TOEIC Review File

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TOEIC Review File
tTOEIC
VOCABULARYAND GRAMMAR
REVIEW
I
TABLE OFCONTENTS
LISTEI{ING SECTION DESCRIPTIONAND TIPS 2-3
BUSINESSVOCABI]LARY 4- 6
GENERALVOCABIJI,ARY 7-9
READING SECTION GRAMMAR CEECKLIST 10-11
GRAMMAR RDVIETY 12-16
VERB PATTERNS 17
WHICH /WHOM / WEOSE BEII\TIVE
CLAUSES lE
DESCRIPTION A}{D TIPS X'ORREADING COMPBDHENSION 19
-t-
l-
LISTENING SECTION
Th€ listening comprehensions€ctionconsistsof four parts. Therc ârc 100questions.
Part I
Part II
Part m
Part Mhort
Pictures (20 questions)
Question- Response(30 qu$tions)
Short conversations'(30questions)
talks (20 questions)
TIPS F'OR PART I - PICTURES
Ther€ are 20 photographs. Look at the photographs before you hear the four statements. You mwt choosethe
statementthat best describesthe photograph .
Photognphs of p€ople : The stâtementoflen describeswhat the !Éople ârc doing , what they are holding ,
wearing etc . . . and where they are .
Photographsof obiects : The stûtementoften deseribeswhat tbe obi€ct is , what it is like and where it is .
Pay âttention to th€ main ideâ of the photograph .
BecarcfuLot wordgwitha sirnilqr seund.
Example : Ee is ggElg chocolate .
Ee is heâtinq the chocolate.
Be careful of stat€mentsthat can causeconfrrsion.
Example : The trâiner is in &4!Lg[-the desk .
The desk is in front of the trainer .
Remember: If you do not know the corrcct answer cbm* a,b, c or d
TIPS FOR PART tr - QUI,STION - RESPONSE
There are 30 questionsin tùis pârt.You will hear a qlrestion rthen three possibleanswers. You must choosethe
statementthat best ânswersthe question.
You must concentrate on the qlestion and then lisûenfor the ânswer .
If the questionword is b,herc the possibleanswer is a place
qtime
athcz
who
a person
rohst
an ohjeA
howofien
aftequen y
how'ttuch
th<coi
howfar
disfance
howold
age
etc...,.....
Be careful of negative questions
Example : Won't you join us for coffee ?
possibleanswers: Yes Ird love to .
I wish I could , but I'm too busy .
Alweys concentrat€ on meaningonly.
Be careful of homophon$ ( words that soundsimilar but have different meanings) .
Example : Sheworks a live day woek .
Sheis too g!
to work ,
Always concentrateon neaning only .
Remember : If you do not know the correct answer choose a, à or c
-2-
1IPS EOR PABI IIf-
SHORT COIIV.ERSATIONS
Therc ùe 30 questionsin this part .You will hear 30 short conversationsbetw€entwo people. You must choose
the statementthat best answersthe question.The questionsand the four p,o$ible lnswers are rrritten in the test
book .
Tri to reâd the {uestion and anJwersbefore y-ouhear the conversation.
Usually the questionsfocus on eithcr.the.main idea or on specific information .
Alwtys concetrateon meaning .
You must concentrat€ on the question and then listen for the ânswer.
Pay speciâlâtûentionto tbe qustion word .
Seetips for part tr que$tion - reponse.
Be carcful of modal verbs ard n€gativet to expressint€ntions , obligations , no obligations , possibitties, etc ...
Examples : must / mNtn't , n€ed/ne€dn't
Remember : If you do not know the conrct answer choose a , à , c or d
TIPS T'OR PART lV - SHORT TALKS
Thert are 20 questioncin this paft .You will hear severalshort tâlks . rhe short talks cân include
announcements, businessprcsentations, wetther forecasts, advertisements, etc ...
Therc art two or thrce questionson erch talk. The queJtionsand the four porsible rnswers are written in the
test boolc You nust choosetùe statem€ntthat b€st ânswersthe question.
Try to rcsd the [uestions and answersbefore you hear the talks.
Look at the questionsand answerr ûr you are lisûening.
Usually the questionsfocus on the mtin ideâs md detâits.
Sometimesthey include infercncc questionswhich ask you to draw conclusions.
Alrtrâysconcetraûeon meâning.
