2 Nigeria Zambia - UN

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2 Nigeria Zambia - UN
Documentation de l’expérience
2
Nigeria
ð
Documentación de la experiencia
Documentation of experience
Zambia
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Sustainable Cities Programme
Localising Agenda 21 Programme
United Nations Programme for Human Settlements (UN-HABITAT)
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
P.O. Box 30030, Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: +254-20-623225, Fax: +254-20-623715, E-mail: [email protected]
Websites: http://www.unhabitat.org/scp - http://ww w.unhabitat.org/la21
Impreso en el Instituto de Planificación Física, Cuba
June 2005, Nairobi
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Table of content – Table des matières – Tabla de contenido
Nigeria
Implementation of the Sustainable Cities Programme in Nigeria
Innovating through Sustainable Ibadan Project
Sustainable Enugu Project
Papua New Guinea
National Experience of Sustainable Cities
5
8
12
16
Perú
Experiencia nacional de Perú
Proyecto GEO/Agenda 21 Local de Arequipa
Philippines
Applications of the Sustainable Cities Programme Approach in Urban Environmental
Governance in the Philippines
Local Environmental Planning and Management in Lipa City , Tagbilaran City, Cagayan
De Oro City
23
28
33
43
Sénégal
Programme national d’appui aux Agendas 21 Locaux
Agenda 21 Local de Louga
Agenda 21 Local de Guediawaye
Agenda 21 Local de Matam
Agenda 21 Local de Saint-Louis
Agenda 21 Local de Tivaouane
52
58
60
62
64
67
Sustainable Sri Lankan Cities Programme
70
Implementation of the Sustainable Cities Programme in Tanzania
81
Thailand National Experience
84
Role of National Capacity Building Institutions in documenting and mainstreaming
Experiences in Zambia
Innovating through Sustainable Lusaka Programme
90
Sri Lanka
Tanzania
Thailand
Zambia
3
92
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
NIGERIA
Implementation of the Sustainable Cities Programme in
Nigeria
Mr. Oladunjoye A. Oyewumi, National Programme Coordinator, Sustainable Cities Programme, Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban
Development
Abstract
of human settlements and environment, but have also greatly
accelerated poverty.
This paper is prepared for the 2005 Global Meeting of the
Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP) and Localizing Agenda 21
Programme (LA21) Partners, taking place from 26 June to 1 July
2005 in La Havana, Cuba. The meeting is sponsored by UNHABITAT and UNEP, and hosted by the city of La Havana. The
theme of the meeting is “Achieving sustainable urbanization –
Innovations for local and global results” with a focus on
mainstreaming / institutionalization of the Environmental
Planning and Management concept.
The country is currently undergoing fundamental political, social
and economic reforms aimed at stabilizing the economy and
placing the nation on the path of sustainable development. In
part, the objective of the reforms is to ensure effective service
delivery and increase national productivity, thereby reducing
poverty among the populace. In its sectoral agenda, government
is committed to reinvigorating the urban sector so as to improve
its productive and vibrant role in the overall national
development. While certain components of the reforms target
institutional changes, some aspects focus on attitudinal changes.
Both aspects of the reform are indeed relevant in the context of
the Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP) and fall within the
domain of the concept of Environmental Planning and
Management (EPM).
The paper reviews past urban management practices in Nigeria
and takes a look at current efforts at stimulating the urban sector
and draws lessons for improved performance at the national level.
It notes positive changes and limitations, and makes suggestions
on ways to achieve sustainable urban environmental
management. The paper underscores the need for implementation
of development projects to demonstrate the veracity of the
strategies and popularize the concept of consultation and
engagement in matters of urban environmental management.
With respect to matters of the environment, the Nigerian people
are sufficiently aware of the fact that the land, water, coastlines,
air and other natural resources in the towns and cities are being
rapidly polluted and degraded, creating in the process loss of
valuable resources. Daily experience in Lagos, Port Harcourt and
Kano, and the various agitations from the oil producing regions
are a clear attestation to this level of consciousness. However,
low level of involvement of the people, absence of effective
advocacy and inappropriate programmes of development have
further compounded the problems of urban management.
In the last five years, Nigeria has been pursuing an integrated
approach in the planning and management of its rapid
urbanization which has resulted in reviews of the national
policies on Urban Development and Housing and the evolution of
a home– grown National Economic Empowerment and
Development Strategy (NEEDS). The central focus of the
strategy is on poverty reduction, alongside sectoral policies on
environmental management, sanitation, water, health and
population. Issues of good governance and improved popular
participation in governance and partnership with national and
international development partners are also being mainstreamed
into national agenda for development.
Past Approaches to Urban Planning and Management
Nigeria has been experiencing a very high rate of population
growth and urban expansion. This rapid population growth has
posed serious problems for physical and socio-economic
development because of the inability of existing institutions and
mechanisms to cope with emerging challenges. Over-crowding of
the living space, poor sanitation, decaying infrastructure, growing
rate of unemployment and under-employment, inadequate and
overstretched community and social services are some of the
indicators of the problems as they affect urban development.
Also, some of the extant laws and regulations, and institutional
arrangements impinge on good management procedure.
