Map 68 Syria - Princeton University Press

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Map 68 Syria - Princeton University Press
Map 68 Syria
Compiled by J.P. Brown (south) and P.-L. Gatier, 1997
Introduction
The map is divided into three geographic regions from west to east: the mountainous Jebel Ansariyeh between
the coast and the R. Orontes valley; the so-called Limestone Massif of rocky hills and plateaus, ending to the south in
the Jebel Zawiye; and the eastern steppe of basalt and limestone which turns to mountains, especially north of
Palmyra.
The Jebel Ansariyeh remains little known archaeologically. It was probably more heavily forested in antiquity
than today, although to what extent remains unclear (Rey-Coquais 1974, 69).
The Limestone Massif, divided between Antiochia (Map 67 C4) and Apamea, is crowded with many ruined
villages, mostly built during Late Antiquity (fourth to sixth centuries). Here and in the adjoining parts of the steppe,
extensive archaeological exploration started at the end of the nineteenth century (de Vogüe 1865; Butler 1903; 1907;
Lassus 1935; Tchalenko 1953; Tate 1992). Except around Palmyra (Schlumberger 1951), less work was done in the
more eastern parts of the steppe. New surveys have recently begun in this zone (Geyer 1998).
Poidebard (1934) and Mouterde (1945) did pioneering research in aerial archaeology, surveying the eastern
steppe. Unfortunately their work was not followed up with adequate ground survey and excavation. Thus many of
their conclusions have been questioned, especially their proposed dating of the structures they discovered, and the
nature of the complex network of roads they identified. Some sites that they identified as Roman forts, for example,
have subsequently been dated to the pre-classical or Islamic periods (Kennedy 1990). On the issue of roads, see
Thomsen 1917; Bauzou 1989; 1993.
The main changes in natural features are water-related. Several dams have been built recently on the
R. Euphrates (Tabqa), Orontes (Restan) and other smaller streams, creating reservoirs or lakes. Equally, modern
drainage and irrigation have led to the disappearance of swamp areas (Orontes valley and coastal plains) and a
reduction in the size of several lakes (Jabboul in E1, Lake of Homs in C4). See Calvet (1992) and Besançon (1995).
The ancient dam of the Lake of Homs is hard to date (Roman, according to Seyrig 1959; or earlier,
Calvet 1992; Gatier 1996). The supposed long aqueduct from Salamias to Apamea seems very questionable
(Geyer 1998). Numerous water channels and qanats were created for agricultural purposes around Salamias and in
the region between Jabboul Lake and the Palmyrene mountains (Geyer 1998); most were either made, or restored, in
Late Antiquity. Canals for irrigation or transport, or both, are attested in the Euphrates valley (Lauffray 1983).
Recent research has identified scattered traces of Hellenistic-Roman centuriation around (H)Emesa, Laodicea
and Epiphaneia, as well as in the northern Jebel Zawiye, but many conclusions remain tentative (Dodinet 1990; 1994;
Tate 1992, 235; 1994).
Much attention has focused on the monasteries known from lists in Syriac sources of the sixth century A.D.
The majority are situated in the Limestone Massif (see among others, Caquot in Tchalenko 1953 III; Mundell
Mango 1983).
South
A unique feature of the map (extending into the northern part of Map 69) is the sole epigraphic documentation
of a forest from classical antiquity. At some date under the emperor Hadrian (A.D. 117-138), two of his procurators,
C. Umbrius and Q. Vettius Rufus, marked out the boundaries of the imperial forest in the Mount Lebanon range (no
doubt including many stands of the cedar, Cedrus Libani) with the words IMP. HAD. AUG. DEFINITIO
SILVARUM. Today their inscriptions stand in the living rock in the midst of barren, sun-baked shale. In 1969-70
Jean-François Breton, in dangerous political conditions, reviewed and republished them (Breton 1980); but he was
MAP 68 SYRIA
1043
unable to visit the northern Lebanon. The lines marked on the map follow the placement of the inscriptions, and
offer an approximate lower boundary for the forest as it then existed. Within it stand three of the many Roman
temples of Lebanon and Antilebanon, described by Krencker (1938).
