Projet 1.3.3. - the ECML | Bienvenue au CELV

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Projet 1.3.3. - the ECML | Bienvenue au CELV
E UROPEAN CENTRE FOR M ODERN L ANGUAGES
CENTRE E UROPEEN POUR LES L ANGUES V IVANTES
Nikolaiplatz 4, A-8020 Graz, Tel.: +43-316-32 35 54, Fax: +43-316-32 35 54 4, e-mail: [email protected]
Programme d’activités à moyen terme du CELV 2000-2003
Projet 1.3.3.
Rapport d’atelier 6/2001:
Les technologies de l’information et de la communication
et les jeunes apprenants de langue
(Graz, Autriche, 18-22 septembre 2001)
Coordonnateurs:
Valerie SOLLARS, Faculté de l’Education, Université de Malte
Mario CAMILLERI, Faculté de l’Education, Université de Malte
Co-animateurs:
Helena LEJA, Collège de formation des maîtres de langues étrangères, Rzeszów, Pologne
Teresa MARTÍNEZ DEL PIÑAL, Ecole primaire de Buenaventura Gonzáles, Bezana, Espagne
Zoltán POÓR, Université de Veszprém, Faculté de formation des enseignants, Hongrie
En 1994, sur l’initiative de l’Autriche et des Pays-Bas, avec le soutien
particulier de la France, huit Etats ont créé le Centre européen pour les langues
vivantes (CELV) sous la forme d’un Accord partiel élargi du Conseil de
l’Europe1. Ce Centre devait devenir un lieu stimulant les échanges de vues et la
réflexion pour répondre aux missions et aux défis spécifiques des Etats dans les
années à venir; il devait jouer un rôle central dans le processus d’intégration
européenne. Après trois années très prometteuses de période probatoire (19951998), le Comité des Ministres a confirmé la continuation des activités du
Centre dans sa Résolution (98) 11. Actuellement, 32 Etats membres adhèrent à
l’Accord partiel.
L’objectif du Centre de Graz est d’offrir - généralement sous la forme d’ateliers,
de colloques, de réseaux de recherche et de développement et d’autres réunions
d’experts - une plate-forme et un lieu de rencontre aux responsables de
politiques linguistiques, aux experts en didactique et en méthodologie, aux
formateurs d’enseignants, aux auteurs de manuels et aux autres
démultiplicateurs dans le domaine des langues vivantes.
L’objectif général du CELV vise à mettre en oeuvre les politiques linguistiques
et à promouvoir les innovations dans le domaine de l’enseignement et de
l’apprentissage des langues vivantes. Les publications résultent de projets de
recherche et développement mis en place dans le cadre des activités du premier
programme à moyen terme du CELV (2000-2003).
1
A ce jour, 32 Etats membres adhèrent à l’Accord partiel élargi du CELV: l’Albanie, la
Principauté d’Andorre, l’Arménie, l’Autriche, la Bosnie-Herzégovine, la Bulgarie, la Croatie,
Chypre, la République tchèque, l’Estonie, la Finlande, la France, l’Allemagne, la Grèce, la
Hongrie, l’Islande, la Lettonie, le Liechtenstein, la Lituanie, le Luxembourg, Malte, les PaysBas, la Norvège, la Pologne, la Roumanie, la République slovaque, la Slovénie, l’Espagne, la
Suède, la Suisse, “l’ex-République yougoslave de Macédoine”, Royaume-Uni.
Programme d’activités à moyen terme du CELV 2000-2003
Projet 1.3.3.
Rapport d’atelier 6/2001:
Les technologies de l’information et de la communication
et les jeunes apprenants de langue
(Graz, Autriche, 18-22 septembre 2001)
Coordonnateurs:
Valerie SOLLARS, Faculté de l’Education, Université de Malte
Mario CAMILLERI, Faculté de l’Education, Université de Malte
Co-animateurs:
Helena LEJA, Collège de formation des maîtres de langues étrangères, Rzeszów, Pologne
Teresa MARTÍNEZ DEL PIÑAL, Ecole primaire de Buenaventura Gonzáles, Bezana, Espagne
Zoltán POÓR, Université de Veszprém, Faculté de formation des enseignants, Hongrie
Le Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV) a fait paraître de
nombreuses publications portant sur les approches innovantes dans le domaine
de l’enseignement et de l’apprentissage des langues vivantes.
Les opinions exprimées dans le présent document ne reflètent pas toujours la
politique du Comité de direction ou du Secrétariat de l’Accord partiel élargi du
CELV.
Le présent rapport peut être téléchargé gratuitement du site Internet du CELV:
http://www.ecml.at
Toute demande de reproduction ou de traduction doit être adressée au Directeur
exécutif du Centre européen pour les langues vivantes, Conseil de l’Europe,
Nikolaiplatz 4, A-8020 Graz, Autriche.
© Mars 2002
Sommaire
Rapport de l’atelier 6/2001 ........................................................................................... 7
Introduction.................................................................................................................. 7
L’aspect technique........................................................................................................ 7
Problèmes théoriques et linguistiques ........................................................................... 8
Le lien théorie - pratique............................................................................................... 8
Activités de groupe....................................................................................................... 8
Informations complémentaires et conclusion ................................................................ 8
Liste des annexes ........................................................................................................ 9
Annexe A:
Annexe B:
Annexe C:
Annexe D:
Annexe E:
Annexe F:
Technical session 1 (Tuesday, 18th September 2001, 11:15-12:30).......... 11
Using the STARS website – notes for project participants........................ 13
Technical session 2 (Wednesday 19th September 2001, 16:30-18:00) ...... 21
Technical session 3 (Friday 21st September 2001, 11:00-12:30) .............. 23
Working with young learners ................................................................... 25
Classroom management and organisation
in the context of ICT and language learning ............................................. 29
Annexe G: Aspects pratiques et pédagogiques du projet 1.3.3. du CELV de Graz
“Les technologies de l’information et de la communication et les jeunes
apprenants en langues” (Atelier 6/2001, 18-22 septembre 2001)................ 33
Annexe H: Contemporary theories and trends
to support teaching modern languages to young learners .......................... 39
Annexe I: Circuits for second phase – September 2001-May 2002............................ 45
Annexe J: Liste des participants dans l’atelier 6/2001 ............................................... 47
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
5
Projet 1.3.3:
Rapport de l’atelier 6/2001
Mardi 18 septembre – Samedi 22 septembre 2001
Introduction
Les objectifs principaux de l’atelier étaient:
–
–
–
–
présenter le projet et revoir le travail réalisé durant la phase de pilotage;
préparer les enseignants qui participeront à la seconde phase du projet;
promouvoir l’utilisation des TIC dans l’enseignement des langues vivantes à l’école
primaire;
discuter des méthodologies pertinentes dans le domaine de l’enseignement aux jeunes
apprenants.
Ces objectifs devaient être atteints à la fois par les présentations faites par l’équipe de
coordinateurs et par la participation des participants lors de travaux de groupes.
Etant donné la nature du projet, trois grands domaine devaient être abordés et discutés
simultanément:
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–
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les aspects techniques d’utilisation du site web ‘Etoiles’;
les problèmes théoriques et linguistiques;
le lien théorie-pratique – les problèmes pédagogiques.
L’aspect technique
Plusieurs présentations ont été faites tout au long de la semaine afin de s’assurer que les
participants avaient une bonne compréhension des différents éléments du site web et de la
manière de les utiliser. Ces présentations incluaient des informations sur:
–
–
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le contexte et l’histoire du site web et ses différentes spécificités (Annexe A);
le site web ‘Etoiles’ (Annexe B);
l’utilisation du forum pour les enseignants (Annexe C);
le traitement graphique (Annexe D).
A la suite de ces présentations techniques, les participants devaient réaliser des tâches en
relation, en utilisant les ordinateurs mis à leur disposition à cet effet dans les salles de
séminaire.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
7
Problèmes théoriques et linguistiques
Les problèmes théoriques et linguistiques ont été passés en revue lors de deux
présentations:
–
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travailler avec de jeunes apprenants (Annexe E);
enseigner les langues vivantes à de jeunes apprenants.
Plutôt que de présenter des informations nouvelles, il s’agissait, lors de ces sessions, de
rappeler aux participants les théories et les connaissances actuelles pour comprendre
comment les jeunes apprenants apprennent les langues.