Urban Sector Overview
Nigeria is the most populous nation in sub-Saharan Africa, with
an estimated population of 115 million for the year 2000, and an
annual growth rate of about 3.0 per cent, making it one of the
fastest growing populations in the world. Not only is the country
experiencing one of the fastest rates of urbanization in the world,
its experience has also been unique in scale, pervasiveness and
historical antecedents. This process has resulted in a very dense
network of urban centres.
The demographic trend and cycle of urbanization in Nigeria is
typical of most developing countries – a high birth rate combined
with a relatively low death rate resultin g in a high survival rate.
Economic factors such as the oil boom, abandonment of
agricultural activities, public investment policies and location of
investments, creation of more States and Local Government
Areas, have all combined to accelerate the growth and spread of
urban centres in Nigeria. Perhaps more important in this respect
is the declining economic circumstances in the rural areas which
continues to push people (mostly unskilled and unemployable
Compared to a growth rate of 3.0 per cent for the total
population, urban population has been growing at about 5.8 per
cent per annum. By year 2000, Nigeria’s urban population stood
at about 48.2 per cent of the total population and projections
indicate that more than 60 per cent will live in urban centres by
year 2025. The explosive rates of growth have not only
progressively complicated and exacerbated inter-related problems
5
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
youths) to the urban centres which themselves are ill prepared
and already overburdened.
position papers. State and Local Government bodies made
representations to the process and the final document was further
subjected to discussion at the level of the National Council on
Housing and Urban Development. The council is an advisory
body constituted by representatives of States and Federal
Government that meets annually on matters of housing and urban
development. All through the entire process of the review, the
need for broad-based consultation was maintained and the
Committee ensured that the end product was owned through
consensus building.
Critical Policy Issues
Over the last three decades, Nigerian towns and cities have been
growing without adequate planning and management. The
backlog of unmet infrastructure and service needs coupled with
inadequate maintenance programme continues to place extreme
pressure on existing ones leading to rapid deterioration and
decay. Currently, critical urban policy issues include, but not
limited to:
§
Rapid rate of uncontrolled and unplanned growth leading to
proliferation of slums;
§
Poor coordination of urban – rural linkages in terms of
policy and action resulting in massive rural – urban drift;
§
Neglect of infrastructure provision and maintenance;
§
Inadequate public service: water, sanitation, educational and
health facilities, security transportation, housing etc;
§
Unemployment and under-employment;
§
Poor urban land management
§
Inefficient and uncoordinated urban governance;
§
Poor economic and resources base;
§
Lack of community participation;
§
Juvenile delinquency and crime;
§
Insecurity of tenure
In its recent efforts at restructuring the national economy and
repositioning the country on a path to sustainable development
under the reform agenda, a number of urban development issues
are being addressed with a view to improving the urban
environment and enhancing the role of cities in national
development. Such activities include:
§
Review of extant laws and regulations that impinge on
effective urban planning and management. The most
prominent is the Land Use Act.
§
Restructuring, recapitalization and repositioning the Federal
Mortgage Bank of Nigeria towards a more effective
operation as an apex mortgage lending institution to boost
housing development and ownership;
§
Commencement of the process of modernization and
computerization of the Federal Land Registry as well as
facilitating same at State level; and
§
Implementation of pilot schemes in community / urban
upgrading under the Community-Based Urban Development
Project assisted by the World Bank in some eight States of
the Federation.
Current Efforts in Urban Development
The policy issues noted above form the main focus of the revised
national urban development policy. The Policy has the goal of
developing “a dynamic system of urban settlements that will
foster sustainable economic growth, promote efficient urban and
regional development and ensure improved standard of living and
well being for all Nigerians”. Thus in order to adequately address
the complex problems of the urban sector, the Federal
Government established the Federal Ministry of Housing and
Urban Development in July 2003. Among others, the Ministry
has the following mandate:
§
To set national standards and generally monitor all
legislation relating to the efficient operations of towns and
cities as well as the socio-economic development and the
quality of life of urban settlements throughout the country;
§
To promote the development and upgrading of urban
management information system in all Nigerian cities by
ensuring that all houses are numbered, all streets are named
and neighbourhood boundaries clearly identified and
demarcated;
§
To assist State Governments in developing and operating
transport and traffic plans for efficiency in mobility and
land-use development in Nigerian towns and cities;
§
To assist St ate Governments in promoting the establishment
of a consultative assembly in each town and city, with a
view to initiating and sustaining the culture of participatory
budget and qualitative environmental maintenance in all
Nigerian urban centres.
It is pertinent to note that the national reform agenda is an
integral part of the National Economic Empowerment and
Development Strategy (NEEDS) of the Federal Government of
Nigeria, which is the national blue print on poverty reduction.
The preparation of the NEEDS document elicited wide and
popular consultation among stakeholders and interest groups. In
the same vein, States and Local Governments are expected to
prepare their own strategies for poverty reduction taking a cue
from the national agenda. The NEEDS document is being giving
a wide circulation among development partners and national
institutions.
The implications of these current efforts are germane to the
SCP/LA21 activities in that popular participation and
consultation in development issues is being recognized and taken
seriously at all levels. Indeed the formulation of the mandate of
the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development is to a
large extent predicated on the broad concept of the environmental
planning and management. In particular, one of the mandates of
the Ministry is to facilitate the establishment of Consultative
Assemblies in each of the cities to improve civic engagement in
governance and further encourage participatory budgeting
process.