Along the Phoenician coast are the city of Byblos and the later one of Tripolis (although its Greek name
predates Alexander). In the desert far to the east stands the caravan city of Palmyra, which for a brief period in the
third century A.D. dared to rival Rome. To the south, it was linked to Damascus along a route marked by Roman
forts and milestones, the Strata Diocletiana (Dunand 1931); to the northeast, a route attested by TabPeut continued to
Soura. The map also marks a route northwest to Apamea (its course very doubtful, but attested by TabPeut), and
another poorly attested one west to (H)Emesa. By its very nature the caravan route to the R. Euphrates is likely to
have fluctuated considerably, and cannot be marked, despite the frequent mention of it in many Greco-Aramaic
inscriptions from Palmyra.
The road from Heliopolis (modern Baalbek, Map 69 D1) north to (H)Emesa must surely have been connected
to the coastal route in the valley of the R. Eleutheros (Nahr el-Kebir); but only a solitary milestone at modern
Semaqiyat attests to it. The great Crusader fortress Krak des Chevaliers (modern Qal'at al-Husn) appears only as the
conjectural site of the road-station ‘Carion.’
Directory
All place names are in Syria unless otherwise noted
Abbreviations
DCPP
Honigmann I-II
P.Cair.Zen.
E. Lipiński (ed.), Dictionnaire de la civilization phénicienne et punique, Turnhout, 1992
E. Honigmann, “Historische Topographie von Nordsyrien im Altertum,” I: ZDPV 46 (1923)
149-93; II: ZDPV 47 (1924) 1-64
C.C. Edgar (ed.), Zenon Papyri, Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du
Caire, 5 vols., Cairo, 1925-1940
Names
Grid
Name
Period
Modern Name / Location
Reference
F3
G4
Acadama
Adada?
L
RL
Dussaud 1927, 275; Mouterde 1945, 109-26
Dussaud 1927, 274; Kennedy 1990, 143-44
C2
A5
E5
C3
*Adana
Adonis fl.
al-Basiri
Amathe/
Epiphaneia
Ammattha
Amsareddi
Amykes Pedion
Amyun
Anasartha/
Theodoroupolis
Anatha = Aracha
Androna/
Andarna
Antarados/
Constantia
Antikasion/
Thronos M.
Antilibanus M.
L
RL
R
C?HRL
Qdeym
Sukhneh; cf. Map 91 Qasr
al-Hayr al-Sharqi
southernmost Dana
Nahr Ibrahim LEB
E2
F3
B2
A5
D2
D2
A4
A2
B5
Apamea = Pella
Hama
Butler 1920, 138-42; Feissel 1980, 329-30
RE; Honigmann I.15b
Poidebard 1934, 47, pl. XXX
Ploug 1985, 45-46; NPauly Amathe 2;
NPauly Epiphaneia 2
Dussaud 1927, 276; Mouterde 1945, 85-86
Mouterde 1945, 106-109
Polyb. 5.59.10
Taylor 1969, 112
Honigmann I.37, 158; Mouterde 1945,
67-68
RL
R?L
H
R
R?L/
L
Hammam
L/
L
RL/
L
R/
L
CHRL
el-Anderin
Butler 1920, 47-63; BE 1990.934
Tartous
Rey-Coquais 1974, 49, 119, 196
Kara Douran Dağ
Dussaud 1927, 421
Jebel esh-Sherqi LEB /
SYR
NPauly Antilibanos
LEB
Hanaser
1044
MAP 68 SYRIA
Grid
Name
Period
Modern Name / Location
Reference
B2
A5
Apameitis Limne
Aphrodite Aphakitis, T.
§ Aphaka
Aracha/
Anatha/
‘Harae’
Arados
Arca/
Herakleia en Phoinike/
Caesarea ad Libanum
Areth(o)usa
Asharne
Athis/
Neocaesarea
Aueria/
Euareia
HRL
RL
Behiret et-Taqa
temple and spring at Afqa
LEB
Erek
Honigmann I.53; Bernard 1995
Krencker 1938, 56-64
Honigmann I.54a; Brown 1969, 67-69
Honigmann I.57; Starcky 1962, 132-39;
Bowersock 1973, 133
Rouad
Arqa LEB
Rey-Coquais 1974, 49; NPauly 1
DCPP Arqa
MacAdam 1993, 343
Honigmann I.69a; CIL 3.183
Honigmann I.65
Mouterde 1945, 29
Harper 1980
G4
A4
B4
C4
B3
F2
D5
B4
B4
A3
C2
F2
G2
B3
A2
D4
F4
A5
A4
A5
A5
Bahluniye
Baitokaike
Balanea/
Leukas
el-Bara
Barbalissus
Barbarikon
Bargylus/
Emblonos M.
