femmes et radio communautaire au burkina faso

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femmes et radio communautaire au burkina faso
Women Rights, Community Radio and Good
Governance through Community Radios
Derechos de las Mujeres, Radios Comunitarias y
Buena Governanza
Droits des femmes, radios communautaires et la
bonne gouvernance
Documents For an Action Research
Documentos Para una Investigación Accion
Documents pour une recherche-Action
September 2007
Setiembre 2007
Septembre 2007
International Secretariat AMARC
Secrétariat international AMARC,
Secretariado Internacional de AMARC
705 rue Bourget, bureau 100, Montréal (Québec) CANADA H4C 2M6
téléphone : (514) 982-0351 télécopie : (514) 849-7129
1
CONTENTS
Community Media by and for Women a Challenge to Fulfil the Promise- Mavic Cabrera-Balleza.. 3
Femmes et radios communautaires au Burkina Faso - Georgette Koala Radio Pengdwendé.............. 6
Les radios communautaires au Cameroun - Aimée Christine Kadji Djagueu.................................... 12
Community Radio in promoting Women’s Participation in Governance - Doris Dery .................... 18
Community radio, policies and challenges in Jordan - Tamara Aqrabawe........................................ 21
Community radios in Liberia - Emmanuel Johnson, ALICOR.......................................................... 27
The state of the Community Radio in Liberia - Famatta E Thomas, Producer/Presenter, Radio Peace
Harbel................................................................................................................................................. 30
Les radios communautaires au Niger - Kadi Souley B. Kohler......................................................... 32
State of Community Radio in Nigeria - Akin Akingbulu & Miriam Menkiti.................................... 34
Femmes et radio communautaire au RDC - Henriette Kumakana..................................................... 38
The State of Community Radio in South Africa – Rebone Molefe................................................... 40
Community radios in Tanzania - Joseph Sekiku, FADECO Community Radio............................... 43
Aperçu sur les radios communautaires du Tchad - Zara Yacoub....................................................... 46
Femme, gouvernance et médias communautaires : défis et enjeux - Oumy Cantome Sarr, Manooré
FM ..................................................................................................................................................... 49
Femmes et bonne gouvernance- Haby Diallo.................................................................................... 51
Género, Radios Comunitarias y Gobernanza en Mexico - María Eugenia Chávez Fonseca............. 53
Women in Acheh demand Gender Budgets – Bianca Migglioretto................................................... 56
Una organización de mujeres decididas – Julia Velasco ................................................................... 58
Women as Producers of Information - Ade Tanesia ......................................................................... 60
Femmes et radios communautaires – Malika Boussof & Yasmine Medani...................................... 62
Comunicaciones y Género - Perla Wilson, ........................................................................................ 65
Femmes et radios communautaire en RDC, Henriette Kumakana .................................................... 68
Promoting Gender Equality through Community Radio, the Pacific Experience – Sharon Bhagwan
Rolls.................................................................................................................................................... 70
Women and Community Radio in Mozambique - Birgitte Jallov ..................................................... 72
Community Radio & Women Involvement in peace building and conflict resolution - Sharon
Bhagwan Rolls,...................................................................................................................................76
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Community Media by and for Women a Challenge to Fulfil the
Promise- Mavic Cabrera-Balleza1
For more than three decades now, the global women’s movement has confronted two key issues in
the media: the negative and stereotypical portrayal of women in the media and the lack of women’s
representation and participation in decision-making positions within media organizations.
Community media, independent media, radical media, participatory media, medios libres, peoples’
media, grassroots media, social movement media and all their different configurations are touted to
be the utmost instrument that women can use to reclaim their rightful spaces within media systems
and structures. However, research and anecdotal evidence point out to the fact that this is not
entirely the case. The discrimination that women face within government and corporate media are
sometimes also reproduced in community media. This panel discussion seeks to find out not only
how gender inequalities in community media can be stopped but how to effectively use this type of
media as a tool in promoting women’s decision-making roles and political participation.
While I am inclined not to delve into how mainstream media marginalizes women because there is
already more than enough evidence to prove this, I cannot avoid citing two media monitoring
initiatives that to me reveal very interesting findings. These two are the 2005 Global Media
Monitoring Project (GMMP) coordinated by the World Association for Christian Communication and
the “Mirror on the Media, Who Talk on Talk Shows” conducted by Gender Links and the Gender
and Media Network in Southern Africa (GEMSA) in 2006. Both studies found out that of all the
media, it is in radio where women and women’s issues are most underrepresented.
The GMMP which analyzed media content in 76 countries revealed that women and women’s
issues make up only 17 percent of news subjects as opposed to 83 percent men as news subjects
in radio broadcasts. The Mirror on the Media project which monitored 11 radio talk shows in four
Southern African countries –Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, and Zimbabwe states that “if radio talk
shows are a barometer of citizenship, then women barely exist–as host, as guests or as callers.
Most shows also don’t cover many of the topics that women would like to talk more about.”
The same project showed that women only make up 25 percent of all callers to radio talk shows in
Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. As talk show guests, women made up only 36
percent and as hosts, women constituted only 32 percent. Meanwhile, on gender as a topic, only
nine (9) percent of the talk shows focused specifically on gender-related concerns.
Why am I focusing on radio when the situation in all other forms of media is just as bad? It is
because radio is said to be the women’s medium. It is accessible and affordable; it transcends
literacy barrier; it is the medium that has the broadest reach in poor rural and urban areas where
there is little media presence and media access. Radio therefore is a potentially powerful tool in
enabling women’s participation in decision-making on matters that impact to their communities, on
matters that impact to their families and to them personally. Women’s participation in radio can
potentially lead to their broader political participation.
Let’s look at the situation in community radio. In 2006, AMARC Asia-Pacific and Isis InternationalManila conducted a survey of 23 community radio stations and production groups in Asia-Pacific to
examine women’s programming and women’s participation in community radio. The survey
brought the good news that almost all of the community radio stations (21) have between one to
five hours of weekly programs by and for women. These programs cover issues such as women’s
rights, health care, violence against women, literacy, and success stories of women in society.
Now the disappointing news: women make up only 28% of leadership positions—however, this is
still comparatively better than in mainstream media where women occupy only 3 to 5% of
leadership positions, as reported by the International Federation of Journalists in 2001. In technical
1
by Mavic Cabrera-Balleza, AMARC Women’s International Network and the International Women’s Tribune
Centre (presented at the Our Media 6th International Conference (Sydney, Australia; April 9-13, 2007).
3
positions, women make up only 28% as well. Not surprisingly, there were considerably more
women administrative staff and producers at 44% each. Evidently, women are also stereotyped
within community radio. Women also lack access to decision-making in the community radio
sector.
A study of how gender issues are played out in Indy Media Centers (IMC) conducted by Gabriele
Hadl and Lisa Brooten using the various list serves and discussion spaces within the network
showed similar patterns of gender-based domination. Some of these are:
• Work is often distributed and valued along traditional lines of gender: e.g. technical work is
mostly reserved for men, and is valued more highly than other forms of contributions, given
priority in discussions, etc. (the tech-arrogance phenomenon)2;
• Meetings, though at their best well-facilitated and democratic, were noted to be often
dominated by those who talk “long, loud[ly], first and often”3. Tallies from meetings showed
that even if more women were present at a meeting, men talked more.
• A rhetoric of harassment, a feature common in online communication, characterized by
flaming, trolling and cyber-stalking was reported as a normal part of everyday life in certain
IMC spaces, and even condoned in face-to-face situations.
• Lack of diversity, time and energy: Even if a collective is aware of gender issues, it may
give addressing them a low priority. This is sometimes justified by the old Marxist
“revolution first, justice later” argument. Also, the precarity4of most IMCs, with a small group
of volunteers battling rightists, spammers, tech problems, police surveillance, lack of funds
and space, etc. exacerbates existing inequalities.
How to address discrimination against women in community media
Participants in IMC gender debates have suggested ways the issues can be tackled, which Hadl
and Brooten summarized as follows:
• Acknowledging existing hierarchies: The inequalities in the wider culture do not of their own
accord stop at the door of IMCs -- this is nothing to be ashamed of. Rather than trying to
deny them, they should be seen as an opportunity for dissecting and moving beyond them;
• Creating a safe and welcoming environment, if possible from the get-go, as it is harder to
change engrained structures later– e.g. inviting more women to join a long-established allmale collective or changing an aggressive communication culture to a less combative one;
• Improving meetings by providing attentive and fair facilitation, outreach and encouraging
different kinds of communication modes. One example of this is the traditional practice in
some African tribes where a baton is passed around and whoever holds the baton gets the
chance to speak;
• Rethinking the value certain kinds of work are assigned according to the gender
traditionally associated with them.
In AMARC, we’re planning to conduct a comprehensive gender audit among our members to
examine the nature and extent of women’s involvement in programming and management of
community radio. At the same time, we also hope to come up with models of organizational
structures that would best guarantee women’s meaningful participation in community radio. We
will also identify areas for capacity building. The AMARC Asia-Pacific survey, for example,
indicates that women want to be trained in technical areas of radio production. AMARC is
committed to responding to this expressed need but we also want to underscore that in addressing
the gender inequalities through training or capacity building, we will be training the men as well.
Such training efforts will focus on sensitizing them on women’s issues and how and why such
issues also impact on men; how men are also stereotyped like women; the gender-based power
relations and the ways by which such power relations play out in the operations of community radio
2
Though this problem appears to have become less prevalent than it was in the 1999-2002 phase when many new IMCs
were established.
3
Spalding, D. (2002, December 14). An open letter to other men in the movement. Newswire posting to IMC-DC.
Retrieved December 14, 2006 from
http://web.archive.org/web/20030615093541/http://internal.indymedia.org/front.php3?article_id=779&group=webcast
4
‘Precarity’ is a neologism of an international movement around the working and living conditions created by neoliberalist
policies. The term here emphasizes that the instability is at least partly caused by the enclosing social and political
system
4
as well as in their programming. In addition, we hope to produce and distribute creative and visual
tools such as a checklist for gender-sensitive programming, score cards that illustrate women’s
participation in decision-making, and other visual indicators.
We do know that men in supposedly progressive sectors like community media are aware of
gender inequalities and gender injustices. Why this awareness has not changed their everyday
political practice—the way they conduct themselves and carry out their work is mind-boggling for
most of us. Many attribute it to the socialization process we [women and men] undergo. Perhaps
because we are just beginning to address this issue more concretely and more systematically, we
are ready to accept the reasoning that not unlike the women, men are just as trapped in a
patriarchal and hierarchical socialization process. But we also need to keep in mind that we need
not go easy on our male comrades. We should demand the same if not greater responsibility for
them to monitor their own behavior. At some point, we will have to say enough! The patriarchal and
hierarchical socialization process is no longer an acceptable excuse. We are aware of the problem,
we know what to do with the problem—all we have to do is operationalize the solution.
We also need to realize that women also need sensitizing. I don’t want to sound preachy –
especially to sisters in the women’s movement and the community media sector but as community
media practitioners, we have a greater responsibility to break the boundaries set by our sociopolitical and cultural contexts. If we are to equate community media and women’s media with
women’s progress, we need to go out of our way and take extra effort so that community media will
truly become an instrument that allows, encourages and empowers women to speak in their own
authentic voice.
References
Global Media Monitoring Project. 2005.. World Association for Christian Communications. London,
UK. Retrieved from http://www.whomakesthenews.org/ on April 10, 2007.
Hadl, G and Brooten, S. 2007. Talking Gender at Indymedia. Gender and Hierarchy: A case study
of the Independent Media Center Network.
Miglioretto, B. 2006. Asia –Pacific Women Demand Equal Access to Leadership in Community
Radio. AMARC Asia–Pacific and Isis International-Manila.
Mirror on the Media, Who Talk on Talk Shows. 2006. Gender Links and the Gender and Media
Network in Southern Africa. Retrieved from http://www.genderlinks.org.za/page.php?p_id=301 on
April 10, 2007.
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Femmes et radios communautaires au Burkina Faso - Georgette
Koala Radio Pengdwendé
Introduction
Depuis 1997 avec Horizon FM, la première radio libre du Burkina et de l’Afrique
Francophone, les ondes se sont libéralisées et permettent de dénombrer
aujourd’hui 77 stations de radios. Les populations Burkinabés se sont appropriées
la radio, cet outil de l’oralité qui s’inscrit dans la tradition des griots, dont la
renommée a traversé les frontières de l’Afrique. Cela a permis à ce média,
contrairement à la presse écrite qui est vue comme un média d’élite intellectuelle et
à la télévision dont le coût d’accès n’est pas à la portée du grand nombre. La
facilité d’accès de la radio, le fait q’elle soit perçue comme une continuité de la
tradition orale et parce qu’elle utilise beaucoup les langues locales, font de ce
média , le média de masse par excellence pour les populations Africaines en
général et le peuple Burkinabé en particulier. C’est dans ce contexte favorable que
l’Etat Burkinabé a, dans les années 1980, mis en place 06 radios locales dans les
zones rurales du Burkina. Ces radios avaient pour objectif la sensibilisation et la
promotion du développement. Elles visaient la participation de tous les citoyens
Burkinabés à l’effort de développement national, selon le Président de la
République, en son temps.
De tout temps, la radio communautaire a eu des objectifs de développement et de
développement participatif d’où la notion de communauté. C’est un média qui
appartient à toute la communauté, qui pose les problèmes de la communauté qui
en débat avec elle en vue d’y trouver des solutions consensuelles.
Comme le dit cet extrait d’un mémoire de maîtrise du département de
communication et journalisme de l’Université de Ouagadougou « La Philosophie
Historique de la radio rurale est de permettre aux « sans voix » de s’exprimer, de
servir de porte parole aux opprimés (qu’il s’agisse d’une oppression raciste sexiste
ou de classe sociale et en général, d’offrir un outil de développement à toute la
communauté ».
Le thème de notre communication, nous amène à parler de développement à
travers la dimension genre. C’est la place de la femme dans les 24 radios
communautaires présentes sur le territoire burkinabé, dont nous allons vous
entretenir à travers l’exemple de la Radio Communautaire Pengdwendé, située à
90 km de la capitale Ouagadougou, dans la Commune rurale de Sabou.
I - Femmes et radios communautaires au Burkina Faso
1.1 - Faible nombre de femmes employées
Sur les 24 radios communautaires recensées, l’on peut dénombrer 255 employés,
dont 46 femmes, soit un pourcentage de 18,04% de femmes employées sur les
radios communautaires, contre 81,96% d’hommes.
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Ces 18,04% de femmes se retrouvent généralement au niveau de l’animation et du
secrétariat. La plupart de ces femmes sont des bénévoles et des pigistes. A titre
illustratif, seul 23 femmes, soit 17,16% sont des employées permanentes des
radios communautaires, au Burkina Faso.
Les femmes sont quasi inexistantes au niveau des postes de responsabilité, de la
production et de la réalisation des émissions.
Cette faible représentativité des
femmes ne peut occulter une autre réalité qui est la grande place accordée aux
femmes dans les grilles de programmes des différentes radios communautaires.
1.2 - Omniprésence des femmes sur les ondes des radios communautaires
Les radios communautaires sont des outils de développement. C’est dans ce sens
qu’elles mettent un accent particulier sur la frange la plus sous développée du
Burkina Faso, c'est-à-dire les femmes. Effectivement de nombreuses émissions
dans un minimum de 2 par radio communautaire, ont pour public cible exclusif, les
femmes. Elles sont les premières concernées par les émissions de sensibilisation
pour un mieux être de la cellule familiale, car garante de la réussite des enfants.
Les femmes sont celles dont les droits sont les plus brimés et dont les besoins sont
souvent ignorées. Les radios communautaires, profitant de la grande audience dont
elles bénéficient arrivent à légitimer les besoins des femmes, en association avec
les leaders d’opinions locaux.
Les problèmes que les femmes transmettent aux animateurs, sont débattus sur les
ondes, ce qui permet d’y trouver des solutions ou tout au moins de poser le
problème. Ces problèmes spécifiques des femmes sur l’accès à l’eau potable, sur
l’accès à la terre, sur le droit à l’autodétermination, sur la scolarisation des jeunes
filles, sur le mariage forcé, etc. sont désormais dans les discours des politiques et
élus locaux, dans les conversations dans la société et permettent comme nous le
montre l’exemple de radio Pengdwendé un changement de comportements dans
les mœurs sociales.
II - Radio Pengdwendé, une radio communautaire au cœur du développement
des femmes
2.1
– Présentation
Radio Pengdwendé est une radio qui a été mise en place par l’Association du
même nom. Elle est située en zone rurale, dans la Commune de Sabou, à 90
km de Ouagadougou, la capitale du Burkina Faso. L’inauguration de la Radio a
eu lieu le 26 Mai 2006 mais elle émettait un an déjà auparavant. Radio
Pengdwendé émet sur un rayon de 60 km, couvrant trois (3), Communes rurales
dans la région du Centre Ouest du Burkina Faso.
Les missions à elle assignées sont la sensibilisation, la promotion socioéconomique de la femme et plus généralement le changement de
comportement en vue d’un développement véritable des hommes et des
femmes, donc de la région. Il est a noté que les missions de Radio Pengdwendé
sont liées à celles de son association mère, l’Association Pengdwendé qui
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depuis plus de 20 ans a pour leitmotiv, l’émancipation des 52% de la population
burkinabé, c'est-à-dire les femmes.
2.2
- Place des femmes sur les ondes de Radio Pengdwendé
Radio Pengdwendé est la matérialisation d’une idée de femme. En tant que
Présidente de l’Association Pengdwendé et dans le cadre des activités de la dite
association, il a été constaté le besoin d’une radio communautaire qui pourrait
s’adresser aux femmes de plusieurs villages à la fois. C’est ainsi que Radio
Pengdwendé, idée de femme, a vu le jour. Cela mérite d’être souligné car sur
les 23 Radios Communautaire restantes, seule Radio Munyu est dans le même
cas.
Le personnel de Radio Pengdwendé est au nombre de 7 employés dont une
seule femme. Cette dernière a été recrutée afin que les auditrices puissent
s’identifier à elle. Le fait qu’elle soit la seule femme employée à la radio traduit
une difficulté majeure de recrutement de jeunes filles ; nous y reviendrons par la
suite. Mais bien que, Mme Kaboré soit seule animatrice de Radio Pengdwendé,
un grand temps d’antenne lui a été accordé pour parler spécifiquement aux
femmes, groupe cible prioritaire de la Radio. C’est ainsi qu’un panier
d’émissions est produit chaque semaine et est appelé : « Paag la Yiri »,
traduisez : « il ne saurait y avoir de maison sans femme ». Le panier « Paag La
Yiri », renferme les émissions : « Zaak Viim » qui signifie la vie de couple, une
autre émission titrée la vie associative et enfin une émission sur les Droits de la
femme.
Pour animer ce panier d’émissions, l’animatrice reçoit des femmes qui viennent
partager leurs expériences avec les autres. Aussi des responsables, chefs
coutumiers et autres leaders d’opinions sont souvent invités à se prononcer sur
les conditions de la femme, notamment sur l’excision, la scolarisation de la
jeune fille, sur l’accès à la terre par les femmes, et en plus du panier
d’émissions conçues pour les femmes, des jingles radios ont été réalisés pour
inviter les femmes à écouter la radio mais surtout inviter les hommes à
laisser les femmes écouter la radio.
Radio Pengdwendé travaille également avec des ONG qui interviennent dans la
Promotion de la Femme. C’est ainsi que le RECIF/ONG (Réseau de
Communication, d’Information et de Formation des Femmes dans les ONG), le
Projet de Marketing social de Condoms (PROMACO), le Service Allemand de
Développement (DED) et bien d’autres, commandent la diffusion d’émissions
déjà produites ou de spots de sensibilisation sur Radio Pengdwendé.
Tout ceci, nous permet de dire que radio Pengdwendé réserve une grande
place à la femme sur les ondes. Mais qu’en est-il des résultats sur le terrain ?
- Impact de Radio Pengdwendé sur les conditions de vie de la femme
Il convient tout d’abord de noter qu’aucune étude n’a été jusque là réalisée pour
juger de l’impact de Radio Pengdwendé dans sa zone de couverture. Mais un
certain nombre de constats et de témoignages spontanés de certains auditeurs
2.3
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nous ont convaincu d’une prise de conscience naissante de la population sur le
sort des femmes. Plusieurs exemples peuvent illustrer ce changement.
Sur le plan de l’Etat civil, suite aux sensibilisations de Radio Pengdwendé, les
femmes sont de plus en plus détentrices aujourd’hui, de jugements supplétifs
d’acte de naissance et de carte d’identité.
Ce qui n’a pas toujours été le cas, car quand bien même les femmes avaient
des actes d’Etat civil, se sont les hommes qui les détenaient par devers eux.
Sur le plan du Développement, les activités génératrices de revenus que les
femmes entreprennent avec les conseils de l’émission sur la vie associative,
leur apportent des revenus substantiels. Ces revenus leurs permettent de
scolariser leurs enfants, dont les jeunes filles. Les activités commerciales des
femmes sont un réel vecteur de développement pour les populations
concernées et cela se traduit par une plus grande animation des différents
marchés locaux avec des produits transformés autrement et plus attrayants.
D’autre part, du fait que les leaders d’opinion aient publiquement dénoncé le
mariage forcé, la pratique de l’excision, ces phénomènes sont passés du statut
de fait coutumier normal au statut de fait répréhensible commis par des
ignorants. Nous n’avons pas la prétention d’accorder ce changement à la seule
action de Radio Pengdwendé, mais sa contribution n’est pas du tout
négligeable.
Aussi, lors des différentes réunions, qu’elles soient organisées par les autorités
décentralisées de l’Etat ou par les ONG de développement, les femme prennent
de plus en plus la parole et l’on se rend compte qu’elles ont des préoccupations
très souvent différentes de celles des hommes. Ce constat a son importance, si
l’on sait que jusqu’aujourd’hui dans certaines régions comme dans le Nord du
Burkina Faso, les femmes ne peuvent pas s’asseoir avec les hommes pour
discuter, échanger.
Enfin, du témoignage des femmes elles mêmes, l’accès aux terres de culture
leur est désormais facilité et les hommes ne retirent plus les terres les plus
productrices des femmes comme cela était le cas dans le passé. Ce
phénomène prend donc du recul parce qu’il est régulièrement dénoncé sur les
ondes de Radio Pengdwendé.
En définitive, l’on peut dire que la situation de la femme dans les départements
couvertes par Radio Pengdwendé n’est pas très reluisante, mais la radio à
travers les émissions produites et celles qui lui sont données à être diffusées
par les organismes de développement , contribue à un changement de
comportement. Mais si tant est que les femmes ont conquis un espace de liberté
et d’expression et qu’elles commencent à jouir de leurs droits d’entreprise et de
libre arbitre, leur place n’est pas encore véritablement celle qui aurait dû être la
leur. Long est le chemin qui reste à parcourir pour y arriver, mais les embûches
sont nombreuses.
III - Les difficultés
Il y a d’abord les difficultés de recrutement. Il est en effet très difficile au Burkina
Faso de trouver des femmes et jeunes filles qui veulent faire de la radio. Cela
9
est dû au fait que les métiers de la presse sont vus par le plus grand nombre
comme des métiers d’hommes. A titre illustratif, le Département de
Communication et Journalisme de l’Université de Ouagadougou qui forme les
professionnels du journalisme compte pour sa promotion sortante 11 étudiants
dont seulement 2 filles ; et la promotion suivante compte 7 étudiants qui sont
tous des garçons.
Quand bien même il y a des filles qui veulent faire de la radio, elles ne sont pas
dans la majeure partie des cas, assez qualifiées pour le faire.
Cette difficulté de recrutement qui fait que ce sont souvent des hommes qui
parlent des problèmes des femmes, constitue sans doute une entrave à la
réalisation des objectifs de promotion de la femme.
Une autre difficulté est le manque de ressources des radios communautaires.
Du fait de leur statut, les radios communautaires ne sont pas autorisées à
diffuser de la publicité et même si elles en avaient eu le droit, cela ne leur aurait
pas beaucoup profité, car la plupart sont situées en zone rurale où l’activité
commerciale n’est pas très développée.
Cet état de fait est couplé au problème d’énergie que constitue l’absence
d’énergie courante, pour 90% des radios communautaires burkinabés. En
exemple, nous pouvons citer Radio Pengdwendé, qui fonctionne à l’aide d’un
groupe électrogène consommant du gasoil. Cela ne permet pas de diffuser
autant que l’on aurait souhaité et de produire toutes les émissions qui auraient
pu s’avérer utiles.
Ce problème financier pousse les radios communautaires bien souvent à revoir
leurs ambitions à la baisse. En plus de ces 2 problèmes majeurs, on peut noter
la pesanteur sociale, les préjugés et les pratiques coutumières.
Enfin, l’on peut dire que les radios communautaires sont les parents pauvres
des médias au Burkina Faso, à cause de leur équilibrisme financier qui se
traduit par l’insuffisance de matériel de reportage et de logistique.
IV - Pistes de solutions
Comme piste de solution pour une meilleure efficience des radios
communautaires, sur les conditions de vie de la femme, il faudrait que les
femmes s’approprient cet outil. Cela passe nécessairement par la formation des
jeunes filles et des femmes aux métiers de la radio de sorte que l’on ait de plus
en plus de femmes qui s’adressent aux femmes pour parler des problèmes de
femmes. Mais pour que les femmes acceptent aller à la radio, que les hommes
permettent aux femmes et aux jeunes filles d’y aller, il faudrait une campagne de
sensibilisation porteuse du message suivant : La radio n’est pas un métier
réservé aux hommes.
Pour ce qui est du problème financier, il conviendrait que l’Etat, parce que les
radios communautaires sont des acteurs de développement de premier ordre,
leur accorde des subventions conséquentes mais aussi revoir la hausse la
proportion autorisée des revenus sur publicité (actuellement de ……%) afin de
10
leur permettre de mener à bien leurs missions. Cela permettrait sans doute
d’avoir un bon nombre d’employés et de produire des émissions en quantité
suffisante pour être plus efficace auprès de l’auditoire.
11
Les radios communautaires au Cameroun - Aimée Christine Kadji
Djagueu
Chef de Station Radio SITE-DAR FM de Bafang au Cameroun
B.P : 277 Bafang Tél : (237)75819128 / (237) 33486814 e-mail : [email protected]
1) L'état de la situation des radios communautaires au Cameorun
Au Cameroun le paysage audiovisuel évolue positivement, le gouvernement a
promulgué des lois sur la libéralisation des ondes, mettant ainsi fin au monopole de l'Etat
dans ce domaine.
Cette ouverture est évidemment marquée par la reconnaissance des droits et libertés de
l'homme et des groupes.
Avec le décret N°2000/158 du 03 avril 2000 libéralisant le paysage médiatique
camerounais, les radios communautaires poussent au Cameroun comme des
champignons, c'est chaque département à défaut de chaque village qui voudrait avoir sa
radio, pour plus de proximité avec le public, reste que des difficultés réelles de
fonctionnement menacent déjà leur existence.
La radio communautaire au Cameroun se révèle comme un instrument efficace de
sensibilisation. Elle encourage le public à s'engager pour la défense des droits et pour la
mobilisation autour de tous les défis du développement.
L'objectif principal visé par nos radios communautaires est, en fait, de mieux informer la
population, l'aider à prendre conscience de la situation politique et socio-économique,
l'aider à prendre soin de son propre environnement et à participer à la gestion de la
chose publique.
Radios communautaires et démocratisation
De plus en plus la libre expression deviens réalité au Cameroun car parmi les émissions les plus
écoutées: on invite les gens, par téléphone, à dire ce qu’ils pensent sur l’action des élus, du
gouvernement sans être interpellé par qui que ce soit.
Mais les difficultés ne manquent pas. D'abord, dans notre pays, les textes régissant ces radios
sont muets ou inadaptés aux réalités du moment, ou bien encore ils sont tout simplement bafoués.