Inhibiting Factors
In retrospect, the review of the national urban development
policy took a noticeable departure from previous approach of
Government in setting the scope and content of policy issues and
strategies. There was a nation-wide consultation of key
stakeholders and interest groups in the formulation of the policy
agenda and determination of the end product. The process, which
was anchored by a well balanced Committee of experts,
consulted widely with professional bodies and interest groups,
including NGOs, through public meetings and presentation of
Although it is early to see the impact of the reforms and new
policy directions in the overall urban planning and management
process in Nigeria, concerns are being raised about the role of the
Federal Government in matters of urban development. A
Supreme Court judgment is now seen as a major inhibiting factor
in Federal level interventions in urban planning and management.
Base on a constitutional suit about which tiers of Governments
has overriding responsibility for urban and regional planning
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
administration in Nigeria. The apex Court had in a keen but split
decision ruled in favor of the State Governments. It also nullified
major provisions of the Nigerian Urban and Regional Planning
Act of 1992. It is however expected that the matter would be
resolved through the on-going constitutional review process and
restore confidence in central government intervention in urban
development matters.
and Urban Development is responsible for the coordination of the
replication of the programme.
Although the replication of the EPM is currently being
spearheaded by the Federal Government, it is expected that the
States and Local Governments would respond to the challenges
of driving the process. The UNDP/FGN project document for the
6th Country Cooperation provides for State and Local
Governments to take ownership and institutionalize the EPM
process. The institutionalization process is however being
pursued vigorously under the Sustainable Ibadan Project (SIP).
Other inhibiting factors to the innovations being put in place,
particularly the Environmental Planning and Management
process, include low levels of awareness on the part of populace,
inadequate advocacy campaign, poor funding of the institutions
responsible for urban planning and management and poor
institut ional capacity among others. Although the on-going
reforms aim at addressing some of these constraints, the low level
of capacity and poor resource mobilization at the Local
Government level would remain major factors in
institutionalizing the various innovations in urban management.
No doubt, this tier of government has a major role to play in
urban development and management, yet there is apparent
weakness in the structure and allocation of power and resources.
This has resulted in State Governments taken over such basic
responsibilities as waste management, water supply, primary
health and education.
However, in order to further improve the replication process it is
important that physical development projects should be
implemented to demonstrate the viability of the concept and
strategies being conversed under the programme. Communities
usually look up to some kind of development projects for them to
begin to imbibe the tenets of new ideas and methods. As has been
demonstrated in Ibadan, communities are willing to support
innovations, even with their resources, if only they would see the
tangible elements of such innovation. The various development
schemes that have been implemented in Ibadan are maintained
and sustained by the communities.
Mainstreaming Innovations
Programme Support & Capacity Building
Nigeria continues to participate actively in international debates
on global agenda in urban development, environment and poverty
reduction, all within the framework of the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs). These international debates have
helped to facilitate greater awareness and forged improved
cooperation and collaboration with both national and
international development partners. In the area of improving the
lives of slum dwellers, Nigeria is currently upgrading basic
infrastructure and service delivery in poor urban neighbourhoods
in eight selected cities across the country in collaboration with
the World Bank under the Community-Based Urban
Development Programme. More recently, Nigeria has conc luded
arrangements for greater support by the World Bank and DFID
through a Country Partnership Strategy. Other development
partners and donor agencies are also collaborating with Nigeria in
its poverty reduction strides. In the last one year, the National
Planning Commission has been consulting with these agencies
with a view to streamlining their support to Nigeria within the
framework of the NEEDS agenda for Nigeria.
The establishment of the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban
Development has resulted in a boost to the urban development
sector in Nigeria. So also is the setting up of the UN-HABITAT
Support Office (HAPSO) in Nigeria. The office is now
operational and is expected to play significant role in the
structuring and driving of human settlements development
process in the country.
Currently, capacity building and knowledge management in the
area of environmental planning and management is hinged on the
support provided by UN-HABITAT and few institutions that
have developed sufficient know-how in the EPM process. The
city of Ibadan will continue to provide a learning field in the
EPM process as substantial resource base has been created with a
large pool of resource persons. As the programme progresses,
one expects considerable capacity to be available through the
Universities and the Polytechnics. For example, the Federal
University of Technology, Minna has established a working
relationship with UN-HABITAT in the area of Environmental
Planning and Management and is functioning as a major
consulting unit in the field. The institution is now offering
academic programme in Environmental Planning and
Management. This programme will further provide the much
needed capacity and improved manpower for sustainable
environmental planning and management in Nigeria.
Conclusion
The urbanization process is irreversible in Nigeria, and must
therefore be turned into opportunities for growth and
development. By the year 2010 and beyond, there would be more
people in urban areas than in rural areas. To ensure that the
magnitude and pace of urbanization does not drag on overall
national development, Nigeria would continue to implement
integrated development strategies. Future priorities would
emphasize the institutionalization of the EPM process for
sustainable development.