Barlaamus
Betproclis
Bir Weshel
Botrys
Bruttus
Byblos
Bziza
RL/
RL/
L
CHRL
RL/
H/
R
HRL
R?L?
RL
R/
R?L
Restan
Dibsi Faraj
Hauwarin
L
R
RL
Hosn Soleiman
Baniyas
IGLSyr 7.4054; Devreese 1945, 193
CIG 3.4474; Rey-Coquais 1974, 272 index
Rey-Coquais 1974, 49, 63, 196
L
R?L
L
HR
Balis, Meskene
district near Resafa
Jebel Ansariye
Tchalenko 1953 II, pl. 137-39
Ulbert 1989, 283-86
Honigmann I.96
Rey-Coquais 1974, 61; Bernard 1995, 359
L
L
R
HRL
L
C?HRL
R
Jebel el-Akra TKY
Furqlus
Batrun LEB
al-Abde? LEB
Jebeil LEB
LEB
E5
Caesarea ad Libanum =
Arca
Callinicum = Nicephorium
*Cara/
‘Cehere’/
Chonacara?
§ Goaria
§ Koara
‘Carion’
Carne/
Karnos
Cas(s)ius M.
‘Cehere’ = *Cara
Chalcis ad Belum
§ Chalkidike
§ Chalcidena
*Chasa
Cholle
Chonacara? = *Cara
Chrysorroas fl.
Conna
Constantia = Antarados
Cunna?
G2
D5
Dausara
‘Danova’
RL
L
Qalaat Jaber
Mehin?
C5
B2
Deleda
Derkoush
L
H?R?
Hasya?
C5
B4
A4
A2
C2
C2
G3
B3
B5
Honigmann I.174; Dussaud 1927, 280;
Devreese 1945, 205; IGLSyr 5.2696
Djobadze 1986, 1-56
NotDig Or. 32.12; Dussaud 1927, 270
Schlumberger 1951, 46-48, 86
DCPP Batroun; NPauly
ItBurd 583.3; Dussaud 1927, 78
DCPP; NPauly 1
Krencker 1938, 4-8
RL/
L/
L
R
R
L
HR
Qara
Qal'at el-Husn?
Tell Qarnoun
Ptol. 5.14.19
Rey-Coquais 1974, 85-88
Rey-Coquais 1974, 65
HRL
Jebel el-Akra TKY
Djobadze 1986, 3-6
HRL
HR
'Is, Qinnesrin
Mouterde 1945, 4-9; Fourdrin, 1994
Honigmann I.135
L
RL
Hass
Khoulle
Feissel 1980, 336
Honigmann I.143; Dussaud 1927, 253
R
R
Nahr Baniyas
Ras Baalbek LEB
Honigmann I.93; Rey-Coquais 1974, 65
ItAnt 199.8; Dussaud 1927, 396-97
RL
Khan el-Qattar
NotDig Oc. 32.35; Kennedy 1990, 204-205
Dillemann 1962, 109; Lauffray 1983, 55
ItMiller 816; Dussaud 1927, 264-65;
Devreese 1945, 203
ItMiller 826; Dussaud 1927, 278
Dussaud 1927, 163-64
ItMiller 816; IGLSyr 5.2709;
Dussaud 1927, 264-67;
Devreese 1945, 203
MAP 68 SYRIA
1045
Grid
Name
Period
Modern Name / Location
Reference
B3
Diokleion M.
H?R
Jebel Zawiye
Bernard 1995, 359
B4
Eleutheros fl.
HRL
Nahr el-Kebir LEB / SYR
F5
R?
Tell Ghamqe
Rey-Coquais 1974, 50, 65
G2
el-Mleke
Emblonos M. = Bargylus
M.
Emesa = (H)Emesa
Enydra
Epiphaneia = Amathe
Euareia = Aueria
Euphrates fl.
RE; Dussaud 1927, 91;
Rey-Coquais 1974, 50, 89
Poidebard 1934, 179, pl. LXIII
A3
F5
A5
C2
Gabala
Gennaes
Gigarta
Goba
CHRL
R
HRL?