Le lien théorie - pratique
Deux membres de l’équipe de coordination avaient des liens étroits avec quelques-uns
des enseignants qui travaillaient sur la phase de pilotage du projet. Ces membres ont
présenté des exemples de travaux qui peuvent être réalisés en classe sans perturber le
curriculum, mais tout en utilisant le site web ‘Etoiles’ et l’histoire des étoiles. De plus, les
participants ont reçu des indications et des conseils précis concernant les arrangements
pratiques qu’il fallait prendre en compte avant la mise en œuvre de ce projet.
–
–
Gestion et organisation de classe dans le contexte des TIC et de l’apprentissage /
enseignement des langues (Appendice F);
Aspects pratiques et pédagogiques du projet (Appendice G).
Activités de groupe
Plusieurs activités de groupe assignées aux participants devaient leur permettre de
s’attacher tout particulièrement à:
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l’utilisation des histoires transcurriculaires;
l’identification des contraintes et des solutions possibles pour faciliter la participation
à ce projet;
les activités qui conviennent le mieux aux caractéristiques de chaque étoile et qui
pourraient être faites en classe avec de jeunes apprenants.
A la fin de l’atelier, les participants ont été invités à se regrouper en circuits de quatre
pays chaque. Cinq circuits se proposent d’utiliser la version anglaise du site web et
1 circuit devrait travailler sur le site web français (Annexe H).
Informations complémentaires et conclusion
Des informations complémentaires se trouvent sur le site web du CELV
(http://www.ecml.at/activities/programme.asp?l=F) ainsi que sur le site web créé
spécialement pour le projet (http://stars.ecml.at/fr/).
Un rapport détaillé et une évaluation des différentes phases du projet seront rédigés vers
la fin 2002 lorsque la seconde phase du projet aura été menée à terme.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
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Liste des annexes
Annexe A (uniquement en anglais):
Technical session 1 (Tuesday, 18th September 2001, 11:15-12:30)
Annexe B (uniquement en anglais):
Using the STARS website – notes for project participants
Annexe C (uniquement en anglais):
Technical session 2 (Wednesday 19th September 2001, 16:30-18:00)
Annexe D (uniquement en anglais):
Technical session 3 (Friday 21st September 2001, 11:00-12:30)
Annexe E (uniquement en anglais):
Working with young learners
Annexe F (uniquement en anglais):
Classroom management and organisation
in the context of ICT and language learning
Annexe G:
Aspects pratiques et pédagogiques du projet 1.3.3. du CELV de Graz
“Les technologies de l’information et de la communication et les jeunes apprenants en
langues” (Atelier 6/2001, 18-22 septembre 2001)
Annexe H (uniquement en anglais):
Contemporary theories and trends
to support teaching modern languages to young learners
Annexe I (uniquement en anglais):
Circuits for second phase – September 2001-May 2002
Annexe J:
Liste des participants de l’atelier 6/2001
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
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Annexe A:
Technical session 1
(Tuesday, 18th September 2001, 11:15-12:30)
Technical session 1 – Tuesday 18th September 11:15-12:30
Topics covered during this presentation:
• Background and history of the website.
• Accessing the website. Browser considerations. Design issues.
• The main sections of the site: the postcard albums, the class
profiles and the teachers’ forum.
Task:
Browse the postcard albums and the class profiles sections of the
website.
Note any changes you would like to see in the site’s design and
operation.
Send at least ONE email to one of the participating classes or one of
the children who contributed a story to a postcard album.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes ()
11
Annexe B:
Using the STARS website – notes for project participants
The Stars website is at stars.ecml.at. This introductory page lets you choose either the
French or the English version – click on the appropriate flag. The website is conceived
as a place where children can publish their own writing and participant teachers and
project team members hold a forum about the project. The website consists of 3 main
sections:
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the Stars postcard albums, where postcards sent by children on behalf of each star
are displayed;
–
the class profile pages (called Our Class), where each participating class can post
information about themselves; and
–
the teachers’ forum, where participating teachers and project team members can
exchange information about the project.
It must be emphasised that the website is still in an experimental stage of development,
and feedback is solicited from all project participants regarding problems encountered in
using it and suggestions for improvement.
Technical note
Because web browsers DO unfortunately differ in the way they format a page’s layout
and in the way they interpret program instructions, the website is not guaranteed to work
reliably on all browsers. The website has been tested on both Internet Explorer 5.5 and
Netscape Navigator 4.7 on a PC, with Internet Explorer giving the better results. I would
like to hear about your experiences with using the site with other browsers or different
browser versions, and other platforms such as the Macintosh.
The site will not work on any browser which does not support Javascript, or in which
the Javascript feature has been disabled. If your browser is not Javascript-enabled, you
will receive a warning message when you enter the site to let you know of this problem.
You will then need to either enable the Javascript feature (in Netscape Navigator you do
this by choosing Preferences from the Edit menu – the Javascript option is then in the
Advanced section) or upgrade to a newer browser.
The site also needs to use a feature called cookies to maintain session identity
information. If this feature is disabled in your browser, you will not be able to log in –
see the section about logging in and out below. If you are using Internet Explorer, make
sure that the security level is set to Medium-Low – this feature is accessible from the
Tools menu, Internet Options … item.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
13
The publishing metaphor
Because the chosen theme for this project centres around the story of 4 stars travelling
around European countries, it was decided to use the postcard as the primary publishing
metaphor. Because of its association with travelling, its ubiquity and familiarity, the
brevity and succinctness of its message, and its pictorial nature, the postcard was thought
to provide an apt metaphor for presenting the idea of publishing to the children. In this
case, using the website children send e-postcards (electronic postcards) on behalf of a
visiting star. Each star’s postcards are collected in an album, which can be viewed online
by anybody browsing the site.
Like real postcards, e-postcards carry a brief message focused on a single event or topic.
Unlike real postcards, however, e-postcards may carry any sort of message – a poem, a
recipe, a joke, etc. Also, e-postcards need not carry a picture, although it is
recommended that most do to enhance the children’s publishing experience.
The e-postcard metaphor is also used for the class profiles.
The various website sections
The various sections of the site are accessible via the main menu occupying the left-hand
side of all site pages.
The HOME page
The HOME page is the first page of the site, containing the background story to the
project theme. It is the page which comes up when you navigate to the site
stars.ecml.at/en (English version) or stars.ecml.at/fr (French version), and is also
accessible via the HOME option on the main menu.
The postcard albums
The four postcard albums are accessible via the main menu items labelled ‘Bouncy Star’,
‘Brainy Star’, ‘Brighty Star’ and ‘Nosy Star’. Each item leads to the front page of the
corresponding album, which contains the star’s profile and a link to the pages containing
the postcards for this star. Clicking on this link displays the first page of the postcard
album. Postcards are displayed 3 to a page. If there is more than a single page in an
album, page tabs appear down the right-hand side of the screen – clicking on a page tab
takes you to the corresponding album page. You can also use the ‘next page’ and
‘previous page’ buttons at the bottom of the page to navigate from one page to another
Each postcard displays the name of the sender together with an envelope icon – to send
an email to the postcard writer click the envelope icon. Below the writer’s name is the
writer’s class together with a book icon – clicking the book icon takes you to that class’
profile pages. The rest of the postcard contains the date, title, message (story) and
(optionally) a picture.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
14
The class profiles
Each participating class is responsible for maintaining its class profile by posting stories
and pictures about their class, locality, country, and anything of interest about
themselves. The class profiles menu item takes you to a page containing a list of all
participating classes together with their teacher. Clicking the book icon beside each class
takes you to that class’ profile pages.
Login
The login menu item identifies the user as a project participant. More about this in the
next section.
Logging in and out of the site
Although anybody may browse the postcard albums and the class profiles, only project
participants are allowed to add and edit material to the site. For this purpose, project
participants need to identify themselves to the system by logging in using the LOGIN
item on the main menu.
Clicking on the LOGIN item takes you to the LOGIN page, which requests your
USERNAME and PASSWORD. You should have received your user name and
password with these instructions. Enter these into the respective fields (boxes) on the
login page and then click the login button. Note that you will have to type in your
password ‘blindly’, because the browser will display an * instead of each character you
type in – this is to hide your password from anyone who happens to be looking on. The
USERNAME and PASSWORD are case insensitive – it does not matter whether you use
capital letters or small letters.
