post-larval capture and culture (pcc) technology

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post-larval capture and culture (pcc) technology
POST-LARVAL CAPTURE AND CULTURE (PCC) TECHNOLOGY: A SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE
FOR THE MARINE AQUARIUM TRADE AND THE CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY AT REUNION
ISLAND (SW INDIAN OCEAN)
S. VERMOND
1,2,a
, J-N. FABRE3,b, G. LECAILLON4,c, P. BOSC1,d & P. CHABANET2,e
a- [email protected]
b- [email protected]
c- [email protected]
d- [email protected]
e- [email protected]
1- ARDA, Z.I. Les sables, BP 16, 97427 Etang-Salé, La Réunion (France)
2 - IRD, BP 172, 97492 Ste Clotilde cedex, La Réunion (France)
3 - SCEA Hemisphère sud, Magasin 10, Port Ouest, 97420 Le Port, La Réunion (France)
4 - ECOCEAN, Immeuble Emeline 1, 1 avenue Saint Sauveur, 34980 St Clément de rivière
Between 1.5 and 2 million people worldwide are believed to keep marine aquaria. The trade
which supplies this hobby is a global multi-million dollar industry. Nearly all tropical marine
aquarium fish and invertebrates in trade are wild adults taken directly from coral reefs and
adjacent habitats mainly in developing countries. At the same time, coral reefs worldwide are
threatened and the marine aquarium trade has been blamed for being one of the pressures
faced by reefs. Such a situation requires measures aimed at the preservation of the
biodiversity and the Post-larval Capture and Culture (PCC) could be a solution as this
technology reconciles the objectives of conservation and development of coral ecosystems.
Extremely high natural mortality (> 95%) of reef fishes occurs during the colonization from
the planktonic larval phase to their juvenile benthic phase. As the PCC collects the post-larvae
prior to the high natural mortality, this technique has a minimal impact on the overall biomass
of plankton through collection. The post-larvae captured are then reared in an inland farm.
After an overall period of 3 months, eco-friendly tank-raised marine fish are obtained and can
supply the ornamental aquarium trade.
In Reunion Island, a first experimentation has been conducted for 15 months. Almost 200
different species were caught belonging to 43 fish families. An overall 75% of the caught
post-larvae were interesting for the marine aquarium trade (Pomacentridae, Acanthuridae,
Chaetodontidae…). More than 2000 fish were successfully exported to Europe.
This first successful experiment of PCC at Reunion Island opens perspectives for the future as
the post-larvae caught could be also reared as food-fish and/or for restocking artificial reefs
developed actually at Reunion Island.
Post-larval Capture and Culture (PCC) technology:
a sustainable alternative for the marine aquarium trade and
the conservation of biodiversity at Reunion Island (SW Indian ocean)
S. VERMOND 1,2, J-N. FABRE 3, G. LECAILLON 4, P. BOSC 2 & P. CHABANET 1
1 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), BP172, 97492 Sainte Clotilde, France, 2 Association
Réunionnaise de Développement de l’Aquaculture (ARDA), Magasin 10, Port Ouest, 97420 Le Port, France,
3 SCEA Hémisphère Sud , Magasin 10, Port Ouest, 97420 Le Port, France, 4 Ecocean, 1 av. Saint-Sauveur,
34780 Saint Clément de Rivière, France - Contact: [email protected]
Introduction to PCC in Reunion Island:
The marine aquarium hobby is worth an estimated US$200-330 million annually. Nearly all tropical
marine aquarium fish and invertebrates in trade are wild adults taken directly from coral reefs. At the
same time, coral reefs worldwide are threatened and the marine aquarium trade has been blamed for
being one of the pressures faced by reefs. Such a situation requires measures aimed at the preservation
of the biodiversity and the Post-larval Capture and Culture (PCC) could be a good alternative as this
technology reconciles the objectives of conservation and development of coral ecosystems.
The tropical volcanic Reunion Island is about 215 km long including 25 km of fringing coral reefs and
about 100 km of rocky coasts. In 2007, a pilot project started there to introduce sustainable
technologies aimed at the production of high quality marine aquarium products.
In 2009 a partnership between Hémisphère Sud, ARDA and IRD started through the European program
RUN Sea Science. One of the objectives of this program is to improve our knowledge about post-larval
colonization around Reunion Island.
Saint-Paul
Bay
Offshore aquaculture cages, Ferme Marine
de la Réunion, where CAREs are deployed
Materials and methods:
Triggerfish
Triggerfish
Family: OK,
genus and/or species?
