reporting at the 2010 NESAR was not evaluative, partly because of the late
availability of EMIS data. However, the PBME team have subsequently undertaken some
analysis of the data with particular attention to non-performing districts. It is expected
that reporting at the 2011 NESAR will be strongly evaluative, so that decisions on
adjustments to targets for the following year will be well founded.
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9.10 Decentralised Administration of Education
9.10.1
District level
The 2010 ESPR refers to the decentralisation process being jeopardised by “weak
political and management will” and “undue political interference in education
management”.131 If this is so, decentralisation is unlikely to move from the phase of
delegation to that of devolution of authority. And unless resources provided to district
administrations are predictable, also with respect to timing, it is unreasonable to hold
the districts accountable for output and outcomes. There is a need to clarify whether
2015 or 2020 is the target date for full devolution of responsibility to districts.
It is understood that Annex C to Volume 1, “Decentralisation transition plan”, was
prepared as a discussion document on the way forward. It includes suggested costs for a
committee to work on decentralisation activities in 2010 and 2011. It is not clear
whether further discussion has yet taken place.
An annex to the “transition plan” proposes new structures for GES headquarters,
regional offices and district offices, indicating likely staffing levels as 80-100 for GES HQ,
70 for a REO and 90 for a DEO. The EFSM does not cost specific management areas or
activities, but projects the recurrent cost of “Management and subvented agencies” as
decreasing from 8% of budget to 5% of budget, and investment spending as decreasing
from 8% to 7% by 2020. Table 3.4 of Volume 1 of the ESP suggests that most district
offices are overstaffed. Volume 2 contains no detailed targets or activities relating to
decentralisation other than EM2, “Clarify, document and publicise (in discussion with all
stakeholders) the roles of the GES in relation to REOs and DEOs in the light of full
decentralisation by 2015”.
There is clearly much detail still to be negotiated. It is doubtful whether DEOs will
readily accept a reduction in staff if decentralisation is to give them additional
responsibilities. At an early stage the extent to which the DEO is using parallel
structures to those already existing in the DA would have to be investigated, to avoid
excessive staffing of the DEO. With reduced responsibilities for GES HQ and increased
responsibilities for DEOs, the relative staffing of the units may need to be revisited.
If it is assumed that the process of decentralisation which has already started will be
accelerated over the first five years of the ESP to reach the stage of devolution by the
start of 2015, it is surprising that there is not a single indicative activity in the Education
Management component for which a DEO is the responsible unit or agency. All
responsibilities reside with a unit of the GES, with which DEOs (and REOs) are expected
to collaborate. The question arises whether DEOs will be allowed to take the initiative in
131
Page 74.
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any area prior to 2015, and if not, whether they will be ready to do so once 2015
arrives.
Consideration might be given to phasing the transfer of functions to district offices;
alternatively, the transfer of functions might be piloted in some regions before rolling
out to all regions.
9.10.2
School level
School Management Committees (SMCs) and Boards of Governors (BoGs) are indicated
in the plan as key agents for reducing teacher absenteeism and increasing contact time
between teachers and their pupils (BE15; SC16). While there are provisions in the plan
for handbooks for SMCs and BoGs to be prepared or revised, and for training based on
these handbooks to take place (BE16; SC14), the programme for SMCs is envisaged as
being completed only in 2020. This implies that SMCs may not, for many years, be a
strong factor in improving teacher performance. There is also the question of turnover
of members of the SMC132 and the arrangements for ensuring that capacity within the
SMC is transferred to new members.
9.11 Efficiency Measures
Table 3.4 in Volume 1 of the ESP draws together some of the key areas in which
improvements in efficiency will be possible.
9.11.1
Overstaffing and study leave
Reference has already been made to the implications of increasing PTRs to bring about a
saving in costs, and to the staffing levels of DEOs. Savings may well be possible by
reducing the proportion of non-teaching staff. Any staff reduction, however, is generally
a slow process, whether through retrenchment, voluntary retirement, or natural
attrition, and would need to be initiated soon to bring about a saving during the plan
period.
The “Updated ESP” scenario allows the number of basic education and second cycle
teachers benefiting from study leave in any year to decrease from over 5% in 2009 to
1% in 2015. The budgeted amount reduces from 43 million in 2010 to 12 million in
2016, after which it increases slightly. It is not clear why study leave is retained when
the reference in Table 3.4 of Volume 1 is to its being phased out, and the discussion in
section 9.5.4, above, suggests that it introduces inefficiencies into the deployment of
teachers without necessarily bringing any benefits, except to the individual teacher who
moves out of basic education. If admission to pre-service training courses is properly
regulated, there should be no “scope for some study leave in specialist areas of need”.
132
It was not possible to get hold of any document setting out the term of office of SMCs and BoGs.
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9.11.2
Examination fees
The AESOP 2011 to 2013 retains an amount of GH¢7 million per annum to subsidise the
BECE.
9.11.3
Boarding costs
Unless government spending is specifically targeted at those in need by some form of
means testing, it will inevitably benefit the well-off who are able to manipulate the
system. The default should be that those who go into boarding facilities pay the full cost
in advance, and only those who meet the poverty criteria should be exempted. Care
should also be taken that the cost of the means testing process does not erode the
intended savings.
9.11.4
Tertiary education
Savings are to be achieved by reducing the number of students admitted on government
scholarships, replacing subsistence scholarships by low-interest loans, and requiring
foreign students to pay full economic fees. The reference in Volume 2 to polytechnic
education being “fee-free” (TE2) should be understood in relation to the intention, from
2013, to cap the number of government scholarships, which would mean in effect that
around 40% of students in public tertiary institutions would have to pay tuition fees .133
There is however no indication that the per capita cost may itself reflect inefficiency,
even though the ratio of non-teaching to teaching staff is to be reviewed. The ratio of
teaching staff to students may also need to be reviewed to the extent that it influences
unit costs. While tertiary institutions should not be micro-managed from the Ministry’s
head office, the Ministry’s subvention to universities and polytechnics should be based
on a formula of which the staff student ratio should be a part. With the establishment of
two new universities and the open university, the recurrent cost of this sub-sector will
inevitably increase.
9.11.5
Public-private partnerships
The examples given are not very convincing; careful planning is necessary if there is to
be a genuine partnership. Although the provision of private schooling brings a saving to
Government, the schools are run for profit and not with the aim of meeting Government
halfway. If Government is to reward the private sector for assistance with TVET,
concessions to the private sector should be based on competencies acquired by trainees
in defined fields of national need, and not simply on the provision of training.
9.11.6
Research
This is not listed in Table 3.4, but the “Mini Max ESP” scenario provided for a rapid
increase in the level of funding for research. The “Updated ESP” makes no distinction
between research and other tertiary costs. If an allocation for research is to form part of
133
ESP, Vol. 1, Table 3.4, and EFSM, “Updated ESP” scenario.
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the tertiary funding formula, it should be at a level which would support research likely
to impact on economic development, poverty reduction, and the effective and efficient
provision of social services, but universities should not be absolved of responsibility for
selling their research capabilities within the private sector.
There are a number of areas in the strategic plan which would benefit from research,
such as teacher deployment and motivation, effective classroom strategies, and the
reasons why parents prefer boarding schools to day schools. The results of such
research should be used to change unsound practices (but attention to problems should
not be delayed on the grounds that they have not yet been researched).
9.12 Capacity Development
Capacity most obviously refers to the skills required to perform a specific task; but it
also relates to the availability of the persons possessing the skills, and the availability of
other resources (transport, equipment, materials) which are necessary for the
completion of the task. Delays in the completion of planning documents and in the
collection of data for monitoring reports point to capacity deficits. With the very many
activities included in the ESP without reference to their priority status, and without
supporting detailed implementation plans, it is to be doubted whether the Ministry and
the GES will have the capacity to deliver.
Specific capacity development needs are scattered through the ESP documents; there
has been no attempt to draw them together in a separate section. While there is a clear
rationale for including them in the sub-sectoral areas to which they are related, the
Ministry’s approach to capacity building would benefit by having them repeated in a
coherent CD plan. This is now in progress.
The appraisal of the ESP 2003-2015 for FTI membership stated that “immediate action
[was] required to establish/reform/strengthen key systems, e.g. procurement of
resources, improved teacher deployment/management, monitoring and evaluation and
financial management including auditing of pooled external funding”, and that “further
work [was] required on strengthening school management and supervision”.134 Of
these, improved teacher deployment and strengthened school management and
supervision are included in the new ESP, little firm action in this regard having
apparently been taken in the interim.
In the Ghana country study for the recent mid-term review of the FTI several biting
comments were made about the MoE’s approach, and that of the development partners,
to capacity development:135
134
135
Para. 3.2.
Allsop a.o., 2009, para. 8.28 to 8.33.
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