L
Jebele
Umm el-Amed
Zgharta near Tripoli LEB
Bgube
Rey-Coquais 1974, 50, 66
Mouterde 1931, 107
CIL 3.183, Dussaud 1927, 82
Feissel 1982, 333-34
Hadrianopolis = Palmyra
‘Harae’ = Aracha
Harbaara
Harbaqa
Helela
§ Alalis
L
R
L
R
LEB
E5
Heliaramia
R?L
Qasr el-Heir el Gharbi
C4
H?RL
Homs
A2
(H)Emesa
§ Emisenoi
Herakleia?
HRL
Ras Ibn Hani
IGLSyr 5.2650
Kennedy 1990, 70-71
NotDig Or. 33.32; Honigmann I.23;
RE Syria, cols. 1665-66, 1703;
Kennedy 1990, 155
ItMiller 816; IGLSyr 5.2552-53;
Kennedy 1990, 217
Honigmann I.205; Seyrig 1959; PECS 302;
Gatier 1996; NPauly Emesa
Dussaud 1927, 415-17; Seyrig 1949,
69-70, 399-400; Leriche 1989, 273-75
B5
C3
B2
B5
Herakleia en Phoinike =
Arca
Hermel
Houad
Huarte
Husn Sfiri
R
L
L
R
LEB
B4
Iammura
L
Qalaat Yahmour
A5
R
LEB
A5
Imperatoris Hadriani
Augusti Definitio
Silvarum
Itouraioi
ItMiller 823; Dussaud 1927, 98;
Rey-Coquais 1974, 50, 62, 88
Breton 1980
HRL
LEB
Strabo 16.2.18; Schürer 1973 I, 565-67
C2
G5
G3
Jerade
Jiffa
Juwal
L
R
R?L?
A5
C2
C2
C2
HR
L
L
L
Qara LEB
near Mgara
Kaferlatin
Kafer Nagd
Polyb. 5.68.8; DCPP Qalamoun, Hosn el
BE 1996.474
Feissel 1982, 321
Feissel 1982, 323-24
B2
E3
E3
E4
Kalamos
Kaperkoraon
Kaperlatinou
Kapernagatha
Karnos = Carne
Kassiotis
Khirbet ed-Douse
Khirbet el-Beida
Khirbet el-Bilaas
HR
R?L
R?L?
R
district S Antiochia
C4
E4
Khirbet et-Tin
Khirbet Semrin
L
R
Ptol. 5.15.16
Mouterde 1945, 99
Mouterde 1945, 92-93
IGLSyr 5.2549-51; Schlumberger 1939;
Mouterde 1945, 51-53
IGLSyr 5.2611
Schlumberger 1951, 13-22
A4
B4
E5
G4
R
See Map 93
Hlehleh
LEB
Krencker 1938, 161-62
Donceel-Voûte 1988, 138-45
Canivet 1987
Krencker 1938, 20-34
Tchalenko 1990, 193-97
Poidebard 1934, 108 pl. CIII
Taha 1991
1046
MAP 68 SYRIA
Grid
Name
Period
Modern Name / Location
Reference
B5
Koile Syria/
H/
Biqa' LEB / SYR
Massyas
§ Marsyas
HR
P.Cair.Zen. 59093; RE; Balty 1982a, 53-62;
contra Sartre 1988
RE 3
RE 5
Laodicea
§ Laodikene
§ Mazabda
Laodicea ad Libanum
C?HRL
HR
C?
HRL
Lattaquié
Sauvaget 1934; 1936; Will 1994, 21
RE Λαοδικηνή
Tell Nebi Mend
L
HRL/
C?RL
B2
§ ‘Laudicia’ Scabiosa
Larissa/
Sizara
Leontopolis =
Nicephorium
Leukas = Balanea
Leukos Limen
Libanus M.
Libo
§ Heldo
Liftaya
Lithoprosopon Pr. =
Theou Prosopon
Lysias?
Polyb. 5.45.7; IGLSyr 5.2678-89;
Devreese 1945, 206
ItMiller 824
RE Σίζαρα
C2
B4
B4
A3
A4
A2
C4
C3
A2
B5
B5
B4
B4
B3
B3
A5
B5
D5
B3
G2
C2
A1
D3
G3
B2
A4
D5
Minet el-Beida
LEB
Lebweh LEB
Stucky 1983
See Map 69
ItAnt 198.3; Dussaud 1927, 396, 409;
Krencker 1938, 177
IGLSyr 5.2629-49; Devreese 1945, 206
H
Bourzey
Dussaud 1927, 152
*Magarataricha
Makra(s) Pedion?