Institutional Framework for Programme Replication
Within the framework of the national urban development policy
and with the assistance of the UN-Habitat, the SCP/EPM process
replication is being executed with broad participation of
Governments, the private sector and the wider civil society, as
well as UN – specialized development partner, the UNDP. Under
the programme, a National Programme Coordinating Committee
provides policy direction while Stakeholder Boards oversee the
implementation of the programme at both Federal and State
levels. Under the arrangement, the Federal Ministry of Housing
By way of conclusion, I want to thank the organizers of this
meeting, particularly the Government of Cuba, the City of La
Havana, UNEP and UN-HABITAT, for the opportunity to
exchange experiences and advance collective know-how on
sound environmental planning and management. I believe that
working together we will continue to evolve effective strategies
for sustainable development in our rapidly urbanizing world.
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
IBADAN, NIGERIA
Innovating through Sustainable Ibadan Project, Oyo State,
Nigeria
David Taiwo, Director, Town planning Department, Oyo State
A.A. Ayorinde, Manager, Sustainable Ibadan Project
The City of Ibadan has had many environmental problems which
serve as the precursor and or antecedents to the SCP and the
application of EPM in the city region. The most visible and
disconcerting environmental issues prior to the introduction of
SCP include:
§
High rate of urbanization accompanied by acute shortage of
water supply;
§
Poor management of solid and non-solid waste, which has
great consequences on the surface and underground water,
health hazard and unaesthetic physical environment.
This myriad of problems has, traditionally been managed by
Federal, State and Local Government Institutions. Despite the
multiplicity of institutions, most of the environmental problems
remain unsolved and indeed became complex, vexing and
uncontrollable overtime due to the inadequacies of the
Traditional Planning Approach utilized by these institutions.
These then are the rationale for the application and
implementation of the EPM process in addressing environmental
problems in Ibadan city.
In the area of service delivery, demonstration projects were
selected and implemented to ensure its spatial distribution in the
eleven (11) LGAs in Ibadan city and also to encourage all
stakeholders especially the LG authorities to continue to promote
the project. Service delivery through demonstration projects was
also an opportunity to get foot on the ground in the low-income
areas in Ibadan and to bridge the gap between the community and
the Government.
(d) Environmental Management
Activities of the various issue specific WGs have focused
principally on environmental management. Of particular
importance is the protection and effective use of water bodies
such as natural springs in Ibadan city as alternative source of
potable water supply to the people in the face of glaring
inadequate water supply through the public water supply mains.
Over 30 natural springs were identified and seven (7) have been
adequately developed and protected through the SCP/EPM
Process. Furthermore, the implementation of SIP has brought
about inter-agency cooperation in environmental management in
Ibadan city especially in the implementation of demonstration
projects Similarly, there is also the promotion of sectoral
cooperation and coordination in environmental management in
Ibadan city as reflected in the composition of the various working
groups set-up to address the prioritized environmental issues of
water and waste.
1. Positive Contributions of the SIP
Following the introduction of SCP in Ibadan, in 1994, various
activities carried out through the application and implementation
of the EPM process have contributed positive innovative changes
to the environmental management of the city in the following
areas.
(a)Stakeholders Participation
Stakeholders participation in the urban environmental
management has improved significantly in Ibadan city due to
implementation of the Sustainable Ibadan Project. The following
are the activities undertaken:
§
Ibadan City Consultation on Environmental Issues of
Concern,4-11 September, 1995
§
Setting -up of Inter-Sectoral Working Groups to address
the pririotised environmental issues of concern.
§
Information gathering through the activities of the
working groups
§
Diversification of implementation resources in the course
of carrying out demonstration
projects.
(e) Urban Poverty Reduction
The implementation of various demonstration projects based on
the EPM process have significantly led to urban poverty
reduction in the target communities in Ibadan city in the
following ways.
Creation of job opportunities for those involved in the waste to
wealth initiative projects undertaken such as the Pace-setter and
Ayeye Community Organic Fertilizer Plants
Providing more time for business in communities where service
delivery has improved especially in the areas of water supply.
2. Factors that have facilitated Or obstructed positive changes
by SIP.
(b) Land Use Planning
Many demonstration projects on water and waste issues were
initiated, planned and implemented in line with the Strategies and
Action Plans prepared by the working groups on water supply
and waste management using the EPM process, which is
basically bottom-up
as opposed to the blueprint approach
whereby only the public agency is involved in the initiation
planning and implementation of projects, the application of EPM
process in Ibadan city through the SIP facilitated the active
participation of all relevant stakeholders.
Factors that have facilitated positive changes by SIP.
Several factors have facilitated the SCP activities in Ibadan.
These include:
§
Strong self-help orientation of the community;
§
Effective mobilization of stakeholders through sectoral
briefing sessions, publicity, public enlightenment,
publications, information brochure etc;
§
Transparent way of doing things under SCP; and
§
Dwindling
resources
available
for
infrastructural
development.
(c) Service Delivery
8
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
§
Factors that have constrained positive changes by SIP.
§
Disillusionment of private and popular sector about
Government due to unfulfilled promises.
§
Lack of accountability and transparency in the way
Government Agencies have been relating with the members
of the public.