Provision tends to be one-off and time-bound.136
Individual development partners have continued to provide support which to a
considerable extent is in silos and have been unable to agree with government an
overall strategy for capacity development.137
[There has been] no evidence of the government trying to influence donors to
harmonise their CD inputs.
However, a significant step has been taken to address the main review concern on the
need for an overall plan and budget for capacity development. There is now leadership
at a country level for capacity development within the Ministry of Finance and the
Education sector has agreed to be a pilot MDA to take forward a joint capacity strategy.
Donors have agreed to align behind such a plan so that resources can be focused on the
priority interventions as noted above.
It is expected that this plan will address the key weaknesses identified, such as the
concern to which preliminary education sector performance reports (PESPRs) from
2004 to 2008 have regularly drawn attention, namely failure to follow up
recommendations made to address capacity weaknesses. “The fact that these are clearly
identified as part of an annual review process but are then not addressed should be a
matter of concern to all the stakeholders. However, there is no evidence that any
significant improvement in performance has resulted, it therefore calls into question the
seriousness and value of the annual review process as a key dimension of monitoring
and evaluation of the ESP’s progress.”138
Development partners maintain that their CD interventions are planned jointly with the
MoE, but donors need to align behind the proposed coordinated plan to ensure that
their interventions are not piecemeal, and where they are targeted at selected regions
or districts there will be sufficient budget to have an impact.
9.13 Monitoring Progress
The National Education Sector Annual Review and the Preliminary Education Sector
Performance Report (PESPR) tabled at the review meeting together constitute the
mechanism which allows the Ministry and the sector stakeholders to take stock of
progress and challenges in the implementation of the ESP over a twelve-month period.
The availability of the EMIS data from the education census conducted in November of
the previous year is critical to the credibility of the review process.
The ESAR is normally conducted in June, with the PESPR distributed prior to the
meeting.
136
But it is noted that the “induction of new District Directors of Education is an exception to this”.
Another exception: “Some donors, such as JICA, have focussed directly on building capacity by working
alongside central Ministry staff within MOE before rolling it out to Districts. This is very effective …”
138
Allsop, para.8.31.
137
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The 2010 ESAR was postponed from June to the first week of August because the
processing of EMIS data had been delayed.139 Even for the August date the EMIS data
was incomplete, with adjustments made to collected data to compensate for schools
that had not responded.140 The range of data used in the report was also restricted.
The PESPR had to be drafted before data was available, and consequently is not an
analytical report of sector development since the 2009 ESAR. Much of the text refers to
studies undertaken prior to the start of the review year. Tables setting targets several
years distant are helpful only if the current year’s targets and performance are also
given.
139
See section 6.1, above.
PESPR 2010, p.19. Since the adjustment does not indicate the number of non-responding schools, and
assumes that enrolment at non-responding schools will be average, the amount of variation which the
adjustment is likely to produce is impossible to judge. Attempts to obtain this information were unsuccessful.
140
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10 Issues for the Education Strategic Plan
The appraisal chapter touches on a number of issues which should be considered as
work is done on regularly reviewing and updating the ESP and certainly as the AESOP is
rolled forward annually. The main ones are presented in this chapter in the form of
recommendations.141
The time which has been spent on getting the ESP 2010-2020 to its present stage of
completion should convince all who have a stake in it that education planning is a slow
process during which the interrelationships between different strategies have to be
carefully explored if inconsistencies are to be avoided. It is also essential that all
implementation units are regularly involved in the planning process, without expecting
PBME to come up with detailed plans: these are properly the responsibility of the
implementing units themselves, with assistance from PBME as needed.
It is also important that determining costs should be seen as an integral part of the
planning process, and that as detailed implementation plans are drafted, realistic costs
are attached to them.
Many of the activities in the ESP have a year in which they are to start. If the
implementation plan for the activity has not yet been developed, there may be a delay of
one to two years before the activity itself can start. It is therefore necessary to work
back from the intended start-up date of an activity to determine when the detailed
planning should be initiated. Should a specific unit be responsible for detailed planning
for a number of activities, it might be necessary to decide which is most important, and
to undertake the planning in priority order.
10.1 Structure and Coverage of the Plan
It was found that numbering across the different volumes of the Plan was not
consistent. Most of these inconsistencies have subsequently been removed.
Taking into account the dates when specific activities are to commence, PBME should
initiate discussion with the implementing unit on the development of the detailed
implementation plan with costs. PBME should provide guidance on how it should be
done, should check costing, and suggest ways of improving efficiency.
141
Sections 10.1 to 10.13 below have been substantially changed (in February 2012) to recognize
improvements which the MoE/GES have brought about during the past twelve months and forward-looking
commitments to further change.
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10.2 Legislation and Policies underpinning the ESP
It was pointed out that policies listed in the ESP as underpinning the plan were “draft”
versions, never formally adopted. Over the past year, however, some progress has been
made towards having policies formally adopted.
A revised draft of the Pre-Tertiary Teacher Professional Development and Management
(PTPDM) policy was finalized on the basis of comments received . It is expected that it
will be submitted to the Chief Director of the MoE for approval by the end of April 2012.
Work is also far advanced on a Complementary Basic Education (CBE) policy, which is
also expected to be submitted for approval by the end of April. A fresh draft of the
Special Education policy has been prepared and circulated for comment. The target date
for approval is the end of 2012.
Responsible units of the GES will advise the Education Sector Group not later than June
2012 of the schedule for finalizing the TVET, ICT and STME policies.
10.3 Improved Access to Educational Services
Research is needed on measures which may be successfully applied either to get the
hard to reach of primary school age into school or to provide them with complementary
education outside the school.
It was recommended that interventions should be targeted in such a way that poverty
and disparities were addressed. Implementing this recommendation is complicated by
the fact that district level data from the 2010 population census is not yet available.
Also, the GoG has indicated that 42 new districts will be proclaimed during the course of
2012.142
However, the criteria for identifying deprived district have been reviewed in early 2012
and a new ranking of districts has been produced. Once the district level social data
from the 2010 population census are available the criteria will again be reviewed, and if
changes are made, the districts will be ranked afresh.
A realistic approach to extending adult literacy (and skills development) has yet to be
devised.
The policy and action plan being developed for special education will address the
question of how larger numbers of children with disabilities too severe to allow them to
be mainstreamed will be admitted to the formal education system.
142
It is anticipated that, as in the past, this will be done by splitting existing districts, with the consequence
that the MoE will have to guess how the out of school population (for example) of the original district is shared
between the new districts. This will require ready access to data disaggregated by district.
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10.4 Improved Quality and Relevance of Basic Education
Of the several interventions in the Plan which will lead to substantial improvements in
the quality of educational outcomes, those with the greatest potential should be
identified, prioritised, and energetically implemented.
It was recommended that urgent measures were needed to reduce teacher absenteeism
and increase teacher and pupil time on task, since any other intervention to improve
quality is unlikely to succeed if this is not done. Discussion at the 2011 NESAR and more
recently tend towards improving supervision and reporting, with the School Report
Card (SRC) being used as an instrument to this end.
It was recommended that the sustainability of textbook provision should be reviewed. A
recent draft report on Financial Management touches on this problem.143
10.5 Teachers
The most recent national pupil to teacher ratios suggest that current procedures are
inadequate to the task of achieving an equitable distribution of teachers across districts
and schools. Although guidelines for staffing schools exist, they are not sufficiently clear to
ensure uniform interpretation. Traditional practices in regard to the recruitment of
student teachers and the deployment of teachers exacerbate the situation. The MoE and
GES have decided to request the sector DPs to hire a consultant to assist with the revision
of staffing norms and related guidelines.
It was recommended that pre-service training courses (full-time and distance) be
reviewed and if necessary revised to produce teachers who are able to teach the
curriculum in a pupil-centred way. The GES will bring the relevant issues to the
attention of the appropriate body144 by the end of March 2012, with a request that the
necessary changes be made in time for implementation in colleges of education from the
start of the 2013/14 academic year.
It was also recommended that in-service training courses should be designed to bring
about a measurable change in teacher performance.145
143
144
February 2012 draft report by Ernst & Young, commissioned by JICA.
The three newly created councils, the National Inspectorate Board, the National Teaching Council, and the National
Council for Curriculum and Assessment, are to meet jointly after their inauguration to strategise their operations since
there are cross-cutting issues. Thereafter there will be a meeting with the GES at which relevant issues will be discussed.
145
Consider duration and frequency of courses, activities performed by trainees during the INSET, and periodic
follow-up once they have returned to their schools.
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10.6 Construction of Facilities for Basic Education
It was recommended that numbers of classrooms rather than schools should be used as
the measure of infrastructure needs, and that the provision of facilities should be
targeted so that deprived districts were able to catch up with non-deprived districts.
National child-friendly school standards have been developed and will be made
available to all district offices by June 2012. The provision of latrines and of rain water
harvesting is to be included whenever new classrooms are constructed.
10.7 The Balance of Sub-Sector Development
It will take several years to achieve the desired balance of expenditure among subsectors. The MoE and its agencies (GES and National Council for Tertiary Education (NCTE))
will endeavour each year in the annual budget preparation to move closer to the target
proportional allocation to sub-sectors as set out in the ESP. The budget/expenditure
allocation among sub-sectors will be thoroughly analysed in the Annual Education
Sector Performance Reports and discussed during the National Education Sector Annual
Review (NESAR) meetings until the intended balance is achieved.
10.8 Gender
There has been better targeting of resources to districts showing gender disparities in
the 2012-14 AESOP. This aspect will continue to receive attention in the future.
10.9 Targets of the ESP
It is appropriate for many of the targets in the ten-year Plan to target “all” of a particular
category. For the more detailed short-term plans which have to be implemented with
limited resources, it may be necessary to have more restricted interim targets. The two
most recent iterations of the AESOP attempt to do this.
10.10
Decentralised Administration of Education
Time frames for decentralisation (not only in Ghana) are generally over-optimistic. It
was recommended that the list of activities to be devolved to district level be compiled
and guidelines for the uniform implementation of these activities under delegation
should be provided to district offices.
It has been pointed out that the Education Act, 2008, already provides such a list of
activities (Section 22) and places oversight of the district education budget under the
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
District Assembly. Guidelines for financial matters are available, although some
streamlining is desirable, and likely as a result of recent insights.146
10.11
Efficiency Measures
The twin objectives of (i) more clearly and specifically articulating MoE/GES spending
priorities and (ii) identifying high-priority cost-saving, cost-sharing and efficiency
measures to be implemented during the period of the AESOP 2013-2015, will be
addressed during the 2012 National Education Sector Annual Review (NESAR).
In addition, the MoE should continue to negotiate with the MoFEP on assurances of
predictability in the release of the approved budget.147
10.12
Capacity Development
It was recommended that a capacity development plan be extracted from the ESP,
costed and prioritised, and that DPs should align their support of capacity development
with the plan. However, it is understood that other priorities currently overshadow the
need for a comprehensive capacity development plan.
Nonetheless, all capacity development which is undertaken should be designed to
impart definite skills, and should include assessment of the extent to which the skills
have been mastered. Reporting should be on those successfully completing a course,
and not on those attending.
10.13
Monitoring Progress
The ESP (Volume 4) makes provision for a great deal of regular monitoring, but lacks
mechanisms to use the results of the monitoring to improve the system. Less
monitoring with more follow-up action would be preferable.
It was recommended that the PESPR should be simplified; that it should consist of
tables with brief comments on each, and that the comments should draw attention to
progress in relation to targets for the year and to disparities. This would help the
participants at the NESAR to focus on the most pertinent issues. This approach was
implemented for the 2011 PESPR and will continue to be used in future. EMIS data,
except in the case of tertiary education where the MoE does not have direct control of
the data collection process, was available for the compilation of the PESPR.
The computerised finance simulation model should be used regularly to explore the
financial implications of various policy options. It should also be used, at least annually
146
147
See review of Financial Management by Ernst & Young, commissioned by JICA in February 2012.
Ibid.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
when the budget is being compiled, to adjust annual targets in the light of the most
recent performance data.
10.14
Agreed short-term forward-looking actions
Table 21 summarizes the short-term forward-looking actions which will be taken to
keep up the momentum that has already been developed. As these activities are
completed, agreement should be reached in the Education Working Group on new
priority activities to be added to the list.
Table 21 Summary of short term interventions
Area
Action
Target date
ESP structure &
coverage