Remember : If you do not know the corr€ct answer choose a, ô , c or d
--3-
VOCABULARY REVIEW FOR TOEIC
BUYING AND SELLING
wholesale
order
fail
the balance
cut
purchase
distributer
invoice price
gros
cortrmânde
échouer
le solde
diminuer
scheter
conceiiionnaire
prir de facture
retail
instalmert
dtupatch
shortage
refund
trolley
head-office
mâil order house
currrert price
bargain price
run out of stg
to aim at s market
a foreign market
a gmwth market
prix du jour
prix d'occasion
manqueren magasir
yiser un marché
un mrrché ext€rieur
un marché porteur
prckaging
chair stores
launch a pmduct
market trends
domestic marcket
to cater to the need$
détail
acompte
expédier
pénurie
remboursement
chariot
siegesocial
vente par
correspondance
corditionnement
magaiin à succursales
lancer un produit
cojonctures du môrché
un msrché intérieur .
satfufaire les besoirs
dler-r€tour
louer
congÈs
foire
annuler
droit d'entree
€xposition /salotr
s'inrcrire
tarif dégressif
traiter
horaire
chambred'une personne
seprésenter à la reception
fare
fines
offcial proceedings
admission
registration
to exhibit
exhibitor's pass
coach/bus
throug-htrain
rental
pamphlets
double room
tarif
amendes
comptq.rendu ofricicl
entree
inscrlption
erposer
c&rte d'exposant
&utoqat
trrin direct
de locrtion
brochure
chambre pour deur
set up
prolitable
factories
recovery
sharcholder
balancesheet
établir
rertable
u3ines
reprbe
actiotrraire
bilan
a share
network
growth
failure
appoint
auditor
merger
board of directors
bonds
fusion
co|rseil d'administration
obligations industrielles
brarch
une part / ulre action
réseàu
croiisance
échec
nommer
commissaireaux
comptes
succursal€
mortgagebonds
diYidetrd
head offce
limited liability
r€gistration
to float
dividende
siègede société
rcsponsabilité
immrtriculation
démarrer
partn€r
incur a lo$$
monopoly
self-fitrancirg
a fl€dgling company
BUSII\'ESS TRIP
round trip
rent /hire
conYention
fair
cancel
entrance f€e
exhibition
to register
tap€ring rates
to handle
schedule
single
check in
ECONOMICS
-+-
obligatiotrs
h]?othécaires
associé
subir une perte
monopole
autofl!ancement
un€ sociétefragile
TECHNOI,OGY
batch (processing)
cartridge
chart
to clear
traitement par lots
cartouche
tableau Siagratorite
effacer
computer
core
dôta logging
device
digital
discrepancy
to dump
feedback
lile label
flow
to focus
garbage
iûput
insulate
to itemize
l€vel
to monitor
queue
reliable
to r€wind
sch€dule
ordinateur
noyau
enregistrement
dispositif
numérique
écart , différence
vider
rétroaction , réaction
étiquette
circulation
concentrer
déchet
entrée
isoler
détailler
niveau
surveiller
Iile d'atterte
fiable
rembobiner
plen , préYision
positiomer
empiler
stockage
tache
déclettcher
étaler
personnel spécialisé
computational
data
to delete
drgit
directory
to display
to feed
Iile
flaw
to flick€r
gap
to implement
output
item
layout
to load
overhsul
random
to rreset
safety
sensot
to sort
to step
to swap
time-sharitrg
unavailable
raming
to waste
to carry out
to advertise
mener ( une expérience)
fair€ de la publicité
survey
agegroup
awards
bill
to boost
breakthrough
caption
closing dat€
dailypaper
freelancejournalist
to broadcast
to atteûd
classed'âge
Écompens€s
factur€
gonfler
percée
légende
date limite
journsl quotidier
journdisteindépe[dant
diffuser
assister à
audience
backpsge
billborrd
bratrd image
canYassing
circulation
cov€r
front page
income groups
târgea
off-peak
outcome
poll
rafing
Feports
subscriber
to spearheada campaign
to erpand
enter a niche market
to lose an edge
a catcb line
resultat
sotrdage
évaluation
comptesrgndus
abonné
mener...
déYelopper
occuper un créneau
perdre un avatrtage
une formûle choc
peak-time
P!:essrelease
reminder
sampling
trade paper
to make I foray (into)
to corner a market
a newcomer
to placean ad
a catchpras€
'
IO Set
to stack
storage
task
to trigger
to unpack
skilled staff
.
built-in
channel
chip
clockwise
'
incorpoÉ
canal
puc€
dans le sensder aiguilles
d'une montre
éYelustion
donne€
rayer , effacer
chiffre
Épertoire
afficher
alimenter
lichier
défaut
clignoter
écartem€nt
mettre en application
sortie
rrticle
disposiÉion
charger
remise en état
aléatoire
remettre à zéro
sécurité
capt€ut
trier
avancerd'un pas
échanger
temps pÛtagé
indi$ponibl€
avertissemenl
gaipiller
ADVERTISING / MEDIA
adyerti$ement
-5-
enquête
petite amonce , anlonce
publicitrire
public
Ia dernière page
panneaud'affichage
imagede marque
démarche à domicile
diffusion
couyerture
premièrepage
tranches de reyenus
cible
€n dehors des heures d€
pointe
heure de pointe
communiquéà la presse
rappel
échantillonnage
journal professionnel
faire ure incursion
monopoli$er
un nouveau venu
metlre une annonce
un slogan
I.atiry
feports
subrcriber
to spesrheada campaign
to expand
'
enter û nich€ marl(et
to lose an edge
& crtch line
catchy
a folder
a rign
a ntings system
évaluation
comptesrendus
aboIIé
mener...