Assuming you have entered BOTH username and password correctly, you will receive a
welcome message and after a few seconds you should be returned to the site’s HOME
page. If instead of a welcome message you receive an error message saying that the
username and password you supplied are not known to the system, then probably you
mistyped something – reenter the username and password carefully. If you are SURE
that you have not mistyped your username or password but the system still won’t log you
in, then there is probably a technical problem. Contact the webmaster to have the
problem resolved.
Once you log in, you will notice that the LOGIN item on the main menu has changed to
LOGOUT. You will also notice that your name appears in the blue ribbon at the foot of
each page. If not, then your browser probably has cookie support disabled – you will
need to enable this to log in successfully.
When you have finished using the site you need to LOGOUT. The system will also
automatically log you out if you spend more than 30 minutes on the same page.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
15
Users and user rights
The system recognises three types of users, besides casual browsers who may only view
the site.
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Class. A class user can add new messages to the postcard albums and their own
class’ profile page. They cannot edit or delete messages from either of these types of
pages, and have no access to the teachers’ forum.
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Teacher. A teacher may edit and delete messages posted to the postcard album
pages and the class’ profile pages by children from his/her class only, but may not
add new messages to the stars’ postcard albums. He/She may also participate in the
teachers’ forum.
–
Observer. An observer is one of the ECML project team. Observers may participate
in the teachers’ forum.
The username and password you supply when you log in identify you as one of these
three types. Teachers and observers have a personal user name and password. However,
all children in a class share one username and password.
Sending e-postcards
Postcards are sent either by children or by the class teacher on behalf of the children.
Wherever possible, children should be allowed to send the postcard themselves –
remember that the teacher can always edit or delete messages later if necessary.
To send an e-postcard you need to proceed as follows:
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Make sure you are logged in using the class username and password. Check in the
blue ribbon at the foot of the page that you are indeed logged in using the class
account.
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Go to the album to which you want to add a new postcard.
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You should see a button labelled ‘Add new entry’. Click this button.
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You should now be presented with a blank postcard ready for you to fill in.
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Click in the field labelled ‘Your name’ and type in the name of the child sending the
message.
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Click in the field labelled ‘Message title’ and type in a short title for the message (not
exceeding 50 characters).
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Click in the field labelled ‘Type your message below’ and type the message. There
is no maximum size for a message, but you should try to keep it as brief and to the
point as possible.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
16
–
If you wish to add a picture to the message, click the BROWSE button on the right
hand side of the postcard. This lets you choose an image file from your harddisk.
How you procure this image file is up to you – it may be a scanned image or drawing,
or an image acquired from a digital camera or painted using a painting program. The
image MUST be in either GIF or JPG format, and the file size should NOT exceed
60000 byte. Although there is no limit on the width or height of the image, to ensure
that the image fits neatly in its allotted space on the right hand side of a postcard and
allow enough space for the message it should preferably not exceed 300 pixels in
width. See below for some tips about using images on the website.
Note that the image you choose is NOT displayed at this stage – unfortunately this
is a limitation of all browsers.
–
When you are satisfied with your postcard and are ready to send it, click the Post
Message button below the postcard. Assuming you have not omitted any of the
mandatory sections of your postcard, clicking this button will send all the information
to the site. Your postcard will then be displayed, image and all, as a confirmation of
receipt. If a problem was encountered with the image you supplied (for example the
file size exceeded the maximum allowed of 60000 bytes, or it was not in GIF or JPG
format) you will be notified accordingly. Note that in this case the postcard will still
be accepted by the system – only the image will be rejected.
–
Click the Continue option to return to the postcard album. You should find you
postcard on the first page of the album – postcards are organised in order with the
newest ones first and the oldest at the end of an album.
Adding a message to a class profile page
To add a message to the class’ profile, go to the class’ profile page and click Add New
Entry. Proceed as for adding a new postcard to an album. Class profile messages are
organised with the oldest message first and the newest last. It is recommended that the
first message posted to a class’ profile page introduces the class and its teacher.
Editing and deleting postcards
Once a postcard has been sent, children cannot change it. If changes need to be made to a
postcard, these must be made by the teacher. To modify a postcard proceed as follows.
–
Make sure you are logged in using the class teacher’s username and password.
Check in the blue ribbon at the foot of the page that you are indeed logged in as the
teacher of the class.
–
Go to the page containing the postcard which needs modifying. You will notice that
all postcards sent by children in your class have EDIT and DELETE options just
below them.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
17
–
If you want to delete a postcard, click on the DELETE option below it. Since you
will NOT be able to undo a deletion, you will be asked to confirm that you want to
delete the postcard. If you choose to proceed with the deletion operation you will
receive a message confirming that the postcard has been deleted. Clicking on the
CONTINUE option will take you back to the album.
–
To edit a postcard, click on the EDIT option below it. This will take you to a screen
identical to the one used to create a new postcard, except that the fields contain the
original message for you to edit. If the postcard contained an image, you may also
choose to delete the image or replace it with a different one. Once you have edited
the message as required, click on the Post Message button to send it. You will
receive confirmation that the postcard has been received. Clicking Continue will
then return you to the postcard album.
When you’ve finished editing or deleting postcards remember to log out.
Editing and deleting class profile messages
To edit or delete a message from the class’ profile, you must be logged in as that class’
teacher. Go to the class’ profile page containing the message to be deleted or edited and
proceed as for editing or deleting postcards.
When you’ve finished editing or deleting class profile messages remember to log out.
Participating in the Teachers’ Forum
To participate in the teachers’ forum you must be logged in as a teacher or an observer.
Once you join the forum you may send a message by clicking the Add New Entry
button. Adding a new forum message is similar to adding a new postcard to the postcard
albums, except that there is no provision for including an image. You are also given the
opportunity to EDIT and DELETE messages you have sent yourself.
When you’ve finished adding or editing forum message remember to log out.
Preparing images for use on the website
–
Make sure that the graphics/painting software you use can save images in JPG and
GIF (sometimes called Compuserve Graphics Interchange) formats.
–
The website does not accept Image files larger than 60000 bytes. JPG files are
usually smaller than GIF files because the format uses a better compression
technique, and so you should as much as possible save images to be uploaded to the
website in JPG format.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
18
–
When saving an image in JPG format you can choose the amount of compression to
be used – higher compression settings result in a smaller image file. However, be
aware that at high compression settings the quality of the image deteriorates badly
and it starts looking blotchy. A setting of between 15% and 20% is usually adequate
and produces images of acceptable quality.
–
Because of the way web browsers format a web page, images wider than say
300 pixels may cause problems – they may extend beyond the right edge of the page,
requiring the user to scroll horizontally to see the whole image, or they may extend
over, and cover, part of the text on their left. Consequently, avoid images that are
much wider than 300 pixels. Keep in mind that some viewers may be using low
resolution displays, and a 300 pixel wide image will occupy almost half the width of
their screen.
–
Because of the relatively small size of images which may be uploaded to the website,
it is important to keep images as simple and uncluttered as possible. For example,
avoid whole class photos – it would be better to photograph the class in small groups
(say 5 or 6 pupils per group) and upload 3 or 4 images instead of a single image in
which none of the faces are distinguishable. Similarly, avoid wasted space in a
picture by having the subject fill as much of the image area as possible.
Mario Camilleri
E-mail: [email protected]
September 2001
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
19
Annexe C:
Technical session 2
(Wednesday 19th September 2001, 16:30-18:00)
Technical session 2 – Wednesday 19th September
16:30-18:00
Topics covered during this presentation:
•
•
•
•
Types of website users.
User accounts and user rights.
Logging in and out.
Posting messages in the teachers' forum and the class profile pages.
Task:
•
•
Log in using your teacher account and leave one message in the teachers'
forum. In your message you should introduce yourself to your colleagues
(the other participants of this workshop). After your message has been
posted, note that the forum page offers you the options to edit and delete
your message, but not other participants' messages.
Making sure you are still logged in, access the class profiles (choose Our
Class from the main menu). Browse some of the class profiles - note that
the 'Add New Entry' button only appears in the page of the class of which
you are the teacher. Add a message to your class' profile page - in your
message introduce the school you teach in.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
21
Annexe D:
Technical session 3
(Friday 21st September 2001, 11:00-12:30)
Technical session 3 – Friday 21st September
11:00-12:30
Topics covered during this presentation:
•
•
•
•
•
Preparing images for uploading to the site.