The ESWG will regularly monitor the preparation of
detailed implementation plans for activities in the AESOP.
Priorities

List of deprived districts to be reviewed once new district
boundaries have been gazetted
April 2011

The rolling AESOP to be used annually to sharpen
prioritisation
Annually

PTPDM and CBE policies submitted for approval.
April 2012

Schedule for finalising draft TVET, ICT and STME
policies
June 2012

Special Education policy submitted for approval.
December 2012
Sub-sector balance

Balance of expenditure among sub-sectors to be monitored Half-yearly
by ESWG
Efficiency

To be addressed in the NESAR
Annually
Financial
accountability

GES to consider recommendations made by Ernst and
Young, and to improve procedures
December 2012
Teachers

Criteria for staffing schools
2013

Revised CoE curriculum
2013

Competency focus in INSET
January 2013
Health, sanitation &
safety

Toilet facilities and potable water to receive attention on
any site earmarked for construction work.
Instruction has been
issued
Gender

Better targeting of districts with gender imbalances
Already
implemented
Special education

New policy
December 2012

DP supported interventions
Implemented

Guidelines for financial management at district level
Already issued

Guidelines on dealing with teacher tardiness and
absenteeism
December 2012
Legislation & policies
Decentralization
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11 Conclusions
The Education Strategic Plan 2010 to 2020 has been designed as a step towards
achieving the Ministry’s mission “To provide relevant education with emphasis on
science, information, communication and technology to equip individuals for selfactualisation, peaceful coexistence as well as skills for the workplace for national
development”. To this end, the ten-year plan is ambitious and comprehensive with good
cross government ownership. Strong political and institutional leadership will be
needed to ensure prioritisation and appropriate sequencing of interventions.
The priorities enshrined in the Aide Memoire following the 2010 NESAR, and which
have strongly influenced the short-term AESOP, were distilled from a much longer list
by a small working group at the end of the sector annual review (NESAR). Even so, the
2011-13 AESOP left a funding gap of around GH¢840 million for each of the three years
(between GH¢430m and GH¢480m for the basic education component). Preventing the
funding gap from increasing will require that the efficiency measures included in the
Plan are energetically implemented and discipline is exercised to keep on track.
Using the 2012-14 AESOP the funding gap for the year 2012 was recalculated as
GH¢385.5 million for basic education and special education combined.148
Some of the burning issues require further, more detailed, planning to scale up and
reduce unit costs before realistic implementation will be possible. This process needs to
be owned and led by the responsible units with assistance as needed from PBME, if
implementation is not to be delayed.
In order to achieve the education for all goals the challenges of teacher deployment,
motivation and competence – including absenteeism, time on task and teacher training
– need to be resolved. They are problems which have regularly been described in annual
performance reports, and several initiatives are now well underway to addressing them
including school report cards and the establishment of the National Inspectorate Board.
There will always be sufficient well-off entrants to tertiary institutions, many of whom
will have benefited from private schooling; but the Government’s vision of a Better
Ghana with steady progress towards a modern economy will not be realised as long as
the majority of children are receiving a primary education of indifferent quality.
The overall ten-year Plan is credible, but ambitious. The three-year AESOP represents a
strong attempt to identify the sector priorities, to improve quality and transform
pedagogy, embed efficiency, and bring about measurable progress in the short term.
148
UPDATE: This paragraph was added in February 2012.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
The Education Sector Working Group (ESWG) should continue to meet regularly, and
take on the role of monitoring the implementation of the AESOP. While EMIS updates
will be available only once a year, it should be possible to measure progress in
implementing the high priority strategic activities and the rate of financial
disbursements against sub-sector budgets. In this way remedial action may be taken in
a timely fashion. The FTI provides a catalyst for stakeholders to be ‘on budget’ and pool
their resources behind the common plan and agreed targets.
New leadership in the Ministry and commitment from all stakeholders in the education
sector provide the motivation needed to translate this ambitious plan into reality. The
FTI resources would provide an exciting opportunity for Ghana to lead the way in
making substantial progress to realise the MDG goals in education.
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ANNEXURE
APPRAISAL OF AESOP 2012-2014
1. Introductory Remarks
The Appraisal of the Education Sector Plan included the appraisal of the AESOP 2011-13
as one of the Plan documents. With twelve months having elapsed since the draft
Appraisal was submitted, it has been necessary to appraise the latest iteration of the
Annual Education Sector Operational Plan, that for 2012-14, which flows from the
volumes of the ESP which have already been appraised.
2. Overall Appraisal
The AESOP 2012-14 includes a wealth of detail relevant, not only to implementation of
the ESP in 2012, but also to the detailed planning that is necessary prior to the year
2013 if genuine progress is to be made in implementing the more difficult of the Plan’s
strategies.
Annex 2, which provides detail relevant to the implementation of activities identified as
priorities in the Aide Memoire (AM) of the NESAR, also sounds warning where slippage
has occurred or is in danger of occurring. This makes it a valuable implementation tool.
3. Structure of AESOP 2012-2014
In most respects the AESOP 2012-2014 follows the approach and structure of that for
2011-13, which was generally regarded as an improvement on the older format, and
which made a strong effort to cross-reference activities to the second volume of the ESP
and to align them with (1) the priorities which were identified during the NESAR as
expressed in the Aide Memoire, (2) the Ministry’s budget request to the Ministry of
Finance and Economic Planning (MoFEP), and (3) the notional costs derived from the
Education Finance Simulation Model (EFSM).
The following changes have been made to the AESOP for 2012 to 2014 as compared
with that for 2011 to 2013:
An additional column, “MoF ceiling with salaries”, has been added to Table A.1 to reflect
the expectation that the MoFEP will, as in past years, meet the full remuneration
requirement, even though this will exceed the budgetary ceiling notified to the MoE. The
“real” GoG budget to which the MoE will be working is thus considerably higher than the
approved budgetary allocation to the Ministry, but the difference is entirely absorbed by
personnel emoluments.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Annex 4 has been added to show confirmed and estimated allocations from the GET
Fund for 2012, and Annex 5 to show the contribution made by Development Partners,
and the main activities supported by these funds.
Annex 7 shows the GES budget allocation for 2012 broken down by programme.
It should be noted that the Ministry’s budget request is classified according to the Ghana
Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA) strategy areas, which do not fully
align with the classification of strategies and activities in the ESP and AESOP.
4. The Annual Strategic Planning Cycle as applied in 2011
The Preliminary Education Sector Appraisal Report (PESPR) was prepared in time for
the NESAR, thanks to EMIS data being available earlier than in the previous year. The
NESAR took place from 30 May to 2 June 2011, at the end of which an Aide Memoire
(AM) was prepared, setting priorities for the coming year. A further meeting was called
by the Minister of Education on 26 June to look at priority actions that could be taken to
improve progress towards achieving the first three MDGs. The preparation of the
AESOP 2012-14 was, however, delayed, and so the draft AESOP did not form a step
between the NESAR and the Budget Request.
The question as to the relationship between district budgeting and the AESOP requires
further discussion. If there is to be a measure of bottom up budgeting, with draft district
budgets feeding into the GES budget request, districts should have access to the draft
AESOP priorities before they prepare their budgets. Section 9.1 of the Appraisal
suggests that “implementing units should have a copy of the AESOP not later than the
middle of October, by which time the draft AESOP should have been adjusted to fall
within the budgetary ceiling set by the MoFEP”. Districts, as implementing units, might
need to revise their activities on receipt of this final version of the AESOP. This is an
area which would benefit from further discussion.
5. The Aide Memoire resulting from the 2011 NESAR
The Aide Memoire directs attention to a number of important areas, but –