dév€lopper
occuper un crén€ru .
perdrr un avantage
utre formul€ choc
fscileà retenir
un dépliant
uûe enseigne
un system d'évaluation
a blind test
a crrosssection
un test en aveugle
ur échantillon repÉssntatif
to spur
quality standardt
to monitor
the purssuit (of)
to contsin defects
normes de qualité
surveiller
la recherche (de)
limitsr les défaut$
to me€t qurlity standsrdg
e kÊy component
to build to last
to run tcsts
to desigr
r brand image
faulty
flawless
we|r and tear
to discard
to off-load products
conceYoir
ulle image de marque
défectueux
sansdéfaut
Itusure
jeter
déYers€rsesproduiti
to rcdesign
,
remirder
sampling
trade paper
to meke a foray (lnto)
to corner a market
a newcomer
to place &n id
a catch prase
a reply coupon
m post up
a leaflet/a flyer
to reach customerg
rappel
échantillonnage
journal prcfessionnel
fâire une ircursion
monopoliser
u|l louveau venu
m€ttne tme SDtronce
un slogan
un bon à dècouper
afrcher
un prGpectus
atteindre les
consotnmateurs
inciter
OUALITY CONIROL
repondre aux norme$
un élément essentiel
construire pour durer
faire subir des terts de
yériûcation
redessiner
to discontinu€8 product srreter un produit
a flaw
une psille, un délaùt
to spot d€fects
déceler der défauts
sloppiness
le manque de soùl
jetable
dispossble
s downrcale market
un msrché b&s de
gatnme
I
HOÎEL
ÀccobtÀodation
!\r]-l
board
I.obby
Rêsott
Desk c].erk
Check in
Check out
BaJ.lboy
Vacancies
I.D.
TRÀNSPORT
Rush hour
sidewa].k
Freeway/Hightray
eive s.o.a ].ift
Turnpike
T!uck
Car
Gas
good
?runk
Licensê
p1ate
trai]-er
Bu$per
r'il1
he! up
Run out of g,as
Tank
Fix the ca!
À selvice
PIane
Take off
Landing
To be de]-ayed
To be due
To be overdue
Àirfare
!\r].]. fare
Àis.]-e
Stop ove!
Io boald
Tereina1
On schedule
Schedu].e
To check in
POSÎ
G']T-
chambres
papiers
Tol"l
free
Râte9
disponible
d, identité
To wire
Put s. o.
Connect
1'hêure
de pointe
t!ottoir
autoroute
enttrener
qqn.en
voiture
autoroute
(payante)
câDiorr
eSÉ|ence
capo E
coffre
plaque
d' i_Emat.ricu].ation
caravane
Pare_choc
faile
].e p].ein
paDne d, essence
réselvoir
réparer
Ia voitute
une révision
décoJ.lage
êtterrissage
etre
retarde!
etle
attendu/prevu
etle
en letard
prix
dê biI].et
d, awion
p].êin
ta.if
cou]-oir
centrâI
:a
eàca]-e
eo.barquer
ae!oga!e
a 1'heu!ê
horaite
enregistrêr
navette
te.rminus
consignes
toilettes
te!ùilrus
Eransport
jeton
Detr)ot
T.ansit
Token
Ride
the
Raihoad
su.bway
PuL l-nan
clerk
Booking officê
courrier
posÈe!
To rnail
Postage
Zip code
col].ect
call
Hang up
HoId on
Baiu3se
Shutt].e
Teiûirra1
Locke!s
Restlooes
OFFTCE
bebergemeot
penExon
colPlet
l' entrée
station
touristique
réceptionniste
s' insoiraê
Èégler
J.a note
portier
prendre
].e metlo
chenin
de fer
monter/descend!e
t!âin
rapide
guichetier
guichet
-+-
through
RESTÀUR,ANT,/FOOD
Thê check,/Tâb
A bitê
D!essing
on tap/draft
DeIi
soda
Cândy
Cannêd food
Liquor
affrattchisseDent
code tr)ostale
P.c.v.
racroctre!
attendez
svtt
couPê!
appe]. .gratuit
'taux/frais
/
té1égraphier
EetÈle
en
coEeunicatiott
1'addition
pourboire
casse êro1r!ê
vinaigrette
Pres9IOn
sandwich
bar
boisson
gazêusê
bonbons
f.ês conEelvês
alcoo]"
I
iHoPPrNc
À pulse
À dêposit
À diEcount
À leceipt
À sa]"es sLip
À refu-nd
À vrarlanty
DepartEent
store
Àisle
A Ea].e
Retai].
