Tectonic setting of Izmit earthquake - IPGP

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Tectonic setting of Izmit earthquake - IPGP
Tectonic setting of Izmit earthquake - IPGP
TECTONIC SETTING OF THE IZMIT EARTHQUAKE - IPGP
Version française
See also Duzce earthquake page.
Westward escape of AnatoliaAegea block between the
North (dextral) and East
(sinistral) Anatolian Faults.
Current motion relative to
Eurasia (GPS and SLR
velocity vectors, in mm/yr,
from Reilinger et al., 1997).
Geological studies over a
longer time period (holocene)
indicate a slip rate of 2.5 cm/
year on the North Anatolian
Fault (Hubert, 1998).
The Izmit earthquake broke a
130 km long section of the
North Anatolian fault
Map from Armijo et al., 1999
Detailed version of this map (GIF, 180 Ko) , other version with the Athens 7/9/99 quake (caption in french)
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Tectonic setting of Izmit earthquake - IPGP
The North Anatolian Fault
splays westward into two main
branches, NAF(N) and NAF
(S), 100 km apart. The
Northern branch (N) bounds
the southern side of the Gulf
of Izmit, outlines the Marmara
pull apart basin, cuts the
Dardanelles structure, and
marks the southern side of the
Saros Gulf. The Izmit
earthquake occurred on that
branch, east of the Marmara
Sea.
Map from Armijo et al., 1999
Fault plane solution from
USGS and Harvard
Detailed version of this map (JPEG, 240 Ko)
A simplified sketch of the pull apart (captions in french, GIF, 120Ko)
SURFACE RUPTURES DUE TO IZMIT EARTHQUAKE
New version, updated, of rupture map on Duzce earthquake page.
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Tectonic setting of Izmit earthquake - IPGP
Preliminary report of fault
segments with surface
breaks
Western segment: IPGP (R.
Armijo, B. Meyer, J. B. de
Chabalier).
Central segment: ITU (A.
Barka, S. Akyuz, E. Altunel,
Z. Cakir, G. Sunal, A. Dikbas,
M. zkaya, B. Yerli).
Eastern segments: USGS (T.
Fumal, R. Langridge, H.
Stenner, S. Christofferson);
SCEC (T. Rockwell, J. Dolan,
T. Dawson, R. Hartleb, A.
Tucker)
Coordination by Aykut Barka.
Older version without offsets (JPEG, 300 Ko)
13/9/99 - strong aftershock (M5.8): map of surface breaks with localization of the main shock and of this
aftershock
Comparison of SPOT scenes taken before
and after the earthquake. Areas under water
appear in blue.
© CNES - Spot Image - CNRS/INSU IPGP
(Traitement IPGP, B. Meyer - R. Lacassin)
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Tectonic setting of Izmit earthquake - IPGP
HOW THE NORTH ANATOLIAN FAULT WORKS:
Where? Why? Some mechanics...
Izmit's earthquake mechanics
(IPGP)
References: papers about active tectonics in Turkey and Greece
Other Links:
IPGP Département de Sismologie - Sismicité récente
IPGP Geoscope
IZMIT EARTHQUAKE (KOERI Turquie) ou site mirroir (US): IZMIT EARTHQUAKE
Kandili Observatory and Earthquake research institute (Turquie)
USGS Expedition to Turkey - 1999
SCEC report (field observations in Turkey)
HARVARD Seismology
R. LACASSIN et B. MEYER - Laboratoire de Tectonique, Mécanique de la Lithosphère; CNRS - IPGP
Novembre 1999
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IPGP-Tectonics - Izmit, Duzce earthquakes Turquie
12 Novembre 1999 : Un nouveau séisme de magnitude Mw 7.2 se produit à la terminaison Est de la rupture d'Izmit.
1999 November 12: A new earthquake (Mw 7.2) occurs at eastern tip of Izmit rupture.
NOUVEAU - NEW (29 Nov. 1999)
Cartographie de la rupture du séisme de Duzce, observations et mesures sur le terrain : 4 à 5m de décalage
horizontal au Sud de Duzce; localement 4m de décalage vertical.
Rupture mapping, field observations and measurements on Duzce rupture: 4 to 5m of horizontal offset, locally 4m of
vertical throw.
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IPGP-Tectonics - Izmit, Duzce earthquakes Turquie
Les séismes d'Août (Izmit) et Novembre (Duzce),
cadre tectonique.