These are not necessarily the same priorities as identified the previous year, even if
those have not yet been effectively attended to. For example, the 2010 AM has
“Deliver education through effective decentralized management system to transfer
decision making authority over management, finance and operational issues from
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012


the MoE and the GES to the regional and district authorities. (EM1)”, but this is
ignored in the 2011 AM.149
Some are too ambitious in scope for implementation in the short term, and this is
where the focus should be: implementation in the coming year. For example, the
AMs for both 2010 and 2011 have a range of activities for implementing ICT in
junior high schools, more than could be implemented in one year even if the funds
were available.
Some are specific, but appear to skirt central issues. For example, the reference to
teacher absenteeism suggests only ending the withdrawal of teachers from schools
for “other national assignments” and the increased mobility of circuit supervisors as
necessary interventions.
It is recommended that in future reviews the previous year’s priorities be used as a
starting point. If not yet achieved, the focus should then shift to the most effective
(prioritised) strategies by which they might be achieved. Fresh priorities should be
added only if others can be dropped from the list because they have been achieved.
6. 2012 Budget Request and Budget Allocation
The MoFEP had warned the MoE to be restrained in their budget application for 2012,
and indicated that there would not be funding for new capital works; consequently the
MoE submitted a budget request which would not cover all the activities it was hoped to
implement. The total budget request was for GH¢4,836.7 million, of which GH¢2,110.3
million was for basic education and GH¢21.2 million for special education. As in
previous years, the MoFEP allocated a smaller amount for remuneration than had been
requested (GH¢798.1 million as against the requested GH¢1,586.2 million), but it is
confidently expected that, as in previous years, all staff members will receive their
salaries. This approach to remuneration may have the unintended effect of removing
the incentive to the MoE/GES to address inefficiencies in the recruitment and
deployment of teachers. However, if a realistic budget for remuneration (PE) is to be set,
agreement must first be reached on the implementation of staffing formulae for
schools.150
7. Use of Financial Data generated by the Education Finance
Simulation Model (EFSM)
149
There is some technical assistance/research led by UNICEF and DFID that is starting to assess how district
assemblies fund education programmes.
150
In ESP vol.1, Table 1.2.2 shows a target Primary PTR of 35 in 2015 – but this table is carried forward from
the previous ESP, while Table 5.1 sets the targets at 38 for 2015 and 45 for 2020, and Table 3.4 indicates that
the PTR should be 45 in “all KG and larger primary schools”. Vol.2, strategy BE42, gives a “mean PTR” of 45:1
for KG and primary.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
In using data generated by the EFSM it should be borne in mind that the data is linearly
scaled from the base year to achieve targets in 2015 or 2020. If either the targets are
unrealistic or the implementation modalities are defective, the actual costs in any
particular year may be significantly higher than the projected amount. Two examples:


Teacher remuneration: In the case of primary teachers, the target PTRs for 2012,
2013 and 2014 in the EFSM are 36.0, 37.1, and 38.2 respectively. If the PTR remains
lower (33.7 in 2010/11), actual salaries will be higher than the projected amount.
One of the cost savings measures in the Plan is the phasing out of stipends to college
of education students (BE18). The EFSM projects a decrease in stipends to GH¢39.2
by 2014. However, no action appears yet to have been taken towards phasing out
the stipends; on the contrary, the Single Spine salary reform has trebled the amount
of the stipends. A comment in Annex B to the AESOP notes that “As no concerted
attempt appears to be being made to reduce either the cost or coverage of the
allowance, the budget request of 119.2m GH¢ is used for 2012 – 2104.” (BE18) The
phase out, when it happens, of an annual stipend of GH¢3,900 is likely to cause
greater dissatisfaction among trainees than the phase out of a stipend of GH¢1,267.
It is recommended that the EFSM be routinely used at an early stage of the planning
cycle to alert the policy makers and implementers to areas where savings may be made
through efficiency. More specifically, that detailed planning be done at an early stage for
the cost saving measures in the ESP so that implementation may commence in FY2013.
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References
Akyeampong a.o., 2007. Access to basic education in Ghana: the evidence and the
issues. CREATE.
Allsop, T., a.o., September 2009. Mid-term evaluation of the EFA Fast Track Initiative.
Country case study: Ghana. Draft. Cambridge Education/Mokoro/Oxford Policy
Management.
Casely-Hayford a.o., August 2009. Strengthening the Chain of Accountability to
Improve Quality and Performance in Ghanaian Primary School.s Link Community
Development external assessment,
GoG, November 2005. Growth and poverty reduction strategy, 2006-2009 (GPRSII), Vol. 1.
GoG/JICA. Module 2: Operational manual for district level INSET.
GoG/JICA, February 2010. Project for strengthening the capacity of INSET management.
First progress report.
Little, A. W., 2008. EFA politics, policies and progress. CREATE pathways to access,
Research monograph no 13. CREATE, Falmer.
MoE. Annual education sector operational plan, 2010 (AESOP, 2010).
MoE. Annual education sector operational plan, 2011 (AESOP, 2011).
MoE. Annual education sector operational plan, 2012 (AESOP, 2012).
MoE. Education sector performance report, 2009 (ESPR 2009).
MoE. Preliminary education sector performance report, 2010 (ESPR 2010).
MoE. Preliminary education sector performance report, 2011 (PESPR 2011).
MoE. Education strategic plan, 2010-2020 (ESP 2010/20) volumes 1, 2, & 4.151
MoE, EMIS, March 2009. Report on basic statistics and planning parameters for basic
education in Ghana 2008/2009 (EMIS 2008/09).
MoE, GES, June 2010. Pre-Tertiary Teacher Professional Development and Management in
Ghana. Policy framework draft.
MoE, GES, November 2011. Pre-Tertiary Teacher Professional Development and
Management in Ghana. Policy framework draft.
MoE, GES, TED, September 2008. Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education
(UTDBE) programme. Status report.
MoE, GES, TED, February 2010. Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education (UTDBE)
programme. Draft status report.
MoFEP, 18 November 2009. Budget speech for 2010 fiscal year.
MoFEP, November 2009. Highlights of 2010 budget
MoFEP, November 2009. Macroeconomic performance for 2009.
151
The AESOP is the third volume of the ESP.
85
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Thompson & Casely-Hayford, 2008. The Financing and Outcomes of Education in
Ghana. RECOUP.
UIS, 2009. Global education digest.
UNDP, 2009. Human Development Report, 2009. Statistical annex.
World Bank, September 2010. Education in Ghana: Improving Equity, Efficiency and
Accountability of Education Service Delivery. Draft (not to be cited). Washington.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Annex
Consolidation and Summary of Appraisal Results
Table 1: Catalogue of Main Documents for the Technical Appraisal
Document
Date of Draft (Base Year
Data)
Authorship/
Sponsorship
Education Sector Plan 2010-2020
(Four volumes, with Annexes)
September 2009 (2007 or
2009)
Ministry of Education
Education Sector Performance
Report
July 2008, June 2009,
August 2010
Ministry of Education
Access to Basic Education in Ghana:
The Evidence and the Issues Country
Analytic Report
June 2007
Akyeampong, K. et al
EMIS Education Census Data
2008/09; 2009/10
Ministry of Education
Comments on the Education Budget,
2009-10
2009
Development Partners,
Ghana
Pre-Tertiary Teacher Professional
Development and Management in
Ghana. Policy framework draft.
2010
MoE, GES
Mid-term evaluation of the EFA Fast
Track Initiative. Country case study:
Ghana. Draft.
September 2009
Allsop, T., a.o.
Education in Ghana: Improving
equity, efficiency and accountability
of Education Service Delivery. Draft
(not to be cited)
September 2010
World Bank
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table 2A: Population and Education Indicators Selected from Appraisals
Fiscal Year
Academic Year
Selected Population
Characteristics
2005
2004/2005
2006
2005/2006
2007
2006/2007
2008
2007/2008
2009
2008/2009
Total Size
21,606,852
22,190,237
22,789,373
23,404,686
24,036,613
Female Population
10,916,141
11,210,877
11,513,570
11,824,437
12,143,697
% of population below
poverty line
HIV Prevalence Rate
(population aged 1549)
30%
30%
2%
1.90%
2010
2009/2010
Education Trends
Gross Enrolment
Ratios (%)
Primary
Female
Junior High
87.5
92.1
93.7
95.2
94.9
94.9
84.4
88.8
91.6
93.0
92.8
93.0
72.8
74.7
77.4
78.8
80.6
79.5
25.6
29.1
35.8
32.2
33.9
36.1
2,929,536
48.0
20.5
3,122,903
48.5
15.7
3,365,762
48.5
17.3
3,616,023
49.0
17.0
3,710,647
49.0
18.0
3,809,258
48.5
18.6
59.1
69.2
81.1
83.4
88.5
83.6
77.3
81.6
87.4
82.3
Female
Senior High
Female
Tertiary
Female
Primary Education
(P1-P6) Enrolments
& Pupil Flow
Total enrolment
Female (%)
Enrolment in Private
Schools (%)
Net enrolment Rate
(NER)
Female
NER Poorest Quintile
Entry Rate to P1
(GAR)
Female
Primary Completion
Rate
Female
Repetition
Female
Primary Learning
Outcomes: NEA
Mean Scores
P3 Mathematics
P3 English
P6 Mathematics
P6 English
92.8
106.1
106.0
107.1
102.9
101.3
79.0
75.6
85.4
88.0
86.3
87.1
5.8
4.3
5.9
82.3
6.7
83.2
3.8
84.3
??
n.a
n.a
41.8
40.2
39.6
48.2
n.a
n.a
34.4
43.1
n.a
n.a
35.7
44.2
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Fiscal Year
Academic Year
Public Primary
School Service
Delivery Indicators
Years in Cycle
Pupil Teacher Ratio
In Rural Schools
Pupil Classroom Ratio
In Rural Schools
Textbook Pupil Ratio
(3 Core Subjects)
In Rural Schools
Number of Teachers
Female
Trained Teachers (%)
Female (%)
Average annual wage
bill per teacher
(including benefits) as
a % of GDP per capita
Instructional Hours
Annual
Average Pupils'
Instructional Hours
per Week
Junior High (JH1-3)
Enrolments & Pupil
Flow
Total enrolment
Female (%)
Enrolment in Private
Schools (%)
Net enrolment Rate
(NER)
Female
Entry Rate to JH1
Female
JHS Completion Rate
Female
Repetition
Female
Junior High Learning
Outcomes: BECE
Pass Rate
Public Spending on
Education
Public expenditure on
education as a share of
total public
expenditure
Recurrent spending on
education (all levels)
as % of GDP
2005
2004/2005
6
35.0
72.3
90.1
2006
2005/2006
2007
2006/2007
2008
2007/2008
2009
2008/2009
2010
2009/2010
6
38.0
35.6
NA
32.2
1.8
6
33.0
31.4
39.0
32.0
2.0
6
34.0
31.8
39.8
32.7
1.7
6
34.0
32.3
39.8
32.7
1.6
6
31.0
??
40.0
??
1.6
70,334
25,673
67.1
83.5
-
84,324
29,757
62.1
79.5
-
87,665
30,852
59.4
79.4
4.9
88,994
32,187
58.4
77.4
4.9
101,321
36,703
58.2
76.5
??
1,048,367
45.7
1,121,887
44.0
1,170,801
46.6
1,224,010
46.7
1,285,277
46.8
1,301,940
46.4
50.7
52.9
47.8
47.5
49.7
51.8
47.7
45.0
66.0
61.8
3.3
60.0
53.0
4.6
77.9
74.7
3.4
64.9
60.0
4.5
67.7
62.9
4.5
75.0
70.1
3.1
61.3
62.0
63.0
63.0
60.9
n.a.
7.5
8.2
9.1
10.1
4.9
5.7
6.2
7.0
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Fiscal Year
Academic Year
Primary education’s
share of total
education recurrent
spending
Share of recurrent
primary education
spending used on
inputs other than
teachers
Average recurrent
cost per student
Primary
Secondary
Higher
2005
2004/2005
2006
2005/2006
30.0
2007
2006/2007
27.6
2008
2007/2008
35.0
2009
2008/2009
35.0
6.3
6.6
5.0
19.0
46.60
89.22
240.37
73.71
135.05
216.74
142.99
197.97
219.28
178.07
241.47
265.97
2010
2009/2010
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table 2B: Education Indicators for Disadvantaged Groups as Relevant 2007/2008152
Gross Enrolment Ratios
Primary Education
Primary
Secondary
Total
Enrolment
Net
Enrolment
Rate
Completion Rate
Boys
97.1
82.2
1,860,289
84.2
74
Girls
92.8
75.2
1,755,734
81.6
82.3
Group
Tertiary
1 All Groups
Richest
Quintile
(Total)
23.8
66.9
Poorest
Quintile
(Total)
12.1
1.8
2 Best Performing Region
Total
108.8
95.3
669,817
99.4
100.9
Females
106.9
92.2
327,708
98.4
99.1
3 Worst Performing Region
Total
87.7
63.1
125,676
71.8
78.8
Females
86.1
58.5
62,385
67.2
72.6
4 Disabled children
Total
5,654
Females
2,339
152
Data Source: EMIS report for the corresponding years was used in checking the discrepancies. Figures were
rounded up to one decimal point. Data for 2009/2010 is not yet available.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table 3A: Overall Sector Priority Objectives and Strategies153
Focal Area
(Sub-sector)
1 Basic
Education (BE)
Strategic Goal:
Provide equitable
access to goodquality child-friendly
universal basic
education, by
improving
opportunities for all
children in the first
cycle of education at
kindergarten,
primary and junior
high school levels
Outline Strategies by Thematic Area
Socio-humanistic
BE1. Make available public
and private child-friendly
basic education for all
through the District
Assemblies, the Private
Sector, CBOs, NGOs and
FBOs.
BE2. Ensure that no child
is excluded from BE by virtue
of disadvantage
BE3. Remove barriers to
education by improving pupil
welfare to motivate parents
and learners to attend school.
BE4. Ensure equal basic
education opportunities for
all.
BE5. Promote public-private
partnerships (CBOs, NGOs,
FBOs, and DPs) in the
Integrated School Health
programs.
BE6. Ensure that all BE
schools meet national norms
in health, sanitation and
safety
BE7. Make transport
available for KG and Lower
Primary (P1 – P3) infants who
live more than 3 km from
school.
BE8. Include BE schools
within national initiatives to
reduce HIV&AIDS pandemic
and STDs
BE9. Provide all BE schools
with an up-to-date
curriculum relevant to
personal and national
development.
Educational
Economic
BE11. Ensure that BE
pupils have access to
relevant up-to-date
teaching/learning
materials.
BE12. Ensure that all
P6 graduates are
literate and numerate (n
English and a Ghanaian
language
BE14. Improve the
preparation, upgrading and
deployment of teachers and
head teachers especially in