Capturing images using a digital camera and a scanner.
Editing images in an image processing program.
Image size and quality considerations.
Posting a message with an image.
Task:
Post a message to EITHER the class profile page of your class OR
one of the postcard albums, which includes an image you prepare
yourself.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
23
Annexe E:
Working with young learners
Characteristics of young learners
Working with young learners
… the most remarkable features of the
young mind - its adventurousness, its
generativity, its resourcefulness and its
flashes of flexibility and creativity
Valerie Sollars
ICT & Young learners
ECML Workshop 1.3.3
Graz September 2001
1
Gardner, 1993
4
Young learners learning language
through ICT
Learning in an informal context
• Being actively involved in making sense of
things;
• seeking information from others when it is
needed;
• using what is already known, socially &
psychologically;
• requiring the right conditions to demonstrate
understandings;
• gradually mastering the new learning because
of efforts to make sense of the actions being
observed and to participate.
• Young learners
– characteristics
– learning: understanding & problem solving
– implications for teaching
• Language learning
– Issues & concerns which influence language
learning
• ICT
– ICT, young learners & the modern language
classroom
2
5
The nature of learning
Characteristics of young learners
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Implicit
Curious
outspoken
like to move around
are interested in exploration
inquisitive nature
active
learn by doing/hands-on experiences
3
–
–
–
–
occurs without our
awareness of it
automatic
making sense of
regularities
having the knowledge
without being able to
talk about it
Explicit
– hard to learn but can be
described
– requires conscious &
deliberate effort
– unique to humans
– encouraged in schools
6
Project 1.3.3 – Workshop report 6/2001
European Centre for Modern Languages (ECML)
25
The nature of learning
Learning as understanding
• Learning as understanding occurs when
new knowledge has been internalised.
• Revising and updating one’s conceptual
understanding of the world.
EXPLICIT LEARNING
MEMORISING
PROBLEM SOLVING
UNDERSTANDING
Helps to interpret
Prior
knowledge
New
information
modifies
7
10
Learning as memorisation
Constructivism
• Refers to accumulation of information
in memory through rehearsal or
repetition of material
• New information is added on to existing
information without impinging on other
existing knowledge.
• Accumulation of info is very distinct from
adaptation, modification or change.
• What are the implications of the learning
process for the practising teacher? How
can we facilitate children’s learning &
understanding?
• Vygotsky’s social perspective on
learning
8
– Learning occurs from an interpersonal to
intrapersonal level in a meaningful, social
context made up of a community of learners.
11
Implications for classroom
practices
Learning as problem solving
• Provide as wide a range of opportunities
as possible;
• Provide vivid, first-hand, new
experiences;
• Place tasks in meaningful contexts,
helping children to make sense of new
experiences by relating them to what
they already know;
• Introduce the same idea in a variety of
meaningful contexts.
• Problems share two aspects:
– They all have a goal
– They lack immediate ways of attaining the goal
• New knowledge is acquired in reaching
a solution.
• Finding a solution implies finding the
quickest route to the goal.
• Learning occurs as a result of practice.
9
12
Project 1.3.3 – Workshop report 6/2001
European Centre for Modern Languages (ECML)
26
Issues & concerns related to
language learning
Implications for classroom
practices
• Opportunities for learning L2/FL
• Organise tasks to stimulate mental activity:
adopt problem solving and investigational
approaches where possible.
• Provide opportunities for self-expression:
when children have learnt something new,
give them a chance to make something of
their own from it.
• Provide opportunities for meaningful
conversations between groups of children and
between the children and the adults.
13
– Using the language
– Emotional climate of learning situations
– Nature of the linguistic input
•
•
•
•
Simple structure
Limited vocabulary
More repetition
Related to immediate situation
– Effects of formal instruction especially in the absence of
natural exposure
•
•
•
•
Controlling exposure
Awareness of significant features & patterns
Providing opportunities for practising language
Ensuring feedback about performance
16
Changing the learning
environment
Issues & concerns related to
language learning
• Interdependence of factors. It’s difficult to
isolate any one factor which predicts success
in language learning.
• Factors to be considered when children are
involved in second/foreign languages:
– An aptitude factor Some are more talented as L2/FL
learners
– A social factor Some are more outgoing and more
willing to take risks as language learners
– A psychological factor Some are more motivated as they
want to achieve near native proficiency.
14
Traditional setting
Restructured setting
Student role
Store information
Create knowledge
Teacher role
Present information
Manage classroom
Guide student discovery
Model active learning
Content
Basic literacy with higher
level skills building on
lower-level skills
Emphasis on thinking skills
and application
Curriculum
Characteristics
Breadth
Fact retention
Fragmented knowledge &
disciplinary separation
Depth
Multidisciplinary themes
Knowledge integration &
application
17
Changing the learning
environment
Issues & concerns related to
language learning
•
•
•
•
•
•
Traditional setting Restructured
setting
Age of the learners
Attitudes towards L2/FL
Exposure to the language
The need to use the language
Resources available
Whether teachers are native/non-native
speakers of the language
15
Social
characteristics
Independent
learning
Collaborative learning
Role for
technology
Drill & practice
Direct instruction
Programming
Facilitate exploration
& collaboration
Assessment
Fact retention
Traditional tests
Knowledge
application
Performance;
Projects; Portfolios
18
Project 1.3.3 – Workshop report 6/2001
European Centre for Modern Languages (ECML)
27
Conclusion
the ACTIVE learning environment
We need to focus on helping children :
• become learners
• enjoy learning
• feel that they are people who are able to
learn.
• Active: tasks require cognitive
behaviours that emphasise the
transformation of information into
personal knowledge
• Cooperative: tasks require meaningful
• Anning & Edwards, 1999 p. 59
interaction among students
• Theme-based: tasks are flexible and
multidisciplinary based on an organising
theme
19
22
the ACTIVE learning environment
• Integrated: tasks emphasise content
area knowledge and use technology
tools to encourage learning the content
in ways that are meaningful
• Versatile: tasks make efficient use of
technology skills and develop those that
can be applied repeatedly
• Evaluative: tasks allow the assessment
of students’ ability to use the necessary
knowledge and skills
20
Web-based projects address
these issues and concerns
• Create a community of learners, rich in
diversity
• Allow sharing of ideas, knowledge,
beliefs & practices
• Allow for use of language in real,
meaningful contexts & situations
• Allow for use of a variety of tools and
resources which enable varied forms of
communication
21
Project 1.3.3 – Workshop report 6/2001
European Centre for Modern Languages (ECML)
28
Annexe F:
Classroom management and organisation
in the context of ICT and language learning
HOW TO ORGANISE THE CLASSROOM.Practical aspects to consider beforehand:
! Timetable
! Grouping
! Classroom furniture and physical conditions
! Access to the computer
! Internet access
! Financial problems and possible solutions
! School staff involvement
! Parents support
TIPS to start planning the project for your class
1. Choose clear objectives fitting your particular class’ needs of:
! Motivation (shy or lazy kids)
! Methodological changes (in very traditional schools)
2. Try to improve formal knowledge about:
! Vocabulary and grammar
! Learning strategies (use of new tools such as on-line dictionaries, word processor
correction tools…)
! Writing accuracy
! Other people living in other countries
! and their own country
3. Encourage attitudes of:
! Autonomous learning
! Enjoyment of learning
! Broaden minds to communicate with different people
4. Evaluate your ICT resources and your own ability to work with them, having in mind:
! The time you can use the computers
! The classroom and its furniture
! Number of children in the class
! “Voluntary helpers” (other teachers, parents…)
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
29
STAGE 1. Preparation
CROSS-CURRICULAR APPROACH
LANGUAGE
ENGLISH &
HANDYCRAFTS
ACTIVITIES
− Divide the class into mixed-ability teams/pairs
− Reading comprehension.- Background story
! Vocabulary work
! Prepare questions to be answered in mother
and/or foreign tongue to check global
comprehension
− Create the first star (to be sent away)
! Draw previous sketches according to the
personality
! Describe how children imagine the star
(physically)
! Decide and list the material needed to make it
! Make the star
! Invent other features (physical and/or
psychological – likes and dislikes…-)
STAGE 2. First star at school
CROSS-CURRICULAR APPROACH
ACTIVITIES
LANGUAGE
− Brainstorm: “What can we offer to our guest?”