Séismes de Duzce et Izmit, ruptures de surface,
cadre structural de la Mer de Marmara (Armijo et
al. 1999).
The August (Izmit) and November (Duzce)
earthquakes, tectonic setting.
The Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in the north
The Izmit and Duzce earthquakes, surface ruptures,
Anatolian sequence.
tectonic sketch of Marmara sea (Armijo et al. 1999).
larger version (jpg, 180 Ko, in french)
larger version (jpg, 240 Ko, in french)
Les séismes d'Izmit et Duzce dans la séquence nordAnatolienne.
larger version (jpg, 180 Ko, in french)
Modèle cinématique pour la région de la Mer de Marmara. Reconstruction à environ 5 Ma: 70km de déplacement sur la branche nord de la Faille nord
anatolienne; 5° de rotation du block sud (Anatolie); le bloc d'Almacik tourne de 10 °. La rupture d'Izmit s'est propagée au nord de ce bloc, et le séisme de
Duzce s'est produit à la terminaison est de la rupture d'Izmit. D'après Armijo et al. 1999.
Kinematic model for Sea of Marmara region. Reconstruction at ca. 5 Ma: 70 km slip on northern branch of NAF; 5° counterclockwise rotation of southern
block, Anatolia, relative to Eurasia; Almacik block rotates more (10°). Izmit rupture propagated north of Almacik block, and Duzce earthquake broke the fault
east of the Izmit rupture tip. Right: Corresponding displacement field. After Armijo et al. 1999.
larger version (jpg, 180 Ko, in english)
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IPGP-Tectonics - Izmit, Duzce earthquakes Turquie
Cartographie préliminaire des segments de failles activés par le séisme d'Izmit (en violet). Les segments de faille activés par le
séisme de Duzce sont figurés en rouge. Décalages cosismique horizontaux moyens sur les différents segments, et décalage vertical
à Golcuk.
Segment ouest: IPGP (R. Armijo, B. Meyer, J. B. de Chabalier).
Segment central: ITU (A. Barka, S. Akyuz, E. Altunel, Z. Cakir, G. Sunal, A. Dikbas, M. zkaya, B. Yerli).
Segments est: USGS (T. Fumal, R. Langridge, H. Stenner, S. Christofferson); SCEC (T. Rockwell, J. Dolan,T. Dawson, R. Hartleb, A. Tucker).
Coordination Aykut Barka.
Preliminary report of fault segments with surface breaks by Izmit earthquake (in purple). Fault segments broken by Duzce earthquake
are in red. Boxes give average horizontal coseismic offsets on the différent segments, and vertical throw at Golcuk
Western segment: IPGP (R. Armijo, B. Meyer, J. B. de Chabalier).
Central segment: ITU (A. Barka, S. Akyuz, E. Altunel, Z. Cakir, G. Sunal, A. Dikbas, M. zkaya, B. Yerli).
Eastern segments: USGS (T. Fumal, R. Langridge, H. Stenner, S. Christofferson); SCEC (T. Rockwell, J. Dolan,T. Dawson, R. Hartleb, A. Tucker)
Coordination by Aykut Barka.
larger version (jpg, 180 Ko, in english)
Un nouveau lien (voir aussi la page Izmit) - A new link (see also Izmit page).
Interventions post-sismiques en Turquie après les séismes d'Izmit (17/08/99, Mw 7.4) et de Duzce (12/11/99, Mw 7.2)
http://www.ipgp.jussieu.fr/~bouin/
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IPGP-Tectonics - Izmit, Duzce earthquakes Turquie
IPGP - Tectonique - Page réalisée par Robin Lacassin et Bertrand Meyer (29 Nov. 99).
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IPGP - Izmit's earthquake and evolution of Coulomb Criterion
About Izmit's earthquake...
Previous earthquake sequences - Evolution of
the Coulomb Criterion
Major faults and the location of earthquakes since 1912 before 1988
The direction of the regional stress above varies accross the area
The loading of a single shear rupture
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IPGP - Izmit's earthquake and evolution of Coulomb Criterion
Coulomb stress change due to Ms > 6 earthquakes from 1912
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IPGP - Izmit's earthquake and evolution of Coulomb Criterion
The conclusions of Nalbant, Hubert and King (J.G.R. 103, 24,469-24,486, 1998) stated: "By
combining the stress change map with the map of active faulting, likely locations for the
occurrence of future earthquakes can be refined. Faults in the Izmit Bay area, the western part of
Biga peninsula, the Saroz Gulf and a part of western Sea of Marmara must be regarded as posing a
specific hazard."