§
Misconception about the project (SCP) mistakenly thought
to be money spinning World Bank project that issue out
contracts.
§
§
§
Overcoming constraints
The obstacles encountered were overcome through:
§
Continuous sensitization of stakeholders especially the
policy makers through briefing sessions, meetings etc.
§
Advocacy visits by officials of UN-HABITAT on mission to
key stakeholders.
§
Attendance at SCP Global Meetings by key stakeholders
especially by Government functionaries.
§
§
§
3. Mechanisms Created To Support The Development of These
Innovations
The mechanisms created to support the development of those
innovations among others include:
§
Provision of funds in the Annual Bud get of the Local and
State Governments facilitated by the supervising Ministry.
§
Putting in place institutional structures such as Project
Coordinating Committee
§
Development of GIS laboratory in the Department of Survey
by the State Government.
§
Formation of the Sustainable Ibadan Project Trust fund
SIPTF facilitated by the project (TSU).
Production and Airing of 60 Minute Video documentary on
the SIP activities in Ibadan on the Local Television
(Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (BCOS).
Production and Airing of 12 weeks 15 Minutes Radio
Drama serialization on the SIP activities on the local radio
(BCOS).
Presentation of technical papers at conferences of
professional bodies, seminars, workshops and meetings on
the implementation of SCP in Ibadan.
Presentation of some of the demonstration projects for Best
Practices Awards organized by Dubai Municipality and UNHABITAT and Stockholm Partnership Awards. (Pace-Setter
Organic Fertilizer Plant and Akeu Natural Spring project);
Research work on the activities of the SIP by various
students of The Polytechnic and University of Ibadan
pursuing their Diplomas, first and second degrees resulting
in Thesis or Dissertations on different areas of interests;
.1by UN -HABITAT and SIP (TSU) which are all in the
project library and regularly
Self-Assessment exercise on SIP sponsored by UNHABITAT.
6. Mainstreaming innovation at local level.
(i)
Policy Instrument
§
.The strategies and action plan prepared on waste has
influenced the waste management in Ibadan to allow private
sector participation in waste collection and disposal in the
city, a responsibility hitherto carried out inadequately solely
by the authority.
§
Abolition of Designated Refuse dump sites policy as
advocated by the strategies and action plans on wastes in
favour of bring and dump (in waiting refuse vehicles) in
core areas of Ibadan city where there is access problem to
rid the city of its mountain of refuse.
§
Embarking on waste integrated recycling projects by the
State Government to popularize the waste to wealth
initiative advocated by SIP through its demonstration
projects and strategies and actions plans
§
Embarking on Mini-Water Supply Scheme by the State
Government in line with the strategies and action plan on
water as alternative viable option to big dam construction
for Ibadan city, which has proved inadequate and costly to
maintain.
4 How to enhance the mechanisms.
The various mechanisms in use are not adequate because the
institutionalization of the EPM process in the various relevant
agencies has not been totally achieved.
The following are however possible ways that can be explored to
enhance the mechanisms already in use in the application and
implementation of the SCP/EPM process in Ibadan:
§
Increase publicity and marketing of the programme;
§
Strong support for the implementation of the SCP by the
Federal Government in the cities;
§
Policy backing by Government for the implementation of
various strategies and action plans emanating from the
application of the SCP/EPM process in Ibadan city.
.
5. How innovations achieved were documented and
disseminated.
The various innovations in form of positive changes arising from
the SCP activities in Ibadan city already discussed were often
documented and disseminated through the following ways:
§
Preparation of regular reports (sometimes on quarterly basis)
to supervising agencies of Government and external support
agencies such as Oyo State Ministry of Environment and
Water Resources, SCP Coordinating Unit under the Federal
Ministry of Housing and Urban Development and UNDP
Oyo State office;
§
Production and dissemination of City Consultation and
Local Government. Consultation reports to various relevant
stakeholders such as the Local Governments, State
Government Ministries, higher institutions such as The
Polytechnic and University of Ibadan, NGOs, etc.
§
Production of EPM News bulletin and Information Brochure
on periodic basis.
(ii)
Legislative Instrument
§
Introduction of participatory process in the preparation of
plans in the new Oyo
State Urban and Regional
Planning Board Law.
(iii)
Administrative Instrument
§
Creation of Urban Environmental Planning and
Management Unit under the Town Planning Department of
the Oyo State Ministry of Environment and Water
Resources to mainstream SCP/EPM process in other cities in
Oyo State..
§
Establishment of SIP Committees (Local Government
Development Committees) in the various LGs in Ibadan to
apply the SCP/EPM process in the development of the LGs
in Ibadan.
§
Setting up of GIS Laboratory in the Department of Survey
by the Oyo State Government for greater efficiency in the
production and utilization of maps.
7. Experience in setting municipal planning and coordination.
Presently in Ibadan there is no agency at the municipality level
coordinating planning activities. However, the Oyo State Town
9
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Planning Department to some extent coordinates the activities of
Local Planning Authorities in the State. However, the SIP project
coordinating Committee comprising the Chairmen of the 11LGs
in Ibadan carry out coordination functions which has assisted in
great way to institutionalize and mainstream EPM at the Local
Government level in Ibadan.
(ii)
Transparency And Accountability.