disadvantaged areas with
emphasis on female and
pupil teachers.
BE13. Provide relevant
opportunities for ICT
and skills development
BE15. Ensure that the
teaching service provides
value for money in terms of
pupil contact time and
effective learning.
BE16. Develop an effective
operational SMCs in BE
schools.
BE17. Provide capitation
grants to SMCs to manage
school improvements
BE18. Remove the ‘subsidy
culture’ from the BE subsector
BE19. Develop an open
mutual-accountability
scheme for parents,
teachers, BE schools and
Districts (likewise, DEO,
REOs, GES).
BE20. Establish and
operationalise an effective
NIB.
BE21. Rationalise the
deployment of KG, PrS,
JHS teachers raising PTRs
through multi-grade
teaching, boarding, bussing
and closure of uneconomic
courses/schools
BE10. Ensure that girlfriendly guidance and
counselling systems are in
place centrally and in
Districts.
153
Table from Vol. 1 of the ESP.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Focal Area
(Sub-sector)
2 Second Cycle (SC)
Strategic Goal:
Increase equitable
access to high quality
second cycle
education that
prepares young
adults for the various
options available
within tertiary
education and the
workplace
[Note: there are five
distinct strands to
second cycle
education, each with
the above broad
strategic goal]:
Senior High
Schools (General)
Senior High
Schools (Technical)
Technical and
Vocational
Institutes
Formal
Apprenticeships
Agriculture
Colleges
Outline Strategies by Thematic Area
Socio-humanistic
SC1. Make available free
public and private SC
education and training for
those eligible.
SC2. Provide transport for
SC students who live more
than 5 km and less than 15
km from their institutional
SC3. Provide free boarding
as necessary for eligible SC
students
SC4. Develop and implement
an Integrated School Health
(ISH) programme within SC
education.
SC5. Include SC institutions
within national initiatives to
reduce the HIV&AIDS and
STD pandemics.
SC6. Ensure equal education
opportunities for all
academically eligible SC
students
SC7. Expand and improve
SC Health, Sanitation and
Safety systems.
SC8. Include SC institutions
within national initiatives to
reduce the HIV&AIDS and
STD pandemics.
SC9. Ensure that all SC
national curricula are up-todate and relevant to personal
and national development.
Educational
SC11. Ensure that SC
students have access to
relevant up-to-date
teaching/learning
materials (including
ICTs).
SC12. Make libraries
available to SC students
and staff
SC13. Ensure that all
SC completers have
appropriate skills for
future study and work.
Economic
SC14. Strengthen BoGs
and introduce capitation
grants to improve local
management of SHS, TVI,
Agric institutions.
SC15. Improve the
effectiveness of SC teacher
preparation, upgrading and
deployment.
SC16. Ensure that SC
teachers provide value for
money in terms of student
contact time and effective
learning
SC17. Remove the ‘subsidy
culture’ from the SC
education sub-sector.
SC18. Improve
accountability relationships
between parents,
Institutions and District
Education Offices (DEO);
(similarly REOs and GES)
by developing an open
mutual accountability
scheme.
SC19. Establish and
operationalise an effective
NIB that monitors and
assists SC institutions
SC20. Ensure effective
deployment of SC teachers
nationally, between
districts and between
schools within districts
SC10. Ensure that central
and outlying GEUs are
functional and informed by
EMIS.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Focal Area
(Sub-sector)
3 Non-Formal
Education (NF)
Strategic Goal:
Provide opportunities
for those outside the
formal education
system to have free
access to meaningful
high-quality userfriendly education
and training,
whether through
inclusive or
complementary
provision, approved
or informal
apprenticeships,
distance education or
technical and
vocational skills
development (TVSD)
Outline Strategies by Thematic Area
Socio-humanistic
NF1. Ensure that all citizens
have access to education and
training opportunities (that
recognise and build on prior
learning whether formal or
non-formal)
NF2. Provide conditions for
universal functional literacy.
NF3. Expand and improve
post-basic education, nonformal and TVSD
opportunities.
Educational
NF11. Ensure relevant
and diversified
education, training and
skills development for
employability and self
employment.
NF12. Ensure that
appropriate skills are
provided for personal
development and work.
Economic
NF13. Provide effective
preparation, upgrading and
deployment of non-formal
trainers.
NF14. Develop user-driven
accountability schemes for
NF courses
NF15. Rationalise the
deployment of NF trainers,
with greater emphasis on
the informal sector
NF4. Provide public library
facilities and support the
development and use of
community and private
libraries.
NF5. Provide free bussing to
registered children, youths
and adults who live more
than 5 km and less than 15
km from training centres.
NF6. Absorb cost of utilities
in non-formal institutions
within overall government
budget.
NF7. Promote and expand
distance education in its
various forms (traditional and
electronic.
NF8. Ensure equal
opportunities for non-formal
education and training for all
out-of-school children, young
people and adults.
NF9. Provide motivation
packages to encourage the
take-up of non-formal
opportunities.
NF10. Identify and promote
STD and HIV&AIDS
prevention, care and support
in NF education.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Focal Area
(Sub-sector)
4 Inclusive &
Special
Education (IS)
Strategic Goal:
Provide education for
excluded children
(including those who
are physically
and/or mentally
impaired or disabled,
slow/fast learners,
orphans, young
mothers, street
children, those from
deprived areas, slum
children, poverty
victims) by including
them, wherever
possible, within the
mainstream formal
system or, only when
considered
necessary, within
special units or
schools
Outline Strategies by Thematic Area
Socio-humanistic
IS1. Include disadvantaged
children within the existing
education system or provide
special facilities for them.
IS2. Include all children with
non-severe physical and
mental disabilities within
mainstream institutions.
IS3. Provide special schools
or education units or for
those severely disabled.
IS4. Provide transport
and/or guides to nonboarding SSU students who
live more than 5 km and less
than 15 km from school.
IS5. Motive seriously
disadvantaged children
(severely disabled, orphans,
street children, etc.) and their
parents to attend mainstream
or special schools.
IS6. Ensure that Health,
Sanitation and Safety
systems are applied in
Special Schools and Units (as
well as mainstream schools).
Educational
IS7. Ensure that
Special Schools and
Units (SSU), and
their pupils, have
access to appropriate
teaching/learning
materials (including
ICTs).
IS8. Equip school and
public libraries with
special facilities for the
development of those
who are severely
disadvantaged.
IS9. Ensure that the
curricula of Special
Schools and Units
(SSU) are relevant to
personal
development.
Economic
IS11. Establish SMCs and
introduce capitation grants
to improve local
management of SSUs.
IS12. Ensure that SSU
teachers provide value for
money in terms of pupil
contact time and effective
learning.
IS13. Develop an open
mutual-accountability
scheme for parents, SSUs,
teachers and Districts
(likewise, DEO, REOs, GES)
IS10. Ensure that SSU
completers have
appropriate life skills
including job-market
training for the severely
disabled
95
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Focal Area
(Sub-sector)
5 Tertiary
Education (TE)
Strategic Goal:
Increase equitable
access to high quality
tertiary education
that provides
relevant courses to
young adults within
Colleges of
Education,
Polytechnics and
Universities, and for
research and
intellectual stimulus
Outline Strategies by Thematic Area
Socio-humanistic
TE1. Make available initial
training of teachers within
CoEs.
TE2. Provide fee free
education in Polytechnics.
TE3. Provide an effective
operational University
system.
TE4. Establish two new
public sector universities – 1st
phase.
TE5. Provide open learning,
including a degree-awarding
Open University.
TE6. Ensure equal tertiary
education opportunities for
all academically eligible
students.
TE7. Include tertiary
institutions within broad
initiatives to mitigate
HIV&AIDS pandemic and
STD
6 Education
Management (EM)
Strategic Goal: To
improve planning
and management in
the delivery of
education by
devolving resource
management and
decision-making to
regions, districts and
institutions, while
retaining central
responsibility for
establishing norms,
guidelines and
system
accountability
Educational
TE8. Establish
mechanisms for
monitoring, evaluation
and review of tertiary
standards and norms.
TE9. Promote
academic programmes
and research activities
relevant to national
development in
collaboration with the
private sector.
TE10. Establish and
maintain a NCTE
documentation centre.
Economic
TE13. Develop an efficient
tertiary subsector.
TE14. Ensure that
academic staffs provide
value for money.
TE15. Develop a mutualaccountability scheme for
students’ institutions,
academic staff and NCTE.
TE16. Ensure that the
NAB is functional and fit for
purpose.
TE11. Make research
findings publicly
available.
TE12. Ensure that
tertiary graduates have
appropriate broad skills
for future study and
work.
Outline strategies (non-thematic)
EM1. Create two-way public-private partnerships at all levels of the education system.
EM2. Identify, clarify and strengthen education delivery at all levels of the education
system
EM3. Strengthen M&E, accountability and efficiency measures across the whole sector
at all levels
EM4. Strengthen the Education Management Information System (EMIS) and improve
the availability of education statistics (through provision of relevant software for data
collection, analysis and publication)
EM5. Develop and implement equitable resource allocation systems that are available
to public scrutiny
EM6. Manage and oversee all pre-tertiary schools through community-elected SMCs or
BoGs, each school with a SPIP
EM7. Create two-way public-FBO partnerships at all levels of the education system
EM8. Provide and enforce guidelines on cost sharing and cost recovery
96
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table 3B: Selected Cost and Financing Simulation Results for Assessing Strategic Directions
Indicator
1 Student Flow Indicators
% of age-group entering first grade
in primary cycle (GAR) (Total)
% of age-group entering first grade
in primary cycle (GAR) (Girls)
% of age-group completing 6 in
primary cycle (b) (Total)
% of age-group completing 6 in
primary cycle (b) (Girls)
% repeaters among primary school
pupils (Total)
% repeaters among primary school
pupils (Girls)
Enrolments in primary education
EFA FTI
Indicative
Benchmark
Country's
Base
Year
Position
Full ESP
Cost
Conscious
100
98.9
99.9
99.9
Target Outcome in 2020