D'où de nombreux procès et des tracasseries d'ordre fiscal, politique, etc. auxquels les
responsables de ces radios sont confrontés. D'une manière générale, les auditeurs des radios
communautaires sont satisfaits des programmes et de leur ouvertures total aux sans voix et de
l’utilisation de la langue locale comme moyen d’expression orale de communication.
Aussi, face à la multiplicité des radios privées, les radios gouvernementales se voient obligées de
revoir leurs programmes d'exploitation d'antenne et on peut constater un changement réel dans
leur façon de travailler. Elles tendent à devenir plus ouvertes et moins propagandistes.
Il faut surtout que les radios communautaires évitent de jouer le jeu des partis politiques.
Ce qui représente le principal gage d'une autonomie pouvant garder l'objectivité et préserver la
liberté d'expression, mais alors avec qu’elle moyens ?
Radios communautaires et la gouvernance
La bonne gouvernance se présente comme « l’exercice de l’autorité politique, économique
et administrative, la stabilité politique, le développement institutionnel et le respect des
droits de l’homme ».
En somme, la bonne gouvernance est l’art de bien gérer les affaires de la cité.
12
Les radios communautaires ne sont pas restés en reste sur le rôle qu’elles ont sur la
communauté. Plusieurs séminaires ont été organisés par l’Administration et la Société civil
sur « Médias et bonne gouvernance ». Quelle peut-être la contribution des médias pour
une appropriation constructive du processus de la bonne gouvernance dans notre pays ?
Ces Séminaires ont permis aux bénéficière de cette formation de relayer vers leurs
auditeurs des programmes de sensibilisations adaptées sur la bonne gouvernance.
Radios communautaires et l'atteinte des objectifs de développement
La contribution des radios communautaires Camerounaise à l’objectif de développement
du millénaire se traduit par la grande sensibilisation en langues locales sur les NTIC, et de
leurs apports sur le développement durable. Mais j’avoue ici que très peu de radios
communautaires Camerounaise soit effectivement informés de son existence et même
comment en partagé les biens faits des NTIC, par exemple, la numérisation dans le
montage des émissions radio parait
étrange dans bon nombre des radios
communautaires même dans certains station radio d’Etat au Cameroun.
Nous savons à la SITE-DAR FM que les NTIC crée un cadre d'épanouissement et donne
à ces populations défavorisées le pouvoir d’améliorer leur productivité et leurs conditions
de vie, notamment en produisant dans le cadre d’une approche intégrée des politiques
sectorielles de développement, des contenus multimédias interactifs d’information, de
sensibilisation et d’autoformation, en langues nationales, adaptés aux besoins et au
niveau de ces populations et pouvant faciliter l’apprentissage tout au long de la vie.
Ces contenus sont diffusés à très grandes échelles à travers les radios communautaires
outillés, et les centres d’information communautaires polyvalents développé par le
Ministère des poste et Télécommunication du Cameroun dans certaine localités du
territoire national.
Il y a nécessité d’une formation globale de toutes les radios communautaires du
Cameroun, afin que tous soient au même pied d’égalité en cette matière.
Ceci contribuera sans aucun doute à réduire également la fuite des cerveaux. Mais la
question que je me pose est de savoir comment tout ceci peut se réalisé en Afrique ?
Les femmes dans la radio communautaire aux Cameroun
La radio communautaire au Cameroun devient de plus en plus l’affaire des femmes, bon
nombre des radios communautaire créer sous l’égide de l’UNESCO sont des radios
femmes. Le seul regret dans cette démarche reste la dépendance total à la merci du
bailleur de fond, qui en cas de retrait de leurs actions risqueraient de les rendres
inopérationnelle. Dans la mesure ou très peu de radios communautaire ont pu se mettre
en place par une initiative locale sans apport extérieur. Les organisations qui parviennent
à le faire se trouvent abandonné à elle-même, cas de la radio SITE-DAR FM de Bafang.
Les femmes occupent dans la plus part de ces radios communautaires des places de
décisions les plus importantes. Leurs limites résident au niveau de leurs niveaux
d’instruction assez faible. Nous sommes convaincus que l’action que mène la
communauté Internationale sur la place de la femme réserve un avenir meilleur pour ce
sexe dit faible.
L'impact des radios communautaires sur l’emancipation des femmes au
Cameroun.
13
Les radios Communautaires du Cameroun participent positivement sur l’émancipation de
la femme rurale et urbaine à travers ses programmes sur la citoyenneté, la gouvernance
et le développement.
Nous à La radio SITE-DAR FM formons et sensibilisons en genre et développement. Elle
offre des appuis en la mise en œuvre de pratique garantissant l’égalité entre les femmes
et les hommes ainsi qu’un appui au réseau des femmes du Haut-Nkam.
Dans ce cadre elle produit des émissions sur les genres notamment femme et
développement endogène. Ainsi grâce à notre radio communautaire nous avons pu mettre
sur pied des groupes d’écoute de la radio en vue de contribuer à l’amélioration de la vie
des femmes dans la province de l’ouest. La radio SITE-DAR FM aide les associations de
femmes du Haut-Nkam a crée et a animé des groupes d’écoute de la radio. Ces
associations opèrent dans plusieurs domaines, en particulier le soutient aux femmes
entrepreneurs, l’animation socio culturelle et la réalisation de campagne d’alphabétisation.
14
O estado das rádios comunitárias em Cabo Verde - Jose Mendez
O estado das rádios comunitárias em Cabo Verde
Em Cabo Verde existem neste momento 5(cinco) rádios comunitárias, 2(duas) nas ilhas de
Santiago; 1(uma) na ilha de Maio; 1(uma) na ilha de Santo Antão e 1(uma) na ilha da Brava.
Encontra-se também, na fase de criação mais 2(duas)rádios na ilha de Santiago(Calheta e
Tarrafal).
A proprietária das rádios são Associações Comunitárias e/ou Organizações não Governamentais.
Em termos de organização as rádios são geridas por líderes comunitários e nalguns casos por
jornalistas, como é o caso da “Rádio Vos di Santa Krus”.
Em Cabo Verde as rádios comunitárias debatem-se com um problema sério da sustentabilidade.
Por um lado, esse problema prende-se com dificuldades na arrecadação de receitas compatíveis
com os custos de funcionamento, pois tratando-se de uma instituição sem fins lucrativos e que ao
mesmo tempo presta um serviço público deveria contar com subvenções por parte do Governo
por forma a colmatar essas despesas, o que não acontece em Cabo Verde apesar de estarem
consagradas na Lei da Comunicação Social. Por isso, para suportar as despesas do
funcionamento das rádios as ONGs têm procurado patrocínios através de parcerias e
desenvolvido projectos que contemplam actividade radiofónica.
A sustentabilidade das rádios impõe-se como um grande desafio, principalmente, num país onde
ela provou ser um instrumento importante de comunicação de massa de promoção do
desenvolvimento, informação e formação para a cidadania.
Em Cabo Verde não existe um regime aplicável às rádios comunitárias, mas sim uma proposta de
decreto-lei sobre as rádios comunitárias, já aprovado pelo Conselho de Ministros, no passado mês
de Setembro.
As Organizações da Sociedade Civil, responsáveis pelas rádios comunitárias em Cabo Verde, têm
incrementado acções que visem levar o Governo a reconhecer a importância das rádios
comunitárias no país. Os encontros realizados entre as rádios comunitárias da CPLP(2003),na
Praia, as rádios comunitárias de Cabo Verde(2006), em Santa Cruz e entre rádios comunitárias de
Cabo Verde e Guiné-Bissau(2007)também em Santa Cruz, provam o esforço e a vontade do
reconhecimento que hoje é atribuída as rádios comunitárias pelo papel que vem desempenhando
no seio das comunidades.
Democratização
"Os meios comunitários independentes, pluralistas, podem fazer a diferença notória entre o
estado da democracia somente representativa, que está em crise, e a democracia
participativa, directa, das pessoas”.
Maria Pia Matta, vice-presidente para América Latina e Caribe da Associação Mundial da Rádios
Comunitárias
Na passagem da democracia representativa para a democracia participativa, tanto local como
regional, as rádios comunitárias em Cabo Verde têm surgido como um poderoso instrumento.
As rádios comunitários têm prestado um serviço público à sociedade, tem criado consensos na
comunidade em volta de causas nobres e ajudado a melhorar a sua qualidade de vida, agindo de
forma progressista e promovendo a mudança social, bem como a democratização da
comunicação através da participação das populações.
15
As rádios comunitárias em Cabo Verde, têm permitido a criação de espaços de debate e de
confrontação de ideias entre os diferentes grupos sociais, políticos e económicos, com visões e
interesses diferentes, reforçando assim a instância democrática a nível local.
As rádios comunitárias cabo-verdianas têm apostado na capacitação (empoderamento) dos
cidadãos para o exercício da cidadania e da democracia. Têm garantido a pluralidade de opinião:
garantia do direito de qualquer cidadão emitir opinião, manifestar ideias, propostas, sugestões,
etc., contribuindo assim para um maior protagonismo e afirmação dos jovens e das mulheres na
tomada de decisões nas comunidades.
As rádios comunitárias dão voz à comunidade, voz que na grande mídia a mesma não encontra
espaço para expressar as suas preocupações. Elas têm fortalecido a capacidade da comunidade
de fazer conhecer as suas aspirações, necessidades e problemas pelas autoridades e pela
sociedade em geral.
Relembrando as recomendações saídas do encontro entre as rádios comunitárias de Cabo Verde
e Guiné-Bissau, “as rádios comunitárias devem ter um rosto próprio, uma linha editorial coerente
com a sua missão de servir a comunidade, dentro do principio da democratização da palavra e
da gestão democrática da sociedade”.
Democratizar a palavra, democratizar a sociedade equivale pois, a um compromisso com a
legalidade e a cultura da paz.
Governação
As rádios comunitárias em Cabo Verde têm contribuído pela prática da Governação de
proximidade, através de programas que dão voz à comunidade, onde são levantadas questões
em que os governantes são chamados para darem respostas e/ou soluções às demandas da
comunidade.
A Rádiu Vos di Santa Kruz (Ilha Santiago) e a Rádio Comunitária de Promoção da Mulhres(Ilha
Santo Antão) têm engajado junto do projecto de implementação do Orçamento Participativo
(OP) na gestão camarária, no Município de Santa Cruz e Paul, como método de trabalho da
Câmara Municipal e como um elemento do Programa de Luta Contra a Pobreza, uma vez que
permite uma identificação, mais próxima, das prioridades comunitárias, contribuindo assim para
uma governação transparente, de proximidade, participativo e de integridade.
As rádios comunitárias têm apostado na informação dos cidadãos, através da difusão diária de
notícias locais e nacionais. As notícias nacionais, em algumas rádios comunitárias são
transmitidas em cadeia com a rádio nacional, no horário da transmissão do principal noticiário
nacional. Uma das intenções é de manter a comunidade sempre sintonizada com a rádio local e
ao mesmo tempo aceder a mais informações, através da rádio nacional. Desta forma, além de
estarem bem informados, podem acompanhar também as acções do governo, avaliando assim o
seu zelo pela prática de uma boa governação.
Deste modo, as rádios comunitárias têm transmitido informações da e para a comunidade, em
matéria da governação, da educação para a democracia e cidadania, educação para a saúde
pública, bem como informar a população sobre como obter a satisfação dos seus interesses, em
prol de uma governação digna. Com isso, pode-se dizer que as rádios comunitárias em Cabo
Verde têm vindo, efectivamente, a contribuir para que haja cada vez mais e melhor governação,
tanto ao nível local, regional como ao nível nacional.
Aquisição dos Objectivos do Milénio (OMD)
Reduzir a Pobreza Extrema e a Insegurança Alimentar
16
As rádios comunitárias em Cabo Verde constituem um autêntico instrumentos de diálogo entre a
comunidade e as autoridades locais, bem como veiculadora de informação educativa visando
conscientizar as populações e mobilizando-as para o desenvolvimento local sustentável e para
o combate à pobreza absoluta.
As rádios comunitárias são vistas no arquipélago, como sendo um bem da comunidade e, por
isso, ela serve a comunidade, estabelecendo diálogo entre os membros da comunidade e
ajudando no levantamento de ideias para a solução dos problemas de interesse comum, como é o
caso da questão de segurança alimentar. Nessa perspectiva as rádios comunitárias têm
programas destinado a ajudar a melhorar a qualidade de vida. São transmitidas programas de
formação
via
rádio
sobre
Manipulação
dos
Alimentos
e
campanhas
de
informações/sensibilização sobre a Segurança Alimentar.
Promover a Igualdade de Género e a Autonomia das Mulheres
As rádios comunitárias têm procurado equilíbrio de género desde o recrutamento de radialistas,
passando pela programação e gestão das próprias Rádios, contribuindo assim para um maior
protagonismo e afirmação dos jovens e das mulheres. Existe em algumas rádios comunitárias
(Rádiu Vos di Santa Krus), convenções de parceria com o Instituto de Igualdade e Equidade
do Género (ICIEG), no sentido de reforçar a igualdade de género e autonomia das mulheres,
através de programas radiofónico sobre a problemática do género, enquadrado no projecto de
“Reforço das Capacidades dos Voluntariados Associativos para a Melhoria das Condições
das Mulheres no Concelho de Santa Cruz”, patrocinado pelo Sistema das Nações Unidas,
através da “Unidade de Capital Humano”.
Combater o HIV/SIDA, a Malária e Outras Doenças
As rádios comunitárias também têm desenvolvido programas e informações de actividades
(palestra `em directo´, formações, programas de sensibilização, …)
sobre a problemática do HIV/SIDA realizadas em diversas localidades. As rádios comunitárias têm
acompanhado e transmitido informações e actividades, em parceria com as Delegacias de Saúde,
sobre malária e demais doenças infecciosas. Elas têm promovido parcerias com CCS/SIDA,
instituição que coordena programas sobre HIV/Sida ao nível nacional, no sentido de fomentar a
Sensibilização, Informação, Comunicação e Educação para Mudança de Comportamento.
Assegurar um Ambiente Sustentável: Biodiversidade, Abastecimento de Água e Habitação
para Pobres
De igual modo, as rádios comunitárias têm vindo a transmitir programações e actividades, tais
como “Saber Viver”, “Clube Verde”, ”Operação Esperança”, etc. no intuito de promover um
ambiente saudável e sustentável a todos. Tem também divulgado programas de actividades e de
sensibilização sobre o consumo de água, promovido pelo Serviço Autónomo de Água,
particularmente, em comemoração do Dia Mundial da Água. Têm acompanhado o Projecto
“Operação Esperança”, que faz a reabilitação e construção das habitações sociais, destinado às
pessoas pobres e/ou menos favorecidas.
Portanto, as rádios comunitárias em Cabo Verde têm vindo a desempenhar um papel de
extrema importância na edificação de uma sociedade cada vez mais bem informada, sensibilizada
e formada para o exercício da cidadania e da democracia participativa.
17
Community Radio in promoting Women’s Participation in
Governance - Doris Dery
Introduction
The growing necessity of women and more importantly, rural women to acquire information in
order to communicate with themselves and with the community is a challenge to the media sector
in most countries. The need for communication has been identified as one of the bases for social
change and community growth.
However, the forces of globalization that appears to widen the already existing gap between
women and the rest, the poor and rich, rural and urban, present a major challenge to the role of the
media in communication in Ghana and elsewhere. That is why community radio is a means for
significant change in the trend of media not only in Ghana but I believe in Africa and in the world.
Background
In a workshop at the World Social Forum earlier this year 2007, a group of women from different
backgrounds of African, Asian, and both North and Soutern American, shared their experiences as
women who work in community media. For all of them, the forum was a means to share
experiences from a woman’s perpective and from a community media point of view on how
specifically, community radio is being used as a means of facilitating dialogue between women and
national authorities, highlighting the various ways by which women are engaged in different
activities towards promoting their lives and participation in governance.
Highlights from discussions
Community media work to portray women in a better way by dealing with issues of women’s
concern.
Community media uses magazine programmes to highlight roles of the women and what their
contribution is to development.
Community radio is backing women through their involvement in the local councils through
programmes during elections to support women candidates.
Real ways of community radio for women
• Community radio as a means to preparing women for political positions
• Community media is a learning and training ground for women and should be used as such
to futher empower women
• Using the microphone not only a tool, but as an empowerment for women to push forward
their ideas.
• Using community radio as a chance to execise rights to voice and participate in governance
and leadership
• Community radio should be a means to articulate womens problems so they develop public
speaking skills for paliament and other positions.
• Women experience self actualization as they discover that they are making meaning, and
sharing through the activities. As such, they become the women reporters, trainers and
producers of their messages.
Community radio broadcasting
• Decentralized activities and public programmes on sensitization for gender issues
• organise and facilitate panel and seminar discussions on women activities
• Identify training methods for women and men on governance issues.
• Proactive reportage by women, recognising the problem and articulating for a change
• Community radio connects various communities to this issues and for this reason the
problems of women are recognized and they push for a solution between the authorities
and get them to respond to the problem.
• Women’s activities and role should be recognised and used as base for their involvement in
local governance and leadership positions.
Community radio as a facilitator to engaging networks
18
•
•
•
Community can facilitate women candidates to develop their manifestos, which should
reflect women’s interests, and so that women can be held accountable when elected into
positions.
Linking public authority and civil society efforts to promote women in governance. NGO
involvement should reflect in this as well.
Encourage the representatives in numbers within political parties to ensure that women are
nominated for parliament. this will also bring in sanity in party politics for healthy
competitions.
Promoting women’s participation in governance
At another level, community radio can still play a significant role in promoting women’s participation
in governance. The songs that women sing, voices of women telling stories to their children, and
the languages spoken by women are all great examples to start with.
Building a culture of inclusion takes into account social issues, and this is the community radio
style that can enhance the role of women. Women then have the chance to identify, discuss and
integrate gender perspectives into all areas while participating in the processes of decision making
for changing policies.
Recommendations
1. At the local level, through community radio level
• Specific provision should be made for women to be in both the management and
broadcast units of every community radio, from the position of the Board of directors
all the way to the volunteers. This way, gender issues are sure to be included in
decision making and equity projected in broadcast.
• Increase capacity building for women in community radio on management and
technical skills. It is useful to increase gender awareness in society by broadcasting
good quailyt gender sensitive programming.
• Programming to be able to exercise their rights to voice, to ensure good governance
through community radio.
• Build the capacity of women to use community radio to project good governance by
holding governments reponsible to engage citizines in inclusive and responsive
practices.
• Community radios can identify potential women canditates for government positions
and facilitate their campagins through the broadcasts on programmes that are for
poverty reduction in their communities.
2. At a secondary level is through the government structure.
• Networking: It is important to strengthen and encourage knowledge sharing for
women to increase the impact of their actions on good governance. This can start at
local levels and extend widely internationally. Say local district assemble women’s
caucus have their own song (anthem), so can be the regional coordinating council
and Members of Parliament (MP) at the national level. Needless to say the difficulty
is that community radio is more vibrant in rural communities than in urban centers
and this is important to note by the MPs because they stand a chance to effect a
change to that.
• Project women’s participation in governance through increasing the proportion of
seats held by women in Parliament.
• Engaging with international communication for development practitioners, Non
Governmental Organisations, governments and the private sector stakeholders.
Radio progress and Oxfarm’s engagement for the girl child education project in the
Upper West Region of Ghana, using community radio methodologies for education
is a remarkable example.
• Consider low licenses fees to ensure equitable access to frequencies by rural and
poor communities for women to get a greater chance to participate.
Challenges
1. Evaluation
How to mearsure the impact of community radio on women, the role of community radio in
promoting women’s participation, and women’s perofrmance in roles and responsibilities.
19
Sustsining evealuation as a regular component of community radio and women’s activities.
Financing research in the role of community radio and women’s development in general.
2. Governments legislative frame work and barriers on coverage, content, and equipment for
community radio.
3. Sustainability against commerciality available to the public.
Conclusion
Women’s participation in governance is one of the major issues in today’s development. In the
media world, this has always been associated to lack of information for women to use or where
there is information; women are portrayed as objects of some kind.
It will only be fair to measure women’s contribution to development if and when their role can be
recognised, not limiting to stereotype ideas but widened beyond limits to decision making, policy
formulations and governance. Community radio is standing out tall in this direction and only needs
the governments to listen. I believe everyone’s role is to make them listen!
20
Community radio, policies and challenges in Jordan - Tamara
Aqrabawe
With globalization threatening local cultures, human knowledge and minority and ethnic groups’
identities, community radio has emerged as a strong support for the grassroots, protecting their
fundamental communication rights, creating a local channel for these voiceless groups and
providing them with a useful means of information to understand their development goals and
activate their participation in the public life.
Communities recognized the essential need for local media so the first attempt was producing local
audio programs ,Abdul Rahman Pasha has described narrowcasting—audio programs “played
through loudspeakers set up at places where the community people gather e.g. village markets
and exhibitions, public offices, meetings”—as a “good first step for community radio.” (1)
What is now recognized as community radio began in Bolivia in the 1947, radio miner's,entirely
community operated.(2)
Steve Buckley,president of the World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters (AMARC),
has said that community radio “can be considered a third sector of the media landscape independent, with social and not commercial objectives.”(3)
Main characteristics of community radio are that is non governmental, non commercial, non
religious, non partisan, run by grass roots, participatory, provides different communities with local
information, educational content and civil rights, a forum for democracy practice. Community radio
can provide a space for youth training, empowering social movements and minorities.
Community Radio HandBook of UNESCO 2001,gives useful description for community radio by
Carlos A.Arnaldo : "Community radio is a social process or event in which members of the
community associate together to design programs and produce and air them,thus taking on the
primary role of actors in their own destiny, whether this to be for something as common as
mending fences in the neighborhood,or a community - wide campaign on how to use clean water
and keep it clean, or agitation for the election of new leaders, the emphasis is on the ownership of
democratic and development efforts by the members of the community themselves and the use of
media,in the case radio, to achieve it in very sense,this is participatory communication ( not
programs made about them by somebody else!). " (4)
Success stories for community radio around the world such as in India, Canada, Australia and
Bolivia, drew the international community attention which recognized its importance and called for
supporting it as “means to reach rural and isolated and nomadic communities.”(5)
Despite the appreciation and recognition of community radio’s role in educating the people and
opening space for dialogue about different issues, support for citizens’ right to own and run their
media, not controlled by the political or financial interests, has not won acceptance in many parts of
the world, including the Middle East.
Steve Buckley has noted that “radio does not recognize walls or borders” (6), and citizens of some
Arab states, including Iraq, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan have found this participatory media
offers an opportunity to access local information and serve as a tool to promote awareness of
rights and democratic media in a region with a history of autocratic regimes and a lack of
independent community media.
“The use of community radio in the Arab world is a revolutionary development idea.”(7) This
description comes from Daoud Kuttab,founder of first community radio in Jordan "Ammannet", he
thinks that the revolution came from some interesting attempts to change the role of radio from a
political propaganda machine of the government to a local, citizen-dependent media. For many
decades, governmental media have paid little attention to local social, political or cultural levels and
have primarily broadcast news and other programs about Arab national and international matters.
21
For some Arab countries suffering from conflict as Iraq and Palestine, community radio found its
way because of the political transition. In Iraq, “Since the fall of the Saddam’s regime in April 2003,
countless radio stations have been founded...some small local initiatives use radio to raise the
communities’ social and political awareness and give a voice to the people within their society.”(8)
In Palestine, “independent and community-based media grew very quickly after the Israeli
occupation troops left major West Bank cities after the Oslo process. New radio stations popped up
without regulation and without any planning. The most prominent community based media are
based in universities and non governmental organizations.”(9)
The situation in Jordan is different. Community radio has emerged as a result of different reforms
made at the request of the national agenda and by encouragement of international community, on
which Jordan relies heavily for financial help. King Abdullah II of Jordan, who was sworn in on
February 7, 1999, has shown an interest in media privatization. In late October 2001, he called to
dissolve the Ministry of Information, and replaced it with the Higher Media Council, an advisory
body responsible for drawing some outlines of media reform.
The first step towards creating free private Jordanian media institutions was the parliament’s
approval of the 2002 Audio Visual Law. This approval led to the launching of the Audio Visual
Commission in 2003. In mid-2004, the commission started receiving licensing applications.
Unfortunately the King’s vision for media development was not fully embraced by the legislative
body, and many articles in the temporary law of the Audiovisual Commission limit the free media,
including radio. members of the Audiovisual commission and the higher media council mentioned
in some meetings with broadcasters that a new draft of AVC law will be presented to the
parliament within the first months of 2008 after the expected parliamentary elections in Nov 2007.
ARTICLE 19,an international human rights org, criticized the regulations and structure of AVC in
memorandum to the King Dome in March 2006,it mentioned that "Commission’s independence
and powers are still very modest compared to international best practice", also "Article 30 vests the
Director of the Commission with the same powers as the judicial police for the purposes of
enforcement of the Audiovisual Media Law."(10),the org noticed that the power is given for the
director instead of a board represent the local society as a whole.
The political interference is highly recognized by several articles. Article19 says "such
appointments are simply made by the Council of Ministers, upon the recommendation of the
Minister of Information" , "Furthermore, the Law does not contain any rules of incompatibility
relating to political connections. The provisions providing for issuance of licenses by the Council of
Ministers go to the heart of independent broadcast regulation and are particularly problematic."
."the Council of Ministers may grant or withhold licenses without stating any reasons (Article 18(b)).
There is, then, no institutional guarantee that broadcasting will serve the interests of the public as a
whole: it is left up to the government whether to tolerate stations which represent different views
from its own". Article 19 found that small community broadcasters might not find the enabling
environment to install this kind of stations, the org said ,"we note that Article 16(a) imposes an
incorporation requirement on applicants. The ARTICLE 19 Principles discourage imposing such a
condition,32 as small community broadcasters may not be able to meet it." (11)
Community broadcasting sector is not recognized in the laws or even supported ,the financial
requirements do not facilitate the creation of small local station, it is the same treatment of
commercial broadcasting ,the indicated high fees challenging the broadcasters and the financial
sustainability of these stations.
Radio and T.V Broadcasting and re-broadcasting and fees bylaw, No.(163)For The Year 2003
categorized the fees per the geographic areas:Article (12)says that" transmission power not
exceed 5 KW and does not include political broadcasting would be charge as following: 25,000 JD
in Greater Amman "33,000 USD , for Zarqa and Irbid 15000(JD)"19,000 USD" and the rest of the
regions 10000(JD) "13,000 USD" also, Article 14-B says "Annual fees for Radio Broadcasting
license to be paid to the commission as a percentage of the amount of the license fees indicated in
the provisions of this bylaw:" 20 % for the 1st year,25 % for the 2nd year,30 % for the 3rd year,40
% for the 4th year, 50 % for the 5th year and for each following year.(12)
Also the Telecommunications Regulatory Commission "TRC" requires additional fees starting from
22
the application by 100 JD and for the frequencies starting from 2,000JD per year ,per frequency "
the calculation depends on the coverage area" (13)
"The Director refers his approval or rejection recommendation to the Minister of Information,
requesting a decision within 30 days (Article 16(c)(1)). The Minister subsequently prepares his own
recommendation for the Council of Ministers, which issues a final decision within 60 days (Articles
16(c)(2) and 18)."(14)
During the time given to AVC,the security department's check about the applicant,the law does not
include any mention to this process,even it happen usually, in an email from Daoud Kuttab,director
of Ammannet radio,said "when we applied, Asma Khader the Spock's person of the government
told me that before the cabinet discusses these applications there is a supposedly technical
committee which meets to prepare for decisions of the cabinet and apparently this includes
someone from security. once this technical committee makes recommendations the full cabinet
usually follows them and approves. So there is a security clearance but it is not written clearly in
any of the laws and regulations " (15)
ARTICLE NO. 3 categorizes the types of licenses by the presence and/or absence of political
programs and news coverage. stations that wish to transmit political programs or news must pay
an additional 50 % surcharge, on other hand Article 19 says ,"The Law already guarantees
exemption from fees for the national broadcaster ,In addition, the possibility of exemption from fees
might lead to unfair competition with non-State broadcasters".(16)
This article affect on small community stations which run by activists from civil society, challenging
them to not produce and discuss political matters in spite of its importance as a chance for citizens
to practice the democracy and monitor the political process and participate in the decision making.
considering that community radio in other countries run by limited financial resources on non-profit
basis.