Iihô].esale
Chain stole
gac
a !a:-n
urre accompte
ult rabais
un leçu
utl reçu
un reDboursenent
une garantie
grand magasin
ar_Lee
soldes
/
vedte
au detail
ven!.e
ett qlos
magâgr-n a gucculsales
multiptes
achêteePICêrJ"e
''a étrl
une robe
un vêtenent
utre vendeuse
].a caisse
boutiquê
To purchâse
crocêri. store
À stand
À goan
À gar[ent
A sales c].errk
The ctrêck out
BANK,/MONET
Currency
checking
account
Savings account
To cash a check
Exchange rate
À bratrch
Àn f,O"û,
dêviEes
un coapte courant
un compte dt epargrre
encaisse!
un cheque
taux d' echanqe
ulle agence
une rêconna1sance
de dettê
un deeouvert.
caissi!re
iDpots
Àn ovêrdraft
Bantte.Ller
.
Incolle
tax
1c=one penny
5c=a nicke.l
10c=a di-eê
25c=â quârter
Entertainment
ReJ.ease (fiLm)
Iliking
sâiling
fce skating
Hêalth
spa
spa
Baseball
Terds
To be out
To be safe
lloEe lun
Lhpire
BalJ.gare
À stlike
THE WEÀTHER
DaEp
À droqght
S].eet
À treatwave
À blizzald
tr'orecast
na.ar
THE PRESS
EditoE
Pub].isher
Headline
HEÀL1H
Àn injection
D!uggtore
Prescription
orde!1y
aab].et/pi11
Cough
A splain
X lay
A cast
].EISI'RE
Vacation
Box office
Sold out
PêrfoErtrallce
Interrûisgion
Billboard
Movie
theatre
' t't
une Pt qure
pharmacie
o!donnance
ai-de soignant
cachet
grt-PPe
toux
une entorse
qn radio
A
un platre
Hay fever
À rash
A fee
À patient
À counselor
À rdound
Àn ail_uênt
-8-
vacanceg
car-sse
CineDâ
''
conplet
gêcance
êntracte
panneau
(pub)
cinéEa
divertigsenent
m.r-se ell
cr-rcu].ation
randonner
l-a voile
patinagê
Eur
glacê
c]-u.b de santé
thermes/jacuzzi
é].j-uine!
toujours
en jeu
un Èorr! reussi
arbitre
basebaJ-l
quând un lanque
1a. ba]-].e
hunidite.
(froide)
une secheresse
nêige foqdue
canicu]-e
1--fât"
de neige
rlleteo
g"êr"
redacteu!
editeur
en chef
lhu.me des foins
une etupÈiort
honoraiaês
un malade
conseillere
socialê
une p].aie
une la].adie
I]l
EDUCÀTION
S€Degtêr
DorD
RooDttâte
FlateaniCY
college
Ivy Leagrre
Junior
Fleshlan
Sophoaore
Senaor
Itigh schooL
To q!âduaue
À Tut'ot
To Eajor in-.
recold
àbtendance
To get good gEadès
To fail,/f,lunk
To tr)ass an er(am
Eo take an exan
Ph, D
M.À. (MasÈera À.rts)
M. sc. (< > Science)
É.À(BacheJ-or of
À!ts)
B. sc. (Bacbêlor of
science)
ÀLlrlrni
out
1o quit/dtop
Kinderqaluen
Às s igîDetlt
To ctaD
T}esis
To daÈê a.o'
MI SCEI,I.AIIEOUS
lo fix
dinnêr
To fix
a dete
t'!i-Eestre
chaD.bre d' Uniwersi-té
la
qqnr qui Paltage
d'Ûniversité
chabb!è
club des feDmes
d' hoEDe
club
Unive!sité
les
les universités
To fir( Èhe car
To fix
up a house
to setCle
dowtr
To sett]-e
To setlle
To settle
I)lus tr)restigeuseg
en 1ère arrnée
êtudiant
etl 2ê:De année
en 3ère année
Eco]-e secondaire
de
le diPlote
rècevoi!
secondaire
fin d'etudes
un Profestseur
en .. spéeial-iser
aseiduité
des bo!ùtes notes
awoi!
échouer
un et<a.qen
réussir
Palrse! un êxalen
Doctorab
dê lettres
l.taittise
de Sciences
<< D
un dipl-oEe d'Univelsité
(LetÈres)
un dip]-olre d' université
(science)
attciens
étudiants
a.bondonner- ses etudes
materDe]-le
devoi!s
f,evj-se!/bucher
Thèse
soatir
awec qqn.