− Organisation of the visit: decide whether the
children can take the star home or not
(considering the number of pupils, special events
such as birthdays, etc.)
− Distribute responsibilities to the teams:
! Photos, pictures, charts, art work and writing
MUSIC & PE
− Prepare “welcome party”:
! songs, music, dances…
STAGE 3. First star at school: developing activities
CROSS-CURRICULAR APPROACH
SOCIAL STUDIES, MATHS,
SCIENCES…
ART & CRAFT,
ICT
LANGUAGE
ACTIVITIES
− Collect relevant information from and for the star
− Look for information on the WWW
− Take records of the activities (photos,
drawings…)
− Use digital cameras, scanner…
− Write down the pieces of information (cooperative handwriting first, then using a word
processor)
− Correct the texts in class
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
30
STAGE 4. First star at school: communication on the Internet
CROSS-CURRICULAR APPROACH
SOCIAL STUDIES, MATHS,
SCIENCES…
ART & CRAFT, ICT
LANGUAGE
ACTIVITIES
− Learn about other people on the Web
− Take records of the activities (photos,
drawings…)
− Use digital cameras, scanner…
− Interaction with other classes and countries: read
carefully and look at what they have done
− Prepare guessing games and other activities for
your partners to do
− Select your texts and pictures
− Decide whether you (the class) put the texts in the
star’s scrapbook or in the class profile and why.
− Post messages and pictures
STAGE 5.- First star’s farewell: evaluation
CROSS-CURRICULAR APPROACH
ACTIVITIES
ART & CRAFT
− Pack the stars together with “souvenirs”
LANGUAGE
− Involve children in reflection
− Keep records:
! Reflective notes on the web page
! Individual
diaries
of
children
to
commemorate the star’s visit (stories about
the visit, drawing, cartoons…)
Teresa Martínez del Piñal
(ECML, Graz, 18-22 September 2001)
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
31
Annexe G:
Aspects pratiques et pédagogiques du projet 1.3.3. du CELV de
Graz “Les technologies de l’information et de la communication et
les jeunes apprenants en langues”
(Atelier 6/2001, 18-22 septembre 2001)
Jean-François Bourdet, professeur français, a dit: « Le support d’enseignement n’est
pas anodin, il a sa logique propre. L’introduction des Nouvelles Technologies de
l’Information et de la Communication dans les salles de classe implique
nécessairement une modification du mode d’acquisition de la connaissance. Que nous
apprend donc l’ordinateur sur notre façon d’apprendre? »2
On peut se poser cette question finale dans le contexte de notre projet, la logique du
projet étant centrée sur une nouvelle manière d’apprendre les langues étrangères. Cette
nouvelle approche est une réponse aux besoins et aux espoirs des réalités
contemporaines liés à l’exploitation de nouvelles technologies en classe de langue. En
fait, l’enseignant - à part le tableau, le manuel ou les cassettes - est confronté à une
“machine intelligente”, une machine attirant par ses possibilités infinies. L’élève, lui,
est confronté à un apprentissage moderne, plus autonome, mais assisté donc, plus
attrayant, laissant une dose d’imprévisibilité et de curiosité croissante. Le projet permet
de mettre en valeur ses capacités, son savoir-faire, de développer son intérêt pour
l’apprentissage différent du commun.
1. Contexte pratique du projet
Le projet se concentre autour de cet outil si souhaité aujourd’hui dans le milieu des
élèves et, de plus en plus souvent, des enseignants qu’est l’ordinateur et l’Internet.
Les professeurs de langues participant au projet pilote ont reçu un outil sous forme de
site web, techniquement pensé de façon à laisser le maximum de place à l’invention,
l’imagination des élèves. Autrement dit, le site contient des éléments, points de départ,
laissant une porte grande ouverte à toute sorte de créativité de l’élève. Par ailleurs, du
point de vue pratique, le site est non seulement joli et attirant, mais surtout facile à
utiliser, clair et, ce qui est très important, permet une vraie interaction sous forme de
courrier électronique et de groupe de discussion.
Avant de prendre la décision de participer au projet pilote, les enseignants se sont
certainement posé la question si le niveau de connaissances des élèves était suffisant, si
eux-mêmes, ils disposaient d’un savoir-faire en informatique suffisamment large pour
s’impliquer dans le projet. Finalement, ils ont décidé de traiter le projet comme un défi
ou une aventure.
2
J.F. Bourdet, “Du tableau noir aux écrans du virtuel”, Le français dans le monde n° 315
(mai-juin 2001).
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
33
Lors de la réalisation de la phase pilote, les enseignants étaient accompagnés par les
coordonnateurs et les co-animateurs qui leur ont fourni également des
recommandations et les ont assistés en cas de besoin, de doute ou de problèmes
pédagogiques.
Avant tout de même d’arriver au travail purement technique d’introduction des activités
effectuées en classe sur le site web, les enseignants se sont souvent donné la peine de
préparer les élèves au travail avec l’ordinateur.
Leur travail de « gestionnaires » de classe était centré sur les objectifs suivants:
•
Avant l’arrivée de l’étoile:
–
–
–
présenter aux élèves les tâches à effectuer;
les motiver à préparer ensemble un projet d’activités (« contrat de complicité »);
faire travailler leur imaginaire et centrer le projet d’activités envisagées en classe
autour des idées des élèves;
rester en contact avec les autres classes participant au projet afin de mieux préparer
la visite de chaque étoile dans le pays et à l’école d’accueil.
–
•
Quand l’étoile est arrivée à l’école:
–
–
réaliser le projet d’activités;
mobiliser les élèves à mettre en pratique leurs talents et de préparer des jouets, des
dessins, prendre des photos;
encourager et aider les élèves à rédiger en langue étrangère le journal intime de
l’étoile;
introduire les activités sur le site web;
partager les expériences des enseignants et des élèves soit par courriel (à ouvrir à
partir du site), soit dans le groupe de discussion.
–
–
–
•
A la fin de la visite:
–
se charger de l’emballage et de l’envoi du colis avec des objets (préparés par les
élèves) que l’étoile emportait en voyage dans le pays suivant.
2. Aspects pédagogiques
Le projet pilote a démontré qu’il est possible de l’introduire dans notre pratique scolaire
quotidienne, tout en restant conforme au curriculum. Comment pourrait-on donc
l’introduire dans nos curricula?
Dans un premier temps, il semble nécessaire de faire une analyse détaillée de l’histoire
de base, ainsi que des caractéristiques des étoiles et de voir quels sont les points
communs entre celles-ci et le contenu de nos curricula.
Dans un deuxième temps, il s’agira de préparer en concertation avec les élèves un
projet d’activités et de procéder au choix de techniques auxquelles on fait confiance et
qui s’adaptent aux capacités des élèves afin de rendre possible l’exploitation du site.
Sinon, tester des techniques nouvelles.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
34
Parmi les techniques de classe qui se prêtent bien à ce genre de travail, il y a la
simulation globale.
2.1 Approche de la simulation globale
Nous savons bien combien il est difficile de faire passer le réel dans la classe. Pour
l’apprenant, qui a en tête un grand nombre d’images (vues à la télévision, dans la presse
et dans d’autres sources d’information), il est tout de même normal de voir dans sa tête
par exemple la Tour Eiffel, de s’imaginer comment elle est et ce qu’il peut voir de son
sommet. Il s’adonne donc facilement à “simuler, à imiter, à faire comme si, faire
semblant” 3. Il serait donc intéressant d’ouvrir les portes de la classe, d’y amener un
bout du monde par le fait d’engager l’élève dans l’invention ou la recréation de la
réalité. C’est l’idée de l’approche de la simulation globale.
2.1.1 Comment adapter l’approche de simulations globales au travail sur le
projet?
Compte tenu du fait que les protagonistes de l’histoire proposée ont leurs propres
caractères, leurs intérêts et, pour ainsi dire, une mission à accomplir, il serait peut-être
utile de réfléchir sur un mini-projet (centré sur un certain nombre d’heures) au sein du
projet réalisé. Il ne s’agira pas de multiplier les êtres, mais de préparer le terrain pour le
travail ne gênant d’aucune façon au curriculum de l’établissement, le travail se basant
sur les caractéristiques des protagonistes.