Mechanics of Izmit's earthquake page:
Geoffrey King ([email protected])
Eric Jacques ([email protected])
Aurélia Hubert-Ferrari [email protected]
Frédéric Flerit ([email protected])
Evolution of the Coulomb Criterion from 1912 to 1999
TECTONIC SETTING OF IZMIT EARTHQUAKE
IPGP Tectonics home page
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Papers about active tectonics in Turkey and Greece - IPGP
Articles sur la tectonique active de la Turquie et de la Grèce.
Papers about active tectonics in Turkey and Greece
Bibliographie / References:
Contexte tectonique général / General Tectonic Setting:
Armijo R., B. Meyer, A. Hubert, and A. Barka, Westwards Propagation of the North
Anatolin Fault into the Northern Aegean: Timing and kinematics, Geology, 27, 3, 267-270, 1999.
Armijo R., B. Meyer, G.C.P. King, A. Rigo, D. Papanastassiou, Quaternary evolution of the Corinth Rift
and its implications for the evolution of the Aegean, Geophysical Journal International, 126, pp11-53,
1996.
Barka, A. A., 1992, The North Anatolian fault zone: Annales Tectonicae, v. 6, p. 164-195.
Hubert, A., 1998. La faille Nord-Anatolienne (cinématique, morphologie, localisation, vitesse et
décalage total) et modélisations utilisant la contrainte de Coulomb sur différentes échelles de temps,
Doctorat de l'Université Paris VII, 222 pp.
Reilinger, R. E., McClusky, S. C., Oral, M. B., King, R. W., Toksoz, M. N., Barka, A. A., Kinik, I.,
Lenk, O., and Sanli, I., 1997, Global Positioning System measurements of present-day crustal
movements in the Arabia-Africa-Eurasia plate collision zone: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 102,
p. 9983-9999.
Mécanique des séquences sismiques en Turquie / Mechanics of earthquake sequences
in Turkey:
Stein R.S., A. Barka and J.H. Dieterich, Progressive failure on the North Anatolian fault since 1939 by
earthquake stress triggering, Geophys. J. Int., 128, 594-604, 1997
Nalbant S.S., A. Hubert and G.C.P. King, Stress coupling between earthquakes in northwest Turkey and
the north Aegean Sea, Jour. Geophys. Res., 103, 24469-24486, 1998
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Papers about active tectonics in Turkey and Greece - IPGP
Séismes récents en Grèce / Recent earthquakes in Greece:
Corinthe M=6.7, 6.4, 24 & 25 -02-1981, 6.3, 4-03-1981
Jackson, J.A., J. Gagnepain, G. Houseman, G.C.P. King, P. Papadimitriou, C. Soufleris and J. Virieux,
Seismicity, normal faulting and the geomorphological development of the Gulf of Corinth (Greece): the
Corinth earthquakes of February and March 1981, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 57, 377-397, 1982.
A. Hubert, G.C.P. King, R. Armijo, B. Meyer, and D. Papanastassiou, Fault re-activation, stress
interaction and rupture propagation of the 1981 Corinth earthquake sequence, Earth and Planetary
Science Letters, 142, pp 573-585, 1996.
Kalamata M=5.8 13-09-1986
Lyon-Caen, H., R. Armijo, J. Drakopoulos, J. Baskoutass, N. Delibassis, R. Gaulon, V. Kouskouna, J.
Latoussakis, K. Makropoulos, P. Papadimitriou, D. Papanastassiou and G. Pedotti, The 1986 Kalamata
(South Peloponnesus) earthquake: Detailed study of a normal fault, evidences for east-west extension in
the Hellenic arc, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 14,967-15,000, 1988.
Grevena M=6.6, 13-05-1995
B. Meyer, R. Armijo, D. Massonnet, J.B. de Chabalier, C. Delacourt, J.C. Ruegg, J. Achache, P. Briole,
and D. Papanastassiou, The 1995 Grevena (Northern Greece) earthquake: fault model constrained with
tectonic observations and SAR interferometry, Geophys. Res. Letter, 23, n· 19, 2677-2680, 1996.