To settLe
À seÈtler
To seùtle
for
lo aet up
Set back
À set' (of books)
À T. V. seè
fo do utr)
Io take a .ain
check
To back dolrn
'F^
R.sal estaCe
Neighbo].hood
To 1e!
To be on the
market
Mo!tgage
Yard
Elevatôr
Den
Ca4)ort
D.I.Y.
Location
fo be evi-cted
Faucet
f^
To do away rrith
To dress up
Io driwe atlget
at
To egg on
To face up to
To faII
fo! s. o.
To get back at s.o.
To go off
To go out
to have it in for
s, o. /HoId a gludge
Io look up to s.o.
To pâss at'ay
To piêk
Io pick on
To pop in/Drop
byl
call
in
To put off
1o put doyrn
1o lun out of
To sholr off
To slip
up
To stand in for
To stir
up
fo talk
s. o. i"nto
un i-bnêubl-ê
copropriéhé
centre
wiIle
ban]-ieuê
1es gens qui
re$rlierèment
ilBobi1i.èr
quar!ier
à 1o,'".
'.;--L
To <( >
riibh
lo call
off/cancel
To catch on
To deal with
t{ousrNG
High rise
(at'parbents)
condo (ûiniur)
Do$ûtowrr
suburbs
CoEmrrters
on
in
an
voyagent
a 1a ville
a vendre
hfT)othèque
jardin/eour
To be Cied up
To have ti-he off
To t'urn in
To haDd in
To eurn utr>
To weâr out
l2incbes=1fooè
lfoot=0.3Eetles
3feet=1yaEd
lyard=o .9rnetres
6feèt=1 .8Eetrês
bu-eau
a.bri" de woiLure
bricoLage
situation
être
expulsé
iobinet.
-
q
t-
te ditrer
Prepa.er
arrenger/organiser
deéider
repaEe!
la voiture
renover
une tlatgon
adopte!
une vie
regulièle.
S'ét..bli!
fi,.er
son choix
sur.
s'installêr
règler
une dispute
..
coloni.ser
utr col0rr
accel)ter
coDme coDproltrig
s'établi.(en
affaites)
èÈre géne
<:o]-]-ection
une postê de 1.V.
rénower/attachet
rePorèet
disintégrer
roEpre
annu]-er
conp!ênd!e
faire
affai!ê
avec/
s'occupe.
de traiÈer
a.bolir
se Eettrè
ên
tenue de soi!
insinuer
irrcitèr
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faire
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persuader
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READING SECTION
The reading sectionconsbts of three parts :
Pârt V
Part VI
Part VII
- SentenceCompletion (40 questions)
-Error Recognition (20 qu€stions)
-Reading Comprehension(40 questions)
You have one hour and fift€en minutes to do this s€ction.
ManaEeyour time well . Prrt V and VI test grammar . You should do these parts quickly .
Part VII ûestsr€âding comprehension. Spendas much time aNpossibledoing thfu part .
TIPSFORPARTVANDYT
The followingis a checklist of various grammar points that can be found in either part V sentencecompletion
ând or part Vl error rccognition .
1) ST]BJECT/ VERB AGREEMENT
example : !gç! of the nachine piece llg under warranty .
coriectiûr ! Eâcb*.. is
2) ADJECTM / NOUN and YERB /ADVERB AGREEMI,NT
example; He has a ûgugdlpqlqqapartment ,
corredion: a twG'b€dmom apaftment
exernple : He drove car€ful to avoid accidents.
correction : dlglç carefrdlv
3) CORRECT.VERB TENSE
example : The letter b_!€nt lâst w€ek .
correction : @ sent (look for a time marl(er to indicate tense)
example : John will phone when he will arrive .
corr€ction : when he a{rives
4) POSTTION OF NIJECTIVES
example : he hâs a bi&black car.
seepage lJ
5) GERI]NDS AND INI'IMTTYES
example : They nlnnned to buv new equipment .
They like dancinq.
They can sine .
s e ep a g e 1 7 .
6) UNNECISSARY REPETITION OF SI]BJDCT,
erample : The passançn they âr€ not hâppy with the delay.
comection : The passânger| ar€ not happy ....
7) CORRECT CONJUNCTIONS
exanple : Neither John or Caroline went to the pârty .
correction: [email protected] ........ nor
exâmple : Peter is happy with his position , becausehis salary is low .
corr€ction r [email protected]!
seepaç /4
- to-
8) PRONOI]N AGREEMENT
exâmple : The tourists demândedto chângehis flights .
coûectioL : tourists -"-..their
example : They a|| enjoyed ours€lvesât the party .
correction thev .......... themselves,....
exrmple : Mr Smith ând pg.will seethe mânrger.
correction : Mr Smith and I (we)
example : Mr Jones gave&!qând
correction: John and me (us)
seepage . 15
I a bonus .