L
HR
Ma'ar Tarikh
Buqeia plain
Maqam er-Rab
Maraccas
Marathos
Maratomyrton? =
*Telmenissos
Mariamme
Marsya?
Marsyas? fl.
Mashnaqa
Massyas = Koile Syria
R
L
HR
LEB
Khrab Maraqiye
'Amrit
Feissel 1980, 330
Strabo 16.2.17; Dussaud 1927, 91;
Rey-Coquais 1974, 50, 67
Krencker 1938, 102
Rey-Coquais 1974, 120
Rey-Coquais 1974, 50, 131-36; Saliby, 1989
HRL
RL
R
R
Mariamin
Massyaf
Wadi Tell Armid
LEB
Rey-Coquais 1974, 50, 109
Rey-Coquais 1974, 112
Rey-Coquais 1974, 112; Balty 1982a, 47
Taylor 1969, 108
R?L
LEB
Qaryateyn
See Map 69
ItMiller 816; IGLSyr 5.2697; RE Νάζαλα
R
around Massyaf
Rey-Coquais 1974, 140; Balty 1982a, 47
RL/
H?RL/
L
L
Raqqa
HierSyn 715.1; Ulbert 1989, 291-92
Deir es-Sharqi
TKY
Fourdrin 1993
See Map 67
'Agerbat
Tayibe
Mouterde 1945, 49
Honigmann II.343; Kennedy 1990, 136
SYR / TKY
Khan ard Artuşi LEB
See Map 67
1 Maccabees 15:37; RE 3
Ghunthur?
NotDig Or. 32.18; Dussaud 1927, 268
Nakle
Nazala
§ Nezala
Nazerini?
Neocaesarea = Athis
Nicephorium/
Callinicum/
Leontopolis
Nikertai
Nymphaion/
Balaneion Tiberinon
Occaraba
Oriza/
Oruba/
Oresa
§ Orissa
Orontes fl.
Orthosia
Oruba = Oriza
Otthara
§ Otthura
§ Ocurura
§ Atera
CHL
Shaizar
RL
L
L
R?L
R/
L/
L
L
HRL
L
L
L
R
Ptol. 5.14.19
MAP 68 SYRIA
Grid
Name
Period
C3
D3
Oumm Harteine
Oumm Harteine
R?L
R?L
F4
Palmyra/
Thadamora/
Hadrianopolis
Paltos
HRL/
H/
RL
HRL
Tudmur
PECS; Starcky 1985, 33-36; Bounni 1989;
Will 1992, 30-46
Arab el-Moulk
Rey-Coquais 1974, 50, 81; Riis 1988,
318-21
HR
H/
HRL
C?
H?R?
district E R. Euphrates
Qalaat el-Moudiq
Strabo 16.2.11
Balty 1981; Bernard 1995
Strabo 16.2.10
Dussaud 1927, 69-70
See Map 69
Burr 48-49
Courbin 1986
A3
Modern Name / Location
1047
Donceel-Voûte 1988, 192-201
Donceel-Voûte 1988, 192-201
A5
A5
A2
A2
Paradeisos =
(Tri)Paradeisos
Parapotamia
Pella/
Apamea
§ Pharnace
§ Chersonesos
Pelleta? = Tell Soukas
Phaidros? fl.
Phoenice
Phoenicium Mare
Posideion
H?R
Wadi Fedar LEB
LEB
ACHRL
Ras el-Bassit
B3
B5
B5
D3
A5
E3
Qadboun
Qalaa
Qasr el-Banat
Qasr Ibn Wardan
Qasr Naous
Qastal
R
R
R
L
R
R
C2
B4
D2
E4
C2
Rabona?
Raphaneai
Rasm er-Rbeit
Rasm es-Shaar
Rayan
L
RL
R?L
R
L
Rbei'a
Rafniye
G2
RL/
L
L
Resapha
C2
Resafa/
Sergioupolis
Ruweiha
A5
B4
*Saarna
Sabbatikon fl.
R
R
Abedat LEB
Nahr en-Nab
D3
C4
B4
D3
C2
B2
B4
C2
C2
Sabboura
Sachama
Saisaniye
Salamias
Sekla
Seleukobelos?