2.1.2 Une série de leçons à partir de la caractéristique de l’une des étoiles du
projet pilote, Brainy (à titre d’exemple)
Je m’appelle Brainy. Je porte des lunettes, car elles me vont bien. Tout le monde pense que je
suis douée, mais je crois que je ne suis qu’une étoile ordinaire. Je suis plutôt calme. J’aime lire
des livres, des magazines, chercher des informations dans l’Internet et expérimenter. Je suis
aussi passionnée par les inventions qui vont nous servir à protéger notre planète. Je passe une
grande part de mon temps à la bibliothèque et, pour être franche, c’est l’activité que j’aime le
plus. En ce moment, je suis en train de lire un livre vraiment intéressant sur le climat et son
influence sur la vie des gens. Alors, qu’est-ce que vous pouvez me dire sur le climat de votre
pays? Est-ce qu’il neige chez vous en hiver? Est-ce que vous profitez du beau temps en été?
Ou il fait trop chaud?
Brainy arrive à sa destination, dans une des écoles d’accueil où elle rencontre des
élèves de niveau débutant ou intermédiaire.
3
J.-M. Caré, Qu’est-ce qu’une simulation globale?, FDM n° 252, octobre 1992.
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
35
Première leçon:
Se présenter. Parler de son caractère et de ses intérêts.
On prépare un jeu du genre “Questions pour un champion” (TV5). Au début du jeu on
choisit un animateur qui encourage les candidats à se présenter, parler de leurs familles et
de leurs intérêts. L’animateur pose des questions, commente les réponses. Brainy en parle
à ses sœurs dans son journal intime.
Deuxième leçon:
Mon livre préféré.
Les élèves transforment la classe en une bibliothèque. Ils viennent consulter le
catalogue, posent des questions à la bibliothécaire, la bibliothécaire leur conseille des
livres, ils choisissent un livre qu’ils conseillent ensuite de lire à Brainy.
Puis, le professeur propose de travailler sur un extrait du livre choisi, connaître le(s)
protagoniste(s), illustrer certaines situations, etc.
Chercher peut-être des extraits de livres pour enfants ou des histoires sur l’Internet, par
exemple sur le site: http://www.momes.net/Journal/histoires
Troisième leçon:
Je cherche des informations sur l’Internet.
La leçon se déroule dans une salle d’informatique. En se basant sur les intérêts des
élèves, le professeur leur propose un moteur de recherche et leur demande de trouver
des informations au sujet qui les intéresse. Sinon, il propose de trouver des informations
sur par exemple la météo du jour/du lendemain, les titres des actualités, etc.
Quatrième leçon:
Quel temps fait-il?
Jouer le rôle du présentateur de la météo. Dans une agence de voyage: donner des
conseils vestimentaires aux clients qui vont à l’étranger (par exemple, dans les pays où
voyagent les étoiles).
Consulter sur Internet quel temps fait-t-il dans les pays des classes participant au projet.
Cinquième leçon:
Comment je m’habille?
Brainy doit sortir, faire du jogging, du shopping, etc. Les élèves deviendront des
couturiers et lui proposeront des vêtements en fonction du temps. Préparer des patrons
(dessiner, décrire le genre de vêtement, le tissu) une collection de vêtements à la mode
dans votre pays qu’elle emportera chez elle. Les coudre (?).
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
36
Sixième leçon:
Les saisons de l’année.
Organiser un défilé de mode d’été/printemps.... à l’école ou en classe. Les journalistes
prépareront des articles de presse sur cet événement.
Septième leçon:
Pourquoi j’aime le printemps / l’été / l’automne / l’hiver? (au choix).
On organise des excursions de la classe avec Brainy et on fait un programme d’activités
en fonction de la saison de l’année. Se renseigner par courriel sur ce que Brainy
pourrait faire dans d’autres pays du projet à la même période.
Apporter un appareil photo pour prendre des photos des élèves.
...
Les exemples ci-dessus, montrent que les activités proposées s’enchaînent et
s’inscrivent facilement dans les curricula. Le professeur a donc le choix de sujets, de
techniques et de méthodes, qu’il a d’ailleurs l’habitude d’utiliser à une seule différence,
cette fois-ci les activités se basent sur l’histoire publiée sur le site web. L’élève se sent
ainsi au centre de l’apprentissage, dans des contextes plus proches du réel et même
temps il a le plaisir de publier sa production sur le site. Pendant le travail, la classe reste
en contact avec les autres classes du projet, échange des informations, travaille en
coopération.
3. Conclusion
L’approche proposée permet d’éviter le risque majeur que craignent la plupart des
enseignants utilisant l’Internet en classe, et notamment la mise en question de la
planification, qui ne saurait gérer ou prévoir, l’intégralité des parcours possibles sur un
site “traditionnel” ou un document authentique laissant une large gamme de liens, la
possibilité d’ouverture de nombreuses fenêtres, ce qui donne rapidement une sensation
de vertige et d’impénétrabilité du contenu.
Le site permet d’éviter donc ce risque et de travailler en toute confiance, laissant un
libre cours à l’imagination et à la créativité. Ainsi, peut-on parler de la convergence
entre l’enseignement et l’apprentissage face au nouveau médium, d’un contrat de
complicité entre l’enseignant et l’élève qui se sentira au centre d’un processus dans
l’espace cybernétique le conduisant vers les élèves de son âge dans des endroits du
monde éloignés et inconnus. De plus, cet échange semble bénéfique dans le contexte de
la nouvelle Europe mettant l’accent sur la connaissance mutuelle des identités
culturelles des différentes nations.
Helena LEJA
Professeur de Français
au Collège de formation des maîtres de langues étrangères
de Rzeszow en Pologne
Projet 1.3.3 – Rapport d’atelier 6/2001
Centre européen pour les langues vivantes (CELV)
37
Bibliographie:
J.F. Bourdet, “Du tableau noir aux écrans du virtuel”, Le français dans le monde n° 315
(mai-juin 2001).
J.-M. Caré, Simulations globales et productions romanesques, Numéro spécial FDM /
recherches et applications, “Apprendre les langues étrangères autrement”, janvier 1999.
J.-M. Caré, “Qu’est-ce qu’une simulation globale?”, FDM n° 252, octobre 1992.
F. Debyser, L’immeuble, Hachette, Paris, réédition 1996.
F. Yaiche, Les simulations globales mode d’emploi, Hachette, Paris, 1996.
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Annexe H:
Contemporary theories and trends
to support teaching modern languages to young learners
by Dr. Poór Zoltán
There are a few statements by Scott and Ytreberg (1990) that seem to be proved by the
practice of teaching modern languages to young learners:
•
There are many similarities between learning one’s mother tongue and learning a
foreign language.
•
The period from 5 to 10 sees dramatic changes in children, but we cannot say when
it happens. The magic age is between 7 and 8 when things seem to fall in place.
The Language Acquisition Theory by Stephen Krashen (1987) could be referred to as a
theoretical background to the first statement. Krashen outlined five hypotheses that form
a firm foundation for the approaches, methods and techniques applied when teaching
languages to young learners or rather when helping them to learn.
1.
The Acquisition versus Learning Hypothesis emphasises that children rather
acquire languages while adults learn them.
2.
The Natural Order Hypothesis states that the structures of a language are acquired
approximately in the same order, regardless what is taught in a formal setting.
3.
The Monitor Hypothesis supposes that thee is a trigger in the brain which applies
rules that have been learned. This is the monitor. The monitor makes the speaker
aware of a mistake after it has been made. So, the speaker must know the rules
have time to think of them and apply them. These conditions do not usually apply
in the conversational situations in which a child is most commonly exposed to the
target language.
4.
The Input Hypothesis proves that the most important factor in the amount of
language acquired by the learner is the amount of comprehensible input to which
the learner is exposed. The comprehensible input is what the learner can fully
understand and just a little more.
5.
The Affective Filter Hypothesis refers to a notion that anxiety, motivation and
confidence play an important role in learning. There is a filter that goes up in the
presence of anxiety, low confidence or in the absence of motivation. The filter goes
down and the input can come through when the motivation is high, when a student
is confident and when the learning takes place in an anxiety-free environment.