9) WORD IORMS
exâmple : We were verl intertsting in the movie .
corr€ction : interest€d
10 ) PARALLEL STRUCTUR.E
exanple : Ee likes skiing, cycling and to dance.
correction : dancing
11) WORII ORDER
indirtct questions exâmple : He askedwhat gg! the time of the meeting .
correction : He askedwhat the time of the meetinggg! .
adjective/adverb example : extremelyexpensive
participle/adverb example : a speciallytreâted zurface
enough/ adjective example : easyenough
12) COMPARATIVES AND SIJPERLATIVES .
example l Copper is $ç Eqp widespreadmetal in the world .
corr€ction : the @!11
exanple : This câr is lqqgl expensivethan that one .
corrcction : 4919 erpensive
13) REDUNDANCY
example : Ee !Êqgglh [email protected] goesto the cinema.
correctior : choos€frequently or often not but botù.
14'ICORRECT PREPOSITIONS
examplestime : !4 the moming, gl 9 o'clock, @
since 1980
9 & 5, E 2 weeks,qApril
example position : in Toulouse(general) , at the post offrce (specific)
exampleverbs : coNist qf , agr€ewith (person) ,....
1$ PREFD(ESAND SUFFD(ES.
example : prefix gg (neaning together)
we needto Êgqpggq
example : suffixes
daYà dailY
- | l-
1, U-2 hours,
Fe careful
of
the
following
:
-Yourg better
-Youtd better
= You had beÈter
.. . ( t s u f e r a i s b i e n d e . . . )
you ? (should, ought, tso)
study,Fdn't
-Yourd
(tu prefererais
.. -)
(tu aimerais mier::< . . )
(prefer)
go to the cinenla, wouldn't you?
rattrer
-Yourd rather
= You would
raÈher
-IÉ!y (Iaid, Iaid,laying)
= to put (mettre, poser) .
can be active or passiwe and take an objectHe laid the book on the tab1e.
-tie
-ÏE
(Iay, lai-n,lying)
= to repose (s'a1longer,
se coucher)
is newer passive
and never foltowed
by an object(a)Ee lav down on the bed.
(b) IIe lies
in bed unt.il
12.00 am
-tie
(Iied,lied,
= not tso teII
(mentir)
lying)
the truth
He l-ies, cheats and steal-s
-Beside = nêxt' to
He sat beside
(a cote de)
girl,
che pret.ty
-Besides = in addition to (en outre, en plus,de
He has a bicycle besides a car
-Be!ggg! -refers
to
Ttrere is litt1e
-Amonq
-refers
to
There is little
plus)
(enLre)
only two peopl-e or things
difference .between the trùo ideas.
(parmi)
tlxree or @!e. people or things
difference
amon(I the three ideas
-agvfSC (noun) - singnrlar (conseil)
He gave me a loc of advice
-Àgtzl€c- (werb) - ( conseirrflI advised him co buy a car
-Kind.Sort.tæq
-the nords can be singular or p]-uralwhen its is.sinqutar,its
is modified by nris/Çhat
pturat,iL
when it.is
is modified by Eesèlclose
r like this kind of cookiElïTike
rhese kinds of c<jorI&.He al-ways buys that, sorÈ of shoe-He always buys those sorts of
shoes
I like reading this çype 9f I'ook. TtreÏ-like
reading these tvcres
of books
--R:i€C (rose, risen, rising)
=to 90 up,to increase (se1ever, augimenter)
It is never passive aIrd never t.akes an obj ect
(a)The sun rises every morning.
(b) Ttre price of pet.rol has risen.
-3gige (raiËed, raiseà, raising)
I-t6-fitt
(lewer, etewer, eriger)
It. takes an object and can be active or passive
IIe raised his hand
: fl-
IlI
-Uev
-l^.i
-!4!]Ili11
-sic
It
I
go now ?
I can dance
,: ts.-
o-rrrrrLy
-as far
-Se!
It
Uev r
penn1 s sr_on
-Can
as
distance
(iusqu'à)
tG-Ï|risqu'ài
goes as far as paris
here U.nËil 9 o'clock
C.he train
I will- stay
(set,set,secting)
=to put (mettre, poser, placer)
takes an object. and can be active
or passive
She set the f l-owers on the ta.ble
(saElsac;=ît tIngJ- = (s'asseoir)
is never passiwe and newer takes
He sat. on the chair
IINCOUN:IABIE
:money, lrater,
cof f ee
How much money hawe you got
(Èrop) too ûmch
(tellement.
t.ant ) so ûluch
(pas beaucoup) not mrch
?
(un peu)
a little
(peu
l-ittle
de)
(moins de)
Iess...than
(Ie
the least
moins de)
(aut.ant de. .que)
as.much..as
more...Èhan (plus . . -que)
the most. (le plus)
an object
COIllIfÀ3LE
: books , people , dollars
how many books hawe you got ?