Semaqiyat
Seremyn
Sergilla
Sergioupolis = Resafa
Seriane?
Sigata
Sigon?
Simyra?
R?L
R
L
L
L
RL
R
L
RL
Salamiye
Bsaqla
Jisr es-Shoghour
RL
L
H
HRL
Isriye
Sighata
Sahyoun
Tell Kazel
RL
Chin
HR
R?L
R?L
Sourriya
G2
B3
E3
C2
B2
B4
B4
F2
G2
D2
Sin?
Sizara = Larissa
Skenitai
Soura
Stabl Antar
Strata Diocletiana
Reference
LEB
LEB
LEB
Bounni 1997
Rey-Coquais 1972
IGLSyr 6.2908; Krencker 1938, 152-55
Butler 1920, 26-45; BE 1996.475
Krencker 1938, 8-19
Mouterde 1945, 99
Feissel 1980, 336
Rey-Coquais 1974, 50, 100-111
Mouterde 1945, 80-81
Schlumberger 1951, 44-46
Donceel-Voûte 1988, 261-67;
Tchalenko 1990, 199-200
Sauvaget 1939; Ulbert 1989, 288-91
Butler 1920, 142-48; Tchalenko 1990,
183-92
Zaidal
Sermin
IGRR 3.1060; Dussaud 1927, 70
Jos., BJ 7.99; Brown 1969, 69-70;
cf. Rey-Coquais 1974, 87
Mouterde 1945, 44
IGLSyr 5.2560
IGLSyr 7.4050; Devreese 1945, 193
Honigmann II.402
Feissel 1980, 331-32; 1982, 333-34
Balty 1982, 287-89; 1982a, 68-69
IGLSyr 5.2676
Feissel 1982, 325-28
Butler 1920, 113-33
Dussaud 1927, 273; RE; Gogräfe 1993
Feissel 1980, 342
Rey-Coquais 1974, 73
Rey-Coquais 1974, 287 index; Sader 1990;
DCPP Kazel, Tell; Badre 1994, 353-56
Rey-Coquais 1974, 50, 105-108
Strabo 16.2.11
Ulbert 1989, 286-88
Butler 1920, 63-64; Mouterde 1945, 174-75
See Roads
1048
MAP 68 SYRIA
Grid
Name
Period
F4
C2
Tahun el-Masek
Taroutia Emporon
R
L
B4
A3
Tell Sarin
Tell Soukas/
Pelleta?
*Telmenissos/
Maratomyrton?
Tetrapyrgium
Thadamora = Palmyra
Theleda
Theodorias
Theodoroupolis =
Anasartha
Theou Prosopon/
Lithoprosopon Pr.
Thronos M. = Antikasion
M.
Trieres
(Tri)Paradeisos
Tripolis
L
A/
RL
RL/
L
L
C2
G2
D3
A2
A5
A5
C5
A5
Modern Name / Location
Reference
Schlumberger 1951, 48-50, 86-88
Butler 1920, 71-83; Feissel 1991, 299-300
Taroutin et-Tuggar
(Kerratin)
Qseir es-Seile
IGLSyr 7.4053; Devreese 1945, 193
Rey-Coquais 1974, 82-83; PECS;
Riis 1988, 321-22
Honigmann II.459; BE 1989.874;
Feissel 1991
Poidebard 1934, 83; Ulbert 1989, 288
R
L
Tell 'Ade
district E Laodicea
Dussaud 1927, 255
Rey-Coquais 1974, 121
HRL/
L
Ras Shaqqa LEB
Polyb. 5.68.8; Honigmann II.462b
HRL
HR
CHRL
el Heri LEB
Jusiye?
Tarabulus / Tripoli LEB
Polyb. 5.68.8; RE 2
Dussaud 1927, 112
DCPP
Tell Menis
F5
Veriaraca
§ Beriarac
R?L
Khan el-Hallabat
NotDig 32.34; CIL 3.14177.4;
Kennedy 1990, 203-204
B5
B5
A5
Yaat
Yammune
Yanuh
R
R
R
LEB
LEB
LEB
Krencker 1938, 156-57
Krencker 1938, 38-39
Krencker 1938, 35-37
G2
E2
Zacchaeus?, Mon.