To properly manage the projects implemented, the following are
undertaken:
§
Putting in place a management committee comprising of the
community members from which key officers are elected.
§
Opening of Bank Account where money raised or generated
on the project are kept.
§
Records of income and expenditure made are kept and made
available to the WG members and Project TSU when
demanded.
8. Technical inputs received from support institutions to
enhance the innovations.
Technical inputs received from support institutions to enhance
the innovation include:
§
Production of various base maps on Ibadan city in scales
1:50,000 and 1:25,000 undertaken by Regional Center for
Training in Aerospace Survey (RECTAS), supervised by
Survey Department of the Oyo State Ministry of Lands,
Housing and Survey and sponsored by UN-HABITAT.
§
Procurement of Geographic Information System Equipment
which facilitated storage of environmental information /data
electronically for the project by UN-HABITAT.
§
Provision of drilling rig, materials and expertise for the
demonstration project on borehole at Bodija market by
UNICEF through Oyo State Water and Sanitation Project
(WATSAN).
(iii)
Civil Engagement.
§
Involvement of community members in the implementation
committees when projects are planned and executed.
§
Putting key community members in charge of the
management of the project through their membership of the
project management committee. This has made them to take
adequate care of the project and thereby provide good
leadership qualities that promote good urban governance.
Mainstream Innovation at Global Level.
(i) Environment
•
Protection of water bodies such as natural springs in Ibadan
city, which were identified and gradually slated for
development into alternative potable water supply sources
for various communities where they are located.
•
Promotion of clean environment through the preparation of
strategies and action plans on waste management in Ibadan
city which has proved to be a useful document in solving the
waste problem associated with the city.
9. Mainstreaming innovation at national level.
(i) Policies
• Urban Development Policy – formulated by the Federal
Government to guide urban development in Nigeria.
• National Housing Policy – formulated by the Federal
Government guide housing provision in Nigeria.
(ii) Administrative
•
Creation of Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban
Development by the Federal Government to attend to
housing and urban development issues in Nigeria in the year
2003.
•
Giving Urban and Regional Development (URD) a
departmental status at the national level under the newly
created Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban
Development.
•
Creation of the Sustainable Cities Programme Coordinating
Unit to coordinate SCP activities in various participating
cities in Nigeria.
•
Launching of Good Urban Governance Programme by
FGN/UN-HABITAT collaboration in Nigeria in the year
2003.
•
Periodic meetings and seminars organized by the SCP Unit
on the implementation of the SCP in Nigeria.
(ii)
Poverty.
•
Promotion of waste to wealth initiatives through the projects
implemented on waste recycling such as the Pace-Setter
Organic Fertilizer Plant in Bodija Market, which provided
employment opportunities for many people.
(Iii)
Sustainability.
•
The Pace-Setter Organic Fertilizer Plant facilitated by SIP
WG on Waste Management won the Best Practices Award
at an event jointly organized by Dubai Municipality and
UN-HABITAT in 2002.
11. Support scp activities undertaken by sip received from
global/international facilities.
The support SCP activities undertaken by SIP received from
Global /International facilities include:
•
Recognition of the demonstration projects implemented as
Best Practices and Sustainable projects. (Pace-Setter
Organic Fertilizer Plant given Best Practice Award jointly
by Dubai Municipality and UN-HABITAT and Akeu
Natural Spring Project selected for Stockholm Partnership
Award for Sustainability)
•
Presentation of SIP experience in the implementation of
SCP at the International Human Dimension Programme
(IHDP) Workshop in Bonn, Germany 2002 by the Project
Manager.
10. Urban governance.
The bottom-up approach used in the application and
implementation of the SCP /EPM process in Ibadan city have
ensured that there are improvement in certain aspects of urban
governance as described below:
(i)
Sustainability
Projects initiated and implemented through SIP have the ultimate
aim of being sustainable, hence:
§
All relevant stakeholders are involved in the planning and
implementation with resources for implementation coming
from all sectors. (see Table 2).
§
The beneficiaries (Communities where the projects are
located) see the project as theirs and not Government project
and as such are able to manage and maintain them.
Additional Support Required.
•
Financial and technical resources to implement more
projects and document experiences.
•
Sponsorship and grants for key stakeholders to attend short
and long term trainings to build their capacities in order to
effectively manage the environment.
10
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
•
12. Environmental issues raised through scp local activities that
require global action.
(i)
Water Issue.
•
Protection and sustainable utilization of existing water
bodies.
Preparation of geophysical map on underground water
resources.
(ii) Waste Issue.
•
Management of solid waste in the inner core areas of the
city.
•
Generation of Biogas from Market and Abattoir Waste.
11
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
ENUGU, NIGERIA
Sustainable Enugu Project
E. C. Asadu, Project Manager of the Sustainable Enugu Project.
§
§
1. 0 INNOVATIONS
1.1 Innovations In The Approach Applied
The public are not allowed to participate activity.
Skills and experienced personels not used.
Enugu metropolitan Area came into existence in 1909 as a result
of the discovery and subsequent exploitation of coal deposit in
the Udi Hills.
With the introduction of SCP in Enugu in 1997, the application
and implementation of EPM is gradually contributing positive
innovative changes to the environmental management of Enugu
City.