The law makes no provision for the social contribution offered by community media or local,
independent NGOs: under the law, all applicants must be companies (ARTICLE 16A). about 12
commercial stations were licensed to broadcast in Amman, while the political license granted just
for tow independent stations since the establishment of AVC, Ammannet and Watan FM.
The law states that licensed stations are not allowed to transmit any program that contains
blasphemous material or doubts religious beliefs; any program that disrespects the values, culture,
and unity of the Jordanian society; or any program that is offensive in general including
pornography and/or violence. Article19 says "Many of the obligations listed in Article 20,in
particular (1),(3),(4) and (5)are matters which are normally covered in laws of general application,
in particular the criminal law It is unnecessary to repeat them in a broadcasting law and there is a
danger that such a "double warning" about what is illegal may have a chilling effect on
programming decisions .Moreover, some of the prohibitions are very vague, such as those relating
to the public interest and national unity. As such, they do not give broadcasters sufficient notice of
what exactly is prohibited." (17)
In spite of the legislative and financial difficulties which prevent the development of an environment
conducive to community radio, international donors took earlier step before drafting this law by
financing the first attempt to set up an independent, local Internet-based station. Ammannet was
founded in 2000 by the Palestinian -American journalist Daoud Kuttab, named one of 50 World
Press Freedom Heroes by the International Press Institute in 2000. At that time FM private stations
were not allowed, so Ammannet used the Internet to broadcast local and municipal reports and
social issues. The station reached the Jordanian listeners and was 100% legal. By rebroadcasting
its programs through Palestinian stations, it reached Amman.In 2005, when private stations were
granted formal approval, Ammannet applied for a regular license which excludes coverage of
political news.
Asma Khader, former Minister of Culture and former Spokesperson of the Jordanian government,
said "There clearly was hesitation in following up with these directives within the government, The
legal limit of sixty days in which the government is supposed to respond to a request was about to
elapse and the government was hesitating in approving their license request even though others
who had music radio license requests received approval in 3 weeks, at the end Jordanian law was
victorious and the station was licensed despite all these fears.(18)
23
Finally after licensing the station Ammannet went on air in July 2005. The first problem Ammannet
faced was in August 2005, it was not allowed to air an open session of the Greater Amman
Municipality's (GAM) council. The radio director Daoud Kuttab asked the Higher Media Council to
stop "discrimination against radio journalists." The council failed until these moments to convince
the municipality of Ammannet’s right to air the session live.(19)
Ammannet’s second tension was with the Audio Visual Commission. After broadcasting a press
conference by the government spokesperson about the rise in fuel prices, Ammannet received a
warning notice for breaking its license conditions, which don’t include the ability to broadcast news
and political programs.the radio director said "The press conference was about fuel mark-up and
this issue concerns our society, it's not politic.", “The commission replied that "the same
conference includes discussion about Palestine, Iraq and Israel and this political subjects.
Originally, the Prime Minister himself is a political character! Hence, any media coverage for this
conference is considered political one.", "We reached to an ambiguous point. Who is right they or
we?” Kuttab added.(20) In September 2005, Ammannet raised funds and received the first political
license in the country.
The second community radio out of Amman was "Ma'an Voice," which launched in February 2006.
It is the result of a partnership between the governmental university Al Hussein bin Talal and the
British Council. Because of the partnership with the governmental institution, the station was
exempted from paying the license fees. while the station was able to avoid the high license fess,
this situation led soon to a conflict of interest between the crew of youth who started the station
(trained by Ammannet) and the University administration, which was appointed by the cabinet,
Mohamad Abu Arqoub of Ammannet ,who directed the training for seven months ,wrote in email to
the author,29th May 2007," The vision of the radio among the youth and university was they are
going to promote for government and to repeat the official ideas ,it was difficult to convince them
that community radio is not a promotional channel, its from citizens to citizens and to develop the
society. not to repeat what the official says as they are right always ,the fault of the British council
was there partnership with governmental university ,any kind like this will be controlled by the
government and not for the citizens .also the university exchanged youth by doctors and
administrative to be on air, for the security interference .. we did not notice this , because the self
control of who runs the station is higher, especially it is governmental university"
The radio station for Yarmouk University, in Irbid, faced a similar situation with university
administration directing radio broadcasting and content. In an email with one student, he admitted
that students felt bored from listening to typical programs and the encouragement to there ideas on
air is weak.(21)
As we noticed community radio grown around the country, south in the desert where Maan radio
and North in Irbid city where Al Yarmouk station .Also near Madaba City ,around 50 KM far from
Amman ,UNIFEM and Jordan Hashemite fund for human development gave there input by
equipping a women-youth station in April 2006 in Leb&Mleeh village.
To avoid the license fees they decided to give the ownership to the municipality. However, despite
the investment by around 25,000 USD the station has not yet gone air DUE TO disagreement on
ownership and content between the municipality and the radio members. for more clarification ,the
author received this email by Sameer Badran of UNESCO Amman office,27th May 2007,says
Dear Tamara,
"I would like to point out that due to the fact that we needed to be exempted from the fees – The
Audio Visual Commission (AVC) and the Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (TRC) – we
had to register the radio station with a government entity which was the municipality. To ensure
that this station had its dependency from the municipality we have prepared an MoU between the
UN and the municipality.
This process took a lot of time because the municipality did not at first want to sign without the
approval of the ministry of municipalities despite the fact that they could have done so. This lead to
the MoU being dropped at the legal advisors of the ministry of municipalities which sat there for
24
some time.
Now that the MoU has been signed we are moving forward, but to our shock we still have to pay
fees to the Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (TRC) which will not exempt any station
unless it is a military station therefore, we have to wait and see how much will that cost us because
they have a formula for calculating before giving out the frequency. But they said that it will not
exceed US$15,000."
In Jordan Valley some donors as German embassy, Wadi, Toyota,WANTOK ENTERPRISES LTD,
donated in Nov 2006 by equipments and running cost for Ammannet to launch a radio for women
and farmers. The station is still working on fund raising the approx. USD 40,000 they need to raise
for application and license fees for a 100 Watt station for 2 years. the license exclude the news
and political programs.
In the Industrial City of Zarqa, where one million Jordanians live, a new station will be soon on air
supported by IREX’s Jordan Media Strengthening Program. “The station is intended to focus on
the concerns of residents and, ... help them have a say in the way their city is developed through
local newscasts, call-in shows and information programming. AmmanNet will help train the new
broadcast and technical staff in Zarqa" (22)
The international donors gave support for community radio in Jordan in spite of all the difficulties
,but also it is important that the local stakeholders release and recognize community radio as a tool
of promotion for civil rights ,democracy and a useful communication channels among different
communities in the country.
Jordan still has the chance to support the creating of community radio especially after hosting the
9th general assembly of the community radio broadcasters "AMARC9" in Amman, in November
2006. "This was Amarc’s first conference in the Arab world, and it proved to be an excellent
opportunity for community broadcasters in the region as they launched their own independent
chapter in AMARC... to be in Ammannet as temporary headquarter of Amarc Mena"(23)
The Amman declaration of Amarc9 stated "We recognize that the lack of proper enabling
legislation is the single principal barrier to the further development of community radio"(24) this
comes identically with Jordan case, hosting Amarc 9 with welcoming from Jordan government
gives positive initial understanding of the community radio and a chance for advocates and policy
makers to show the serious interest of providing the sector with healthy atmosphere supporting the
media reform in Jordan.
This study importance comes from the interest to provide overview for the regulators and
advocates on the difficulties, recommendations and best practices around the world can give
added value for the policy work ,note that its so important to archive the local history of community
radio which is mentioned in few articles separately. We will use different methodology in this paper
by reviewing articles and books ,analysis, interviews .news. This paper will include the Role of civil
society, social movements in the policy making, Policy issues, Needs and conclusion.
NOTES
1- UNESCO, How to get Started and Keep Going,Community Radio : The Voice of the People ,Abdul
Rahman Pasha; published by Voices
2-S.Smith and WM.A.Smith,RADIO,post nine-eleven strategy,2005
3-S.Buckley,Giving voices to local communities,22 March 2006
4-Community radio Handbook,Colin fraser,Sonia restrepo,UNESCO,2001
5-WSIS,Tunisia action plan
6-S.Buckly,speech during amarc 9, media freedom and social justic session,Nov 2006
7-Kuttab,i4d | April 2007 | Vol. V No. 4
8-K.Glinwinkle,"aims and strategies of Iraqi community radio stations",Nov2006,presentation during Amarc 9
conference
9-Online conversation with Daoud Kuttab,directore of Al Quds institue for media and founder of Ammannet
radio.
10-Article 19 , Memorandum on the AVC law,Lodon,March 2006 ,
25
http://www.article19.org/pdfs/analysis/jordan-audiovisual-media-law.pdf
11-Article 19 , Memorandum on the AVC law,Lodon,March 2006
12- see AVC web , http://www.avc.gov.jo/avcbl03_eng.html
13-see www.TRC.gov.jo
14-Article 19 , Memorandum on the AVC law,Lodon,March 2006
15-An email from Daoud Kuttab,Ammannet,23th May 2007
16-Article 19 , Memorandum on the AVC law,Lodon,March 2006
17-Article 19 , Memorandum on the AVC law,Lodon,March 2006
18-Community Radio for development in Jordan,Jan2006,intreview with ASma Khader by Tamara Aqrabawi.
19-press release by D.Kuttab,13 Aug 2005,http://groups.yahoo.com/group/creative-radio/message/8406
20-T.Aqrabawi,17th August,http://obsmedia.amarc.org/site.php?lang=EN
21-Email correspondence with H.Thalji,graduate student of Alyarmouk univesity,media collage.
22-Irex."http://www.irex.org/newsroom/news/2007/0314_MDD.asp
23-N.Fillmore,Amarc 9final report.
24-www.Amarc9.amarc.org
26
Community radios in Liberia - Emmanuel Johnson, ALICOR
With reference to my contribution to the first AMARC Africa-MENA Conference, I am pleased to
share this article on the state of the Liberian Community Radio’s contributions toward the
achievement of peace, reconciliation and national development.
The idea of community radio is dated back as far as the 1980’s, under the administration of
Liberia’s 18th president, William R.Tolbert. Under the Tolbert’s regime, the United States
government through its USAID-Funded program established three rural radio stations to help
interpret government’s developmental programs to the locals. They all were located out of
Monrovia which is the capital city with powerful transmitters that could cover the entire Country.
At the moment, Liberia has a record of over forty community radio stations after the war. Nearly all
of these stations are established out of the capital city either by community members with supports
from the USAID or interested individuals who have the support. Most of the community radios
equally gained prominence after the departure of Ex-Liberian President Charles Taylor who
abandoned the presidency following increased pressure from the International Community backed
by Liberia’s ally America.
Some of these community stations are currently dying natural death due to the lack of support in
running them. They got support from the USAID supported Mercy Corps, which was very
instrumental in their establishments, mainly during the height of the elections in 2005, which
ushered in the first female president on the African continent. These stations were also used by
politicians during the elections to preach their political messages.
One of the greatest challenges of community radio in Liberia and which in my mind is not only
unique to Liberia is sustainability. At the movement, nearly all of Liberia’s community radios relied
on announcements, requests and sometimes few religious and mini advertisements from the
community as their revenue based for the upkeep of the station.
These stations also used the mini-tiger generators for electricity supplies. City power is yet to be
extended out of the capital city, a situation which compares community radio to keep on the air for
a very shorter period of time due to the high cost attached to fuel oil and lubricant consumptions.
Maybe, we can narrow the state of the Liberian Community Radio sector into three basic
segments.
• Inadequate support
• Low/Limited Community Participation
• Capacity Building, etc.
Uneven capacity among CRs to undertake CD needs assessment, formulate strategies for remedial
actions. CR makes all efforts to sensitize community members on the principles of Capacity
Development (CD), as community-driven in this case. They were created through ‘donor-down to
community’ therefore; it is difficult for community members to adopt the stations as theirs. This will
take a little bit of time for adaptation by the community. In rural areas, there simply isn’t enough
commerce to create an advertiser-supported model.
Religious community stations, especially those backed by the Evangelical or the Catholic churches
appear to be much better off financially than the ordinary community radio stations established by
the communities. CRs in Liberia have constituted an umbrella organization-ALICOR-as part of their
strategy to remain viable after donor assistance ended in 2005.
All Liberia’s community stations are members of the Association of Liberian Community Radios
(ALICOR), and benefit from knowledge sharing within the network. The Management and
administration of CR in Liberia are transparent and effective:
• Adhering to the broad definition of community radio in Africa Broadcasting Charter;
• CR in Liberia operates on shoe-string budget without compromising quality and showcases
its management style;
27
•
•
•
Taps talented individuals as staff-paid or unpaid;
Provides training to community members (e.g. students) and helps them develop careers in
the relevant area (media and communications).
Keeps proper records, publishes audited accounts on time, avoids waste, etc
The community radio in Liberia creates program that focuses on the community it serves. (e.g.,
experts on the air discussed main occupational challenges-agriculture, informal business
operations, etc.) The CR environment in Liberia fosters career satisfaction of paid staff and
aspirations of volunteers. ALICOR coordinating structure integrates stakeholders in order to foster
active membership. The association assistance to member CRs in conducting self- assessment of
CR capacity, introduces regional good practices and modifying behaviors toward sustainable CR
operations in Liberia.
It leverages capacity among members; it knows where extra capacity exists, who could use
additional capacity, and how to share that capacity:
Strengthening ALICOR as a national focal point for CR CD as coordinator of efforts to mainstream
needs assessments and remedial actions to address capacity weaknesses is imperative to the
country’s recovery programs, as community radio serves as a standard bearer for our traditional
heritage.
But despite these constraints, community radio in Liberia has been involved in sensitizing
community members on democratization in good governance through community awareness
programs produced by the stations with the involvement of the locals, stakeholders and other
community members who appeared on the radio create the forum on community development. The
community members sometime participate either through Live In-Phone-Talk shows, which allowed
people to contribute to the topic under discussions.
Community radio in Liberia is also providing broadcasts on the awareness of the Country’s Truth
and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), The Reintegration Program of Ex-Combatants into the
Communities, creating awareness on the Security Sector and Institutional Reforms, Governance
and Economic Management Assistance Program (GEMAP), Conservation of Liberia’s natural
resources and environmental protection, etc.
In the recent launched of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the government of the
Liberia invited representatives of the Association of Liberian Community Radios (ALICOR), to form
part of the process.
The launching ceremony was centered on stakeholders creating the awareness in the Interim
poverty Reduction Strategy of the Government, (IPRS).
This strategy is intended to meet up with the MDGs by the year 2015.
Community Radios in Liberia through ALICOR has begun the awareness process of the MDGs
through local talk shows with community participation.
The government views the involvement of the community radio in the Interim Poverty Reduction
Strategy (IPRS), as cardinal for community members to be informed on how
Poverty can be reduced in the Country.
Liberian women’s participation in community radio work has over the years not been encouraging.
This is because they have felt that working for the community radio is all about a waste of time and
it was a sacrificial job without any pay.
There was a less interest shown in the community radio initially, but at the moment, few have
begun to grasp the concept that it is about contributing your services to the community.
Interestingly, community radio has begun bridging the gender gap in Liberia by the increased in
females participation with the work of the radio.
Today, the national and some commercial radios as well as the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL),
radio are all using the expertise of the community radio females’ practitioners. Even though, most
of the girls at the community level shy away from the radio, we think there is a freedom with
women’s participation with the community radio.
28
Women have also been encouraged under president Sirleaf’s government to take up leadership
role in the country. Most women are actually shying away from the microphone either because of
the low level of education they acquired or no formal education at all.
Liberian women have over the years refused to challenge their male counterparts. Every decision
was always made by the male dominant journalists, even to their own detriments. Women in
Liberia have actually not being involved in the works and operations of the media, and this
syndrome on the part of the female journalists has been extended to the community radio.
Even on the national scene, women became actively involved in decisions making in the 2000’s,
especially, following the election of President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. They have begun to take up
leadership role in the country’s political dispensation. This has also led to the increased of females
in the journalism profession even at the community level. Thank God that a female president was
elected to ensure gender participation in decision making in post- conflict Liberia.
29
The state of the Community Radio in Liberia - Famatta E Thomas,
Producer/Presenter, Radio Peace Harbel
Community Radio Stations in Liberia signifies a two way process which entails the exchange of
views from various sources and shows communities the significance to gain access to information,
education entertainment and advocacy. It offers the community the opportunity to participate
actively in the media as planners, producers and perform. It is the means of expression of the
community. It directed specifically to rural people and to their information needs.
The Constitution of community Radio in key questions.
Community Radio Station in Liberia is participating in democratically in several ways.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Community participation is fundamental characteristics of community radio
Live public shows
Community debates
Participation in the actual management of the station
Participation in dialogue and decision-making environment
Control of their economic, social and cultural environment
Playing an active part to development activities
In the process of constituting government policies in terms of development, Community Radio
Stations are playing vital roles
Community Radio Stations as alternative media center balances profit motive corporate media.
Community Radio Stations emphasizes the facilitation of the empowerment of people with their
own active participation the process.
It has specific objectives to promote people’s agenda.
For example local knowledge, culture, human rights social justice, environment issues, community
problems and issues related to development such as the National Poverty Reduction Strategy. In
terms of sustainability of Community Radio Stations some are sustain by non governmental
organizations while other are self sustain. Because of finding most of the Community Radios have
collapse while others are gearing towards the state of being collapse.
How is Community Radio Station reaching the millennia goals?
The world body has come out to state that by 2015, the millennia goal which is aiming at reducing
poverty in the world must be reached.
It is in this light that Community Radio Station which happens to be the heart of broadcasting for
rural dwellers, start in joining the world body to meet the above goals.
Since 2004, when Community radio Stations were refurbished and established through out Liberia
, by an international NGO known as Mercy Corps, the lives of listening audience of Community
Radios began to change for the better.
The Community Radio of Liberia is now working to help the world body to reach the millennia goals
by dissemination. Community Radio for short (CR) is not only for information, entertainment and
education but, it also advocate in reaching common grounds.
Looking at program strategies in terms of Community Radio is producing and broadcasting.
Community Radio is in the business of producing on health and sanitation as well as HIV/AIDS.
Girls education/Gender base violence (SBG)
Agriculture
Peace messages amongst community members and etc…. The Community Radio Station is now
interacting with Community members through phone in programs to encourage community
participation. This is directly having the community to take responsibility of their own development.
We can all agree that to reach these millennium goals we all have to be totally involved. The
Community Radio Station is broadcasting programs on primary education to encourage parents
and guardians to send their children to school. This is one of the major goals in reducing poverty. If
30
every child is educated it will not only decrease our illiteracy rate, but also reduce poverty rate.
Looking at Liberia from devastation of fourteen years of civil conflicts. It had caused this nation in
being dormant when it comes to the implementations of the millennium goals becoming effective
with the expectations of other countries in the world, in working with the vision of the millennium
goals in 2015. The president of Liberia, her Excellency Madam Ellen Johnson Sirleaf launched the
Property Reduction Strategy (PRS) in August.
With involvement of CR in disseminating the President’s message, every part of Liberia is
participating in the PRS.
Community Radio Station in Liberia is playing a pivotal role in the infrastructural of the Nation.
Community Radio Station has become one of the basis tools in techniques used in disseminating
information. It involves with other expects that are linked to stakeholder expectations, keeping
momentum of the process or follow-up actions, or involvement of stakeholder in a cyclical process.
Therefore, Community Radio Stations objectives in the democratic process of Liberia include a set
of short medium, and long term goals based on a set of date derived from solid research and
analysis on economic, political sectored and thematic issues.
Systematic application of Community Radio Station can help in following process:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Engage stakeholders in different levels of preparation and implementation phases.
Raise awareness of stakeholders through the dissemination of information in a simplified
manner so that they are able to understand the issues and participate in the dialogue
effectively.
Continue an informed policy dialogue and debate;
Institutionalizes the participatory process;
Build under ship and accountability;
Provide a space for citizen participation in defining Country policies;
Incorporates the views of the poor;
Establish a feedback mechanism;
Build confidence and trust;
Build capacity for designing and managing the implementation of communication
programmers.
Community Radio in Liberia is playing a very vital role in the lives of women. In the years back,
women were seen as being house wives to the husbands, child bearers, and even bread winners
for the family in terms of making farms to feed her family.
This went on for centuries, women were not heard, not allowed to talk in public places go to school
and had no rights as a human.
When Community Radio came into assistance, women were also pushed at the back. Radio was
seen as men thing. With the flight of gender equality in other countries, Liberia without exception,
have joined the struggle with disseminating information on gender issues.
Community Radio Station has been producing several programs on the issue of women to create
lots of awareness in the participation of women. Liberia who happens to have the first female
president in Africa which have brought proud to this nation entitles the struggle of gender equality.
Women in Liberia have seen this as a challenge with the free primary education in Liberia most
women and girls have been motivated in going to school. And also most women are place in
strategies area with CR few women are involve due to the lack of sustainability.
In conclusion, Community Radio is an important tool used in Liberia in terms of dissemination and
reaching the people.
Famatta E Thomas
Producer/Presenter
Radio Peace Harbel
31
Les radios communautaires au Niger - Kadi Souley B. Kohler
1. Historique
Le Niger est situé au coeur de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, il est traversé à l'extrême sud-ouest par le
fleuve du même nom. Avec une superficie de 1 267 000 km2. Il est le plus vaste des pays de
l'Afrique Occidentale et se classe 6e à l'échelle continentale après le Soudan, l’Algérie, le Congo,
la Libye et le Tchad.
Etat enclavé de l'Afrique sahélienne, il est limité au nord par l'Algérie et la Libye, à l'est par le
Tchad, au sud par le Nigeria et le Bénin, au sud-ouest par le Burkina Faso, à l'ouest par le Mali.
La population est estimée à environs 12 millions. 80 % des Nigériens vivent encore dans les
campagnes. Le Niger est l'un des pays les plus pauvres du monde.
Avec l'avènement de la démocratie et de l'Etat de droit intervenu dans les années 90 qui a mis fin
au monopole des radios publiques; le paysage médiatique nigérien s’est élargi très vite avec la
mise en onde des premières radios privées à vocation commerciale dés 1994 puis
progressivement l’installation des radios communautaires 9 ans plus tard.
2. La Contribution des Radios Communautaires dans l’enracinement de la
Démocratie et la bonne gouvernance
L’installation de la première radio communautaire a eu lieu en 1999 à l’ouest de Niamey dans le
village de Bankilaré, l’un des plus pauvres villages du pays ou vit environ 2000 habitants dans un
milieu précaire, dépourvu d’électricité, de téléphone ou d’eau potable souvent située à plus d’une
heure de marche.
La radio de Bankilaré à été mise en place à partir d’un processus tout simple car les différents
bailleurs de fonds tenaient à s’assurer de l’implication de la population.
La création d’une association villageoise pour appuyer l’initiative et amorcer les démarches,
rassembler les conditions d’autogestion de la radio en mobilisant les ressources humaines de
direction, d’animation et de contrôle populaire.
Le choix du matériel aussi s’est imposé car les conditions climatiques sont tropicales ; l’énergie
solaire paraissait la mieux appropriée.
Cette première expérience menée par le RURANET (Réseau des radios rurales et centres
d’information pour le développement et des partenaires1) au développement visait principalement
à fournir une réponse tangible aux besoins des populations rurales dans les domaines de
l’information, de la communication pour le développement économique, social et de la santé ; la
réduction de la pauvreté et étendre la capacité des populations rurales.
Le RURANET ambitionnait un objectif de cent soixante radios au démarrage avec une
implantation équitable dans les huit régions du pays; à raison de 8 par région. Il visait également
l’intégration d’un CID2 au sein des radios afin de favoriser l’accès communautaire à la télévision, à
une vidéothèque, à un noyau de bibliothèques /centres de documentation, entre les différentes
radios du réseau, à la planification de l’énergie solaire et à la téléphonie fixe rurale, là où les
conditions le permettent. * A signaler que la téléphonie mobile restera longtemps prioritaire au défi
de la connexion ADSL ou par fibre optique en faveur des TICS ou NTIC.
Des organisations émergent dans ce sens avec l’appui technique du gouvernement nigérien. C’est
ainsi qu’est né un comité de pilotage des radios de proximité le CPRP, au sein duquel siégent des
membres de la société civile et d’organisations3 qui financent ces radios.
Dans les faits, toutes ses structures sont en stand-by et ne servent qu’à des recherches de
prestations qui souvent ne profitent qu’à quelques individus. A ce titre le Conseil Supérieur de la
Communication semble vouloir aménager un organe de contrôle.
3. La Contribution des Radios Communautaires. Objectifs de développement et
l'émancipation des femmes
Au Niger plus de 80% de la population est illettrée ou analphabète. Les voies de communication
restent insuffisantes mais la radio est un moyen efficace pour combler le fossé technologique et
réduire les inégalités persistantes entre les néophytes et ceux qui détiennent le savoir.
Ainsi sur la base des différents rapports établis notamment en 2007 par des experts du Système
des Nations Unies on peut démontrer la contribution des radios communautaires dans l’attente des
ODM (objectifs du millénaire.) Notamment à travers un soutien de certains bailleurs de fonds
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comme le programme des Nations Unies pour le développement, la SNV pour la formation des
animateurs et animatrices, la diffusion permanente de production sur des thématiques sensibles:
Le VIH sida, l’entretien et la préservation de l’environnement, la décentralisation, l’éducation de la
petite fille, la citoyenneté, l’accès à une formation de qualité, tous les thèmes qui concourent à
lutter contre la précarité et qui ont un impact direct sur la vie socioéconomique et culturelle des
populations rurales.
Dans un pays fortement islamisé comme le Niger parler d’émancipation de la femme même sur les
ondes peut représenter un défi, et même provoquer la fermeture d’une radio. Rares sont les radios
qui accordent des places de responsabilité aux femmes, alors qu’elles sont de plus en plus visibles
dans les comités de gestion, d’animation et participent aux débats mais sont toujours considérées
comme des subalternes.
Ce qui perpétue les discriminations envers elles dans tous les domaines de la vie. Les réponses
que les médias doivent apporter sur les réelles préoccupations des femmes par exemple : l’accès
à la terre, l’héritage, le mariage authentique, la répudiation et la garde des enfants demeurent sans
réponse car souvent les droits coutumiers s’opposent à un jugement civil.
Aujourd’hui une centaine de radios communautaires diffusent régulièrement leurs programmes
nonobstant quelques graves difficultés enregistrées au niveau de la gestion, la production et donc
leur viabilité et leur praticabilité.
Les bailleurs de fonds et le gouvernement manquent d’informations régulières sur la réelle
situation des radios parce que les moyens de communications sont quasiment inexistants entre les
radios elles-mêmes : connexion Internet inexistante et/ou à des prix outranciers. Les radios
communautaires sont souvent la cible d’élus locaux ce qui permet aussi d’informer «gratuitement»
les populations.
Une plate forme de coordination contre ces exclusions doit être crée car le rêve de milliers de
populations risque de s’envoler en fumée si rien n’est fait pour rétablir une communication ;
poursuivre le programme d’installation des centres d’information et la maintenance des sites
d’exploitation des radios ; doter le réseau des radios communautaires de moyens nécessaires
pour assurer véritablement la formation continue des acteurs ; établir des rapports annuels ; pallier
quelques insuffisances de personnel non rémunéré. Le gouvernement nigérien soutient
financièrement les médias et pourquoi pas les radios communautaires ?