Zebed
L
L
Tell Bi'a
B2
Zophea
L
Sfuhun
Krebernik 1991
Mouterde 1945, 162-68;
Tchalenko 1990, 231
Feissel 1982, 336
Aqueduct
Grid
Location
Period
Reference
E5
W Harbaqa
R
Poidebard 1934, 55, 171, 187, pl. XXXI
Bridges
Grid
Location
Period
Reference
A3
B2
B2
B3
G2
Paltos
Derkoush
Seleukobelos?
Asharne
Soura
R?
R?
R?
R?L?
L?
Riis 1988, 318-21
Mouterde 1945, 27-28
Mouterde 1945, 27-28
Mouterde 1945, 29
Ulbert 1989, 286
Grid
Location
Period
Reference
G2
S Nicephorium
Canal
Lauffray 1983
MAP 68 SYRIA
1049
Centuriation
Grid
Location
Period
Reference
A2
C2
C4
around Laodicea
N Kapernagatha
NE (H)Emesa
H?R?
R
R
Dodinet 1994; Tate 1994
Tate 1992; 1994
PECS 302
Grid
Location
Period
Reference
C4
E5
SW (H)Emesa
SW Harbaqa
H?
R
Calvet 1992, 27-39; Gatier 1996, 434
Poidebard 1934, 55, 171, 187, pl. XXXI
Grid
Location
Period
Reference
B2
E4
W Seleukobelos?
at Khirbet el-Bilaas
H?RL
R?
RE Syria, cols. 1655-56; Balty 1982a, 73
Schlumberger 1939, 41-73; Balty 1982a, 50-51
Dams
Passes
Roads
Grid
Name / Itinerary
Period
Reference
E5
Strata Diocletiana
RL
Dussaud 1927, 266; Dunand 1931;
Bauzou 1989; 1993
(H)Emesa → Palmyra
RL
along Diokleion M.
Anasartha → Seriane?
Apamea → Amathe → (H)Emesa → Laodicea ad
Libanum → Libo
Apamea → Occaraba → Palmyra
R?L?
R?L
H?RL
Apamea → Raphaneai → Orthosia
RL
Aueria → ‘Danova’ → Map 69
Chalcis ad Belum → Androna → Seriane?
Chalcis ad Belum → Epiphaneia → (H)Emesa
Chalcis ad Belum → Nikertai → Apamea
Chalcis ad Belum→ Anasartha → Barbalissus
Map 67 → Barbalissus → Soura → E
Map 67 → Derkoush → Seleukobelos? → Apamea
Map 67 → Derkoush → Seleukobelos? → Laodicea
RL
RL
H?RL
H?RL
RL
RL
H?RL
H?RL
Map 67 → Laodicea (2 routes) →Orthosia → Byblos →
Map 69
H?RL
Thomsen 1917, 25-26 (nos. 37-38);
Mouterde 1945, 60
Besançon 1995
Mouterde 1945
IGLS 5.2672-75, 6.2900; RE
Syria, cols. 1662-63, 1676-77
ItMiller 826-27; Schlumberger 1939, 67;
Mouterde 1945, 41-60;
RE Syria, cols. 1672-73
ItMiller 822-23; Dussaud 1927, 93;
Mouterde 1945, 29-31;
RE Syria, cols. 1673-74;
Rey-Coquais 1974, 89
ItAnt 196-97; Bauzou 1985, 139
Mouterde 1945, 1-63; RE Syria, col. 1677
RE Syria, cols. 1677-78
RE Syria, cols. 1677-78
Mouterde 1945, 136; Gatier 1995
RE Syria, cols. 1663-66
Mouterde, 1945, 26-29
RE Syria, cols. 1653-56;
Rey-Coquais 1974, 70-77
RE Syria, cols. 1654-55; 1669-70;
Rey-Coquais 1974, 70-80
RL
1050
Grid
MAP 68 SYRIA
Name / Itinerary
Period
Reference
Map 69 → Byblos → Arca
Map 69 → *Cara→Palmyra
Palmyra → E
Palmyra → Jiffa → SE
RL
RL
R?L
RL
Palmyra → Soura
Seriane? → Resafa
Seriane? → Salamias [→ (H)Emesa]
RL
RL
RL
Soura → Nicephorium → Map 67
Soura → Resafa → Oriza → Palmyra
RL
RL
Goodchild 1949
ItMiller 815-16; Dussaud 1927, 264
Mouterde 1931; Gawlikowski 1983
Poidebard 1934, 108 (pl. CIII);
Gawlikowski 1983
ItMiller 815; AE 1933.205
Mouterde 1945, 138-40
Mouterde 1945, 140-43; RE
Syria, cols. 1677-78
Gawlikowski 1988; Ulbert 1989
RE Syria, cols. 1666-68, 1679-80;
Bauzou, 1989; 1993
Unlocated Toponyms
Name
Period
Probable Location
Reference
Aegyption Teichos
Agrippias
Anastasia
Apollonia
Arra
HR
L
L
HR?