If the first hypothesis is accepted, we have to look into the conditions for language
acquisition. According to Krashen (1987), it takes place most effectively when the input
is meaningful and interesting to the learner, comprehensible and not grammatically
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sequenced. Michael Long (Scott, W. A. and L. H. Ytreberg, 1990) believes that it takes
place best in a setting in which meaning is negotiated through interaction, so that the
student has influence on the message being communicated. By Merril Swain’s (Scott,
W. A. and L. H. Ytreberg, 1990) views, students acquire language most meaningfully
when they have the opportunity for comprehensible “output”, i.e. when they can use it in
a productive way.
When taking the Affective Filter Hypothesis and the Input Hypothesis (Krashen, 1987)
into consideration, one finds that learners must always be challenged, but never to a
point at which frustration sets in and that the target language must be used in such a way
that the message is understood, even though every word of the message may not be
familiar.
Thus, in a classroom designed to encourage second language acquisition there should be
an emphasis on communication in an environment in which children are surrounded by
the target language where teachers use natural language, but ‘caretaker speech’ (Curtain,
H. A. and C. A. Pesola, 1988).
What are the characteristics of this ‘caretaker speech’ or ‘motherese’ or ‘teacherese’
language?
The person responsible for helping children acquire the target language, i.e. the teacher
uses a slower rate of speech; distinct pronunciation; shorter, less complex sentences;
more rephrasing than repetition; frequent meaning checks; gestures and other non-verbal
elements of communication (i.e. body language); visual reinforcement and concrete
referents (Curtain, H. A. and C. A. Pesola, 1988).
Contemporary methodology of modern languages education is based not only on the five
hypotheses by Krashen (1987), but on the principles of Cognitive Psychology, too.
These principles are the following:
• Students are active processors of information.
• Learning occurs when information is made meaningful.
• How students learn is more important than what they learn.
• Cognitive processes become automatic with repeated use.
• Metacognitive skills can be developed through instruction.
• Internal motivation is one of the major conditions for learning.
• There are vast differences in students’ information processing abilities.
The approaches, methods and techniques based on the principles of Cognitive
Psychology can be opposed to those of behaviourism that emphasises the importance of
rote learning; habit formation; reinforcement techniques and drills. According to the
behaviourist principles students are passive subjects of the procedure following the
pattern of stimulus and response. (Curtain, H. A. and C. A. Pesola, 1988)
The underlying theories to contemporary methodology of teaching modern languages to
young learners encourage the introduction of various educational set-ups that promote
natural learning, i.e. language acquisition.
One of the few rather well-known ways to promote natural learning is immersion
education which is a form in which the target language is a tool to teach the curriculum.
Thus the focus on the curriculum (social studies, science, mathematics, language arts,
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health, art, music) rather on the target language. The students of immersion programmes
are generally monolingual speakers (of the first language) who learn another language
for enrichment purposes. Their teachers – either native or non-native speakers of the
target language – are certified to teach at elementary level. (Curtain, H. A. and C. A.
Pesola, 1988)
The goals of immersion education are to help learners acquire functional proficiency in
the target language and promote cross-cultural understanding. It caters for the
maintenance and development of the first language skills comparable to the achievement
of students in mother tongue or first language-only programmes, too. All in all the
mastery of subject-content material of the school curriculum is emphasised primarily
rather than the improvement of the target language that is used as a vehicle. (Curtain, H.
A. and C. A. Pesola, 1988)
The key concepts of immersion-principles are as follows (Curtain, H. A. and C. A.
Pesola, 1988):
• Communication motivates all language use.
• There is natural use of oral language.
• Language is a tool of instruction, and not just the object of instruction.
• Subject content is taught in the target language.
• The sequence of grammar instruction follows developmental sequence of the
elementary school language arts curriculum, or may be dictated by communication
needs.
• Error correction is minimal and focuses on errors of meaning rather than other errors
of form.
• Use of the native language is kept clearly separated from use of the target language.
• Reading instruction begins with previously mastered oral language.
• Literacy skills are transferred from the language in which they first are learnt to the
next language.
• Culture is an integral component of language learning.
• The second language atmosphere permeates the classroom and the school.
Immersion programmes can be introduced at the very beginning or in the first few years
of institutionalised education (early immersion) or at various further stages, such as
secondary or tertiary levels (late immersion). The target language can be used as the
ultimate tool for completing the curriculum (total immersion). On the other hand, one
can deliver some content in the first language and some other subjects can be taught in
the target language (partial immersion). Partial immersion programmes – early or late /
at primary or secondary level – are realised at bilingual or dual language schools. If both
languages of instruction are used in the in the social environment around the school as a
natural means of communication, the school can be considered as bilingual (like DutchFrench schools in Belgium; Italian-German schools in South Tyrol, Italy; FinnishSwedish schools in Finland; Russian-Latvian schools in Latvia or Romanian-Hungarian
schools in Transylvania, Romania, etc.). In case the target language is not spoken by the
community, the school offers dual language education rather than bilingual. There are a
few dual language schools in Hungary that offer education both in English and
Hungarian or there are institutions in Bulgaria with tuition both in French and Bulgarian.
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In immersion programmes teachers ...
… make regular use of contextual clues such as gestures, facial expressions and body
language; and of concrete referents such as props, realia, manipulatives, and
visuals (especially with entry-level students).
… provide hands-on experiences for students accompanied by oral and written
language use.
… use linguistic modifications when necessary to make the target language more
comprehensible for the students in the beginning stages of the programme, such as:
- controlled, standardised vocabulary
- controlled sentence length and complexity
- slower speech rate
- restatements, expansions, and repetitions
… accelerate student communication by teaching functional chunks of language.
… constantly monitor student comprehension through interactive means.
… use the language-experience approach to reading instruction.
… draw classroom techniques primarily from elementary school methodology.
(Curtain, H. A. and C. A. Pesola, 1988).
Immersion programmes offer opportunities for cross-curricular learning, that is for the
integration of the target language to be acquired and the content of various subjects.
When studying literature on cross-curricular language education one can realise that
there are three types of relationship between the content and the language of teaching.
One can help students learn the target language by the content subjects. In settings of
this kind the focus of our attention is on the content and language skills develop only
incidentally. Students learn the language through exposure to modified content. This
kind of relationship between content and language can be identified in the context of
total or partial immersion programmes when either all or particular learning areas (such
as Maths, Geography, History, Music, PE or Art) are covered in the target language. The
methodology of teaching language by the content is based on the didactic principles of
teaching the particular subject(s).
At some dual language schools preparatory years are introduced to lay the linguistic
foundations for learning and teaching subjects in the target language. This is the case
when the language is taught for the content. On induction courses students learn specific
language of various subject areas. Their language education is supported by the
methodology of modern language teaching rather than that of the subject areas.
The above-specified two categories characterise immersion (bilingual or dual language)
programmes.
The third type of relationship between language and content would be the most
favourable for comprehensive schools that are not designed and licensed for immersion
programmes, but the integration of content of learning areas and target language could
be considered. When the language is taught in parallel with the content the focus is both
on content and language; the language and content objectives in close alignment and
language learning can further the goals of content teaching by giving learners help with
the processes of content learning. In this parallel type of ‘language with the content’
model both language and content are graded according to the principles of modern
language education methodology and subject teaching didactics. (Curtain, H. A. and C.
A. Pesola, 1988)
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This latter category of cross-curricular language education is often referred to as topic-;
theme- or content-based.
What are the arguments of integrating target language and subject teaching? (Scott, W.
A. and L. H. Ytreberg, 1990)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
When concentrating on a particular topic the content becomes more important than
the language. It is easier to relate the lessons to the experiences and interests.
Working on topics can help the learning process. Association of words, functions,
structures and situations with a particular topic. Association helps memory, learning
in context helps both understanding and memory.
Topic-based teaching allows teachers to go into a subject in a depth. Pupils need
more and different vocabulary. Their needs are brought more into focus.
Topics allow to give more personal and local touch.
Topic-based teaching allows teachers to rearrange their material to meet actual
needs.
Timing is flexible.
All skills – linguistic, social, subject-related – are involved.
According to Medgyes (1995), the communicative and humanistic classroom should
offer more real situations than realistic ones. He distinguishes real situations to realistic
ones on the basis of the following statements. Realistic is the situation when you have to
say something and realistic is the one when you have something to say. Topic-, themeor content-based language teaching offers a wide range of real situations, that is such an
environment in which the learner feels s/he does what s/he is interested in; s/he
investigates areas in which s/he can develop skills and process information s/he needs
and meanwhile uses the target language as a natural means of communication.