Minimax
Updated
ESP
99.9
99.9
99.9
100
79.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
10 or less
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
3,616,023
5,758,933
5,758,933
5,758,933
5,270,175
1,224,010
2,290,877
2,290,877
2,290,877
2,938,962
Enrolments in post-primary
education
Total students in secondary (Total)
Total students in secondary (Girls)
Total students in higher education
(Total)
Total students in higher education
(Girls)
Gross admission rate in first year
of secondary education (JH1)
(Total)
2 Service Delivery Indicators in
Publicly-Financed Primary
Schools
Pupil-teacher ratio
Average annual wage bill per
teacher (thousand US$)
Updated ESP (multiples of GDP per
capita)
342,670
40
80.2
99.9
99.9
99.9
100
34.4
3.23
35
2.84
40
2.84
45
2.84
45
3.4
Existing teachers (Total/Girls)
86,916
New teachers (Total/Girls)
Weighted average of existing &
new teachers
Spending on school inputs other
than teachers as % of total
recurrent spending on primary
education
Annual instructional hours for
pupils
% of pupils enrolled in privatelyfinanced primary schools
Cost to construct, furnish & equip a
primary classroom (US$)
136,090
119,079
105,848
93,692
5,442
3.5
33
15.9
15.7
19.1
20.7
17.3
17.3
17.3
17.3
850 --1000
10 or less
20
8,000
3 Additional Costs of HIV and
AIDS Response
Prevention (life skills based
education etc)
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Teachers
(replacement/substitution/code of
practice etc)
Children affected by HIV/AIDS
4 Additional specific costs of
addressing gender inequality
Demand Side interventions
(advocacy and community
awareness raising; double
capitation grants to schools for
girls etc)
Supply side interventions (inservice teacher training in gender
and education issues; positive
action measures for female teacher
recruitment; ‘second chance’
opportunities; implementation of
sexual harassment policies in
schools; elimination of gender bias
and stereotyping in textbooks etc)
5 Actual/Projected Recurrent
Costsper student (in multiples of
GDP)
Kindergarten
Primary education
Secondary education
Junior High School
Senior High School
Post Secondary education
Technical & vocational education
Higher Education
Total
Share of primary education in
overall spending
6 Projected Capital Costs of
Classroom Construction
Costs of providing water and
sanitation (with separate
sanitation facilities provided for
boys and girls)
Aggregate costs in US$
7 Actual/Projected Domestic
Resource Mobilization
Domestically-generated
government revenues (as % of
GDP)
Total recurrent resources for
education (includes external
resources assuming that external
financing stays at 10.3% of public
funding) (GHc million)
% of domestically-generated
revenues
% of GDP
0.17
0.27
0.19
0.28
0.15
0.22
0.10
0.15
0.14
0.19
0.19
0.43
0.68
0.64
0.48
0.41
2.52
3.64
2.52
3.63
2.52
3.37
2.52
3.26
0.73
1.08
50%
14-18
29
1,093
1,773
19,731
1,235
11,571
20
2.8-3.6
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
8 Shortfall in recurrent
resources(both domestic and
External provided External
financing is 10.3% of total public
spending, the ESP does not
provide date for domestic
recurrent resources)
For Primary education
For post-primary education
% of shortfall comprising primary
school teachers’ salaries
-381
-126
11
23
-371
99
Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table 4A: Selected Quantitative Targets in the 3 to 5 Year Action Plan
2009
(Base
Year)
1 Gross Enrollment
Rate
Primary (total)
96.1
Female
Junior High (Total)
80.2
Female
2 %age of Qualified Teachers in
Government Schools
Primary
58.0
% age Female
Junior High (Total)
73.0
% age Female
3 Number of Text Books to be
Procured and Distributed per
Child
Primary
1.5
Junior High (Total)
1.5
4 Number of New Classrooms to
be Built
Primary
Junior High (Total)
2,643
5 Aggregate Recurrent Budget
(GHc Millions)
Primary Education
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Other
6 Aggregate Budget for Capital
Investments (GHc Millions)
Primary Education
Junior High Secondary
Education
Senior High Secondary
Education
2011
2012
2013
98.0
99.0
100.0
84.7
86.9
89.1
70.3
76.5
82.7
80.3
84.0
87.7
2.0
2.0
2.3
2.3
2.5
2.5
1,677
3,021
1,928
3,477
2,191
4,034
Cumulative
5,796
10,532
532.7
626.0
393.4
357.5
581.7
648.1
384.7
406.1
617.2
665.3
374.7
626.6
1,731.6
1,939.4
1,152.8
1,390.2
285.7
166.0
305.1
191.0
326.3
221.6
917.1
578.6
103.2
89.5
96.1
288.8
Source: Data drawn from "Updated ESP"
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
4B: Performance and Disbursement of Externally Funded Primary Projects/Programs
MULTILATERAL/ BILATERAL FUNDED
PROJECTS
DISBURSEMENT (US$)
EXPECTED DISBURSEMENT AMOUNT
US$
SOURCE
French
Embassy
PURPOSE
Teacher/Student
training and
Scholarships
TYPE
Grant
2008
436,466
2009
333,643
2011
294,380
2012
275,913
2013
275,913
DFID
Support to Education
Strategic Plan
Grant
38,843,596
24,268,361
25,600,000
25,600,000
16,800,000
IDA
Education Sector
Project
Country Programme Education
Loan
10,468,307
6,013,733
21,200,000
*
-
Grant
4,333,047
2,036,030
3,750,000
**
-
USAID
Improve quality and
access to basic
education
Grant
8,595,122
6,912,841
9,300,000
AfDB
Development of
Senior Secondary
Education Project
Loan
6,149,256
5,101,944
9,500,000
JICA
Education
Programme
(including Grant Aide
for Community
Empowerment)
Country Programe Support to Basic
Education
Grant
2,373,757
8,822,013
6,279,853
Grant
3,886,567
5,773,222
6,520,000
EC
Micro Project
Grant
9,232,108
-
BADEA
Basic Education
Support Project
Grant
6,687,405
UNICEF
WFP
TOTAL
91,005,630
5,000,000
5,000,000
*
8,042,759
-
862,759
**
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
59,261,787
82,444,233
38,918,672
22,938,672
* Project expected to end in 2011.
** New programmes tol be developed in 2011 for 2012 - 2017.
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Table 4C: Capacity Constraints and Plans to Overcome Them
Domain
Nature of capacity Constraint
Describe Proposed Plan to
Strengthen Capacity
Pre-service training
• Teachers not always recruited from
high-need areas
• Expand number of teachers from
deprived areas trained each year by
decentralizing hiring and firing
powers to the district offices
In-service training
• Lack of motivation for INSET
• Delay in teacher training on new
curriculum
• Eliminate study leave or create
incentives for teacher retention after
completing study; replace study
leave with better INSET
Recruitment
• Understanding the effect of PTR
on quality and costs
• Inability to attract and retain
committed and qualified teachers to
remote areas, due to lack of basic
amenities. Teacher deployment is
not effective
• Rationalize teacher posting
• Improve teacher accommodation
infrastructure
Teacher evaluation
• High Teacher absenteeism and low
time on task due to weak head
teachers
• Better support to head teachers
School inspection
• Schools are going un- or undersupervised
• Set up National inspection Board
Teacher recruitment,
support and development
Managing the impact of
HIV/AIDS on the teaching force
Student assessment and curriculum development
Standardized testing
• Ghana participates in TIMSS, NEA
and SEA
Test banks for diagnostic testing
Curriculum development (incl.
HIV/AIDS and gender aspect)
Data for better management
Education Management
Information System
Expenditure tracking
• Introduction of school report card
to sensitize community to school
performance
• There is a routine for curriculum
review, but changes to allow lower
primary teaching in the mother
tongue have still to be incorporated.
• College of Education curricula are
apparetnly not well aligmed with
school curricula.
• School curriculum may need
revision in some areas.
• CoE curriculum requires revision,
and some measure of specialization
should be considered.
(These aspects are not clearly
reflected in the ESP.)
• Untimely and poorly accessible
EMIS
• Rethink the EMIS process to
improve its timeliness and
availability
• PETS 2007 identified leakages in
the delivery of textbooks and
capitation grant. Plus it highlighted
the complexity of the funding flow
• Address issues identified
Systems for gender In place.
disaggregated data collection
and analysis
Procurement/Contracting Systems
Distribution of instructional
Textbooks do not seem to reach
materials
pupils: textbook ratio remain low.
School construction
• Limited funds for capital
investment
• Target donor funds to capital
investment
Promotion of schooling among target populations
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School mapping to improve
accessibility of schools
• No school mapping has been done
in recent years and such exercise is
needed to construct a baseline for
planning
• Conduct with Donor support a
GPS school mapping exercise,
assign to each school their GPS
coordinates to be quoted in all data
collection exercise to ensure
compatibility between data sources
School design (including water,
sanitation…)
• All newly build government
schools follow a standard design
including teacher accommodation
and toilet facilities, however
community built schools do not
respect government standards
• Use infrastructure funds to bring
sub-standard schools up to standard
Design of demand-side
financing interventions
(including children orphaned by
AIDS and other causes)
Administration and Management
National-level budgeting and
• There are common problems with
financial management
under- budgeting and GOG releases.
In particular P.E. tends to attract
most of the funds
• Rationalize teacher recruitment by
decentralizing hiring and firing
powers and payroll activities at
district level
Sub-national government
administration
• The education system is currently
very centralized and there are
serious communication issues
between the headquarters and the
district and regional offices
• Develop and implement with the
assistance of development partners a
roadmap to decentralization.
Capacity and structures for
mainstreaming gender
• Gender related programs are run by
the Girls Education Unit, which
suffers from lack of funds
• Increase funding to the Girls
Education Unit
• Tighten the relationship between
the GEU, civil society and NGOs to
run small scale localized programs
Legal/Institutional Framework
Enactment of laws to facilitate
EFA FTI implementation
In place.
Removal of legal impediments
to primary education
In place.
Enactment of laws on
discrimination and equal
opportunities (gender, HIV etc)
In place.
School-level capacity
School head leadership
Parent-Teacher Association
• Headmasters are poorly trained
motivated and paid (GHc 1 per
month allowance)
• Train headmasters in school
management and improve their
salary
• Some SMC/PTAs not functioning
• Consistently retrain PTA members
due to strong turnover
• Implement School Report Cards
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
Early draft of the ESP was more widely circulated and discussed at ten regional 3-day
workshops involving districts and key stakeholders.