R
N Bekaa
distinct from Europos?
Qalaat Jaber?
chora of Apamea
Mas'eran? Maaret en-Numan?
Strabo 16.2.19; Ghadban 1981, 166-67
Honigmann 1925, 75, 83
GCyp 905H
Strabo 16.2.10
RE Syria, cols. 1676-77
Bachaias
Basiliscum mutatio
Bethmisona
L
L
L
S R. Nahr el-Kebir ?
in Jebel Zawiye?
RE Syria, col. 1655
Rey-Coquais 1974, 89
Mundell Mango 1986, 228-30
Capareas
Cattelas
Centum Putea
R
RL
R
Charadrus/
Chaladropolis
Charybdis
RL
R
chasm of R. Orontes, near
Derkoush or Shaizar?
Bernard 1995, 360
Demetrias
Derrima
Diospolis?
L
R
HRL
S Raphaneai
Burdj es-Sleib?
Rey-Coquais 1974, 88, 113-14
Honigmann I.159
Dussaud 1927, 415-17; Seyrig 1949,
69-70, 399-400; Leriche 1989, 273-75
Gabeni
R
people of Ghab valley?
Dussaud 1927, 195-96
Hylatae
R
people of R. Huleh, W
Epiphaneia?
Dussaud 1927, 196; Jones 1971, 263
Iougaton
L
chora of Apamea
Dussaud 1927, 203
Kapranana
Kasianoi
L
HR?
chora of Apamea
chora of Apamea
Feissel 1982, 332-33
Strabo 16.2.10
Lykos fl.
HR
N R. Nahr el-Kebir?
Rey-Coquais 1974, 74
Mammisea
Mediana/
Meziana
Megara
R
L
tetrarchy
chora of Apamea
Balty 1982a, 48
Feissel 1980, 330
HR?
chora of Apamea
Strabo 16.2.10
Niaccaba
Nogea
R
L
between Antiochia and Apamea
chora of Apamea
RE Syria, col. 1662
Honigmann II.332; Feissel 1982, 324
Kafer Ra'a? Tell Mure?
Khirbet Ramadan?
Hweisis? Bir Jihar?
Kara Douran?
RE Syria, cols. 1676-77; Mouterde 1945, 45
Dussaud 1927, 153; RE Syria, col. 1655
Mouterde 1945, 48-57
Dussaud 1927, 421-22
MAP 68 SYRIA
1051
Name
Period
Probable Location
Reference
Oraga
L
chora of Apamea
Feissel 1982, 328-32
Pasieria
Phela
Phisorou
R
L
L
between Laodicea and Posideion
in Jebel Zawiye?
chora of Antiochia
Seyrig 1949, 70
Mundell Mango 1986, 231-36
Feissel 1980, 332-33
Rambaioi
HR
Saltatha
Sascha
Sinna
‘Skenarchia’
Spelounka
Spiclin mutatio
RL
L
HR
L
R
L
Sadad?
in territory of Epiphaneia
Mount Lebanon
district near Resafa?
Thapsacus
CHRL
Thorax
*Tigranucometae
Tripolis Phoinikon
L
R
C
not between R. Sadjour and
R. Khabour
Syria Secunda
Zenodotion
RL
Strabo 16.2.10
Tabbet el-Hammam?
NotDig Or. 32.20; Dussaud 1927, 269
Feissel 1980, 332
Strabo 16.2.18; Dussaud 1927, 88-89
HierSyn 713.8
Ptol. 5.14.13; Honigmann II.432
Rey-Coquais 1974, 89
Gawlikowski 1996
near Ras Shamra?
Honigmann II.464
Balty 1982a, 48
Rey-Coquais 1974, 77-78
near Nicephorium
Jones 1971, 217; RE
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1055

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