Aigion, 15 -09-1995 M=6.2
P. Bernard, P. Briole, B. Meyer, H. Lyon-Caen, J-M Gomez, C. Tiberi, C. Berge, R. Cattin, D. Hatzfeld,
C. Lachet, B. Lebrun, A. Deschamps, F. Courboulex, C. Laroque, A. Rigo, D. Massonnet, P.
Papadimitriou, J. Kassaras, D. Diagourtas, K. Makropoulos, G. Veis, E. Papazisi, C. Mitsakaki, V.
Karakostas, E. Papadimitriou, D. Papanastassiou, M. Chouliaris, and G. Stavrakakis, The Ms = 6.2, June
15, 1995 Aigion earthquake (Greece): evidence for low angle faulting in the Corinth Rift, Journal of
Seismology, 1: 131-150, 1997.
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Quake: 1999 Izmit, Turkey Earthquake
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1999 Izmit, Turkey Earthquake
Izmit, Turkey: Introduction and Damage Survey
Introduction
Scientific Background
Introduction and
Damage Survey
Historical Account of an
Izmit Earthquake in 358AD
Field Reports
Aftershock Forecast
Nov. 12, 1999 Aftershock
Photos, Maps and other
Graphics
References and Links
The Mw7.4 earthquake that struck western Turkey on August 17, 1999 (also known as the Kocaeli,
Turkey, earthquake) occurred on one of the world's longest and best studied strike-slip (horizontal
motion) faults: the east-west trending North Anatolian fault. Maps of Turkey and California show
how that the North Anatolian and San Andreas faults are very similar. This fault is very similar to
the San Andreas fault in California. This similarity has lead to active scientific collaborations
between scientists in Turkey and the US aimed at understanding the hazards we both face. A
comprehensive U.S.G.S. report about this earthquake, its effects, and its implications for future
hazard in both Turkey and the United States is available on line (pdf format, 6MB).
Turkey has had a long history of large earthquakes that often occur in progressive adjacent
earthquakes. Starting in 1939, the North Anatolian fault produced a sequence of major earthquakes,
of which the 1999 event is the 11th with a magnitude greater than or equal to 6.7. Starting with the
1939 event in western Turkey, the earthquake locations have moved both eastward and westward.
The westward migration was particularly active and ruptured 600 km of contiguous fault between
1939 and 1944. This westward propagation of earthquakes then slowed and ruptured an additional
adjacent 100 km of fault in events in 1957 and 1967, with separated activity further west during
1963 and 1964.
The August 17, 1999 event fills in a 100 to 150 km long gap between the 1967 event and the 1963
and 1964 events. This gap was first noted by Toksoz, Shakal, and Michael in 1979 and it's hazard
was later analyzed by Stein, Barka, and Dieterich in 1997. The latter paper estimated that there was
a 12% chance of this earthquake occurring in the 30 years from 1996 to 2026.
An international team of scientists and engineers is currently mapping the earthquake rupture and its
effects, using a wide variety of techniques from visual observations, to seismology and geodesy.
This team includes scientists and engineers from the USGS, invited by our Turkish colleauges.
On these pages we will post news sent back by the USGS team and links to other resources. We
hope the reports and images on these pages will give you an insider's view into the scientific
investigative process as it unfolds in Turkey.
Damage Survey
The data collected will be used to better understand how the buildings failed in the earthquake. Of
particular interest in the earliest stages of the team's work are the types of structural failure that
occurred, and the kinds of construction practice that were employed in the failed and surviving
buildings. The observations need to be made quickly, before the rubble is cleared away. Analysis of
the data can indicate which building practices were successful, which were not, and how the local
soil conditions under the building may have affected the shaking and ground failure there.
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Quake: 1999 Izmit, Turkey Earthquake
In some areas, such as this one in the town of Golcuk, 60 miles east of Istanbul, the contrast in
structural performance can be striking, with this very old mosque outperforming more modern
buildings surrounding it. By learning from the failures, improved construction practices and codes
may save lives in future earthquakes.
Historical Account of an Izmit Earthquake in 358AD
Homepage | Site Index | Contact Us | About Us | USGS Earthquake News Releases
U.S. Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program
URL http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/research/geology/turkey/index.html
Contact:[email protected]
Last modification: February 21, 2002
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