L’AMARC pourrait envisager un partenariat étendu à toutes les radios communautaires du
Niger comme mentionné par des experts de l’UNESCO :
• • Favoriser par exemple un échange de productions avec d’autres radios communautaires
étendues à des réseaux de productions
• • Evaluer les besoins en formation du personnel
• • Appuyer et Renforcer /ou créer une unité de production locale
• • Renforcer les acquis du RIF AMARC Niger qui dispose déjà d’une structure de production
et distribution de programmes radiophoniques
• • Evaluer sur le terrain les impacts des programmes diffusés par les radios
communautaires
• • Développer le e learning
Dans le programme cadre de lutte contre la pauvreté engagée depuis 2002 qui inclut des sous
points comme la décentralisation, le gouvernement nigérien doit définir clairement ses stratégies et
apporter un appui financier en complément équitable (50/50%) de l’apport des bailleurs de fonds.
Donner la parole, échanger et dialoguer font partie des valeurs sûres qu’incarne l’Afrique.
En tout état de cause, les autorités nigériennes doivent réitérer leur ferme volonté à continuer
d’accompagner un processus d’investissement financier ou logistique plus que jamais nécessaire
pour une paix et un développement durable. C’est une condition sine qua non aux soutiens des
partenaires au développement.
Kadi Souley B. Kohler
Responsable des programmes RIF AMARC Niger
Village francophonie - Porte 41 – Niamey – BP 2913 Niamey Niger
Tél. /fax (+00227) 20 32 00 90 – Email : [email protected]
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State of Community Radio in Nigeria - Akin Akingbulu & Miriam Menkiti
Introduction
The development of a truly plural broadcasting landscape, incorporating a thriving community radio
sector along with other tiers, is a key item of engagement in Nigeria.
As the country strives to overcome her contemporary development challenges, she cannot but
grapple with the provision of access to communication resources for the majority of its 140 million
citizens.
Sixty-two years of state broadcasting monopoly and a further twelve years of private/commercial
participation failed to provide adequate media access to the people. But the story changed when
vigilant stakeholders put their ideas and activities into a synergy and began a process of positive
engagement.
Transforming the Landscape
Community broadcasting was not a feature of the Nigerian media scene even as at the early period
of the present democratic dispensation. Indeed, the Nigerian political environment was adverse to
its development, no thanks to the long years of military rule which restricted freedom of expression.
All that began to change when, in year 2003, a collaboration of two international organizations, the
World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters (AMARC) and the Panos Institute West
Africa (PIWA), with the Institute for Media and Society (IMS), launched an advocacy programme,
the Initiative on Building Community Radio in Nigeria.
An eleven-member Steering Committee articulated a comprehensive strategy, in which spirit the
initiative embarked on a series of zonal advocacy/ awareness workshops across the country. The
workshops drew participants from stakeholder constituencies which included community-based
organizations (CBOs), non-governmental organizations, other civic institutions, academia,
regulatory authorities, government executive and legislative bodies, development and donor
groups, among others.
The events, designed to sensitize stakeholders and generate further advocacy strategies, issued
widely circulated statements.
In the years 2005 and 2006, the initiative took the advocacy to higher levels. A national conference
capped the zonal workshops and generated outputs such as a corporate structure for community
radio stakeholders and a new Plan of Action. Following was a series of sectoral engagements
which featured international development bodies and local groups such as the World Bank and the
Nigerian media. An AMARC regional seminar twinned with a Nigerian CR Policy Dialogue in Abuja
also took center stage.
With the message of CR development going down the grassroots through the nationwide
awareness-raising, engagement of government agencies was also being pursued. Before long,
government began to respond to stakeholders’ demands. From 2004 to 2006, it instituted at least
three policy development/reform processes: review of the National Mass Communication Policy,
the Development of a National Frequency Spectrum Management Policy and A National
Community Radio Policy.
The CR initiative engaged these processes by developing and submitting comprehensive
memoranda into them. The release of the final documents by the government is being awaited.
Key Outcomes
The Nigerian environment has moved in favour of community radio in the last four years. The
immediately visible outcomes include:
34
(i)
A remarkable expansion in the participation base of stakeholders. The 11-member
steering committee of 2003 has grown to over 200 organizations and individuals in
the umbrella body, the Nigerian Community Radio Coalition. These come from
constituencies such as grassroots groups, NGOs, other civic groups, media,
academia, govt agencies and international development groups, among others. This
membership is spread in all parts of the country.
(ii)
A strong awareness of the benefits of CR in numerous communities, leading to an
upsurge in the resolve to own/establish CR stations and in demands for licences.
(iii)
Appreciation of the advocacy and awareness-raising as well as positive
engagement by international development agencies.
(iv)
The review by the regulatory agency, National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) of
its regulatory instrument, the Nigerian Broadcasting Code, to provide wider
accommodation for the licencing of community radio.
(v)
The institution of three policy processes by the government:
a. the review of the National Mass Communication Policy
b. the development of a National Spectrum Frequency Management Policy
c. the Development of a Community Radio Policy.
(vi)
support by members of the legislature for law reform in favour of CR
(vii)
the approval by government of licences for radio stations in eight academic
communities. It is expected that approvals for stations in rural, sub-urban and other
communities will follow.
Community Radio and Democratization/Governance
Nigeria returned to civil rule in 1999 after more than fifteen years of military dictatorship. Over the
past eight years, the public space has relatively become freer, basic freedoms, including freedom
of expression and the media have improved while democratic institutions are developing.
But challenges remain. There is still substantial deficit in the development and provision of social
infrastructure, much of which went into decay during the years of the military. Transparency and
accountability have not become deeply embraced cultures in governance institutions. The electoral
system has not made any appreciable advance. And the grassroots, where the majority of the
population live, have not experienced serious dividends of democracy.
An increase in public oversight of governance institutions is paramount. But to achieve this, there
must be expansion in the information made available to the people about activities of government
agencies. There must be dissemination of public information and follow-up with independent,
diverse, critical analyses and opinions. There must be credible information and exchange of views
to enable the people make informed decisions and engage governance processes.
These are roles that upcoming community radio stations will perform at the grassroots, where the
majority of citizens live.
Reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
For Nigeria, the challenge of reaching the MDGs appears formidable, going by the country’s
development statistics. According to the reports of the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP) and other international agencies, about 70% of Nigeria’s 140 million people line on less
than one United States dollar (US$1) a day; illiteracy rate stands at 51 per cent with a wide gender
disparity of 62.5 per cent literate males and 39.5 per cent literate females; 62 per cent of the
estimated 7.3 million children of school age who are not receiving any formal education are girls;
infant mortality generally stands at 98 per 1000 live births and at 198 per 1000 live births for
children below five years; maternal mortality is 800 per 100,000 live births; an estimated four
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million people are living with HIV/AIDs; while average life expectancy stands at 43.3 years. Nigeria
ranked 158th (out of 174 countries) on the Human Development Index (HDI).
The government of Nigeria has expressed its commitment to the MDGs and has been
implementing programmes towards achieving them.
But there are widespread fears that the country may not achieve the goals by the deadline year,
2015.
A major plank of the argument of critics is that public understanding and awareness of the MDGs
are limited. Yet these are critical success factors. For development issues like the MDGs to make
impact among the population, they have to be publicized, explained and discussed. The principal
channel for these processes is the media.
Unfortunately, too little attention has so far been given to the MDGs in the mainstream media in
Nigeria. True, much coverage is given to traditional sectors such as education and health, but
there has been too little projection of a holistic vision of the MDGs, despite their contemporary
prominence on the local and global agenda.
The few media stories on MDGs have also been concentrated on the period since December 2004
when the first country report was launched. Pro-active and investigative reporting have been
sparse. In quantitative terms, the foreign media have covered MDGs progress in Nigeria far more
than their local counterparts.
It is expected that the emerging community radio sector will fill this wide gap left by mainstream
media. As genuine voices of the people, they will facilitate discussion, understanding of the issues
and participation of the people in tackling the challenges. As grassroot organs, they will effectively
engage governance institutions at that level, including the 774 local governments across the
country.
Emancipation of Women
Nigerian women continue to make significant contributions to national development, but many
hurdles still prevent their full participation in the affairs of the nation.
Samples: many local cultures approve of marriage, even forced marriage, for under-aged girls,
and deny inheritance rights for widows. Women do not have equal access with their male
counterparts to key positions in the workplace, including political offices. Today, more than 70 per
cent of the country’s citizens who live below the poverty line are women and fewer than 30 per cent
of school children are females.
Given its antecedents as an advocate of many progressive causes, the country’s mainstream
media was identified as possessing the potential to make a greater contribution to the
advancement of women and positioning them as key drivers of the country’s development process.
But the verdict of development scholars and practitioners and other stakeholders of the media
scene has been that: “it appears the media have chosen a role reversal, by being an instrument of
women’s subjugation and disempowerment”.
According to them:
•
Women have continued to experience barriers in accessing information and actively
participating in the communication process.
•
Despite the fact that women constitute about half of the Nigerian population, they have
been rendered invisible by the media.
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•
Women’s points of view and perspective on the society are rarely represented, or the
manner of their representation reflects men’s biases and assumptions. Women issues
hardly ever receive proportionate space and prominence.
•
In mainstream broadcast media, programming is often the exclusive preserve of men.
•
Media culture has generally thrived in the use of sexist language and symbolism that are
generally offensive, derogatory and have the overall effects of putting women in subservient
positions.
•
Media policy, legislation and regulations have also skewed contents against women.
As community radio becomes a reality in Nigeria, a priority on its agenda would be engendering
development in this country. Its strategy will entail including gender-sensitive policies as part of the
operational framework of the stations.
This will involve, among others, creating balance in women representation and ensure diversity in
programming, establish editorial guidelines which give positive portrayal of women; provide
representative management space so that women can have equal access to key positions in all
sectors.
Last Word:
Nigeria may not have been fast in developing community radio. But the results emerging from the
advocacy of the past four years are pointers that the CR sector emerging in our country will grow to
rank among the best in Africa and the world.
Stakeholders in Nigeria are passionate about and committed to the realization of this vision. With
the support of AMARC and other international partners, we should have louder songs of
celebration on CR development in Nigeria before long.
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Femmes et radio communautaire au RDC - Henriette Kumakana
1. Les femmes dans les radios communautaires
La participation de tous étant un des facteurs de développement,il sied de signaler que comme
son homologue homme,la femme a ses droits et ses devoirs dans la société,elle doit contribuer au
développement et à la construction de la nation.
Eu égard ce qui est dit ci haut les femmes des médias en général et celles de radios
communautaire en particulier doivent apporter un plus dans leurs communautés respectives pour
l’avancement de leurs nations,elles ne doivent pas se minimiser et doivent se battre pour ne pas
être minimiser par les autres .(hommes et autres femmes car l’ennemie de la femme c’est la
femme elle-même dit-on ) et aussi elles doivent prouver de quoi elles sont capables c’est dans ce
cadre que les femmes en général et des radios communautaires en particulier doivent se
solidariser pour leurs épanouissements et leurs contribution dans la société ;c’est ainsi qui a des
associations des femmes des médias qui luttent pour la promotion de la femme et encouragent la
femme à être à tous les niveaux tout en bannissant le complexe d’infériorité qui est encore dans
les fiefs de certaines femmes qui croient qui a des spécificités dans le travail pour l’homme ;il y a
même plusieurs formations de femmes sur les droits humains ,la participation de la femme ,le
leadership féminin,la femme et la bonne gouvernance, femme et construction,l’approche genre…
pour permettre aux femmes en général à s’imprégner de cette logique afin d’ atteindre les objectifs
de millénaires d’ici 20015,la femme de médias ou de radio communautaire n’est pas exclue mais
au contraire elle doit jouer un grand rôle de former ,informer et éduquer la communauté sur la
considération de la femme et faire connaître les droits de la femme ,elle doit sensibiliser la
population pour lutter contre toutes formes de discrimination à l’égard de la femme,elle est sensé
connaître plus ,c’est pourquoi elle doit aider d’autres femmes et les hommes qui n’ont pas encore
comprit le bienfait de l’approche genre ,qui croient que la femme est incompétente ,inapte,être
faible ne pouvant pas se mesurer devant l’obstacle.
La femme traditionnelle et même la femme moderne dans certains milieu comme dans nos villages
en RDC la femme était déconsidérée,elle ne pouvait contribuer au développement ni à la
construction,Entant qu’être faible elle n’attendait que le mariage ,elle n ‘était bonne que pour les
travaux de ménages et la naissance des enfants,certains hommes l’utilisait comme outil ou
machine de production et cela favorisait la polygamie car un homme qui avait plusieurs femmes
pouvaient s’attendre à une récolte abondantes pendant la moisson ;chaque femme devrai prouver
qu’elle était forte pour être aimer d’avantage par son mari et les membres de sa belles famille ,afin
qu’on l’appelle femme du clan ou une femme forte ,au cas ou l’homme pense au divorce , tout les
membres du clan qui vont s’opposer car disaient –ils : »ça c’est une femme forte qui travail
suffisamment et qui nous donne des enfants,celle pour qui on a de l’estime et on l’appelait aussi
femme du clan ». C’est dans cette logique que la scolarisation de la fille était très faible par rapport
à celle du garçon, car la fille n’attendait que le mariage.
Actuellement dans les villages (mêmes quelques cas en ville) on ne considère pas la femme à
cause des réticences culturelles, donc les coutumes et mœurs discriminatoires à l’égard de la
femme font à ce que la femme soit considérée comme arrière-plan.
Il y a aussi des églises qui prêchent contre la participation de la femme et l’approche genre,
comme ils cherchent à convaincre les gens avec la parole de la bible qui dit je cite »…que les
femmes se taisent dans les assemblée des saints… ».C’est dire que les femmes ne peuvent pas
contribuer elles doivent se taire comme Eve leur marraine avait trahit le monde disent-ils
Pour ceux qui disent Amen et prennent les paroles de leurs pasteurs comme voix de l’évangile, ils
supposent qu’ une femme qui émerge ,qui travail,qui fait la politique…blasphème la parole de
Dieu,lorsqu’ une femme travaille elle est considérée comme une pite ,une femme
légère,désobéissante à la parole de Dieu…,c’est pourquoi il y a des femmes intellectuelles qui ne
sont pas permises à travailler par leurs maris à cause l’influence de leurs amis , de leurs familles et
aussi de certains hommes de Dieu.Les conséquences sont néfastes prenons le cas du domaine
sanitaire où les femmes sont exposées aux maladies sexuellement transmissible car elle n’ont pas
le droit de dire quoi que ce soit devant l’homme qui est le maître ,il doit s’imposer,la femme n’a
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pas un mot à dire parce qu’elle est femme avec son faible statut…
Même en éducation comme une bonne femme ne peut donner que ce qu’elle a, ce pas facile pour
une femme analphabète de prendre soin de la scolarisation de ses enfants et surtout des filles …
pour ne citer que cela.
2 L’impact des radios communautaires sur la situation des femmes
C’est à ce titre que les femmes de médias surtout des radios communautaires doivent s’investir
pour sensibiliser la communauté à comprendre qu’une femme est capable de faire ce que l’homme
peut faire, elle peut apporter un plus dans la communauté pour le bien être de la population et le
développement de la nation ,les radios communautaires étant des proximités sont appeler à jouer
un rôle très important dans ce cas précis ,elles doivent faire comprendre aux femmes qu’elles
doivent se battre pour trouver leurs places dans la société,elles doivent chercher à créer des
émissions politiques ou les femmes et les hommes s’expriment ,dans le social ,émissions femmes
et développement bonne gouvernance ,construction sans oublier les émissions de jeunes et
enfants car ils sont aussi vulnérables …;Faire parler des femmes et créer des débat qui peuvent
convaincre la communauté qu’une femme peut apporter un changement tout en montrant les
exemples de certaines femmes leader dans le monde et surtout celles de leurs communautés qui
ont des bons exemples à suivre ,faire les portraits des femmes connues pour donner le goût aux
autres femmes et surtout aux jeunes filles qui ont encore largement le temps d’étudier et de se
plonger dans n’importe quel domaine de la vie.
Notons que la politique était considérée comme l’exclusivité de l’homme à cause de sa caricature
comme un affaire de voleurs de menteurs des brigands ,des destructeurs qu’une femme ne
pouvait pas accéder .
Les radios communautaires qui parle de la proximité ,qui sont écoutés avec beaucoup d’attention
par la communauté qui cherche à connaître la situation son environnement sont sensées aider la
population à connaître certaines réalités comme l’éducation civique ,la bonne gouvernance et le
développement ;elle doivent prouver à la communauté que sans la participation de tous donc sans
discrimination de sexes ,de l’âge ou de tribus soit de clan on ne peut pas parler du développement
durable et effective , on peut pas construire le pays si on minimise une autre catégorie de
gens ;Avec la contribution des radios communautaires dans la sensibilisation,en montrant que
pour la bonne gouvernance les femmes peuvent apporter un plus , leurs apports dans le
gouvernement ou autres institutions peuvent être remarquable,la gestion de la chose publique
par une femme n’est pas à douter,à l’instar d’une femme qui gère sa maison ,elle est capable de
faire ses économies ,faire son budget,comme elle le fait pour sa maison,elle peut le faire pour sa
communauté et pourquoi pas sa nation. cela ne veut pas dire que toutes les femmes sont
compétentes mais il y a des femmes qui se distinguent par leur savoirs faire
Eu égard ce qui est dit ci haut les radios communautaires peuvent contribuer au developpemnt de
la nation à la bonne gouvernance,la participation active de la femme à la gestion de la chose
publique,et l’acceptation de la femme et la prise d’une position de la femme,la radio
communautaire apporte un plus chez les gouvernants et les gouvernés comme elle ne minimise
personne,tout le monde se sent concerné et contribue au développement de la nation les femmes
y compris,elles peuvent apporter un plus à partir de leurs sensibilisations à la radio comme elle est
l’un des moyens de communication les plus suivi et intéressé par la population,elle peut
occasionner beaucoup des changements dans la vie de la communauté
Fait à Kananga le 22/09/2007
Henriette Kumakana
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The State of Community Radio in South Africa – Rebone Molefe
Station Manager, Tshwane University of Technology Community Radio. Board Member &
Treasurer: National Community Radio Forum (NCRF)
The year 2007 marks the thirteenth anniversary of Community Radio in South Africa.
The
Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA) established in 1993, began issuing Community Sound
Broadcasting Licences in the same year, the move that was seen as key to the success of
democratic transformation.
To date, the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa
(ICASA), established in 2000 in terms of ICASA Act of 2000 to take over the functions of two
previous regulators, the South African Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (SATRA) and the
IBA, has issued approximately 90 four-year community sound broadcasting licences.
The past decade of community radio in South Africa was marked by considerable progress
considering an increase in the number of community sound broadcasters, as well as the growth in
the number of community radio listeners who make-up twenty percent (20%) of the entire radio
listenership. The success of Community Radio may be attributed to the collective effort of:
- The Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA) whose key functions
include establishing regulations and policies that govern broadcasting and telecommunications;
issuing of licenses to providers of telecommunication and broadcasting services; monitoring the
environment and enforcing compliance with rules, regulations and policies; planning, controlling
and managing the frequency spectrum; and protecting consumers from unfair business
practices, poor quality services and harmful or inferior products.
- the community that participate in the creation of programming that both reflect and support
the community’s sustainable development goals;
the government which through the Department of Communications have been continuously
making provision in their budget for disbursement of electronic equipment, signal distribution
and production costs for all on-air community radio stations nationally;
- government agencies such as the Media Development and Diversity Agency (MDDA) that
was set up by an Act of Parliament (Act 14 of 2002) to enable "historically disadvantaged
communities and persons not adequately served by the media" to gain access to the media;
and the National Electronic Media Institute of South Africa (NEMISA) which is an institution
of education and learning, specializing in teaching the production and technical skills applicable
to the TV, radio and broadcasting industries
the National Community Radio Forum (NCRF) whose work is to build an enabling
environment and a coherent sector identity, ensuring continued healthy growth of community
radio South Africa.
- Media Training institutions such the Institute for the Advancement of Journalism and ABC
Ulwazi who source funding from donors for the training and development of Community Radio
practitioners.
The past twelve years also saw community radio going through a difficult and desperate phase.
Some of the challenges that community radio is still grabbling with include:
- Financial sustainability – Advertising remains the major source of income generation for
broadcasters. The ability to maximize access to the advertising revenue still remains a
challenge due to advertising industry’s lack of confidence in community radio.
- Shortage of skills – The volunteerism system used by Community Radio makes it vulnerable
to poaching of skilled personnel by mainstream broadcasters
Competitive nature of mainstream broadcasters in terms of ICT. Majority of community
radios in South Africa use old ICT, referred to as analogue radio broadcasting
- Compliance with regulations governing broadcasters – non-compliance to regulations
governing broadcasters have unfortunately resulted in a number of licences being revoked by
the Regulator
40
-
The sector’s readiness in migrating from analogue to digital broadcasting in accordance
with the Electronic Communications Act No. 36 of 2005 - the impact that the digital migration
will have on Community Radio cannot be underestimated.
The contribution of community radio on:
Democratization
Community Radio came into being right at the beginning of democracy in South Africa.
Negotiations for freeing the airwaves from state control formed part of the large anti-apartheid
movement. Prior to the birth of democracy in South Africa, historically marginalized communities
and groups like poor communities in rural and peri-rural areas, women, people with disabilities and
children had little or no access to the mainstream media. The inception of community radio in
South Africa provided a voice to these communities and groups who now have a platform to
express their views and opinion and also share information. It should be noted that Radio in South
Africa is one medium that is all-inclusive, affordable and very popular, and thus, still remains an
important tool for socio-economic development.
Governance
The current government in South Africa prioritized community radio as a tool to facilitate
participation in local level decision-making processes, which ultimately results in participation by
grass-root people at the national level. We have seen community radio in South Africa creating
enormous opportunities for growth and poverty reduction. Information is power! Although South
Africa has been in democracy for the past twelve years and even though we have a Constitution
that protects human rights including the right to access to information, social divide; education
divide; urban-rural divide and knowledge divide still exist. While community radio has the
responsibility to educate, inform and provide the platform to access and share information, these
efforts get slowed down by limited resources that community broadcasters have compared to
public and commercial broadcasters. Lobbying the Government for continuous support to ensure
the sustained community radio sector is important.
Reaching the Millennium Development Goals
A significant contribution that Community Radio in South Africa is making towards reaching the
Millennium Development Goals is ensuring that tremendous efforts being mounted around the
country by local, provincial and national government agencies as well as non-government
organizations to combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases by creating awareness around the diseases
and promoting behaviour change reach communities marginalized by the mainstream media. It is
common knowledge that factors that predispose people to infection are poverty, illiteracy and
gender inequalities. These factors mostly affect people served by Community Radio.
Emancipation of women
In the opening of the first democratic parliament on 24 May 1994, former South African President,
Nelson Mandela committed parliament to gender equality and women’s emancipation. The
government has since then demonstrated its commitment to this course. This commitment is
evident in the increase in women’s political participation and their occupation of strategic positions
as a result of policies that are in place such as Affirmative Action and Gender Equity.
While the South African government’s efforts in promoting gender equality are commendable, the
majority of women in poorer and rural communities still experience vulnerability and powerlessness
to a much higher degree than men. Dissemination of Information in an absorbable and usable
form through Community Radio then becomes essential in contributing to the change process for
women’s development.
Because community radio is for the community by the community, the participation of women in the
production of the content on topical issues such as violence against women; entrepreneurship, etc
encourages their informed and active participation in areas that influence them. The use of
airwaves through Community Radio provides women the opportunity to express undistorted views
on issues that affect them. Self expression by women removes stereotypical mindsets that in my
view create barriers to women empowerment.
41
42
Community radios in Tanzania - Joseph Sekiku, FADECO Community Radio
Introduction:
Community radio broadcasting is a new phenomenon in Tanzania less than 10 years old.
However, the Government is increasingly recognizing its role as an instrument to catapult
development particularly in the rural areas. A guideline (code of practice) for community
broadcasting is being formulated to guide their operations.
Broadcasting started in early 1951 with shortwave broadcasting pilot project covering only Dar es
salaam area. It remained state owned broadcasting until 1993 when the media sector was
liberalized giving rise to licensing of private electronic media houses. There are currently a total of
50 radio stations in the country and about 40 TV stations.
The Tanzania Communications regulatory authority has designed a 4 tier systems for broadcasting
in Tanzania viz: Public, Commercial, Non- Commercial and Community radio broadcasting. A
definition of “community broadcasting” is being worked out as a non-profit service that is owned
and managed by a particular community. (TCRA,2007). The programming should be characterized
by: News as an ongoing process which supports change and development in the community;
Entertainment provided in a form that provides a collective cultural expression; and Education as
informing and sharing experiences and learning from others.
Community Radio Broadcasting:
The Tanzania Communications regulatory Authority has produced guidelines (code of conduct) for
Community broadcasting in Tanzania. This among other things has made clear the following:
a) Conducive atmosphere (policy frameworks and support) for community broadcasting (radio
and Television)
b) The code of practice for community broadcasting services in Tanzania enshrined in the
broadcasting content services regulations of 2005
c) Definitions, principles and responsibilities of community broadcasting, area of coverage,
programming news, current affairs, etc.
d) Licensing procedures including renewals, basic principles for ownership and control.
The contribution of community radio on key development issues:
Community broadcasting is conceived as a medium that gives voice to the voiceless, that serves
as the mouthpiece of the marginalized and is at the heart of communication and democratic
process within societies. This is the stand taken by the TCRA during the recent public consultative
meeting with stakeholders during the meeting held on 20.09.2007. Community broadcasting is
intended and encouraged to bridge the existing information dissemination gaps, provide a platform
for public participation (interaction), inform them communities about important issues (news and
information)- all geared towards sustainable development (poverty alleviation, good governance,
accountability, transparence)- an informed community of Tanzanians particularly in the rural areas.
Democratization and Good governance
The Government of Tanzania has gradually realized that Community broadcasting could be a very
strong means of reaching to the communities particularly in remote rural areas. As such, has
encouraged the establishment of community broadcasting services allover the country. This
includes permissions to local, urban and municipal governments to establish and manage
community broadcasting services (radio and TV). Equally the government has provided room for
NGOS and the private sector to go ahead and establish such media houses intended to uplift rural
development.
43
The main idea for this is:
a) To increase government’s outreach to the rural and isolated communities in Tanzania (the
voiceless and the un-reached)
b) To bridge the gap of information flow and exchange between government (central) with
rural populations
c) To provide opportunity for participatory involvement of the rural communities
Results: Community radios have increased the rate at which information flows and is
exchanged among the rural communities themselves and with government.
a) For the rural communities to know national budgetary allocations to their districts and
equally given them a chance to make a closer follow-up of monies or resources sent to their
localities. And to hold responsible/ accountable government officials on misuse or better
use of funds.
b) Rural communities have become more informed about issues affecting them: human rights,
resource allocation by government, laws, to mention but a few.
c) With more information, it has become possible to do participatory planning and to enforce
implementation of projects and to be accountable for them.
d) The relationship between the rural people with government organs has improved e.g.
Police under community policing, legal rights from Courts of all are now passed on to the
farmers, etc.
e) It has brought transparency to local government by broadcasting municipal council
meetings. It convinced officials of the usefulness of information and information technology
in the performance of their duties. It has allowed residents to publicize local events such as
weddings or funerals via community radio. It has become instrumental in increasing
awareness on vaccination, public health messages (malaria, HIV and AIDS, sanitation).
f) The national regulatory authority now perceives local radio as radio for development,
deserving of special support and even exemption from the registration fee; and as a main
component in the National Poverty Eradication strategy (MUKUKUTA).
Reaching the Millennium development Goals (MDGS)
The move by government is intended in one way to meet the demands of the MDGs which
have been translated into the MUKUKUTA. This looks utopian but via community broadcasting,
it is like the battle will be better worn. Community radios stations have been urged to ensure
their programming targets poverty alleviation in all its forms and has set guidelines towards
CONTENT. It must all complement government efforts towards reaching the MDGs by 2015.
Emancipation of women
The participation of the WOMEN in the media has been expressed as a priority concern.
Currently there are few women involved and the Government of Tanzania is encouraging this.