(!rop) too many
( t.ellement., tant de) so flr.rny
(pas beaucoup) not many
a few (quelques)
few (peu de)
(moins de)
fewer- -.than
the fewest (le moins de)
as many. .as ( autant. de".que)
more. - .than (pl-us- . .çIue)
the most. (le plus)
ADJECTIVE ORDER
V"srur11;!!3y' 4C, Shepe C-qlogr Coun!ry Material NOUN
of origin
opt4ton Wgiglt
A nice big new round black Greek wooden Table
VERBS usedwith the SUBJUNCTIYJ,
Recommend
Suggest
Prefer
Request
I Insist
that you Be here early
Demand
Come
Requirg
Arrive etc.
Ask
Not Forgetting
If I wereyou,Iwouldwork harder.
I wish I were rich- r-
BY
ABSQIUIE-TEBIAS_CANNOTBE COMPAREDOR QUALIFIED_EXECPT
NEARLY.
ALMOST,NOT
QUITE,oT
dead empty,equal,final,eternal,first,
Examples:Unique,alone
full,perfect,right'square etc
- t3-
cqJUNçrIoN rAlgs_ryOlrTo BEMrxED
AS.....AS
NEITHER NOR
BOTH AND
EITHER OR
NOTONLY BUTALSO
WHETHER OR
IF THEN
He is {$ tall AS his brother.
Sheis NE,ITHERtalt \OR small.
BQIH JohnAND Mary areEnglish.
Shedoesn'tlike EITHER beerOR.whisky.
The mealwasNQT_QNLYgoodBUT d!ËO cheap
WUEIUEII you like it OR not,weareteavingnow.
f[ you cannotpây ,T!EN you cannotgo.
D!uErqNEGAIIYES
Avoid at all costsdoublenegatives
I know nothing NOT I don'r know norhing.
lOg{_lgSg_ryq4gor
RememberHARDLY SCARCELY BÀR"0,LYand SELDOM are nesativewords.
Shehardly ateher lunch
PARALLELISM
A pair or seriesofwords(nouns adjectives,infinitives
etc) should
be of the same structure_4q.t a mixture
Examples Wrong Ice skating is more exciting than to roller skate
Right Ice skating is more excitingthan roller skitinq
Wrong Shewrote to her sisterand roommate
Right
Shewroteto her sisterand to her roommate
A collectivenoun cân take the ql4gqlglwhen it is thoughtof
asa unit and thealg1a!whenthe individualelements
ire
considered
Examples The crowd was large and disorderly
The crowd were fighting among themselves.
so/qucEéÆgcrr
The girl was so beautiful.
(noun)
(adjective)
Shewas such a beautiful girl. - Countable
(adjective+roun)
The weather was so hot
- Uncountable
It was such hot weather
He drovesofast.
(verb) (adverb)
SO+ADJECTIVE
se1AprE8g sJcutNgut{
,_u+_
DANGLING SENTENCES
G:fCsS,I4fiUlty9! and P4gllgiplesmust be properly
placedand must refer to something.
rfirong Walking down the garden,the flowers can be admired.
Right If you walk down the garden,you can admire the flowers
Wrong To get here,ashort cut had to be taken.
Right We had to take a short cut to get here.
PRONOUNS
1. I,You,He,We,They
andWhoareusedin twoinstances
a)
When the pronoun is the subiect.
John and I want to live in France.
He and s[are in Europe at the moment.
U;
linkrlrE yggLs(uiuatty the verb ro be)
-Aler
Who is at the door? lt is I.
Was it he who answeEâlhe phone?
2,
Me,You,Him,Her,Us,Themand Whom are usedin
three instances
a)
_Whenthe plg4ggg is the direct obiect.
She askedme.
Whg$ did you invite?
b)
the pronoun is the intlirect obiect.
-!h_en
Mr.Jones gave us the application form,
John sold him the most expensivestereo in the store.
c)
When the p44ggr_is the obiect of the prerrosition.
(For,By,To,Between and With)
The letter was written by her.
Betweenyou and me.IdîiÏ-I think it will work
PRONOUNS with THAN,AS,and LIKE
She is a better student than he (is)
Doyouliheherasmuchlil? firc ner;
But-It's notlikehim-rodôluch-a thing.
SINGULARINDEFINITEPRONOUNS
The followingMUST be foltowedby rheSINGULAR.
Anyone Another:".trither Everything One
Everytrody Neither SomeoneEveryon-e No one
SomethingAnything Much Nothins Each
-tl-
on peut eûrployer
reqrets.Attention
Wish
rvlqh pour oq>rimer
aux temps
des Sqghails
ou des
a) Pour parler du present,on emploie Ie pretserit
-I EiÊIr I understood
wish + pret,erit.