They city has experienced so many environmental problems as a
result of influx into the city which led to urbanization, this there
is no doubt led to the request for application of SCP / EPM in the
city.
A) Stakeholders Participation.
The participation of stakeholders in the urban environmental
management is improved in Enugu City due to implementation
of sustainable Enugu Project.
Those environmental issues before the introduction of SCP /
EPM are;
§
acute shortage of potable water supply
§
Mis–management / poor management of both solid and
liquid waste in the city.
Activities carried are:
i) Consultative core group Aug. 20002
ii) City Environmental profile Aug. 2002
iii)City consultation 26th March, 2003
iv) Setting up of different working / sub working groups to
address the prioritized environmental issues.
§
Water supply
§
Waste management
§
Unplanned / Uncontrolled development
§
Improvement of market Areas
§
Drainage / flood control
There is no doubt, these lead to health hazard, pollution of
undergoned water and air.
However, some institutions like Federal, State, Local
Government and communities have been managing the problem
yet of no avail.
The inability of the institutions to effectively handle the problem
and he attitude to the planning approach used.
Table 1 below shows the composition of the various working
groups / sub – working groups which indicates stakeholders
participation in various innovation achieved through the activities
of the working / sub – working groups.
However, these led to the introduction of EPM due to the
followings;
§
Master plans are only prepared by experts
§
It is top down approach
S/N
1
WORKING GROUP
Improvement of market
Area Sub - WG
2
Drainage and Erosion Sub
– WG
3
Waste management WG
i
Waste recycling / sorting
sub – WG
4
Water supply WG
i
Spring water sub - WG
5
Unplanned / uncontrolled
Dev. WG
6
GIS / EMIS mapping
information WG
Source : Sep 2003
TOTAL
MEMBERSHIP
12
OF
Table 1: Composition of working groups.
PRIVATE
PUBLIC
COMMUNITY
2
5
6
14
2
5
7
18
12
5
2
6
4
7
6
19
12
18
4
1
2
6
7
12
9
4
4
15
3
10
2
12
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Table 2: Financial profile and cost sharing of Demonstration projects in Enugu.
Project
1. Improvement of market
area
2. Drainage and erosion
control
Actors involved
Min. of Lands, Works
Resources committed by actors
Preposition papers
Enugu South L. G
Private consultant
consolidated Engr. Ltd
UNDP
ENSEPA
Labour
Project Design and supervision
Mini. of lands and works
Enugu East L. G
Private consultant veen
consolidated Engr. lTD
ENSEPA
Community members
3. Waste reduction / sorting
UNDP
Min of lands Enugu
ENSEPA
Enugu north L. G
Private consultant Christion
Nig Ltd
UNDP
Community members
N 1,153,000
Technical input and preposition
papers
Technical input & preposition
papers
Design
Project supervision, Camera
Video
Technical input shovels (3) peak
(2)
Labour & political support and
security
N 1,767,250,000
Preposition papers
Rainbut (3 pairs) hand gloves (3)
Provision of hall & sound system
Provision of 2 gallons of
disinfectants (N10,000)
N 1,878,000.00
Labour political and security
Total cost of project
N1,153,000.00
N 1,767,250.00
N 1,978,000
Source SEP 2003
B) Land Use Planning:
The application of EPM process in Enugu facilitated the active
participation of all relevant stakeholders shown in table 2.
Three demonstration projects on improvement of market areas,
drainage / flood control and waste reduction / sorting were
planned and implemented though not strictly on strategies and
action plans by the working groups using EPM process.
However, it was bottom up approach as opposed to top down
approach that was used before by different agencies in Enugu
City.
C) Service Delivery
In terms of service delivery, each of the demonstration projects
was done in each of the 3 local Govts in Enugu city to encourage
the stakeholders to promote the project and practice them. This
was also good opportunity for the grass root communities to
have that sense of belonging in issues that concern them See
table 2.
Projects carried out towards the implementation strategies and action plan.
Table 3 .
S/N
SPECIFIC
PROJECT EXECUTED
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
1
Waste management
Drainage / flood control clearing of refuse, opening of
channels and introduction of ring curverts
Improvement of market Areas in Awkunanaw
Source. Sep 2005
DATES
2003
2003
N. B The following projects awaits implementation pending when fund is secured and different working groups coming up with the
strategies / Action plan.
Table 4. Other initiated projects for implementation.
S/N
SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE
1
Waste Management
2
Water
PROJECTS
Fabrication of Organic fertizer plant in Ogbete market, Awkuananw Market
and new Market
Borehole
Ngeneve Community
Coal Camp “
Ugbo Ezeja “
Emene
“
Ugbo aron “
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
S/N
SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE
3
Unplanned / Uncontrolled development
PROJECTS
Spring Development
Iva Valley Spring water
Ugbo Ezeja Spring
Ngwo Spring
Deep well
Ugbene I
Ugbone ii
Abakpa Nike
Urban Renewal
Obiagu Community
Ngenve
“
Camp
“
Abakpa Nike
“
Source Sep 2005.
D) Environmental Management
The little demonstration projects carried out in the communities
and market areas focused on environmental management, a little
shift from what used to be in the city. The implementation of Sep
is gradually bring about inter agency cooperation in the city.