The Tanzania Media Women’s Association (TAMWA) is one such body which is trying to
encourage women participation in the media.
It remains the responsibility of the community broadcasting houses to implement programs
geared towards the emancipation of women (and their inclusion). There is a clear policy
indication and requirement that women should be active participants in the development
agenda as well as in community broadcasting. This includes other marginalized and less
represented segments of society: children, the handicapped and elderly.
Conclusion
Notwithstanding improved policy frameworks, there is a lot that is still desirable. Licensing still
remains a lengthy and expensive process. There are still many restrictions on community
broadcasting including language and coverage by community radios. Swahili and English are the
only languages permitted (while vernaculars are not yet) and the power of transmission is
restricted to a maximum power output of 100 Watts.
44
To date, there isn’t a very clearly definition for community broadcasting that has been adopted
(until recently 20.09.2007 when an attempt was made during the consultative meeting with
stakeholders on community broadcasting). There are still very few community radios in Tanzania
leaving many rural communities in a total information shadow i.e. less or not informed at all.
Financing remains a very big challenge for community radios because the cost of licensing,
equipment and management is very high. Another challenge is human resources. Community
broadcasting is such a unique non-traditional media and traditional journalists have not been tuned
to community broadcasting. Staff capacity development and adequate funding to community
radios would take these a long way.
Sekiku Joseph
Director
FADECO Community Radio (FRC 100.8 FM)
P. O. Box 223
Karagwe- Kagera region
Tanzania
45
Aperçu sur les radios communautaires du Tchad - Zara Yacoub
I LIBERALISATION DES ONDES AU TCHAD
Depuis son indépendance en 1960, le Tchad n’a jamais, connu une stabilité qui puisse lui
permettre d’amorcer un développement décent.
Des conflits armés aux conflits intercommunautaires en passant par le confit du Darfour voisin, le
Tchad continue à se chercher.
Dans, le sillage du vent de la démocratie qui avait soufflé en Afrique, les ondes ont été libérées à
travers des lois (loi sur la communication audiovisuelle, loi sur la liberté de la presse etc.)
Des années 90 à aujourd’hui, le Tchad compte vingt trois radios communautaires dont trois
religieuses (catholique, islamique)
La majorité de ces radios sont l’œuvre des diocèses catholiques.
Les radios communautaires sont concentrées au sud et à Ndjamena la capitale. Ainsi, il y a des
zones telles que le centre et l’ouest où il n’existe pas de radios communautaires.
II RESSOURCES FINANCIERES
D’une manière générale, le manque des ressources financières est l’ handicape majeure pour le
développement des radios communautaires au Tchad.
Le plus grand nombre de ces radios y compris celles de diocèses tournent grâce à l’aide
extérieure mais dès l’instant où ce financement tarde ou est suspendu cela se ressent sur le
fonctionnement
Les recettes constituées des annonces (communiqués), rares spots publicitaires et sponsor sont
insuffisantes pour faire fonctionner les radios
La subvention de l’état tombe rarement et si elle arrive, les radios reçoivent de miette ne pouvant
même pas leur permettre d’assurer un mois de fonctionnement.
Les partenariats avec les ONG sont rares
La cotisation de la population ou des membres de l’association initiatrice de la radio est
insignifiante voire inexistante
Exemple, une radio située au sud du Tchad, a dépensé 35 000 franc CFA pour imprimer des
cartes et adresser des correspondances à la communauté et cadres de la localité pour demander
leur contribution .En fin de compte, elle a récolté une somme de 15 000 franc CFA.
Au lieu de gagner, elle a perdu une somme de 20 000, somme qui pouvait lui servir d’acheter de
cassettes. Ceci pour montrer que la population ne peut contribuer financièrement au
fonctionnement de la radio.
Cette situation pouvait être expliquée par la précarité de la vie économique de la population mais
aussi par une mentalité calquée sur le service public .Tout ce qui appartient à l’état est gratuit. Et
la radio étant depuis plusieurs décennies une propriété de l’état, les gens n’arrivent pas à se
départir de cette mentalité malgré le service tout à fait différent que leur octroi la radio
communautaire.
Les radios croulent sur des charges et n’ont pas de ressources.
Les postes les plus onéreux sont ceux du personnel et de l’énergie.
Personnel
L’esprit du bénévolat qui devrait animer les radios communautaires a été faussé
Par manque d’experience, la plus part de prometteurs de radios ont calqué le fonctionnement de
leur radio sur celui de la radio publique, seule référence en matière de radio. La minorité a tenté de
faire autrement en travaillant avec des bénévoles mais en vain.
Une radio communautaire basée à Ndjamena payait son personnel le triple de ce que gagnait un
agent d’un service public .Cette radio qui avait bénéficié de nombreuses subventions etait gérée
comme une radio commerciale.
A un moment, les partenaires avaient exigé un audit et suspendu le financement.
46
Cette radio s’est retrouvé avec plusieurs mois d’arrières de salaire et d’autres dettes .Elle etait
obligé de procéder à une compression d’agents et cela avait provoqué de Tollé et son programme
avait pris un coup..
Energie
Au Tchad l’énergie électrique est la pus chère du monde et pire elle est une denrée rare.
Elle n’existe que dans quelques grandes villes.
Depuis 1990, la production électrique est perturbée par des coupures intempestives.
Ces coupures provoquent
d’incidences financières et techniques .pour les radios.
Toutes les radios sont obligées de se doter des groupes électrogènes pour parer aux coupures
intempestives mais ces groupes électrogènes consomment énormément de carburant.et tombent
souvent en panne à cause d’utilisation fréquente.
Les ruptures brusques d’électricité due au délestage et l’instabilité de groupe électrogène
endommage souvent les appareils techniques surtout l’émetteur.
Ainsi, les radios font fasse aux imprévus de carburant, de panne du groupe électrogène et des
appareils.
III ROLE ET MISSIONS
Juridiquement, les lois sont favorables aux radios mais dans la pratique cela pose problème.
Le HCC (haut conseil de la communication), organe de régulation dont la majorité des membres
sont désigné par le gouvernement fait souvent une mauvaise interprétation des textes.
.
L’eternel pomme de discorde qui oppose les radios au haut conseil de la communication ou au
gouvernement reste le rôle et la mission de ces radios.
Les textes régissant les radios communautaires ne fait pas de restriction en ce qui concerne le
traitement ou le champ d’action de ces radios mais dans la pratique, le gouvernement et le HCC
tentent coute que coute à empêcher les radios associatives à traiter certains sujets tels que la
bonne gouvernance, la démocratie etc...Dans leur entendement, les radios communautaires
doivent se contenter de parler de thèmes ou sujets relatifs à la mission de l’ONG initiatrice .par
exemple, une radio initiée par une association de l’environnement doit se contenter de parler de
l’environnement, tout comme une radio crée par une association culturelle a pour créneau la
culture rien que la culture.
Le haut conseil de la communication avait même pris une décision interdisant aux radios
communautaires de parler des elections presidentielles .Les radios ont saisi la cour suprême de
justice et la décision a été purement et simplement annulée.
Plusieurs fois, des radios ont été sanctionnées ou fermées pour non respect du cahier des
charges mais dans la plus part de cas ce sont des décisions arbitraires.
Pour l’acceptation de ces radios par les autorités, il a fallu un long et rude combat mené par
quelques activistes de la liberté de la presse mais le combat est loin d’être gagné car dans
certaines parties du Tchad, il y a des autorités qui continuent à s’opposer à la liberté d’expression.
IV IMPACT DES RADIOS COMMUNAUTAIRES
Les radios communautaires sont devenues incontournables à cause de leurs programmes riches,
variés et de proximité.
A travers des émissions souvent interactives, elles touchent à tous les questions de la societé
Et du développement
Leur contribution est réelle en ce qui concerne la bonne gouvernance et la démocratie.
Elles sont devenues dans la région où elle existe l’endroit idéal pour une expression plurielle
d’autant plus que la radio publique se concentre uniquement sur les informations officielles.
Ces radios sont tellement acceptées et adoptées par la population qu’on veut quelque fois les voir
jouer le rôle de policier et de justicier .Combien de fois n’avons-nous pas vu des gens débarquer
dans une radio pour dénoncer un cas de violation de droit de l’homme ou détournement de fond
publique ou un abus administrative .dont elle sont victimes.
Ces radios à travers des émissions souvent en langue locale sur la démocratie, la bonne
gouvernance et autres sensibilisent et informent la population.
47
Dès l’instant où les gens constatent des choses ou vivent une situation non conforme aux realités
décrites ou expliquées dans les émissions, ils réagissent
En ce qui concerne l’objectif du développement, le concept fait timidement son chemin au Tchad
et les ONG et projets chargés de le vulgariser associent rarement les radios. N’empêche, toutes
les radios communautaires se disent également des radios de développement. A ce titre, elles
contribuent efficacement dans ce domaine en relayant les activités de développement.
L’idéal serait de les associer comme partenaire au développement avec des programmes bien
spécifiques. Toute fois, nous sommes optimistes quant à l’évolution de cette situation.
Les radios associatives sont devenues le compagnon idéal des femmes ; .Elles sont des fideles
auditrices et participent beaucoup aux émissions interactives
Aussi curieux que cela puisse paraître, la question de la femme est un des sujets prisés des
émissions interactives .Cette question entraîne souvent de débat passionné avec des nombreuses
réactions de femmes.
Toutes les radios ont des magazines de femme pour parler des activités et autres problèmes de
femmes .Ces magazines sont présentés par les quelques rares femmes, qui travaillent dans les
radios. Dans le staff de la plus part des radios communautaires, les femmes représentent entre 5
à 15 %.
L’impact des radios communautaires sur la situation des femmes est incontestable
Ces radios communautaires initient en quelque sorte les femmes à la prise des paroles à travers
leur intervention dans les émissions interactives.
Elle permet également aux femmes de donner leur point de vue sur certaines questions.
Exemple : Une radio de Ndjamena avait organisé un programme spécial vacances.
Chaque matin durant deux mois, un gros plan est fait sur un thème concernant l’éducation,
l’enseignement les élèves etc. pour permettre aux auditeurs de donner leurs points de vue et faire
de suggestion. A ‘48heures de la fin de ce programme, les auditeurs avait exigé la présence à
l’antenne de l’une des auditeurs dont les interventions ont été jugées à l’unanimité pertinentes. Ce
jour, Un homme âgé qui écoutait le programme dans une ville camerounaise a fait de kilomètres
pour venir adresser personnellement ses compliments à cette femme en disant que si tous les
tchadiens réfléchissait comme cette femme, notre pays ne connaîtra plus de problème.
Nous concluons en disant qu’adviendra t-il de la population tchadienne qui ne sait ni lire ni écrire
s’il n y avait pas les radios communautaires.
48
Femme, gouvernance et médias communautaires : défis et
enjeux - Oumy Cantome Sarr, Manooré FM
La question de la gouvernance des femmes dans les radios communautaires ne doit plus être un
luxe, c’est une exigence de l’heure car les problèmes de développement interpellent au quotidien
les femmes. Malheureusement, ceci n’est pas bien compris dans les radios communautaires
sénégalaises où la question des femmes tarde à avoir un contenu et une vision sensible au genre.
Et pourtant, les femmes sont nombreuses dans les radios communautaires mais seules deux
femmes dirigent des stations ; la grande majorité préfère les postes d’animatrices de musique.
C’est comme si tout le débat agité par le mouvement féminin et la société civile n’est pas leur
priorité. Car, dans leurs propos et émissions, l’image des femmes dans les médias reste encore
négative.
Actuellement, le mouvement féminin au Sénégal a engagé un débat sur la parité dans les postes
de décision et les instances locales sont les plus visées. C’est là d’ailleurs où les radios
communautaires doivent se mobiliser pour pouvoir influencer les communautés. Mais, cela
suppose que ces enjeux soient mieux compris et pratiqués par les radios. Elles aussi, sont des
instances de décision importantes qui peuvent aider dans les processus d’appropriation,
d’apprentissage et d’exercice du pouvoir par les femmes. Cela suppose aussi que ces femmes
soient bien averties et participent aux débats et réflexions menées au plan national et local.
Nous en ce qui nous concerne, nous avons notre propre stratégie, celle d’investir toutes les
activités liées à notre ligne éditoriale. En plus, notre militantisme fait que nous sommes associées
à beaucoup de réflexion et participent à beaucoup de débats radiophoniques et télévisés dans les
chaînes publiques ou privées. Ceci donne une autre tonalité de notre image et participe à une
conscientisation des populations. Nous en voulons pour preuve le débat animé le jour même du
vote de la loi sur la parité et les autres cadres d’échanges pour renforcer l’argumentaire de la
parité malgré l’existence d’un lobby religieux organisé.
Une autre réflexion à l’interne est entamée depuis hier et ceci pour trois jours pour permettre à la
rédaction de Manooré FM de partager sur les enjeux de la parité. Nul n’ignore qu’en mai 2008, le
Sénégal devra élire des conseillères et conseillers ruraux, municipaux et régionaux et les femmes
doivent arriver à égalité avec les hommes. C’est ainsi même que nous venons de lancer une
campagne sur « Femme, citoyenneté et gouvernance » pour mieux accompagner ces élections
locales. La radio servira de tribune aux leaders des partis politiques, à leurs militants et militantes,
à la société civile et aux organisations féminines afin de poser la pleine participation des femmes
dans les instances de prises de décision. Cela sera aussi de forts moments où des vécus de
femmes engagées politiquement seront retracés. Le rôle des femmes dans les meetings politiques
et dans les partis seront revisités et analysés dans une perspective de genre.
Dans cette même dynamique, la radio Manooré FM vient de terminer une réflexion sur « Droits
des femmes et communication » où les questions liées à la citoyenneté, à la gouvernance sont
prises en compte. Pendant cinq jours, Manooré a mobilisé des radios communautaires urbaines et
rurales pour poser cette problématique et voir comment une femme d’une radio communautaire
peut apporter sa pierre à l’édifice.
Les défis sont encore énormes et se résument au renforcement des capacités des femmes dans
les médias communautaires ; à leur engagement en tant que militantes de la cause féminine ; à
une meilleure connaissance de l’environnement des femmes et des questions émergentes de
l’heure et à un positionnement stratégique des radios communautaires dans le contrôle citoyen à
l’action publique.
Mais les enjeux majeurs de la gouvernance des femmes dans les médias communautaires reste
pour nous la communication et le leadership féminin qui constituent des leviers importants dans les
processus de changements de mentalités et de perception. D’ailleurs, il ne faut pas que les
femmes et hommes des radios communautaires reproduisent les mêmes stéréotypes que la
société. Elles et ils doivent d’abord êtres de véritables agentes et agents de changements
49
capables de véhiculer des idées nouvelles pour amener les communautés à épouser les valeurs
d’une société juste.
Dakar, le 15 Août 2007
Oumy Cantome Sarr, Manooré FM
50
Radio Communautaire Bèlèkan
Informer pour mieux former
BP 133 A
Tél. 227 28 84
Site : http://belekan.radio.org.ml
E-Mail : [email protected]
Femmes et bonne gouvernance- Haby Diallo
LA QUESTION DE LA GOUVERNANCE À L'INTERIEUR DES RADIOS ET DES FEMMES DANS
LES SOCIETES.
Le Mali bénéficie d’un environnement médiatique libre et indépendant. Le pays compte plus de 200
radios FM qui reflètent une grade diversité d’opinion et culturelle dont la radio Bèlèkan de Kati. La radio,
notamment dans les langues locales a le plus d’impact et touche la grandes majorité de la population.
Avec l’avènement de la démocratie au Mali, malgré l’explosion médiatique à la suite des événements de
mars 1991, les femmes demeurent peu nombreuses dans le secteur. Cela peut être attribué aux
pesanteurs socio culturel. La radio Bèlèkan ne fait pas exception à la règle avec quatre femmes par mis
21 agents.
La faible représentativité des femmes dans les radios tient des préjugées sociaux et rares sont les
femmes responsables de média au Mali. Sur près de deux cents (200) radios, seules sept (07) femmes
environ sont des administratrices.
GOUVERNANCES AU SEIN DE LA RADIO :
Je suis Directrice de la Radio Bèlèkan de Kati au Mali depuis 2000 et j’ai toujours dirigée cette boîte
avec un sens élevé de responsabilité, c'est-à-dire de façon démocratique.
RESPONSABILITE
A tous les niveaux j’ai nommé des responsables de section. Chacun à son niveau assume ses
responsabilités dans la plus grande liberté. Les décisions sont prises de façon collégiale et
consensuelle.
FORMATION :
J’ai tenu de façon équitable à la formation des agents et chacun dans son domaine précis.
GOUVERNANCE AU SEIN DE LA SOCIETE :
Avec la création de la radio Bèlèkan en 2000, notre politique a été de travailler avec la société civile.
Pour ce faire, des clubs d’auditeurs se sont formés un peu partout dans le cercle de Kati et même
souvent au-delà du territoire du cercle.
Actuellement plus d’une trentaine de clubs se sont donnés pour tâche d’accompagner Bèlèkan dans sa
mission de développement du Bèlèdougou. Ces clubs d’écoute servent de relais pour la radio.
Le programme est conçu avec la participation de tous les acteurs de telle sorte les préoccupations
réelles du milieu soient prises en compte.
C’est conscient de toutes les opportunités de développement socio culturelles offertes par la radio, que
les ruraux ont décidé d’amorcer une seconde phase de leur mission d’accompagnement de la radio
Bèlèkan.
51
Dans ses émissions de développement sur la santé, les droits humains, l’environnement, les faits de
société, la décentralisation etc. la radio a été un facteur d’éveil de conscience au sein de la société
civile.
Compte tenu de la spécificité de la zone de couverture de la radio qui est le Bèlèdougou, aire socio
culturelle bambara par excellence où l’accent est mis sur la répartition sexuelle des tâches, il n’est pas
rare de constater au sein même des regroupements les femmes de leur côté et les homme de l’autre.
C’est ainsi qu’une coordination très active des clubs de femmes a vu plus tard le jour. Et cette
coordination a à son actif une mutuelle qui leur permet d’économiser des fonds et qui sont ensuite
répartis de façon judicieuse entre les femmes à tour de rôle.
Trois clubs de femmes ont été formés aux techniques d’animation et de production radiophonique par la
radio avec l’aide d’un de ses partenaires.
Pour être respectées, admirées et pour avoir la place que nous méritons, nous devons nous imposés
par le travail, la disponibilité constante et aussi surmontés les contraintes socio culturelles auxquelles
nous sommes confrontées tous les jours.
En tant que première responsable d’une radio je demanderais à mes autres collègues pour la bonne
marche de nos organes, d’adopter le principe de la bonne gouvernance.
52
Género, Radios Comunitarias y Gobernanza en Mexico - María
Eugenia Chávez Fonseca
LAS MUJERES DE LAS RADIOS COMUNITARIAS EN MEXICO, COADYUVANTES EN EL
DESARROLLO DE OTRAS MUJERES.
María Eugenia Chávez Fonseca, Representante de la red de mujeres AMARC-México, Salud
Integral para la Mujer (SIPAM)
En el sur de México, en el estado de Oaxaca existe una comunidad indígena Mixe que hace años
luchaba por tener sus propios medios de comunicación. Los habitantes de Tlahuitoltepec, Oaxaca
tuvieron la iniciativa de pedir permiso para operar sus propios medios aún antes de ingresar a
AMARC, ellos tuvieron la certeza de que teniendo sus propios medios podrían resolver una serie
de necesidades de comunicación que la comunidad manifestaba:
1) Falta de medios que les permitan comunicarse entre sí, es decir, en una comunidad donde
siquiera existe el teléfono como un medio al que todos los habitantes del poblado y los
aledaños tienen acceso, la radio se convierte en el medio de enlace entre ellos, a través de
la radiodifusión se envían mensajes que tienen que ver con su cotidianidad, sobre el
estado de salud de un enfermo, sobre el arribo de un familiar desde un pueblo lejano,
sobre el nacimiento de un nuevo vástago, etc.
2) Información desde las autoridades comunales para informar de las actividades que tienen
que ver con la gobernanza de la comunidad, decisiones de la asamblea, citatorios para
acudir a dar tequio (trabajo que los habitantes de la comunidad aportan para el bienestar
de la comunidad).
3) Un medio para notificar de las festividades del pueblo y la difusión de las actividades
mismas. Es decir, es un medio de difusión de la cultura local.
4) Un medio que les permitiera tener divertimento, donde pudiesen escuchar la música que
les gusta y nuevos géneros musicales.
5) Un medio en el las personas de la comunidad tuvieran la posibilidad de acudir y decir su
palabra.
Cuando la comunidad mixe de Tlahuitoltepec Oaxaca solicitó permiso para operar una frecuencia
radiofónica, las autoridades mexicanas respondieron negándoselos y diciendo que solicitarían a
las dos grandes empresas de radio y televisión en el país, que pusieran una repetidora para que
las poblaciones mixes de la región pudiesen tener un medio de comunicación al alcance. Ese
argumento ridículo violaba los derechos de las personas mixes desde varias perspectivas, pero no
ahondaremos en este momento en ello porque el tema de este texto es sobre género y
gobernanza e intento centrarme en ello.
La comunidad mixe no se detuvo en su intento de obtener un medio de comunicación propio,
continuaron en la búsqueda de una radio (inicialmente pedían un permiso para televisión
también) y lo obtuvieron en diciembre de 2004.
Ahora bien, la comunidad mixe se caracteriza por ser uno de los pueblos más orgullosos de su
cultura en Oaxaca, la difunden, la reivindican, la llevan consigo a todos lados, pero reconocen la
importancia del intercambio cultural y la adquisición de otros conocimientos generados en culturas
distintas. En ese sentido el pueblo mixe es de los que promueve que una gran cantidad de sus
jóvenes salgan a estudiar a las ciudades para que después retornen a compartir sus
conocimientos con la comunidad y a brindar servicios necesarios para el desarrollo de la
población. Si algo es notorio y notable en esa búsqueda, es la participación de las mujeres
jóvenes mixes, quienes casi tanto como los jóvenes salen hacia las universidades a estudiar y
buscar nuevos conocimientos, y son algunas de ellas quienes han tenido en algunos momentos
una alta participación en la radio.
Decía una de ellas durante un encuentro nacional de mujeres de AMARC, que la radio le ha
posibilitado desarrollar algunas habilidades por un lado, y retornar al contacto con su gente, por el
otro.
53
La experiencia de esa joven mixe en la radio de su comunidad nos da algunos elementos a
considerar en la participación de las mujeres en la comunicación comunitaria. Ella misma enumeró
algunos de ellos:
1) Me ha dado la posibilidad de hacer algo que me gusta mucho-decía-, es un elemento más
que aporta a mi formación, pues estudié comunicación y la radio como el video son dos
medios que me parecen fundamentales para documentar la cultura y los sucesos de mi
pueblo. (Merece mención que esta joven ganó un premio internacional en video
documental).
2) Continuaba….”mi mamá es partera, un oficio que cada vez más pierde crédito entre las
mujeres ante la idea de que el conocimiento médico es mejor…la radio lo que permite es
que el conocimiento que tienen las parteras pueda difundirse abordándolo desde una
perspectiva del conocimiento que han tenido las mujeres de mi comunidad desde hace
muchísimo tiempo. Veo que la radio puede ayudar al trabajo de mi mamá, pero sobre todo
puede aportar al conocimiento de las mujeres sobre sus embarazos y sus partos.”
3) Otro punto que mencionaba: “cuando habemos mujeres en la radio, las mujeres de la
comunidad se relacionan con la emisora de manara distinta, es como si sintieran que en
nosotras pueden confiar, a veces vamos en la calle y se acercan a preguntarnos o
decirnos algo. Existen cosas que nunca se atreverían a decírselas a los hombres”.
4) “La información que nosotras buscamos y damos en la radio tiene que ver con nuestra
cultura y el reconocimiento y difusión de nuestra lengua, pero también abordamos temas
importantes para las mujeres que los hombres no abordan, por ejemplo, ellos nunca van a
hablar de cómo los señores golpean a sus mujeres y a sus hijos, por lo menos no lo hablan
como nosotras lo hablamos, que desde el sentir de las mujeres”.
La experiencia de las jóvenes mixes en la radio nos remite a una situación que se repite
persistentemente en las radios de otras comunidades, la participación de las mujeres en las radios
comunitarias en México tiene la particularidad de ser trabajo voluntario (el trabajo voluntario de las
mujeres tiene sus “pros” y sus “contras”, pero en este texto tampoco vamos a analizarlo,
únicamente mencionaré de qué manera coadyuva a la gobernanza de la comunidad), lo que
posibilita que se esté en la radio por el interés de realizar un trabajo que da satisfacciones
personales en el desarrollo de habilidades, pero también hace posible que la palabra desde el
micrófono se dirija a hombres y mujeres concretas, “palpables”, conocidas, mujeres que forman
parte de la realidad de quienes están hablando, lo que da una cercanía que no poseen otros
medios de comunicación.
Me atrevo a hacer una afirmación riesgosa, pero para el tema del que estoy escribiendo me
parece necesario ponerlo a consideración y es que, quizá la participación de las mujeres en una
radio comunitaria cobra mayor relevancia que la participación de las mujeres en otro medio,
porque las mujeres de las radios comunitarias son mujeres visibles para la comunidad, existe un
beneficio de doble vía: se empoderan ellas mismas al decir su palabra y las mujeres oyentes se
sienten cercanas a las que hacen la radio. Las mujeres de las radios comunitarias están al
“alcance” del resto de las mujeres, es posible dialogar entre ellas a través de la radio y fuera de
ella, es posible consultar, dialogar, solicitar información; lo que de otra manera no podrían hacer,
porque dado el contexto de muchas comunidades (no únicamente comunidades indígenas) las
mujeres no tienen un medio adecuado ni los canales para plantear sus preocupaciones, sus
problemáticas ni su necesidad de información específica. En muchas comunidades las mujeres
tienen restringida su participación en la toma de decisiones, en algunas ni siquiera pueden asistir
a las asambleas comunitarias, en otras, aunque tienen acceso a algunos espacios, existen temas
“restringidos” como hablar o evidenciar que son víctimas de la violencia familiar, misma que en
muchos casos está vinculada al alcoholismo.
A través del intercambio de experiencias de la participación de las mujeres en las radios
comunitarias de México he podido darme cuanta de la importancia de esa participación para
coadyuvar al buen gobierno de una comunidad, entendiendo esto como la inclusión de las
mujeres en los procesos de su propio desarrollo y el de toda la población. Si el desarrollo de
sociedades cada vez más justas es imposible sin la participación de las mujeres y sus
consecuentes empoderamiento y reconocimiento de sus derechos, los medios de comunicación
54
no serían actores sociales completos y coadyuvantes en procesos democratizadores sin la
participación de las mujeres en ellos.
Las mujeres de las radios comunitarias tenemos aún muchos problemas a resolver, en las radios
de México existe aún un fuerte rezago en la participación, aún en el caso de la radio del pueblo
mixe, con el que inicié este texto, la participación de las mujeres ha sido fluctuante, dado que
muchas de ellas tienen que pasar largas temporadas en la ciudad de Oaxaca o la ciudad de
México, debido a cuestiones laborales. En otras radios, por cuestiones socioculturales o
económicas también las mujeres tienen poca participación. Son esos problemas que estamos
intentando resolver desde la red de mujeres de AMARC México.
55
Women in Acheh demand Gender Budgets – Bianca Migglioretto
Potential of Community Radio for Women to hold Governments Accountable on Good
Governance.
In Northwest Sumantra, Indonesia Radio “Women's Voice” broadcast programs on good
governance and how budgets are being used or should be used to so that women will be part of
development. The station manager Nurhayati Kahar says: “The Indonesian Government always
talks about good governance and transparency. But this is rhetorics. Especially at local level
government budgets are hardly ever used for women's needs such as health sevices, child care,
income generation or tuition fees for girls. Through our program we inform our listeners what they
are entitled to according to the governments promises and we encourage the women to advocate
for their rights. So that women are no longer be left out when it comes to budget allocation by the
local governments. We learned from the experiences of women in other parts of Indonesia such as
Papua. Our slogan is 'Women Speak Out and Sue Budget' so that women are no longer objects of
development but become subjects of development. “
The example of Women's Voice in Sumatra is only one way how women through community radio
hold governments accountable to implement what is described and propagated as good
governance. On the paper, in words, on national TV and in parliament the policies sound very
promising but who monitors the actual implementation at the community level? How can women
make sure that they are among the beneficiaries of the government programs, when most of them
do not even know what policies were decided on and what they are entitled to?