-
(j'àïfrê-rais-lîêî-êôftrrendre)
b) Pour parler
dl! !Ass!}, on enqrJ-oie 1C_:pfuperfect
-I Ei€! Ihad learnt Spanish
wish + pluperfect
(si seulement j'awais appris I'espagnol)
un souhait, à propos de ltavenir,on
enploie
-I wish she gLl_
Egep playing Lhat stupid
musft-Tsi
seriGd€-EÎIè
airetait
de jouer.
fiùanttr.
remplacer
d) û{ish Peuts
.
_ r--+r--.--.
-I wish to see the manager. (very polite)
wish + infinitive
c) Pour exprimer
wish + would
. if
Éonditionals
f.if
If
+ presenÈ
you jnvitse
me t.o the
2 if + preterit
If you inviE.ed
+ _EgEIE" dans
einema I will
Ia principale
acceDt with
Dleasure
+ conditional
present dans la principale
I qogfd__eççgp-È with pl-easure
ûre t.o Ehe cinema
if + pl-uperfect
If you h<L.il|.ited
+ c_engllionel-_pesæ dans 1a principale
me t.o the cinema r gglfd havê_ggcepEgE
'ë,'
On peut utiliser
pour dire que deux choses (deux
ou "like"
personnes, situations, etc .-.).qe ressemblent (français: connre)
a)as+suiet.+verbe
( conme wous voulez)
As you like
b)as devant une preposiËion
It happened as i4 a dream (ça srest passe conune dans un rêwe )
c)Iike
+ nom seu]. (sans werbe ) ou + pronoln personnel cofiple
nt
3na=;nr=-mË-me,slrer
s [email protected]
e11e n'est-pâs- conrmemoi,elle
eGElffitOt
contrnema mere
d)as stemploie [email protected] pour indiquer
la fonction
ou le rôle
drrlne personne ou d'une ,ehose (français: "comnen au sens de"en
tartt
q|ue rt
IIe worked as a bus-driwer.
fl a travalle
cornd èontlucteur
dtautobus
f used my shoe eC_a hanmtef
jrai
util-ise
ma chaussure connne marteau.
ignore
c
the
opinion
of
others
most people desire
D
The two words in
-> (A) To igrrore
an infinitiwe
cor[>letely
is to invite
B
should not be divided
by an adverb
(verb + adverb)
or (adwerb + werb)
- t6-
I
VFRR PATTERI\S
1) YERBS FOLLOWED BY TEE INT'INITIVE WITEOUT TO
a) After regllar modal verbs the main veù is an inliniAve siggql to :
would, will, shall, should, can, could, may, night, must, had better, mght to have to, need to, dare to,
ured to
example: I must go now.
b) Negatve examples:
Ee rhould not go .
Ee had better not stay .
He needn't go.
He darcnrt go alone .
He doesnot have to go .
ne doesnot needto go.
c) modal verb phrases
would prefer to, would sooner,would rather
example : Ee'd rather go to the cinema thân study.
d) makey'let/have + object + infinitive
erample : Ee made me help him .
He let me stay .
He had her cut his hair .
2) YERBSX'OLLOWED
BY TO + nwtr{rm/E
a) After certii_n.yerbstùe complete infinitive is used : agree , af,ord, appear, ârrânge, attempt, begb,
choors, decide , eru'ect,forget, hâte, help, hope, intend, learr, lovernanage, ofrer, promise, refrrse,seen,
try, want
b) After cartain verbs followed by an obiect : advise, âllow, encourage,force, order, perfllade, rcmind,
teach, tell, wartr
example: Ee invited her to dinner.
3) YERBS X'OLLOWED BY THE GERIJI\Û)
4) After certain verbs a gerund is used : ûdmit, apprcciateravoid,consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, excuse,
fancy, feel like, finish, give up, can't help, imagine, keepnkeep on,leave off, ûrind, miss, pôstpone,
practise,
put off, rfuk, can't stand, sugg$t, understatrd
example: He can't stand working alone"
a) Aftfr ceraainverbs which are followed by the preposition to : admit to, look forrard to, get usedto
exanple : I am looking forward to seeinghin again.
c) gerund as object l
example : He likes visiting churcher .
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TIPS F'ORPART VII READING COMPREHENSION
This pfft of the t€st consistsof r variety of written documents.
They can include faxes ' lettert , memos, graph , instructions leallets , annoucements,schedules, chârts erc ...
Spendas much time as possibleon this part .
Read the document carcfrllly .
X'ind a) the ùain idea ,
b) tbe purposeof the document.
Is it to inform , persuade,praise, sell , apologire..? . This information is often found in the title or at the
beginning of the document.
c) the facts , details ..
d) whât is implied inferred.
0ften you need to draw conclusionsas tùerc is no direct answer in the document
There are two to live questionson each dûcument. The questionsusually cover the mâin idea , purpos€ of
tle document, factual information / details and inferences.
-/g-