Circulation and feed-back from subvented agencies, GNAT and development partners.

Greater ownership than before
Members of PBME much more involved in writing sections of ESP and the process generally
Table 5: Consultation with Stakeholders
Stakeholders
Date(s) of Past or
Planned
Consultation
Government
Legislature
Format/ Duration of Consultation
Any Issues Raised
Presented to the parliamentary select
committee on education during the
hearing on the education budget,
because the new ESP is the main driver
of the budget.
Through the budget hearing on the
education budget. There is a
representative from the MoFEP at
education sector group meetings.
Through the Medium Term
Development Plan process.
Finance Ministry
NDPC
Ministry of Gender/
Women’s Affairs
The new ESP was shared with the
Ministry for their input and during the
final stages of compiling the Plan a
presentation was made to the Ministry
during their review retreat.
Other Line
Ministries
NESAR 2009
MoHSW and other social sector MDAs
were part of NESAR 2009, which fully
discussed the ESP.
Regional
Government
NESAR 2009
They form the core of regional level
interactions during NESAR. A
presentation was also made to regional
Ministers during their retreat.
An early draft of the ESP was discussed
during ten regional 3-day workshops
involving districts and key stakeholders.
Local Governments
NESAR 2009
They form the core of regional level
interactions during NESAR. A
presentation was also made to regional
Ministers during their retreat.
Civil Society
Civic and/or
Indigenous Groups
NGOs (including
HIV Girls’
Education
Network)
Key Women’s
Organisations/
Networks
Stakeholders
Principals
Comment on
Quality of
Consultation
Participated in district level interactions.
NESAR 2009
Participated in district, regional or
national interactions during NESAR.
AWE has participated in the process.
NESAR 2009
Participate in district level interactions;
some also participate in NESAR.
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Teachers
Administrators/
Inspectors
The Ghana National Association of
Teachers (GNAT) gave feedback on the
draft.
NESAR 2009
The annual performance review
meetings at district level involve these
groups. Some also participate in
NESAR.
Participate in district level interactions.
Bilateral agencies
(DFID, USAID,
JICA, French
Embassy)
NESAR 2009
ESWG meetings
All education DPs were part of NESAR
2009, which fully discussed the ESP.
The ESP was discussed in regular
ESWG meetings as well.
Multilateral
Agencies (World
Bank, UNICEF,
WFP, UNESCO,
AfDB)
NESAR 2009
ESWG meetings
All education DPs were part of NESAR
2009, which fully discussed the ESP.
The ESP was discussed in regular
ESWG meetings as well.
International NGOs
(PLAN, CARE,
Action Aid, IBIS)
NESAR 2009
ESWG meetings
All education DPs were part of NESAR
2009, which fully discussed the ESP.
The ESP was discussed in regular
ESWG meetings as well.
Parents/Students/
Local Community
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Table 6: Summary of Technical Appraisal
Domain of evaluation
Summary comment
Score
1 Knowledge base underpinning the
sector plan
What is its quality, judging from the
available documentation?
What critical gaps in the data and
analysis remain?
Sound external studies, extensive academic
research, preparatory Government studies, and
regular sector performance reports.
Financial and unit cost analysis limited. Currently
reliance on outdated data, e.g. classification of
deprived districts. A reclassification based on
recent data is underway.
3.5
3
2 Content of the sector plan in terms
of strategic long-term direction
To what extent is it fiscally viable?
How sound are the tradeoffs it makes
in coverage & service delivery?
The plan is over-ambitious. The funding gap of
GHc7.2 billion is unlikely to be bridged.
Reasonable. The question is whether the
proposed efficiency measures will be
energetically implemented with sufficient political
buy-in.
2.5
3
3 Content of the short-term action
plan
Are budget allocations in the METF
consistent with the plan’s ambition?
How feasible are the plans for scaling
up?
How ready is the plan for
implementation?
How well will the most important
capacity constraints be addressed?
The ASEOP (costed operational plan) is aligned
with the MTEF. Treasury has consistently allowed
gross overspending on remuneration, calling into
question the seriousness of Treasury expenditure
ceilings. The new Minister of Education (January
2011) is committed to ensure greater fiscal
discipline.
With sufficient donor harmonisation innovations
in the country can be scaled up to national
coverage. Sufficient institutional capacity exists to
make this achievable. Unit costs will need to be
constrained to ensure financially sustainability.
The overall plan has been in circulation for over a
year with good readiness for the first priority
activities. Further work will e required to finalise
draft policy documents such as those on on
teacher professional development and Special
Educational Needs.
Clear coordination across responsible units is
critical and the appointment of a new Director
General in the Ghana Education Service should
ensure strong leadership. Capacity constraints
will be addressed through a common capacity
development plan that DPs have committed to
align behind. . Capacity at district and school level
is already addressed in the plan.
3
3.5
3
3.5
4 Consultation with stakeholders
How strongly has the plan been
endorsed by other parts of
government, esp. the Ministry of
Finance?
The Education Ministry has consulted across
government including with the Ministry of Labour
and Social Welfare, the Ministry of Local
Government and National Development Planning
Commission NDPC. The Ministry of Finance has
assigned a Education focal point who provides
guidance and has endorsed the Plan.
3.5
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Appraisal of Ghana’s Education Sector Plan 2010-2020, March 2012
Domain of evaluation
How acceptable is the plan to key
stakeholders in the education system?
How acceptable is the plan to members
of civil society?
How strongly has the plan been
endorsed by the donor community?
Summary comment
Since it is comprehensive, it addresses the core
concerns of the key stakeholders. The import of
the target PTRs has probably not been
appreciated by teachers. The implications of the
squeeze on tertiary financing has probably not yet
been absorbed by finance officers at tertiary
institutions.
Involvement of civil society has been active from
the onset of the planning process, an umbrella
organisation GNECC have consulted with partners
and their members were also key to the annual
review discussions on the plan and monthly
sector meetings. They recognise that key
priorities are integrated into the plan but
comprehensive funding remains a challenge.
Donors actively participated in debate and
discussion to shape the plan during the 2009 and
2010 annual reviews and have endorsed the final
draft. Country Heads will discuss the plan this
quarter and HQs are providing comments.
Score
3.5
3.5
3.5
5 Overall Appraisal
a/ Using a scoring system (e.g. from 1 very poor- to 4 -very good) has the
virtue of collapsing a large amount of
information into a single number.
While this makes it easier to gauge
where the country comes out, the
scores are obviously not intended to be
used mechanically.
The ESP can be regarded as credible. But
implementation will have to be carefully
monitored at more frequent intervals than the
annual review, with remedial action as soon as
slippage is detected. The Education Sector
Working Group (ESWG) should play a role in this
monitoring, not just of targets, but of processes.
3
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