In the community of Mabuhay in Mindanao the local women's organization BaBAE decided to
make use of a small community radio that was left idle by the local government. They started a
radio program and for the first time issues such as cyanide fishing, malnutrition, domestic violence,
health and sanitation were discussed publicly in their community. Honeylyn Joy Alipio who
supports the women in their radio production said: “Producing their own program enriched the
knowledge of the BaBAE team members as they are researching the issues and it boosts their
confidence, to make their views heard.”
If health programs or government programs to reduce domestic violence are not being
implemented because the money is being used for other projects or disappears in the pockets of
the politicians, In most instances women can not do much about it. Whom should they complain to,
the provincial or national governments are far away and mostly not interested? But if they are able
to first of all inform the community what women are entitled to over the local community radio and
then demand transparency and accountability from the local government unit, then it is much
harder for the responsible politicians to get away with it.
The National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (NCRF) launched a radio campaign last
November 25, 2006 to inform the public about the existing laws that protect women from violence
and where victims of violence are entitled to government services. NCRF distributed a CD with a
series of informative radio plugs (spots) in different local languages all over the country. While the
big commercial radio station was not interested in playing the plugs for free, it was mainly the small
local commercial and community radio stations who broadcasted the plugs. Isis InternationalManila helped in the dissemination of the CDs and we made the experience if we can give the
plugs to women who are in charge of their own program, they were able to play the plugs and even
discussed the issue further by inviting responsible government officials to the studio. But if the
women are not in control of the program content, it was much more difficult to place the radio
plugs.
Community radio bears a great potential for women to monitor and advocate for the
implementation of good governance but often women in community radio do not have access to
the respective decision making where the content of the program is being determined. In an email
survey among women broadcasters in community radio in Asia Pacific conducted by AMARC-WIN
and Isis International-Manila we asked the respondents what changes they with in their respective
community radio. The most important change women want is to improve women’s access to
leadership, decision making, management, editors, finances and accounting. The survey showed
56
that women occupy only 28% of the leadership positions in community radio. There are still a
number of stations that have no women on the board or at management level. Among the radio
staff women are often reduced to presenters, or so called “soft news”, while the “hard news” are
being drafted by male editors. Also women's issues are often considered “soft news” they are left
to women anchors but at the same time they are not given the same importance in the
programming as what is considered “hard news”, in other words women are much less interviewed
on the radio and they have much less chances to hold governments accountable.
It is not surprising therefore that when we asked the women broadcasters about the most
important training needs, their priorities were the following:
Gender and feminist perspectives in community radio
Management, administration, sharing of decision making,
Production and technical skills including ICTs
AMARC-WIN is working towards women's empowerment within the individual community radio
station, and among the community radio movement, by responding to women's training needs and
facilitating exchange of experiences and best practices among its members. Through the network
of women community radio broadcasters we strengthen and support each other and establish
direct contacts. Women from one community radio station in Nepal tell their sisters in another radio
how they were able to get their own women's program with editorial freedom. In a training on
engendered peace journalism by Isis International-Manila a young women broadcaster from a
small community radio station taught an anchor women who was in commercial broadcasting for
20 years how to operate the mixing console and how to edit her interview. A community radio
broadcaster will from Bangalore will conduct a radio workshop at a rural women's conference in
Tamil Nadu. The contact between the two organizations was established by AMARC-WIN.
But the sharing of experiences needs to go beyond the broadcasters. AMARC-WIN plans to initiate
program content sharing, so that not only the community radio broadcasters learn from each other
but also their respective listeners, learn how women in community radio were crucial in the
reconstruction after the Tsunami in Acheh or in post-conflict peace building in Upi, Mindanao.
Bianca Miglioretto
Radio and Alternative Media Officer
Isis International-Manila
AMARC-WIN Asia Pacific Representative
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Una organización de mujeres decididas – Julia Velasco
El Colectivo de Mujeres de Matagalpa trabaja por construir una cultura equitativa Por Julia
Velasco Parisaca (*)5
Son 34 mujeres que aportan a la transformación de la cultura de la región norte de Nicaragua,
donde la inequidad tiene rostro de mujer. Lo hacen a partir de una propuesta de promoción,
educación y comunicación desde la perspectiva de las mujeres en situación de pobreza.
El Colectivo de Mujeres de Matagalpa (CMM) es una de las experiencias del empoderamiento de
las mujeres latinoamericanas. Esta organización es una de las actoras sociales más importantes y
con mayor incidencia política de esa región nicaragüense. Nació en los años 80, en pleno proceso
de la Revolución Sandinista, con la misión de incidir en la transformación social a partir del respeto
de los derechos humanos, con énfasis en las mujeres, niñas y niños, para fomentar las prácticas
de libertad, justicia, respeto y equidad.
La tarea no fue fácil por la marginación económica, política y social de la que son víctimas las
mujeres nicaragüenses en situación de pobreza, en una sociedad caracterizada por una cultura
machista que relega a la mujer sólo a la función reproductiva y que las hace víctimas de la
violencia física, psicológica y sexual.
Es en este contexto que interviene el Colectivo, para incidir en la sociedad, a través de programas
de salud, educación creativa, prevención de la violencia, teatro y la Radio Stereo VOZ (FM 101.7),
emisora comunitaria, miembro de la Asociación Mundial de Radios Comunitarias (AMARC).
Todo el trabajo que las mujeres del Colectivo realizan, lo hacen desde una mirada femenina, una
perspectiva integral que reivindica los derechos, la esencia, el cuerpo, el protagonismo, el aporte,
los sueños y esperanzas de las mujeres para que sean reconocidas, valoradas y respetadas como
tales.
“El empoderamiento se da con la formación en capacidades y en el poder de decidir, así como el
hacer propuestas con argumentos sólidos, bien fundamentados”, dice Argentina Olivas,
Coordinadora del Área de Comunicación, que tiene bajo su responsabilidad la dirección de Radio
Stereo Voz, FM 101.7, del Colectivo de Mujeres de Matagalpa.
En una sociedad moralista, llena de tabúes, prejuicios y discriminación hacia las mujeres, el
Colectivo, a través de la Radio, ha logrado poner en la agenda pública temas como la violencia
intrafamiliar, el aborto, los derechos sexuales y reproductivos, siendo una de las pocas, casi
únicas, instituciones que se atreve a abordarlos sin tapujos y con perspectiva de género.
La Radio ha permitido al Colectivo, visibilizar a las mujeres, niños, niñas, adolescentes y jóvenes a
través de programas muy participativos como los de debate y de análisis, así como de
información, en los cuales tiene la oportunidad de expresarse y opinar libremente.
Programas de la radio como “Y ahora yo tengo la palabra”, están dirigidos a las mujeres de la
región abordando temas que tienen que ver con el rol que desempeña la mujer en la sociedad,
así como de sus aportes a la comunidad y al país, motivándola a involucrarse en el desarrollo
social.
“Prohibido escucharnos”, es otro programa dirigido por un equipo de adolescentes y jóvenes,
quienes debaten y analizan temas considerados tabú, como los derechos sexuales y
reproductivos, el embarazo adolescente, el aborto, el matrimonio, etc.
5
Es productora de radio y periodista. Actualmente es coordinadora general de Eco Jóvenes Bolivia, una organización civil que
promueve y defiende los derechos de las niñas, niños y adolescentes a través de la Investigación, Formación y Producción
Radiofónica
58
“El reino al revés”, un programa producido y dirigido por los niños, niñas y adolescentes que
abordan desde su lectura de la realidad, temas que les interesa como el maltrato de la niñez, la
importancia de que los padres quieran a sus hijos.
Paralelamente a estos programas radiales, el área de comunicación del Colectivo capacita a
mujeres, niños, niñas, adolescentes y jóvenes en temas como producción radiofónica,
corresponsalía, formatos radiofónicos, entre otros.
Además, las producciones radiales son un insumo muy valioso para los procesos de educación y
comunicación popular que realiza el Colectivo de Mujeres de Matagalpa, ya que permiten facilitar
la reflexión, la discusión, y el análisis en los grupos de trabajo, en aquellos momentos de
capacitación, información y formación que llevan a cabo las diferentes áreas como el jurídico,
salud y educación.
El equipo de Radio Stereo Voz, fue reconocido internacionalmente en noviembre de 2002, al
ganar un concurso latinoamericano de producciones radiofónicas sobre violencia intrafamiliar,
organizado por el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo de la Mujer (UNIFEM) con el
programa “Mejor sola que mal acompañada”.
El Colectivo es una esperanza de cambio para muchas mujeres de Nicaragua y Latinoamérica
porque representa el esfuerzo y la consecuencia con la que muchas mujeres, hoy en día, aportan
a la construcción de una sociedad más justa, más respetuosa y democrática, con oportunidades
equitativas.
(*).
59
Women as Producers of Information - Ade Tanesia
Presentation to AMARC 9 Conference, November 14, 2006
Since 1998 Indonesia has entered the reformation era and liberated itself from the repressive
authoritarian New Order Regime.
Reformation has also occurred in the world of media in Indonesia as shown by the emergence of
many media in various forms such as print, audio and audio visual. However, have these media
given access to the public's voice? In reality, most media have not accommodated the public's
voice. Hence, what is required is to let the society become the producers of information.
Medium like a community radio becomes the most appropriate media to broadcast public's
interest. In Indonesia, there are about 600 community radios. However, the question remains
whether community radios have been fully used by groups of people, including women, which are
always marginalized. The result of questionnaire distributed to a number of community radios has
showed that women's involvement in the management of community radios is still insufficient. The
same condition is found in their program; only a few numbers of programs are dedicated purposely
for women. In most cases, the programs are more about recipes, health and beauty problems than
about issues on women's rights.
Nevertheless, a group of women now has the initiative to use radio as a medium to disseminate
issues on women's rights, among other Women Voice Radio in Pariaman, West Sumatra and
Women Journal Radio Program. The former is a community radio; the later is a producer of mini
feature program broadcasted through all radio networks in Indonesia. Women Journal Radio
Program currently has been broadcasted weekly on 183 radio stations in Indonesia.
Women Voice Radio in Pariaman, West Sumatra
Radio Suara Perempuan (Women Voice Radio) in Pariaman, West Sumatra, was founded by
Nurhayati Kahar. At the beginning, she was concerned about a lot number of violence cases
happened to women in her region. Therefore, she founded Institution for Victims of Violent Acts to
Women and Children, which has been legally registered since 2002. To spread the campaign to
against that violence, they choose community radio as their way.
She thinks that violence to women never comes to surface because the culture of shame is still
very strong. For instance, there are many cases of rape that all this time are settled with custom
law, in which the solutions are made up with peace or fine. Yet, if the rapist is a prominent figure in
society, the case is often covered up. In fact, the blame is plotted deceptively on the victimized
woman.
Hence, Women Voice Radio encourages women to fight for justice. She insists that a violence
case shall not be settled with custom law because it often disadvantages women, but it shall be
processed with criminal law.
Women Voice Radio uses local language, namely Minang language. Its targeted listeners are not
only women but also men. It is very important for men need to know about the law on violence to
women, so that they will not consider women unintelligent anymore.
The Women Voice Radio program encompasses themes concerning health, religion, children
education, sex matter, and also information around the city. In addition, it is also planning to give
information on economy (like prices of goods and tips of marketing) because almost 95% women
have home industries like making woven clothes and embroidery.
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It is interesting that every Sunday night the radio broadcasts radio drama called Carito Minang
(Minang story). The stories are taken from everyday occurrence involving women. There is a
drama entitled “Maha Bana Baliajo” which tells about the resistance against custom marriage in
Pariaman. In this region, there is a custom in which if a woman wants to marry a man, the woman’s
family must pay some money as dowry to the man’s family. The price is various and it can be
bargained. The higher the education of the man is, the higher price the woman’s family must pay.
This practice is now getting more excessive because there is tendency to take up again the
custom. In fact, the women feel proud if they can buy men with high price. Through this drama,
Women Voice Radio actually wants to break this dowry practice so that there will be no tradition of
buying man.
The Radio will never quit fighting for information and communication access for women in
Pariaman. Progressively such change has begun to happen. Now there are many women willing to
speak out their problems on the radio although they still use pseudonyms. If they need further
consultation, they can come directly to the institution. Every Sunday afternoon, listener gathering is
held. In that occasion, Women Voice Radio gives everyone opportunity to be a broadcaster.
Despite seeking talented broadcasters, it can improve people’s participation.
Women Journal Radio Program
With support from USAID-OTI, Women Journal Radio began its activity in 1999, renting air time of
radio stations in Jakarta like Delta FM, MS 3 and Pesona FM. For four months, these three radio
stations had got recorded discussions made by Women Journal Radio. At that time, the
discussions were very conventional by inviting some speakers to Delta FM studio to discuss actual
topics on women.
In order to maximize the program-making, the Women Journal Foundation got aids in the form of
sufficient equipments and studio construction. In 2000, Women Journal Radio succeeded in
making cooperation with 30 radio stations across Indonesia. In 2001, with support from
Netherlands Embassy, the number of radio stations broadcasting Women Journal Radio program
increased to 50 radio stations and in 2002 increased to 100 ones. With full support from Ford
Foundation, since 2003 Women Journal Radio has had 162 partners across Indonesia. Local radio
stations recognize the importance of information for their listeners so that Women Journal Radio
program has become the most anticipated program and one of their favorite program. As a result,
Women Journal Radio program is free from paying air time cost in most local radio stations.
Women Journal Radio program is favored mostly by housewives of middle and lower classes in
society. Topics that are brought up by the program vary, for instance, violence against women,
female reproduction health, women representatives in politics, profile of local women, labor,
women’s rights, etc. One of advantages of the program is that it raises women’s daily problems,
which all this time have been ignored by media as information.
In the arrangement of program, Women Journal Radio always considers the development of radio,
from the duration, use of sound byte and form of program. The arrangement is not only informative
but also entertaining. Until February 2006, Women Journal Radio had produced 334 programs in
the format of mini feature. At the first time, the program had duration of 20 minutes, but since
October 2003, the program has been shortened to 10 minutes. This reduction is a response of
Women Journal Radio to its listeners who prefer program in short, compact and informative format.
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Femmes et radios communautaires – Malika Boussof & Yasmine Medani
A propos de Radios Communautaires et du rôle joué par « Femmes en Communication » dans le
développement de ces dernières
Comme énoncé précédemment, lors de rencontres internationales sur les radios communautaires
dont celle de Amman en Novembre 2006, l’Algérie ne dispose toujours pas de radios
communautaires malgré les besoins croissant exprimés notamment par les associations ou autres
entités issues de la société civile préoccupées par le déficit en communication entre gouvernants
et gouvernés. Un déficit de plus en plus important à l’origine souvent d’explosions populaires ou
d’émeutes enregistrées essentiellement à l’intérieur du pays et pour cause ! En Algérie plus on vit
éloigné de la capitale qui abrite les centres de décision, plus l’on se sent oublié de tout et par tous.
Il existe bien un réseau de radiodiffusion locale qui à l’origine de sa création par les pouvoirs
publics devait servir d’appoint aux trois chaînes nationales d’expression arabophone, francophone
et Tamazight (Kabyle).
Les radios locales au nombre de 38 devraient même voir leur nombre s’accroître à 48 pour
atteindre le chiffre de une par Wilaya ou préfecture.
Le nombre important en soi aurait dû suffire à satisfaire la demande populaire en matière
d’informations générales au moins.
Les 38 radios même si elles ont le mérite d’exister ne répondent pourtant ni à la demande des
citoyennes et citoyens très à l’écoute de ce qui se passe dans le pays ni à leur attente relative à
l’information de proximité, à savoir, celle qui les touche de plus près. Résultats : celles et ceux qui
ne peuvent ni faire part de leurs préoccupations essentielles ni avoir accès à une information
conforme à leurs souhaits, se tournent vers les radios des pays voisins qu’ils captent d’une part
plus aisément dans l’espoir d’y apprendre ironisent-ils, ce qui se passe dans leur propre pays et
d’autre part parce qu’ils sont aussi en quête d’enrichissement socio culturel voire politique de
manière à pouvoir comparer si nécessaire l’information diffusée ailleurs à celle qui leur est
proposée chez eux . Si on ne trouve pas localement de réponses à ses propres questions, il est
évident que l’on va aller voir ailleurs, se brancher ailleurs. Il ne faut pas omettre de noter que
l’avantage d’une radio qu’elle soit nationale, locale ou encore communautaire est que l’on n’a pas
besoin de se déplacer, d’aller acheter les journaux encore faut-il que ces derniers soient distribués
régulièrement, donc disponibles et répondent aux préoccupations du citoyen, ce qui est loin d’être
le cas. La radio est pratique parce que la quasi-totalité des gens en possèdent une chez eux et
que ces derniers n’ont donc plus qu’à tendre la main pour tourner le bouton.
L’absence d’autonomie des radios locales à l’instar des trois chaînes nationales, donc de service
public, pose l’incontournable problème de la liberté d’expression.
Soumises à un contrôle des plus sévères et privées d’autonomie financière, ces dernières en sont
réduites à diffuser des programmes de divertissement, ( 50%) , des émissions socio éducatives
(30%) et de l’information préalablement formatée au niveau central ( 20%) . Seule une heure par
semaine est concédée au mouvement associatif.
Les pouvoirs publics l’ont d’ailleurs clairement déclaré. Il n’est pas question pour l’instant de libérer
les ondes. L’audiovisuel est et compte le rester, à en croire les affirmations des institutions en
charge du dossier comme le ministère de la communication ou celui de l’intérieur, la propriété
exclusive de l’Etat. Un Etat qui en d’autres termes, tient, avant même de se préoccuper du bien
être du citoyen en matière d’information, d’émancipation ou d’ouverture, à se
préserver .L’’impertinence quotidiennement affichée par une presse écrite indépendante depuis
plus de quinze ans et très critique à son égard l’ayant échaudé, ce dernier se garde bien de
renouveler l’expérience avec le monde de l’audiovisuel. L’impact des médias lourds comme la
Télévision ou la radio est jugé comme étant encore plus dangereux parce que touchant un nombre
plus important de personnes.
Une enquête menée par notre association « Femmes en Communication » auprès de huit radios
locales intéressantes au sens de leur implantation géographique de leurs caractéristiques
linguistiques, culturelles et économiques avait eu pour but d’analyser l’influence de celles-ci sur les
différentes couches de la société, s’il existait une interactivité entre la radio locale dans son
ensemble et les auditeurs que cette dernière est censée interpeller afin de voir comment il est
possible de susciter davantage d’intérêt et d’améliorer l’indice de proximité .
Les observations auxquelles cette enquête a donné lieu sont en résumé les suivantes :
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1) la grille des programmes proposée par la quasi totalité des stations étudiées est sensiblement
identique .Inspirée d’un modèle unique reproduisant le schéma des émissions de la chaîne
nationale et élaboré sans études ni sondages préalables par la maison mère.
2) les cibles touchées par ce programme généraliste sont, par ordre d’importance, selon les
chiffres fournis par les directions concernées, les femmes au foyer , les jeunes étudiants et
inactifs, les cadres, les professions libérales et les ruraux qui , tout en se félicitant de l’existence de
ces medias perçus comme un facteur d’intégration sociale et culturelle n’en revendiquent pas
moins davantage d’informations de proximité et surtout des débats participatifs, une façon de
souligner le peu d’interactivité que ces radios ont généré jusqu’ici .
Des programmes de service public ont certes été initiés par quelques stations à l’occasion de
catastrophes naturelles (séisme de Boumerdes, inondations de Bab- El -Oued ou crash de l’Airbus
de Tamanrasset) mais leur caractère exceptionnel ne leur a pas assuré la durabilité souhaitée. De
la même façon, des expériences de production tentées au niveau de certaines radios par des
associations qui ont conçu et animé, es -qualité, des émissions d’intérêt collectif portant par
exemple sur l’environnement, n’ont pas reçu les encouragements leur permettant d’étendre leur
formule à l’ensemble du réseau .
Seuls quelques programmes, placés sous le générique de la solidarité et visant des catégories
spécifiques de publics comme les détenus, les handicapés et les démunis, ont réussi à mobiliser et
à fidéliser une audience régulière et connaissent un succès qui devrait être mis à profit pour les
permaniser et les généraliser.
3) Pour aussi intéressante q’elle soit sur le plan socioculturel et médiatique l’expérience
algérienne en la matière n’en laisse pas moins une impression d’inachevé :
Elle apparaît ainsi plus focalisée sur le développement de la communication institutionnelle que sur
la démocratisation de la vie locale relégué à une place secondaire
L’absence d’autonomie des stations, le conformisme des grilles de programmes pèse encore lourd
dans la balance face à une société civile trop dispersée et peu intégrée pour représenter un contre
poids sérieux et impulser une réelle dynamique de proximité.
Sans ressources publicitaires consistantes, sans mesures d’audience fiables, exposées à la
concurrence étrangère, les radios locales algériennes s’essayent timidement à une coopération
internationale d’envergure modeste.
Il est clair que malgré les gros efforts déployés pour rattraper un retard technologique et
professionnel de 15 ans, la radiodiffusion locale algérienne qui a le mérite de couvrir beaucoup de
localités autrefois enclavées et surtout de suppléer au déficit des autres médias comme la presse
écrite nationale et locale ainsi que l’agence d’Etat , peut mieux faire pour se conformer aux termes
de référence de la société de l’information , notamment ceux qui renvoient aussi bien à l’ouverture
et à la formation qu’à la parité et à la coopération.
Pour y parvenir, il lui reste à imaginer de nouvelles voies à travers, en premier lieu, un statut
simple et novateur, pour intéresser tous les acteurs de la vie locale à l’ouverture d’un média sur
l’utilité sociale et culturelle. Un point de vue partagé par tout le monde ou presque.
Un statut qui devra ouvrir la voie à d’autres réformes qui assureront une réelle association de la
société civile à la formulation des stratégies de communication de proximité, préfigurant le futur
paysage radiophonique local, mieux équipé et mieux encadré pour faire face aux conditionnalités
posées par la mondialisation de la société de l’information.
Les progrès de l’informatique et des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la
communication au cours de ces dernières années ont offert de nouvelles possibilités qui rendront
visible la contribution des femmes, puisque c’est de ces dernières que notre association se
préoccupe en priorité, à l’évolution de la société et à l’amélioration de leur statut au sein de cette
dernière. Cette ouverture vers les NTIC a permis aux femmes de s’organiser et de communiquer
entre elles à l’échelle nationale, régionale et internationale.
Pour parer au plus urgent , l’Association « Femmes en Communication » est en ce qui la concerne
, en pleine phase de réalisation d’un site Internet qui abritera sa Web radio. Mettant , en effet , à
profit le vide juridique, dans la mesure où la loi algérienne ne prévoie aucune mesure régissant la
diffusion sur le Web et en attendant le déblocage de la loi sur l’information et la libération par celleci du champ audio visuel, notre association s’atèle à contourner par ce biais l’absence de radios
communautaires.
Cette Web radio sera conçue comme un outil de communication performant offrant un large
espace d’interactivité (forum de discussion). Un site fonctionnant dans les deux langues (français
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et arabe) afin d’être accessible au plus grand nombre. Une radio qui sera gérée en toute
autonomie par les membres de l’association et qui se fixe pour objectif de mieux prendre en
charge, dans ses programmes et ses thématiques relatifs aux droits de la femme, le statut de cette
dernière dans la société. Il faut noter que jusqu’à présent, les femmes restent marginalisées et
sont tenues à l’écart des grandes décisions. A noter également que lorsqu’elle traverse des
moments de détresse et qu’elle est en demande d’assistance morale, physique et psychologique,
la femme algérienne n’a aucun autre refuge que les quelques centres d’écoute que l’on compte
sur les doigts d’une main et encore faudrait-il qu’elle soit informée de leur existence. Mesurant
l’étendue du problème, « Femmes en Communication » compte en créant sa propre Web radio
combler en partie le gouffre qui pénalise l'information et la communication des femmes entre elles
et avec les autres acteurs de la société. Nous n’insisterons jamais assez sur le fait que ces
dernières sont au coeur de tout développement car lorsqu’il s’agit de partage des connaissances
pour lutter contre la pauvreté, l'injustice et l’exclusion, les femmes savent de quoi elles parlent.
« Femmes en Communication » dont la préoccupation majeure reste la prise en charge de
l’ensemble des problèmes inhérents au genre féminin se fixe entre autres objectifs de pallier la
carence en matière d’information et de circulation de celle-ci étant donné la rareté ou la négligence
constatée dans les médias algériens quand il est question pour eux de rendre compte des
problèmes vécus au quotidien par cette large catégorie de la population.
Malika Boussouf et Yasmina Médani pour « Femmes en Communication »
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Comunicaciones y Género - Perla Wilson,
Mujeres en Conexión Managua Nicaragua, 4 al 7 julio 2007
Los medios en la Actualidad
Los medios de comunicación son el mecanismo principal de construcción de representaciones
culturales. Los grandes medios construyen la agenda mayoritaria. ¿A qué intereses responde esa
agenda? Es difícil decirlo con exactitud en la actualidad. Por varias razones: las comunicaciones
son hoy un poderoso sector económico, con propiedad cruzada, inversión activa en el mercado
financiero. Sus líderes son figuras de alto impacto: caso Berlusconi, Slim, Gates , Murdock y
tantos otros. Ese el escenario actual.
Las Mujeres y los medios
Las estrategias de denuncia sobre el lugar de las mujeres en los medios ha sido explorada por las
organizaciones de mujeres. Con iniciativas interesantes muchas de ellas: menciono los premios
publicidad y medios , han conseguido instalación y un cierto impacto, la incorporación de ciertos
conceptos como FEMICIDIO , PARIDAD y otros.
Por una parte , hay resultados positivos, traducidos en herramientas de exigibilidad de derechos
caso convención de Diversidad Cultural que incluye un acápite sobre los medios, la CEDAW de la
cual podrían colegirse algunos puntos, los seguimientos hechos a la Conferencia de la Mujer , etc,
etc. Es necesario revisar que tanto han estado estos aspectos en la agenda de las mujeres, yo
creo que poco.
Hay también algunos efectos no deseados con la incidencia de la agenda de las mujeres en los
medios ¿ cuanto de empoderamiento y cuanto de re victimizaciòn hay?. El balance es mixto.
El siglo 20 fue escenario de grandes transformaciones en la vida social y cotidiana de hombres y
mujeres. Un sólo ejemplo, las mujeres pueden vivir su vida autónomamente , no necesitan el
estatus de casadas para “ser”. Las capas medias han sido las principales “beneficiarias” de ese
cambio.
En distintas velocidades, estos cambios culturales se han expresado en indicadores objetivos de
la organización social, y en los factores subjetivos de las construcciones simbólicas de los nuevos
sentidos de hombres y mujeres.
Respuestas Diferenciadas
¿Cómo han respondido los medios de comunicación a estos cambios?
Yo diría que con respuestas diferenciadas. Lo que hace más complejo el tema. En algunos
àmbitos con mucho dinamismo. En otros con demasiada resistencia o con perplejidad. Por una
parte, se puede observar que en la modernidad se ha desarrollado un acercamiento "casi
espontáneo" entre los medios de comunicación y ciertas temáticas largamente promovidas por los
grupos de mujeres y que tienen presencia en la esfera pública. Estos temas, principalmente
relacionados con el ámbito privado, están siendo difundidos extensamente. En este contexto
también podemos reconocer algunos cambios en las representaciones de las imágenes de las
mujeres, lejos aún de lo deseable. Estos cambios positivos pueden interpretarse como una
apertura a posibles encuentros entre ambos sectores.