Surgeonfish
Identification
A. Hubert
Butterflyfish
Blenny
Damsel
Rearing (~ 2 months)
Sorting and identification
when possible
Acanthurus triostegus
Odonus niger
Post-Larvae (PL) are collected at night
with light traps (CARE*) in Saint-Paul bay
A. Hubert
Chaetodon lunula
Results of the 2-year pilot project:
A total of 20674 post-larvae (PL) were collected with 583 CARE traps within 92 nights representing
17 months of collection. 195 species were identified during the study, representing 40 families.
During the rearing (average of 3 months), the survival rate has been higher than 80%.
42,34%
7,11%
5,53%
4,38%
4,06%
BLENNIIDAE
MULLIDAE
3,75%
3,70%
SERRANIDAE
CHAETODONTIDAE
3,37%
3,02%
1,55%
0,94%
0,78%
Number of
P L/CARE
LUTJANIDAE
70
60
CIRRHITIDAE
POLYNEMIDAE
0,48%
0,47%
50
SCORPAENIDAE
CAESIONIDAE
0,47%
0,38%
BOTHIDAE
CARANGIDAE
0,32%
SYNGNATHIDAE
NOMEIDAE
0,25%
0,24%
0,22%
SYNODONTIDAE 0,20%
PRIACANTHIDAE 0,12%
ANTENNARIIDAE 0,11%
TETRAODONTIDAE 0,11%
LABRIDAE 0,06%
MURAENIDAE 0,05%
DACTYLOPTERIDAE 0,02%
MICRODESMIDAE 0,02%
PLEURONECTIDAE 0,02%
ALBULIDAE 0,01%
CONGRIDAE 0,01%
GOBIIDAE 0,01%
SCARIDAE 0,01%
CLUPEIDAE 0,01%
PEGASIDAE 0,01%
SOLENOSTOMIDAE 0,01%
TETRAROGIDAE 0,01%
Diversity of fish families
40
30
20
10
APOGONIDAE
APOGONIDAE
90
80
0,69%
0,64%
OSTRACIIDAE
LETHRINIDAE
OTHERS
100%
100
80%
Total
SIGANIDAE
MULLIDAE
SIGANIDAE
LUTJANIDAE
LETHRINIDAE
60%
CARANGIDAE
40%
ornamental
20%
CAESIONIDAE
POMACENTRIDAE
HOLOCENTRIDAE
SERRANIDAE
BALISTIDAE
Chromis dimidiata
food fish
0
cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle
Sept. Oct.
Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April May
POMACENTRIDAE
Conclusions:
Reunion Island seems to be a suitable
site to develop PCC.
- good accessibility of fishing sites
- good species richness
- high rate of PL which suit the
ornamental fish market
- successful rearing and export.
OSTRACIIDAE TETRAODONTIDAE
ACANTHURIDAE
0%
Se
cy pt.
cle
Oc
t.
cy
cle
No
v
cy
cle .
De
c.
cy
cle
Ja
n
cy
cle .
Fe
cy
cle b.
M
ar
ch
cy
cle
Ap
ril
cy
cle
M
ay
BALISTIDAE
HOLOCENTRIDAE
AULOSTOMIDAE
Study of one fishing season (Sept. 2008 to May 2009)
14,49%
APOGONIDAE
SIGANIDAE
cy
cle
POMACENTRIDAE
Cirripectes castaneus
Undetermined post-larvae were raised for identification
CARE* = Capture by Artificial Reef Ecofriendly ©
ACANTHURIDAE
MONACANTHIDAE
Pseudobalistes fuscus
LABRIDAE
HOLOCENTRIDAE
CHAETODONTIDAE ZANCLIDAE
BLENNIIDAE GOBIIDAE
BALISTIDAE
ACANTHURIDAE
~ 40 PL/CARE/night has been collected during the study and an important seasonality
of PL colonization has been notified : 93 PL/CARE/night in Nov. (summer), almost no
colonization from May to September (winter)
- More than 65% of collected PL suited the ornamental fish market
But:
- no colonization during winter
- efforts are to be made for marketing
(e.g. ecocertification criteria ?) to
enhance local sales and export.
A recommendation concerning the use of PCC has just
been included in Grenelle de la mer in France.
More than 2000 fishes were successfully exported to Europe (France, Spain, Italy) with an average
mortality rate of 1%.
Overall PCC perspectives in Reunion Island:
- The capture and culture of post-larvae in Reunion Island has been successful. But the economic study is still on-going concerning the ornamental
market and some efforts will be needed to push post-larvae on the European market.
- The RUN Sea Science program will improve our knowledge concerning the colonization and behavior of post-larvae around Reunion Island and may
help to predict which species colonize where and when.
- With the current implementation of a Marine Protected Area along the reefs of West Reunion Island, the PCC technology could be assessed as a
way to manage and follow the evolution of the fish population.
- PCC through restocking food fish on artificial reefs could also be useful for fishermen.