Primary teachers can use a number of authentic materials to create natural environment
and real situations to promote natural (cross-curricular) learning. Thus one can integrate
oral presentation (including that of the teacher and other pupils), print materials, audios,
videos, resources via ICT and real objects. So, one can rely on specific information,
data, stories and other types of information.
Another important factor that the success of contemporary language education is
dependent on is learner autonomy. Children have to learn to be autonomous. Teachers
have to help them raise their self-awareness, i.e. outline what they know, what they are
able to do and ‘how far they have gone so far’. Setting goals, aims and objectives and
contrasting them to the existing competencies have to be learnt in order to identify
needs. As soon as the ‘way to go’ and the competencies to learn are clear; selecting
resources, learning strategies and techniques to meet the needs are the next step to take.
Deciding on timing, pace and amount of time to be used is important to be learnt, too.
Children have to be made aware of the fact that they can take control and responsibility
over their own education and when reflecting and evaluating efficiency they again make
themselves aware of the fact ‘how far they have gone’.
A further aspect of learner autonomy is co-operative learning, that is the ways of the
division of labour and responsibility.
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New roles of teachers have formulated for the past few years of the development of
contemporary primary language teaching methodology. The teachers has become a
resource person, a strategist, a consultant and adviser, a facilitator, monitor (but not
controller) of developmental (learning) procedures) and a supporter of reflection and
evaluation.
References:
Curtain, H. A. and Pesola, C. A. (1988) Languages and Children – Making the Match.
Foreign Language Instruction in the Elementary School. Addison Wesley.
Krashen, S. D. (1987) Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Hemel
Hempstead: Prentice Hall International.
Medgyes, P. (1995) A kommunikatív nyelvoktatás. Budapest: Eötvös József
Könyvkiadó.
Scott, W. A. and L. H. Ytreberg (1990) Teaching English to Children. London:
Longman.
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Annexe I:
Circuits for second phase – September 2001-May 2002
Circuit 1
ENGLISH
Malta
Germany
Slovenia
Estonia
Circuit 3
ENGLISH
Norway
Austria
Latvia
Hungary
ENGLISH
Poland
Spain
Andorra
France
Circuit 5
Circuit 2
Circuit 4
ENGLISH
Holland
Greece
Cyprus
Bulgaria
ENGLISH
Iceland
Lithuania
Czech Republic
Sweden (?)
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Circuit 6
FRENCH
Poland
Lithuania
Andorra
Armenia (Hungary?)
45
Annexe J:
List of participants in Workshop 6/2001 /
Liste des participants dans l’atelier 6/2001
Principality of Andorra / Principauté d’Andorre
Santos Castro Maria Isabel
Educatrice en petite en moyenne section de l’Ecole Andorrane, Escola andorrana de
Canillo, Carrer dels Esquirolets, Canillo
Fax / Télécopie: +376 85 28 02
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: French / Français
Armenia / Arménie
Khanian Evelina
Professeur de Français, Responsable de la méthode VIFAX, Université linguistique des
langues étrangères de Yerevan, Yerevan
Fax / Télécopie: +374 1 151 450 / 374 1 528 899
E-mail: [email protected] / [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: French / Français
Austria / Autriche
Fuchs Evelin
Pädagogische Akademie der Diözese Graz-Seckau, Georgigasse 85-89, A- 8020 Graz
Fax / Télécopie: +43-316 58 16 70-11
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Bulgaria / Bulgarie
Blagoeva Holandi Rayna
South-Zest University, 66, Ivan Mihailov blv, BG-2700 Blagoevgrad
Fax / Télécopie: E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Cyprus / Chypre
Constantinides Antonis
Inspector of Primary Education, Ministry of Education and Culture, CY-1434 Nicosia
Fax / Télécopie: +357 2 428277
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
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Czech Republic / République tchèque
Jilkova Jana
Jazikova skola Kutna Hora, Pedagogical Faculty of Charles University, University
Prague, Vaclavske namesti 180, CZ-28401 Kutna Hora
Fax / Télécopie: +420 327 516 913
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Estonia / Estonie
Kurrik Katrin
Teacher of English, Pärnu Kuninga St Basic School, Kuninga 29, ES-80014 Pärnu
Fax / Télécopie: E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
France
Lentrebecq Laurent
Professeur des écoles, Formateur en français langue étrangère pour le GRETA,
Inspection de l’Education Nationale – Lille, Marcq en Baroeul
Fax / Télécopie: +33-3 28 33 77 69
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: French / Français
Germany / Allemagne
Schempp Harald
Rektor, Grundschule Haigerloch, Oberstadtstrasse 64, 72401 Haigerloch
Fax / Télécopie: +49-7474 954710
E-mail: [email protected] / [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Greece / Grèce
Kokkinou Urania
State School Teacher of English, Gymnasium of Perdika, Perdika, Thesprojia
Fax / Télécopie: E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Hungary / Hongrie
Poór Zoltán
University of Veszprém, Faculty of Teacher Training, Dept of English and American
Studies, Egyetem u. 3, H-8200 Veszprém
Fax / Télécopie: +36-88-42 92 07 / +36-88-42 26 43 / +36-88-422845
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
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Poor Zsuzsánna
Teacher of English as a Foreign Language, Rozsa ùti Altalanos Iskola (Rozsa Street
Primary School), Rozsa u. 1., H-8200 Veszprém
Fax / Télécopie: + 36 88 329212
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Szladek Emese
Haszkovó u. 16/A 7.18, H-8200 Veszprém
Fax / Télécopie: E-mail: [email protected] / [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: French / Français
Iceland / Islande
Lefever Samuel
Assistant professor, University of Education, Stakkahlid 5, 105 R Reykjavik
Fax / Télécopie: +354 563 3833
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Latvia / Lettonie
Toropova Daina
Head Assistant of Riga English Grammar School, Riga English Grammar School, LV1004 Riga
Fax / Télécopie: +371 7 61 24 25
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Lithuania / Lituanie
Ambruleviciene Danute
Professeur de français, Ecole secondaire de Kaunas, Cepinakio 7, LT-3018 Kaunas
Fax / Télécopie: +370 7 39 14 21
E-mail: [email protected] / [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: French / Français
Malta / Malte
Mintoff Maria D.
"Tamanoff", Triq it- Torri, Birkirkara BKR 14
Fax / Télécopie: +356-24 98 72
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
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Camilleri Mario
Dept of Math, Science and Technical Education, Faculty of Education, University of
Malta, Msida
Fax / Télécopie: E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Sollars Valérie
Lecturer, Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education – University of
Malta, Msida
Fax / Télécopie: +356-31 79 38
E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Netherlands / Pays-Bas
Wermer Netty
Drienerwoold Onderwijsadviseurs, Postbus 1177, NL-7500 BD Enschede
Fax / Télécopie: +31-53-485 44 00
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Norway / Norvège
Arthur Emma
Teacher, NHS, Hogskolen i Stavanger, Postbos 2557, 4091 Stavanger
Fax / Télécopie: +47-51-833 750
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Poland / Pologne
Leja Helena
Foreign Languages College of Teacher Training, NKJO – Ul. Lisa-Kuli 13, PL35-025
Rzeszów
Fax / Télécopie: +48-17-85 324 76
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: French / Français
Wos Kazimiera
Professeur de Français, Szkola Podstawanowa Nr 35 – Rzeszow, 35-006 Rzeszow
Fax / Télécopie: +48 17 86 24 620
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: French / Français
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Slovenia / Slovénie
Nuc Jozica
Teacher, II osnovna sola Rogaska Slatina, Ul. Kozjanskega odreda 4, 3250 Rogaska,
Slatina
Fax / Télécopie: +386 3 58 14 178
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Spain / Espagne
Martinez del Pinal Teresa
Dirección, General Dávila 38, 5° F, E-39005 Santander
Fax / Télécopie: +34-942-278 155
E-mail: [email protected] / [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
Tobar Giralt Belén
C.P. “Buenventura González”, Av. Menéndez Pelayo S/N, E-39100 Bezana
(Cantabria)
Fax / Télécopie: +34-942-580 700
E-mail: [email protected]
Working language / Langue de travail: English / Anglais
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