De otra parte persiste la tendencia más clásica de construcción de noticia, aquella que se arraiga
en el espacio publico tradicional , donde la mujer esta sub representada. Para sumar complejidad ,
cuando la mujer es protagónica en ese espacio, los registros son limitados , es el caso de Michelle
Bachellet en Chile.
Lo Nuevo en el Escenario Medial
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Lo interesante es deducir cuales son los nuevos elementos en que hoy se expresa el
protagonismo de los medios en la escena pública. Han alcanzado una nueva identidad como
importante actor social, político y económico. Al mismo tiempo que concentra los flujos de
información, monopoliza el escenario de las conversaciones sociales colectivas.
Los medios arman el “relato” de la modernidad, y determinan la agenda. Es una operación
simbólica compleja, cuyo resultado logra naturalizar los discursos , especialmente el referido a sì
mismo como actor. Me parece que este es un factor bastante determinante en la relación de los
medios con la sociedad civil, y con las mujeres parte de esta sociedad civil.
Este desencuentro que hemos reportado desde hace rato ,y que seguramente llevó a muchas de
nosotras a hacer radio, a mantener nuestras radios bajo viento y marea, que ha marcado nuestras
pautas, ha determinado la construcción de contenidos, transmitiendo otros sentidos, produciendo
sentidos plurales , diversos, hechos desde lugares sociales de mujeres , todo ese escenario hoy
tiene una nueva dimensión y otro formato.
Los medios hegemónicos son actores políticos y económicos, aspiran determinar la dirección de
los cambios, que transcurren a gran velocidad. Quien no sea capaz de responder a esos cambios
en clave de mercado quedo fuera , y es una migrante, una desplazada, una temporera, una
trabajadora salmonera, de servicios, o una profesional en multiempleo, una mujer inserta en el
mundo y exitosa, en fin. Las primeras seguramente apareceràn en los medios cuando exista una
tragedia , lo más probable como victima, las otras a veces como sujetas de derechos. Y vamos a
otro tema , ese ya pasò ahora es otro, y otro.
Contraponer Agenda
¿Còmo contraponemos agenda?
Creo que la manera es asumiendo actoría política desde nuestros lugares comunicacionales y
constituirlos en espacios políticos .Este es un desafío mayor para la red de mujeres. Las mujeres
de la red tenemos que tomar lugares políticos màs protagónicos y ser capaces de abrir la agenda
de las mujeres y contribuir a modificar la relación con los medios y dejar de concebirlos sòlo una
aproximación instrumental y formal, compitiendo con los miles de actores que desean estar en la
escena medial. Desde donde y còmo definimos esta estrategia. Creo que para tejer esta
red hay que hacerlos desde nuestras pràcticas y tensionarlas en una revisión critica.
Desde las practicas: Radio Tierra y la construcción de un lugar comunicacional.
En el caso de Radio Tierra, ideada a finales de la dictadura e inaugurada en 1991, buscamos
construir un lugar comunicacional, lo hicimos inicialmente con la contención en un relato (génerofeminismo). A beneficio de esto, quiero decir que hablamos de un tiempo, en que no era obvio el
reconocimiento de la emergencia de las mujeres en los espacios públicos, su constitución como
sujetos sociales, como el hecho más significativo del siglo XX; Esta es una marca distintiva en la
Radio Tierra. Si, en Chile por primera vez una mujer dirigía una radio, primera vez que una
organización de mujeres era propietaria de una radio, cuestión que no ha variado. Esta es una
huella, hay otras, la corporalidad de mujeres en escenas eminentemente masculinas como lo es la
radiofonía, anota puntos al empoderamiento y a la circulación de representaciones.
La Construcción editorial
La construcción editorial en RADIO TIERRA es dinámica , hemos abierto la programación sobre la
idea del ejercicio del derecho a las comunicaciones para la ciudadanìa, estos debiera hoy
traducirse en una masa crítica que abra agenda en los temas de comunicaciones. La construcción
editorial es un aspecto sustantivo es un reto diario hacer pautas que circulen representaciones
plurales, que contengan la reivindicación de derechos, la demanda por su ampliación y a su vez
no clausuren los discursos con marcas identitarias cerradas o sobreideologizada, el movimiento
de mujeres y el feminismo no siempre pasa la prueba de blancura en esto.
El nudo de la Cuestion
La decisión política de llevar adelante medios nos enfrenta a desafíos múltiples. Uno de ellos es
su gestión, es la pregunta por la sostenibilidad ¿cómo sostener medios con impronta
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social/comunitaria?, esta es una pregunta política. Actuamos en un sistema de comunicaciones
centrado en lo comercial, haciendo uso y abuso de esta representación mayoritaria, con
legislaciones afines y funcionales a estos objetivos. Es una pregunta de política contemporánea
que interpela a la sociedad en su conjunto. ¿ qué hacer cuando el mercado per se no es capaz de
resolver la pluralidad en el sistema de medios y su pauta se rige por los criterios únicos de la
“industria”? ¿qué hace el estado? ¿qué respuestas surgen desde la sociedad civil, desde la
ciudadanía?. Esta no es una pregunta chilena, es una pregunta con sentido latinoamericano y
global.
En el Cuarto propio
Ahora, ubicadas desde el lugar social, desde la sociedad civil, la cuestión es cómo inventar
respuestas que seduzcan, que conmuevan y muevan, que conciten apoyo. Este no es un tema
exclusivamente de las mujeres o del feminismo, o únicamente de discriminación de género. Es un
problema abierto, donde se juega la pluralidad en su sentido más amplio.
Hay un capitulo interesante de la relación de las organizaciones de mujeres feministas con los
medios que es un pendiente revisar críticamente, poner en común , cuales son las dificultades y
barreras y cuales las “buenas practicas “ que ha arrojado. Creo que la Red de mujeres es un
espacio para ese debate. Este relato pretende entregar elementos para ese debate.
Desde el punto de vista organizacional impone la remoción de lógicas cerradas, aquí se abre un
sin fin de historias no sólo en RADIO TIERRA , también en MILENIA , en RADIO VOS. Instala
preguntas interesantes, modernas para la relación mujer/poder; mujer/empoderamiento. Aquí
identificamos otra huella de empoderamiento, la capacidad de armar lugares y agendas abiertas.
La contrastación permanente que impone una plataforma de comunicaciones hacerlo sin
primacías ideológicas, los medios pueden transitar dinámicamente este camino de apertura y
eficacia política de la demanda. . Esto es una opción política que RT tomó y procesa
dinámicamente. Lo social, desde la idea de construcción de ciudadanía, es un punto de vista y
tiene un sentido incluyente.
Si este punto de vista (editorial) se concibe como espacio abierto, como contención de diversidad
y pluralidad, puede confrontarse con la marca comercial (concentrada en la propiedad y
hegemónica en lo editorial), que hasta ahora ha ganado la batalla simbólica diluyendo su estatuto
ideológico y apropiándose de las ideas de libertad de expresión, de empresa, hasta de
pensamiento.
Este es un camino en tránsito, lo hemos hecho atendiendo a las marcas históricas de Radio
Tierra, sensibles a las palabras y lenguajes invisibilizados, circulando representaciones distintas,
hablo de las mujeres, el género, de los feminimismos y su productiva lectura cultural de la
sociedad . Lo hemos hecho también en el convencimiento que la idea política más potente en la
actualidad es la de expresar la fuerza de la diversidad, de la construcción de ciudadanía, de los
lugares abiertos, donde puedan expandirse miles de iniciativas, ideas y lenguajes.
El Lugar de las Mujeres en los desafíos Actuales
Valorizar el lugar político que ocupa la RED. Hoy día el desafío s aprovechar los acumulados
experiencias, amar agenda tensando al máximo las posibilidades de articulación que ofrece la
Red, esta RED.
Lugar de debate , de encuentro, de puesta común para concordar agendas y programas en TICs y
género y derecho a las comunicaciones, campañas conjuntas , hacer las sinergias que nos
permitan sostener los programas .
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Femmes et radios communautaire en RDC, Henriette Kumakana
1. Les femmes dans les radios communautaires
La participation de tous étant un des facteurs de développement,il sied de signaler que
comme son homologue homme,la femme a ses droits et ses devoirs dans la société,elle doit
contribuer au développement et à la construction de la nation.
Eu égard ce qui est dit ci haut les femmes des médias en général et celles de radios
communautaire en particulier doivent apporter un plus dans leurs communautés respectives pour
l’avancement de leurs nations,elles ne doivent pas se minimiser et doivent se battre pour ne pas
être minimiser par les autres .(hommes et autres femmes car l’ennemie de la femme c’est la
femme elle-même dit-on ) et aussi elles doivent prouver de quoi elles sont capables c’est dans ce
cadre que les femmes en général et des radios communautaires en particulier doivent se
solidariser pour leurs épanouissements et leurs contribution dans la société ;c’est ainsi qui a des
associations des femmes des médias qui luttent pour la promotion de la femme et encouragent la
femme à être à tous les niveaux tout en bannissant le complexe d’infériorité qui est encore dans
les fiefs de certaines femmes qui croient qui a des spécificités dans le travail pour l’homme ;il y a
même plusieurs formations de femmes sur les droits humains ,la participation de la femme ,le
leadership féminin,la femme et la bonne gouvernance, femme et construction,l’approche genre…
pour permettre aux femmes en général à s’imprégner de cette logique afin d’ atteindre les objectifs
de millénaires d’ici 20015,la femme de médias ou de radio communautaire n’est pas exclue mais
au contraire elle doit jouer un grand rôle de former ,informer et éduquer la communauté sur la
considération de la femme et faire connaître les droits de la femme ,elle doit sensibiliser la
population pour lutter contre toutes formes de discrimination à l’égard de la femme,elle est sensé
connaître plus ,c’est pourquoi elle doit aider d’autres femmes et les hommes qui n’ont pas encore
comprit le bienfait de l’approche genre ,qui croient que la femme est incompétente ,inapte,être
faible ne pouvant pas se mesurer devant l’obstacle.
La femme traditionnelle et même la femme moderne dans certains milieu comme dans
nos villages en RDC la femme était déconsidérée,elle ne pouvait contribuer au développement ni
à la construction,Entant qu’être faible elle n’attendait que le mariage ,elle n ‘était bonne que pour
les travaux de ménages et la naissance des enfants,certains hommes l’utilisait comme outil ou
machine de production et cela favorisait la polygamie car un homme qui avait plusieurs femmes
pouvaient s’attendre à une récolte abondantes pendant la moisson ;chaque femme devrai prouver
qu’elle était forte pour être aimer d’avantage par son mari et les membres de sa belles famille ,afin
qu’on l’appelle femme du clan ou une femme forte ,au cas ou l’homme pense au divorce , tout les
membres du clan qui vont s’opposer car disaient –ils : »ça c’est une femme forte qui travail
suffisamment et qui nous donne des enfants,celle pour qui on a de l’estime et on l’appelait aussi
femme du clan ».
C’est dans cette logique que la scolarisation de la fille était très faible par rapport à celle du
garçon, car la fille n’attendait que le mariage.
Actuellement dans les villages (mêmes quelques cas en ville) on ne considère pas la femme à
cause des réticences culturelles, donc les coutumes et mœurs discriminatoires à l’égard de la
femme font à ce que la femme soit considérée comme arrière-plan.
Il y a aussi des églises qui prêchent contre la participation de la femme et l’approche genre,
comme ils cherchent à convaincre les gens avec la parole de la bible qui dit je cite »…que les
femmes se taisent dans les assemblée des saints… ».C’est dire que les femmes ne peuvent pas
contribuer elles doivent se taire comme Eve leur marraine avait trahit le monde disent-ils
Pour ceux qui disent Amen et prennent les paroles de leurs pasteurs comme voix de l’évangile, ils
supposent qu’ une femme qui émerge ,qui travail,qui fait la politique…blasphème la parole de
Dieu,lorsqu’ une femme travaille elle est considérée comme une pite ,une femme
légère,désobéissante à la parole de Dieu…,c’est pourquoi il y a des femmes intellectuelles qui ne
sont pas permises à travailler par leurs maris à cause l’influence de leurs amis , de leurs familles et
aussi de certains hommes de Dieu.Les conséquences sont néfastes prenons le cas du domaine
sanitaire où les femmes sont exposées aux maladies sexuellement transmissible car elle n’ont pas
le droit de dire quoi que ce soit devant l’homme qui est le maître ,il doit s’imposer,la femme n’a
68
pas un mot à dire parce qu’elle est femme avec son faible statut…
Même en éducation comme une bonne femme ne peut donner que ce qu’elle a, ce pas facile pour
une femme analphabète de prendre soin de la scolarisation de ses enfants et surtout des filles …
pour ne citer que cela.
2.L’IMPACT DES RADIOS COMMUNAUTAIRES SUR LA SITUATION DE FEMMES
C’est à ce titre que les femmes de médias surtout des radios communautaires doivent
s’investir pour sensibiliser la communauté à comprendre qu’une femme est capable de faire ce
que l’homme peut faire, elle peut apporter un plus dans la communauté pour le bien être de la
population et le développement de la nation ,les radios communautaires étant des proximités sont
appeler à jouer un rôle très important dans ce cas précis ,elles doivent faire comprendre aux
femmes qu’elles doivent se battre pour trouver leurs places dans la société,elles doivent chercher
à créer des émissions politiques ou les femmes et les hommes s’expriment ,dans le social
,émissions femmes et développement bonne gouvernance ,construction sans oublier les émissions
de jeunes et enfants car ils sont aussi vulnérables …;Faire parler des femmes et créer des débat
qui peuvent convaincre la communauté qu’une femme peut apporter un changement tout en
montrant les exemples de certaines femmes leader dans le monde et surtout celles de leurs
communautés qui ont des bons exemples à suivre ,faire les portraits des femmes connues pour
donner le goût aux autres femmes et surtout aux jeunes filles qui ont encore largement le temps
d’étudier et de se plonger dans n’importe quel domaine de la vie.
Notons que la politique était considérée comme l’exclusivité de l’homme à cause de sa caricature
comme un affaire de voleurs de menteurs des brigands ,des destructeurs qu’une femme ne
pouvait pas accéder .
Les radios communautaires qui parle de la proximité ,qui sont écoutés avec beaucoup
d’attention par la communauté qui cherche à connaître la situation son environnement sont
sensées aider la population à connaître certaines réalités comme l’éducation civique ,la bonne
gouvernance et le développement ;elle doivent prouver à la communauté que sans la participation
de tous donc sans discrimination de sexes ,de l’âge ou de tribus soit de clan on ne peut pas parler
du développement durable et effective , on peut pas construire le pays si on minimise une autre
catégorie de gens ;Avec la contribution des radios communautaires dans la sensibilisation,en
montrant que pour la bonne gouvernance les femmes peuvent apporter un plus , leurs apports
dans le gouvernement ou autres institutions peuvent être remarquable,la gestion de la chose
publique par une femme n’est pas à douter,à l’instar d’une femme qui gère sa maison ,elle est
capable de faire ses économies ,faire son budget,comme elle le fait pour sa maison,elle peut le
faire pour sa communauté et pourquoi pas sa nation. cela ne veut pas dire que toutes les femmes
sont compétentes mais il y a des femmes qui se distinguent par leur savoirs faire
Eu égard ce qui est dit ci haut les radios communautaires peuvent contribuer au developpemnt
de la nation à la bonne gouvernance,la participation active de la femme à la gestion de la chose
publique,et l’acceptation de la femme et la prise d’une position de la femme,la radio
communautaire apporte un plus chez les gouvernants et les gouvernés comme elle ne minimise
personne,tout le monde se sent concerné et contribue au développement de la nation les femmes
y compris,elles peuvent apporter un plus à partir de leurs sensibilisations à la radio comme elle est
l’un des moyens de communication les plus suivi et intéressé par la population,elle peut
occasionner beaucoup des changements dans la vie de la communauté
Fait à Kananga le 22/09/2007
Henriette Kumakan
69
Promoting Gender Equality through Community Radio, the
Pacific Experience – Sharon Bhagwan Rolls
If empowerment is about challenging social homes, ensuring the right shift towards equalizing
power relations as well as enabling voice and expressions to experience, because of increased
perceived opportunity and confidence, then what does it mean to women in rural communities is
Pacific Island Region. Where the basic necessities of life remain unfulfilled?
What does it mean for women who remain burdened as they have no electricity? To listen to radio
you need enough battery supply or to negotiate with men to be able to sit in on communal
listening?
What do ICT innovation for poverty reduction mean to you when the govt has not heard you call fro
infrastructure support and you hope that cash crops reach market in time and fair price shops
ensure the much needed cash for your children’s school expenses?
What does ICT for gender equality means of you don’t have access to information from civil society
groups who advocate women’s rights and gender equality in development but are unable to asset
you negotiate for a stronger presence in district and village meetings. While issue of
communication media have become a critical con cutting development issue and a vital tool for
advancement and empowerment of women in the last 10 years, in the pacific island region, we
have demanded relatively marginalized from the potential to luck the use of appropriate and
accessible information, communication technology, such as community radio or more particularly,
the use of mobile “radio in a suitcase”.
A Pacific Island reality:
Despite anecdotal evidence of progress, it is evident that the region is lagging behind in terms of
economic, social and political advancement of women, and there is no longer any justification for
this complacency.
Women cannot and should not be homogenised or stereotyped into one size fits all approach when
addressing social, economic and political issue.
(They include of with disabilities, groups, persons with HIV, rural/ semi-urban, young-old etc)
Deregulation of Fiji media industry in mid 70s has given rise to a number of daily newspaper
commercial radio and even TV in early 90’s but Fiji society has predominantly remained passive
consumer.
Reduced govt. funding and radio automation has led to reduced staff instead of a public service
driven programming. (Technical advances in a way benefited advertise more than anyone else)
Limited access to public service broadcasting means women’s information and news remain
marginalized.
Mainstream media & does not provide space for people from all ethnic communities to collectively
articulate their views in issue and stones.
Women’s limited access to media is a reflection of the systematic barriers ending traditional
practices. Other drawbacks include gender barriers such as illiteracy, time, cost , geographical
location and social-cultural norms means women have to continue to play “development catch up”.
These are important factors that inhibit women’s perspective at all levels of decision making and
implementation.
Community Radio offers a participatory avenue for women to participate is social economic and
political development processes, we need to the CR movement to enable women to have equal
access to decision making including programming, production and organizational management.
70
Reality check:
Lack of telecommunication infrastructure, including access to telephone and fax, internet
(especially in remote rural communities)
Geographical & climate challenges info and common technology should be suitable to the tropical
weather conditions.
Most Pacific Island government have outdated legislation relating to broadcasting and
telecommunication.
Notes by Nimmi Chauhan
71
Women and Community Radio in Mozambique - Birgitte Jallov
6
“I had no idea that I had the same rights as a man!!!”
- visibly moved the older woman came to me during the break, taking my arm and shaking it while
repeating her question: “Is it true? Is it really true?” Her dark, powerful eyes full of fear, of doubt,
but still with a shine of hope behind it all, looking deep into mine. Sincerely, I responded to her
question and to the firm grip of the strong and well used hand on my arm. It was the strong hand of
a woman, who carries her 100 liters of water from the source to the home every day, who packs
unbelievable bundles of firewood of her head and transports it long distances, and who works in
the machamba hours on end, straight legs, her back bent, swinging the hoe in the hot sun, all to
provide for the family and the next generations. “Yes,” I could say, “Yes, it is true. You do have the
same rights as a man, according to the laws of this country. And yes, your husband does not have
a right to beat up neither you nor your children. It is true.”
Community Radio Coordination for Sustainability. Voice and Change
This incident took place in Chimoio, the central province of Mozambique in July 2003, during the
national Festival launching the Women’s Community Radio Network, and organising it in three
regional groups, each covering about one third of the long, thin country stretching for 3000 kms
along the warm waters of the Indian Ocean to the east, and with no less than five neighbouring
countries meeting Mozambique’s borders to the West.
Coming out of almost 30 years of war with the signing of the peace accord in 1992, Mozambique
moved from socialism, into a multiparty democratic framework. With a new, open and democratic
media law approved to facilitate democratic transition and development, the media landscape
changed fundamentally in the post-war era. Among the new developments was communityoriented radio. With the first two on air in 1994 just two years after the change, community radio in
Mozambique has since mushroomed: ten years later 42, and today - 13 years later - no less than
57 2 community radios and community multimedia centres cover almost half of Mozambique’s 18
million inhabitants.
In 2001 a national community radio seminar established a “Coordination group” between the
different community radio frameworks in Mozambique to look into the needs and the mechanisms
for establishing a national network, within which all of the autonomous stations could find support
for longer term sustainability. Background research was carried out in a variety of areas to identify
organisational set-up, strengths and weaknesses as well as the composition of community
members involved at the different levels: in the management committee and other elected
functions, as paid staff members, as volunteer workers, and among other issues also the
percentage of women’s voices on air.
Creation of a women’s community radio movement
The information received showed that 2 out of the 32 radios on air had no women involved at all;
one radio had only two women, and most of the rest of the radios had around 15-25 % women,
with two very beautiful exceptions having around 40% women involved at all levels of the life of the
6
Birgitte Jallov has worked for twenty five years with media development, communication for empowerment and community radio in
Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East. She was a member of the women’s section of the steering committee for the founding
conference of AMARC in Montreal in 1983, and of the executive committee of AMARC-Europe’s Women’s International Network for
whom she produced Women’s Voices Crossing Frontiers (1996), a directory of women’s community radio in Europe. She co-initiated
one of Copenhagen’s first community radio stations in the early 80’s and was a producer in two of the first local TV stations in Denmark.
She furthermore taught at Roskilde University and Malmö University’s Communication for Development course, directed the Baltic
Media Center’s Information Department and authored a chapter on feminist radio in Jankowski et al’s The People’s Voice (John Libbey
1992). Between 1998-2004 she worked in Mozambique as Chief Technical Adviser, responsible for the leadership and management of
the Media Development Project, within which she also worked with development of the community radio movement as described in her
article. Contact: [email protected]
72
stations. The average of 29% of those women involved in the community radios, changed value
when looking to the percentage in the unpaid, volunteer work: here women represented 39% and
women only made up 6% of those involved at management levels. Women’s voices (when
information was obtained on this) only accounted for 19 % of the voices on air and women were
only referred to for 15 % of the information broadcast.
The documentation obtained through this initial survey effectively demonstrated the need to
establish a network of women working in community radio. Half a year after this result was known,
in July 2003, 78 women gathered in the provincial capital of Chimoio in the centre of the country
and discussed intensely for 3 days how to change the status quo at the stations - not just for the
sake of a better representation at the stations, but in order to work more effectively to obtain better
lives for women in the communities in general.
As a result of the Festival it was agreed to continue the work to strengthen the role of women in the
community in Mozambique and to organise around the community radios to ensure that also
women would get a voice in this way. To make this realistically possible, three regional networks
were formed to develop joint, regional plans, support each other and share developments, and to
meet from time to time - and the “Chimoio declaration” was adopted as a summary of the in-depth
work during the three days.
Declaration of Chimoio
We, the women of the Community Radios in Mozambique …meeting in a National Festival in the city
of Chimoio, on 19-20 July 2003, have decided to set up ‘The network of women in Community
Radios in Mozambique”…in order to pursue the following objectives:
* To encourage activities seeking to ensure that women enjoy the same rights, duties and opportunities as
men, as stipulated under the Constitution of the Republic of Mozambique, and recommended in the Beijing
Declaration, and in the principles of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD);
* To encourage activities that seek to guarantee the socio-economic development of the community,
empowering the areas of women's education, and of producing and publicising information on women's
rights, duties and achievements;
* To encourage activities seeking to eliminate traditional and cultural practices that hinder women's
development in all spheres;
* To encourage activities that seek to increase women's self-confidence, so that they may take on the role
of the main generators of positive changes in the community;
* To encourage activities seeking to create legal mechanisms (policies, regulations and institutional rules)
for improving women's working environment on Community Radios;
* To encourage activities aimed at ensuring women's access to leadership positions in Community Radio,
by raising their level of training, including self-training, and recognising their professional competence and
abilities;
* To encourage activities that seek to lay solid foundations for raising the spirit of solidarity between women
themselves, and between women and men, on the basis of mutual respect and equal opportunities, and with
the objective of facilitating the participation and integration of all the small communities within the large
community in the development process;
* To encourage activities seeking to guarantee the production of programmes with content relevant to
women and from a women's perspective;
* To encourage activities seeking to ensure women's participation in producing programmes in all areas of
community interest, to ensure the inclusion of women's experiences and viewpoints;
* To encourage activities seeking to allow an exchange between Community Radios of content and of
programmes produced by women;
* To encourage activities seeking to guarantee access to national or international information on the
performance of women, in order to encourage and inspire women in the communities;
* To encourage activities that seek to allow an exchange of information between members of the Network
of Women on the Community Radios, through the publication of a bulletin;
In conclusion:
* We, the Women of the Community Radios in Mozambique, express our willingness and total commitment
to implement responsibly the objectives of the network contained in the present Chimoio declaration,
* And we urge all actors in the social development of the country in general, and of the communities in
particular, to join us in pursuing our noble objectives.
73
Chimoio, 20 July 2003
Among the obstacles identified for women’s involvement in the radios was the immense work
burden faced by many women especially in rural areas: starting before daylight and working far
into the night; women’s sole responsibility for children and the old – and for most of all the rest; the
fact that many husbands did not really want their wife to be active in public life, become visible and
especially not to be working with other men; and many men within the stations, especially those in
managerial positions, would expect sexual favours from women working in the stations on special
occasions, like if they were selected to take part in a training course away from home or for other
training or development activities.
These obstacles proved to be more or less alike all over Mozambique, and the women in the
women’s network set out to find ways – together – to do something about these. The regional
networks were again the answer to the coordination need: On a regular basis it is just too
expensive and difficult to coordinate at national level. So the women of the stations continue to
work and share information, and produce quarterly women’s bulletins when possible.
A personal follow-up story – from Metangula:
One year after the women’s festival in Chimoio, in 2004, I visited the remote
town of Metangula at the far north of Mozambique at the shores of Lake Niassa
- one of the poorest areas of the country. When approaching by car, we saw a
group of women at the entry into the town, dancing in a beautiful, traditional
formation, all dressed alike. And when we sat down in the community meeting
of stocktaking – and my personal good-bye after working in Mozambique for 6
years, I was told that the women’s network of the community radio station would
deliver an address. I understood that the “women’s network” had taken on a life
of its own here, among the baobabs and sandy beaches of the immense lake: it
had become an institution to be reckoned with. After delivering a powerful
testimony of determination and change, I was handed two couples of doves to
take back with me to Denmark: to create the bond between our peoples, for
peace and for development – “…and for you to never forget us”. With the doves
I got the handwritten address they had just read for me. (I still have it and will
never forget the doves as they left their “visiting card” on the school book paper
on which the address was written.) It among others said:
“We, the women of ‘Radio Lago’ want to thank wholeheartedly for your support
to our community radio. Together with you, we in the women’s network have
realised how important it is that we show that women are not nothing. We have
realised that if we want to combat illiteracy, we have to do it. If we want to say
“stop” to domestic violence, we are the ones to say ‘stop’. And if we want to
know our rights and benefit from them, then we have to find out about them and
to take them. In this way we in the women’s network in our radio fight for better
lives for our community – and for women in Metangula specifically.”
They continued to tell that now 31 women were part of the women’s network of
the radio, which actually meant more than half of the people working in the radio
as community programmers, staff and in the elected positions were women.
Before the festival there had been 4.
Strengthening the reach of the women’s movement through policies & coordination
Today, four years later, the national women’s community radio network is still very active - and
blooming. It is made up by almost 400 active women integrated in 57 community radios. The
74
‘Coordination group of community radios’, created in 2001 was in 2004 consolidated into a national
Forum of Community Radios, FORCOM, which assists the women’s network in fundraising for its
activities and with the coordination so cumbersome in a country like Mozambique - supporting the
regional networks, organising training and meetings, and FORCOM assists in providing the final
touches of the production and distribution of the network newsletter.
FORCOM has a very firm gender policy, including the special statutory additional election of two
members from the women’s network to the National Council of FORCOM, which is as such made
up by 15 members from community radios and two from the women’s network (which are also from
the radios, but here representing the women’s network in which they are active). A gender balance
in the council is intended, and during the first council - still in place - the women outnumber the
men by one. FORCOM furthermore has a Gender Monitoring Group on the board of FORCOM and
a draft gender policy has been developed as a tool for fighting the obstacles to women’s
participation, and to effectively mainstream gender in all areas of the life of the community radios.
A pilot phase of the Gender Policy for Community Radios will be initiated around the middle of
2007, testing the adequacy in at least two community radios.
Many women in Mozambique still do not enjoy the same rights as their men in the everyday life of
a culture, where the subordination of women is closely integrated in almost all aspects of life. But
many more women now know about their rights and work – together - to find ways of changing the
status quo, among others by putting new content into the traditionally degrading aspects of cultural
practices, thus ensuring that the rich Mozambican culture can also be enjoyed by dynamic, visible,
active and participating women.
As the most powerful people’s movement in Mozambique at the moment - and as such at the core
of civil society - community radio not only provides a tool for being informed and having a voice,
but it is also potentially the most powerful motor in changing the role, position and choices of
women in Mozambique – for a better tomorrow.
NOTES
1. Birgitte Jallov has worked for twenty five years with media development, communication for
empowerment and community radio in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East. She was a
member of the women’s section of the steering committee for the founding conference of AMARC
in Montreal in 1983, and of the executive committee of AMARC-Europe’s Women’s International
Network for whom she produced Women’s Voices Crossing Frontiers (1996), a directory of
women’s community radio in Europe. She co-initiated one of Copenhagen’s first community radio
stations in the early 80’s and was a producer in two of the first local TV stations in Denmark. She
furthermore taught at Roskilde University and Malmö University’s Communication for Development
course, directed the Baltic Media Center’s Information Department and authored a chapter on
feminist radio in Jankowski et al’s The People’s Voice (John Libbey 1992). Between 1998-2004
she worked in Mozambique as Chief Technical Adviser, responsible for the leadership and
management of the Media Development Project, within which she also worked with development of
the community radio movement as described in her article. Contact: [email protected]
2. Of these radios 22 are owned and run by the state, 8 by the catholic church, 1 by a municipality
and 26 are owned by communities and run by community associations.
75
Community Radio & Women Involvement in peace building and
conflict resolution - Sharon Bhagwan Rolls,
Coordinator, femLINKPACIFIC: Media Initiatives for Women, Operators of Fiji’s mobile
women’s community radio initiative, femTALK 89.2FM “Women speaking to women for Peace”
Introduction:
“Women make up half the world’s inhabitants. In the aftermath of war, they often make up the
majority of a country’s population due to the death or disappearance of male combatants. Women
are victims, survivors and even wagers of war. They are likely to have been specifically targeted by
combatants despite their civilian status. More often than is widely known, they are combatants
alongside men. But even counting the fighters among them, women are likely to have shouldered
a burden greater than their role in instigating, waging or perpetuating war. Their labour, strength
and determination are needed both to hold their families and communities together while the battle
is raging and throughout the long, slow process of rebuilding the peace. Women are thus major
stakeholders in the resolution of conflict and the course that is set for future development. Yet
experience has shown that when women are not present to raise the concerns and issues that
most affect them, which are often issues central to society as a whole, these tend to be overlooked
in final agreements. It is women’s right as citizens – and as human beings – to participate
alongside men, to contribute to national solutions and to shape the destiny of their country.
Furthermore, there is an international mandate that recognizes that right and demands it be
respected.”7
Despite the advancements in the global women’s equality agenda, in practice, women remain
sidelined from the decision making processes from the international level to regional peace and
security structures, and even within our own national development frameworks as well as at local
or community level. Much of this marginalization is exacerbated by the patriarchy of “traditional”
decision making structures.
In December 2003 during a training workshop on Conflict Prevention and Early Warning organized
by the Fiji Women Peace and Security Coordinating Committee (Fiji) the immediate past Chairman
of the Great Council of Chiefs Fiji (Bose Levu Vakaturaga) admitted that in Fiji, issues concerning
women have not been a priority for those in positions of influence, not only in institutions of the
state, but more importantly traditional and faith based institutions.
At a regional level, even though the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, the inter governmental
agency responsible for peace, security and defense, adopted the Biketawa Declaration in October
2000 as a workable framework for diplomatic intervention, it has remained blind to the tremendous
yet under-documented contributions of women in non-formal interventions in the Pacific region, in
particularly in our ‘arc of instability’ the Melanesian sub region (Fiji, Solomon Islands and Papua
New Guinea/Bougainville)
If our national governments, our regional leaders, themselves are not formally recognising the
contribution women can make to sustainable peace, indeed they must be featured at the top of the
list of challenges and obstacles to women in decision making.
Building on Women and Peace Initiatives:
The history of the women’s peace movement in the Fiji Islands dates back to the foundation laid by
the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA). At a time when there were mainly faith based
women’s groups, the YWCA lead role in the late sixties and early seventies anti nuclear movement
together with faith based organizations and networks, in particular Christian churches and the
Pacific Theological College.
Young women activists and the student Christian movement which were formed at the then newly
established University of the South Pacific were further nurtured in their activism and became the
channel through which future peace activism took place.
7
UNFEM peace processes publication (draft)
76
These early interventions also gave rise to the establishment of the Nuclear Free Pacific
Movement.8
Fiji in its thirty year history of independence has twice experienced the illegal overthrow of a
democratically elected government – May 14, 1987 and May 19, 2000. During both events,
women and civil society groups mobilized to call for the release of the political hostages, a return to
parliamentary democracy, upholding the principles of good governance, democracy and the rule of
law within the context of our multicultural society.
In 1987, many of the early activists staged protests and other actions in response to the overthrow
of an elected government. Notable women’s activists during this period included Amelia
Rokotuivuna, Ema Druavesi, Claire Slatter, ‘Atu Emberson Bain, as well as others who were
closely associated with the Fiji Labour Party. Many of these women were pursued by the military
and some were detained as a result of their activism.
The Fiji YWCA also attempted to address the military takeover with limited assistance from
regional and international networks, and several members were also detained en route to the
YWCA World Council meeting in Phoenix, Arizona in 1987.
The 1987 coup set in place a chain of events which would also influence the way women engaged
in activism and peace building in 2000. However, it should be noted that much of the activism has
remained confined to the main capital city, Suva.
In 2000, women were instrumental in maintaining a degree of calm and infusing hope to the people
during those tense weeks. As Secretary of The National Council of Women Fiji (having just been
elected a month prior in 2000) we issued our first media statement denouncing the coup the day
immediately following the overthrow, Saturday May 20th and then mobilized the network of
women’s groups in Suva to gather for a Peace and Prayer Vigil the following day.
From Sunday May 21 to July 24, a multiethnic group of women held a daily vigil throughout the 56day hostage crisis. True, we were not without our own tensions and fears, though this was
insignificant compared with the strength generated by the women’s coming together daily. The
“Mothers in White” who gathered to pray for the hostages and the women who wrote letters of
support multiplied hope upon hope.
Coordinating the peace vigil put me in touch with media organizations, local and international. I
was not surprised that while the local dailies carried our media releases, it was the international
media that was drawn to look behind the scenes of the peace vigil. In doing so, they found a
window to women-in-community perspective of the crisis. On the other hand, many of the local
media practitioners saw in the vigil access to the hostages who, as they were released, joined the
women in solidarity. It became clear that there was a need for women’s own community-media
initiatives that would tell our stories.
As we are all aware, a conflict does not end just because the overt violence has ended, or because
of national elections. Certainly at one level it can be said that Fiji has returned to parliamentary
democracy, but whilst the country awaits the outcomes of the legal process including inquiries into
the events of May 2000, one critical challenge facing our country right is clearly how to implement
a national reconciliation programme which will not be a ‘band aid’ the hurt and suffering caused by
both these political upheavals. There is also cause for concern of the rise in Christian
fundamentalism from certain church groups, which further alienates non-Christian groups,
especially as we continue to experience the outright disrespect towards other faiths by the
desecration, in particular of Hindu temples.
It must be noted that the politics of race in Fiji context of our experiences is a reality for women and
also influences women’s responses to our national crises. In 1987 the racial attacks and threats
were obvious and outright, especially in the streets of the capital city, in 2000 the violence was
8
femLINKPACIFIC YWCA HER’story interviews with Ruth Lechte, Suliana Siwatibau and Susan Parkinson
77
more overt in nature and included ‘raids’ on Indo-Fijian communities and homes. And so it goes
without saying that each political conflict has had an impact on our multiracial society, as well as
the multiracial networks of women’s groups. Much needs to be done to ensure the wounds of
these conflicts are healed to strengthen the women’s movement progress ahead, together. What is
required is a safe platform through which they can not only share their hurt, but also address the
remaining tensions in our society.
How do we also ensure respect for the rule of law and how do we account for the possibility of the
resurgence of violence, as many of the deep seated ethnic concerns, especially by the indigenous
community, the corruption and other underlying causes of the coups, remain invisible at national
level, although deeply rooted in our own country’s history.
What are the International Commitments to the Women’s Participation in Peace Processes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Beijing Platform for Action (1995): Highlights 12 global commitments including addressing
issues of women in (Section E) Women in Armed Conflict, (Section G) Women in Power
and Decision Making and (Section J) Women and the Media
Revised Pacific Platform for Action (2004) – highlights 8 critical emerging issues for the
Pacific region: Poverty Eradication, Globalization and Trade Liberalisation, HIV/AIDS,
Labour Migration, Peace and Security, Tradition and Religion, Media, Information,
Communication and Technology and the Millennium Development Goals
The Commonwealth Plan of Action for Gender Equality (2005 – 2015) has four priority
areas – Democracy, Peace and Conflict; Human Rights and the Law; Poverty Eradication
and Economic Empowerment and Gender and HIV/AIDS
United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women: Also known as the women’s convention, promotes gender equality through 16
specific articles
The Millennium Development Goals are commitments at the highest level which identify
Gender equality as a critical global target
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, titled Women, Peace and Security: On
October 31, 2000 the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution on Women,
Peace and Security.
How Can Community Radio Make a Difference?
A scan undertaken by UNIFEM of peace processes in Latin America, Europe, Asia, Africa and the
Middle East identified six main factors that are necessary to ensure gender equality throughout the
peace process9
(1) Women’s involvement in peace negotiations should reflect the diversity of active women and
women’s groups.
(2) Women are more likely to make an impact in the negotiations when they have developed a
common agenda and have identified strategic entry points through which that agenda can be
introduced.
(3) Facilitators/mediators can play a critical role in peace negotiations by ensuring that issues
directly related to the needs and concerns of women and girls are included and that women will be
empowered in all stages of the negotiation process.
(4) Women and their organizations need continued support and strengthening of their capacity to
enhance their effective participation in peace negotiations and build skills that will last beyond the
talks.
(5) After a peace agreement has been signed, women must be part of monitoring mechanisms and
transitional bodies that foster implementation of the peace agreement. The tenets upon which the
peace agreement is built must inform constitutional, electoral and legislative reform.
(6) Women’s political and economic empowerment in the post-conflict period is vital to successful
development and sustainable peace.
9
UNIFEM March 2005
78
In Fiji, as in many other countries, our story remains the same. Despite all our contributions, our
national governments, our regional leaders continue to disregard the right for women to be at the
peace table. I believe UNSCR 1325 has the potential to change the paradigm for women that
peace and security issues are the sole and extremely patriarchal domain of male leaders and
defence and security professionals also.
But first we must all be well informed about UNSCR 1325 and other international commitments.
Community media forms, offer the opportunity to address this information gap. Despite the
efforts to date, more women need to know about the policy commitments (and promises) - more
men and institutional partners need to know about and integrate 1325 into peace missions – the
more all relevant players are informed of the relevant commitments to women, peace and security,
the greater the chance to get involved !
However, we should not just limit ourselves to only strengthen women’s capacity to speak out on
their own issues but to ensure that these voices are transformed into policy language to influence
key policy makers and national leaders. At the same time it is important to create a women’s peace
network that will be a safe process through which can contribute to the prevention of further
conflict. Community radio therefore offers a locally-driven, locally-owned and inclusive
process where women can assert their right to participate in the decisions being taken about their
future, and which will result in the signing and implementation of a gender-sensitive peace
agreement, and during the transitional period, during which time institutions, structures and
relationships within society can be transformed and the root causes of conflict can be addressed.
In March this year at a roundtable meeting to review the draft UNIFEM publication:
SECURING THE PEACE Guiding the International Community towards Women’s Effective
Participation throughout Peace Processes it was agreed that community based media forms
have the potential to bringing women to the peace table because documentation and
communication strategies not only document what women have contributed already but
also have the ability to share information especially community networks especially once
the peace process has started.
It is further noted that after a peace agreement has been signed, women must be part of
implementing and monitoring the peace agreement and therefore it is essential to keep information
and communication channels open.
Community radio has the potential to continue to conduct outreach to women and women’s
group to disseminate the accords, particularly in local languages and through multi-media
presentations so that illiteracy is not a barrier and by doing so provide a ‘safe network’ so that
women representatives in all mechanisms can not only monitor implementation of the peace
agreement, including early warning for a resurgence of conflict, but also communicate these to
relevant authorities.
There is therefore a greater need to provide the necessary technical and financial support for
ongoing Women’s Documentation and Community Media Initiatives. There is a need for
governments and even civil society partners to recognise and enhance the role of women’s
community and independent media as an enabling tool for the further implementation of policy
commitments and a process that involves the women themselves in documenting their peace
efforts, and their experiences during a conflict.
A key example of the importance of women’s documentation, media and information initiatives can
be cited through the work of ISIS-Women’s International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE),
something which femLINKPACIFIC hopes to emulate in our own context. According to the
Executive Director of Isis-WICCE Ruth Ojiambo Ochieng, documentation is not something that you
can get by walking in and then walking out of a community: “You have to understand the
community and involve the women of that community to document their own experiences. We
encourage them by getting them to understand the importance of speaking out, and also saying
that it is a history we don’t want to repeat.” It has taken several years to work with and train the
women, but as Ochieng has learnt, “once the women have the confidence in you, that confidence
makes them draw themselves to you.”
79
Community radio, and other community media forms must therefore be brought into the formal
peace process as a key source of information and communication which can assist to:
-
Improve availability of data and analysis on the root causes of conflicts, the impact on
women and their role in conflict prevention, resolution and post conflict peace building
Strengthen the capacity of women and women’s groups to play a role in conflict prevention,
resolution and post conflict peace building at the national and regional level.
Promote a gender perspective in conflict resolution and peace building initiatives of
governments, regional organizations and mainstream agencies.
Promote peace, tolerance and reconciliation linking with economic security issues through
advocacy in the community and with the general public
Conclusion:
Women’s initiatives in planting or giving birth to a peace process should not be ignored, because
they mark a new era in the process of reconstruction. We will continue to offer ways to combine
traditional and modern authority to find our place in a world organized and managed by men –
motivated by our desire to achieve a balance in the political economy to ensure sustainable peace,
(even if for no other reason but to ensure peace for our children).
Therefore, because of its applicability to the practicalities of women’s lives community radio can
not only equip women with appropriate training and equipment to develop communication
strategies which can convey the importance of their participation in the peace process as well as
ensure gender-sensitive documentation of human rights abuses are addressed but also provide
the necessary vibrant yet safe information and communication networks which are respected by
local communities and which also serve as early warning detectors of any sign of re-emergence of
conflict
While, we cannot work in isolation of the mainstream media, the reality is that “conflict remains
commercially viable” for the mainstream media and therefore, we, as women’s media practitioners
working for peace, need to take control of or define our own processes of media production, in
particular, which are inclusive and therefore an enabling process for women to share in the
decision making of our country, in particular to curtail further violence.
Achieving these aspirations together is what will make UNSCR 325 and other relevant conventions
and gender equality promises, truly operational.
Vinaka-Shukriya, Peace
Sharon Bhagwan Rolls
Coordinator – femLINKPACIFIC: Media Initiatives for Women
80
Women’s Political Participation and Good Governance: 21st
Century Challenges - Lina Hamadeh-Banerjee & Paul Oquistys
10
Ironies of Democracy
The movement for gender equality of late 20th century is closely linked to the human rights
movement. But the concept of women’s participation in governance on an equal footing with men
dates back at least to the 4th century BCE. The Greek philosopher Plato put it into the mouth of his
mentor, Socrates, in The Republic as “part of the natural relation of the sexes”. The notion did not
strike Socrates’ young listeners in ancient Athens as altogether radical. They saw women—though
largely a privileged few—openly active in the political system. Aspasia, the mistress of the 5th
century leader Pericles, had wielded considerable political power visibly. In the rival city-state of
Sparta, the mothers of potential warriors had significant political rights. Plato was no democrat, but
his experience had led him to conclude that intelligence and ethics were not limited to any one
class, ethnicity or gender. He believed passionately that education could cultivate these qualities in
individuals—and that those who benefited most from education could and should govern others.
His ideal polity was a benevolent meritocracy.11
If we hurtle into modern times, we find that two years before the French Revolution of 1789,
Condorcet, author of the Progress of the Human Mind, proposed that women be declared eligible
for election to governing bodies.12 Again, the idea was not a terribly radical departure from a
number of practices throughout Western Europe. Women of property had often voted in local
councils; many women over many centuries had wielded power behind the throne; a good number
had ruled whole nations, whether as regents or in their own right. France now stood— albeit very
briefly—on the edge of democracy.
Condorcet was a nobleman, a marquis as well as a mathematician, philosopher and passionate
advocate for universal education. But a self-educated butcher’s daughter, Olympe de Gouges, led
women of all classes in presenting a women’s reform agenda to the National Assembly in October
1789. Shortly thereafter, she proclaimed that the new French Declaration on the Rights of Man
negated the principle of natural equality because it excluded people from citizenship on the basis
of gender and race. Even before her middle-class English contemporary, Mary Wollstonecraft, had
published her Vindication of the Rights of Women in 1792, Gouges had written and issued a
Declaration on the Rights of Women. She continued to organise her female compatriots in packing
the galleries of successive French legislative bodies during the Revolution. In 1793, as the
ostensibly democratic Committee on Public Security unleashed what came to be known as the
“Reign of Terror”, it beheaded Gouges and outlawed women’s political associations.13 With parallel
developments earlier in the new United States of America and later in Great Britain, the rebirth of
democracy in the modern West went hand in hand with the disenfranchisement of women. For
more than a century after the French Revolution, western women went on losing the few political
rights that their privileged sisters had held before. Only in 1893 did any western democracy—
New Zealand—grant women the right to vote.
Although the world-wide movement for women’s equality took new impetus from the birth of the
United Nations and the promulgation of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, it was not
until the preparations for the First World Conference on Women, which took place in Mexico City in
1975, that the international community took systematic stock of the inequities that continued to
render women second-class citizens in every country, including the industrialised democracies of
the western world. In 1979, for the first time in history, women’s rights took codified form in an
international human rights instrument. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) has been in force only since 1981. Currently, 139
10
Exerts from the UNDP Book: Women’s Political Participation and Good Governance. 21st Century Challenges, 2000. Lina HamadehBanerjee is Senior Programme Advisor on Gender and Governance in UNDP. Paul Oquist is Chief of the Governance Unit in the UNDP
Country Office in Islamabad, Pakistan.
11
Plato, The Republic, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Our thanks to Shawna Tropp for this reminder, as well as for others from
Western intellectual history.
12
For a bird’s-eye view of these developments, see Mim Kelber, editor,Women and Government: New Ways to Political Power,
Westport and London, Praeger, 1994, pp. 1- 61. Condorcet was also a passionate believer in universal education and strongly opposed
slavery.
13
Condorcet was also arrested on the recommendation of the Committee and killed himself in his prison cell.
81
countries—more than two thirds of the Member States of the United Nations— are parties to the
treaty. Another 44 have acceded to the treaty with reservations on certain provisions of the text.
Women’s participation in governance, however, still lags far behind that of men.
The Present Report and its Background
This report shows that until gender parity is reached in governance, women cannot reach full
equality with men in any sphere. The absence of women’s voices in shaping the most fundamental
political instruments—the most critical of which is the national budget—has ensured the
preservation of gender inequity even with regard to women’s health and security in their own
homes.
It is therefore no accident that the UNDP Management Development and Governance
Division convened a meeting on Women’s Political Participation: 21st Century Challenges. Held in
New Delhi, India from 24–26 March 1999, it brought together women parliamentarians, planners
and civil society representatives, including those of grassroots organisations, to take stock of
women’s presence in government structures and to make recommendations for overcoming the
fundamental obstacle that women face in politics: the enduring division of the “public” and “private”
spheres that relegates women to the latter.
The New Delhi meeting built on a number of others, notably the February 1997 conference of the
International Parliamentary Union entitled “Towards Partnership between Men and Women in
Politics”. A few months later, UNDP’s International
Conference on Governance for Sustainable Growth and Equity, held in New York in July 1997,
drew attention, inter alia, to the low number of women parliamentarians and the high number of
women in poverty. Subsequently, the Conference on Good
Governance and Gender sponsored by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs and held in
Harare, Zimbabwe from 18–20 May 1998, was largely devoted to inequities in the enabling
environment for women—among these education, training, ownership of the means of production
or even decision-making power in the home that might be translated into the public sphere.
The UNDP Human Development Report 1995 showed that in no society do women enjoy the same
opportunities as men. It also demonstrated that successful initiatives for removing gender
inequalities do not depend on wealth of nations. And even though some countries have set targets
for women’s representation in national government structures, these often do not have significant
impact elsewhere in governance. Nor have these targets, even when achieved, endured.
Moreover, statistical data and analysis on decision-making in the private sector and in local
government is incomplete. Finally, as most of the current statistics come from developed countries,
the strategies recommended for increasing women’s political participation are often focused on
models
from these polities that do not meet the needs of developing nations.
Earlier research carried out by the UN Research Institute on Social Development (UNRISD) with
funding from UNDP is summed up in Technical Co-operation and Women’s Lives: Integrating
Gender into Development Policy.14 It reviewed the experiences of development institutions in
addressing development policies and programmes in seven countries and highlighted the need to
engender macroeconomic policies and to bring together different national actors that influence
these policies. It also recognised that the men elected to the executive and legislative branches
of government, who hold the key to decision-making for development priorities, planning and
expenditure, are largely unaware of household needs and the ways in which these relate to
socioeconomic development at the community, local, provincial and national levels.
Taking Stock
Considerable progress has taken place in women’s political participation, particularly towards the
end of this century. Despite this progress, however, the 21st century begins with enormous
unfinished business in this realm.
Achievements
14
further information see UNRISD’s web site: http://www.urisd.org/.
82
Twenty five years after the First World Conference on Women in Mexico City, more than 20 after
CEDAW, and five after the Fourth World Conference in Beijing, gender equality has finally been
inscribed on the political agenda of most of the world. For example, the Beijing Platform for Action
set the goal of 30 per cent for women in national decision-making positions, as a milestone toward
the ultimate objective of 50 per cent. Five years after Beijing, the level of women in parliaments in
the world has increased from 10 per cent to 12 per cent. However, regional variations are
significant. They range from
37.6 per cent in the Nordic countries to 15.5 per cent in the Americas, 13.4 per cent in Asia, 12.5
per cent in Europe excluding the Nordic countries, 11.6 per cent in Sub-Saharan Africa, 8.3 per
cent in the Pacific and 3.3 per cent in the Arab states. Since Beijing, women speakers of
parliament have been named for the first time in six countries: Ethiopia (1995), Latvia (1995), Peru
(1995), Jamaica (1996), Malta (1996) and Poland (1997). With regard to ministerial and subministerial positions, two countries have reached over 30 per cent representation for women
(Sweden and the Bahamas). At the other end of the spectrum, there are 15 countries in which
there is no presence of
women in these posts (Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Lebanon, Monaco, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal,
Saudi Arabia, the Solomon Islands, Somalia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen). Six women are
currently presidents or prime ministers: Bangladesh
(Prime Minister), Guyana (President), Ireland (President), New Zealand (Prime Minister) and Sri
Lanka (President and Prime Minister), At the local level, the International Association of Local
Authorities (IULA) has set the goal of not more than 60 per cent of either gender represented in
local assemblies. It also points out that information on the current situation in local assemblies is
incomplete. Estimates on woman as local counsellors are 23 per cent in the United States, 20 per
cent for Europe (ranging from 40 per cent in Sweden to 4 per cent in Greece), 18 per cent in
Canada, less than 5 per cent in Africa and 3.8 per cent in Latin America. No estimate is available
for Asia. Differences by sector are significant in all countries. For example, Sweden has the highest
per centage of women in parliament (44 per cent), but less than 10 per cent of women in senior
academic positions, while in Egypt women constitute less than 2 per cent of Parliament, but over
40 per cent of senior academic staff.
The Road Ahead
Women want to influence the decisions that affect their lives and the lives of their families, the
political economy and destiny of their communities and nations, as well as the structure of
international relations. Political participation and representation is essential for the achievement of
these ends. This will allow women and men of all ages and races the full exercise of their human
rights. It is also the avenue for influencing equitable resource allocations for development that
shape the lives of girls and boys, as well as women and men.
There is growing recognition that economic participation and political participation cannot be
separated. Institutional transformations are needed to create the enabling environment for the
economic and political empowerment of women. A more profound understanding of the barriers in
labour markets and remuneration processes is also necessary as a precondition for their
transformation.
This is particularly important since women’s economic independence is critical for their exercise of
influence on decisions that affect their lives and their families. There are strong linkages between
processes that lead to poverty and those that result in gender disparities. Efforts at poverty
reduction therefore need to be informed by a gender analysis. Transforming and increasing the
accountability of institutions to women’s interests, and especially the interests of poor women, is
necessary for poverty reduction and good governance.
The feminization of poverty manifests itself differently in different contexts. In many contexts, the
poor in general and other disadvantaged groups share many of the conditions and needs
represented by the women’s movement for equity, inclusion, participation and representation. In
many instances at present, they also suffer disproportionately from the impact of globalisation on
their livelihoods. For example, with liberalisation of the economy in India, multinational corporations
have entered into the production of goods earlier made by the poor, women in particular, and have
pushed poor women out of their traditional livelihood niches. Greater levels of transparency and
accountability, including rapid responsiveness to citizen demands, are necessary to strengthen
good governance.
83
They also constitute the conditions necessary for advances in gender equity. Uganda, for instance,
has experimented with transparency measures for making government disbursement information
available to the public: with a push from its Women’s Caucus, the Ugandan Parliament made it
mandatory that funds allocated for communities must be made public. Indeed, as a recent World
Bank study indicates, a decrease in corruption in government may be linked to an increase in
women’s political participation.156 Politics and participation range from the home through the
locality to the national level. Women need to participate at the micro level of the home, the meso
level of community organisations and local government, and at the macro level of national party,
parliamentary and governmental politics. Decentralisation, with its devolution of power and
resources, appears to be opening more scenarios for the meaningful participation and
representation of women.
Bibliography
Dollar, D., R. Fisman and R. Gatti (1999). Are Women Really the ‘Fairer’ Sex:
Corruption and Women in Government, Policy Research Report on
Gender and Development,Working Paper Series, No. 4, Development
Economics Research Group,Washington, DC.
Kelber, M., ed., (1994).Women and Government: New Ways to Political Power,
Westport and London, Praeger.
Sen,A. (1990).“More than 100 Million Women are Missing”, the New York
Review of Books 37:20, December 20 issue.
UNDP (1995). Human Development Report 1995, UNDP,
15
David Dollar, Raymond Fisman and Roberta Gatti, Are Women Really the ‘Fairer’ Sex,: Corruption and Women in Government,
Policy Research Report on Gender and Development,Working Paper Series, No. 4, Development Economics Research
Group,Washington, DC, 1999.
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