3.
How
Innovation
Achieved
Documented And Disseminated
Were
Different innovations inform of positive changes arising from
the SCP activities in Enugu City already discussed were often
documented and disseminated through the following ways.
§
Production and dissemination of City consultation reports to
the universities and other agencies.
§
Dissemination of EP to other agencies
§
Production and dissemination of SCP Bulletin and
introduction brochures
§
Presentation of technical papers at conferences of
professional bodies e.g Nigeria Institute of Town Planner.
§
Dissertation by different students of urban and regional
planning from University of Nigeria Enugu Campus and
ESUT.
§
Self Assessment exercise on SCP sponsored by UN –
Habitat.
E) Urban Poverty Reduction
The implementation of the few demonstration projects based on
EPM process have not done much simply because Enugu City
has not executed much projects.
1. 2 Local Factors that have facilitated or obstructed the SCP
activities in Enugu
1.2.1 Factors that obstructed SCP Activities
§
Mis-conception of the project by the people and the
Government agencies; (they thought it is money making
venture)
§
Stakeholders thought it is like other Government projects
that used to come to the states where transparency is not
shown.
§
Lack of trust on the way Government agencies have been
operating
2.0 Mainstreaming innovation to local level
2.1 How the innovations recorded are applied into the daily
routine of city management
1.2.2. Factors that have facilitated SCP Activities
§
Briefing sessions, publications and information brochures
§
Visits from Nainobi and Abuja by SCP Officials
i) Policy Instrument
Introduction of EPM to those pilot communities has influenced
the waste management in the city. This now involve private
participation in waste collection and disposal. ESWAM, the
Agency in-charge of waste has divided the city into zones and
private orgainsation managing different zones.
§
Introduction of waste bags and collection of refuse from
different points weekly.
1.2.3 How the obstacles were Overcome
§
Continuous visits by officials of UN – Habitat both from
Nairobi and Abuja
§
Attending meetings, seminars and continue briefing of the
policy makers
1.2.4 Mechanisms Created To Support The Development Of
These Innovation
§
Effort is geared towards including the project in the annual
budget of the ministry of Environment and soiled minerals.
ii) Legislative instrument
Introduction of participatory approach in the preparation of site
analysis report by the Nigerian Institute of town planners Enugu
state Chapter and the department of Town Planning Ministry of
Lands, Enugu.
§
Ministry of Environment is including EPM process in their
new law in the State.
1.2.5 How to enhance the mechanisms
§
The Federal Government should take the programme
serious.
§
Directive from Federal Government to all the state
Governors to implement the programme.
§
Application of EPM process to be entrenched in the school
curricular in the country .
iii) Administrative Instrument:
§
Each Planning Authority in the city is to establish Urban
Environmental Planning and Management Unit as contained
in the project document of SEP.
2.2 Experience in Setting Municipal Planning a4nd
Coordination
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Right now, planning authorities in each Local Government in the
city coordinates the activities of Local Planning Authorities and
supervised by the Department of Town Planning, Ministry of
Lands. It is helping in institutionalizing EPM in the city.
(i) Sustainability
Those little projects demonstrated by SCP yielded better results
in terms of sustainability because:
§
The appropriate stakeholders were involved from the
beginning of the planning.
§
The communities see the project as their own and keep
security over the project.
2.2.1 Technical Imputs Received from support institutions to
enhance the innovations
§
Procurement of GIS equipment which is to be used in
storing environmental information for SEP by UN-Habitat
§
Now that our GIS is not working, we make use of that of
Enugu State University of Science and Technology.
(ii) Transparency and accountability
Both the community members and other stakeholders are
involved in the planning and execution, so the money are made
known to every member at each stage.
2.2.2 Additional support required from support institution
include
§
Repair of our GIS equipment to train the TSU staff and
other government agencies in the state to enhance their
capacity
(iii) Civil Engagement
Because the communities are fully involved and some of their
members are key actors, they have confidence in the project.
3.0 Main streaming Innovation at National
level
4.0 Mainstreaming Innovation at Global Level
4.1 How SCP activities in Enugu City addressed global
agencies.
3.1 Support received to enhance the innovations from the
national level.
The SCP activities in Enugu has not been able to address global
agencies much in the following areas;
(i) Environment
(ii) Poverty
(iii) Sustainability
(i) Policies
Different forms of innovations from Federal Governments in
terms of National Housing and Urban Development policies.
(ii) Administrative
§
Organization of meetings, seminars by the SCP unit of the
Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development
§
Creation of Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban
development by the federal government
§
Carving out urban and regional development department
from the ministry
§
Launching of Good Urban Governance Programme by
Federal Government / UN-Habitat
This is due to the fact that our working groups have not been able
to do much because of some logistic problems
4.2 Support SCP activities undertaken by SEP received from
Global / International facilities
None has been received so far.
4.2.1 Additional support required
§
More finance to train staff and implement projects
3.1.1 Additional Support Required
§
Federal government should stick to their own terms of
reference in the SCP agreement.
§
National Planning Commission and the UNDP should attract
more funds from donor agencies into the country for the
implementing cities.
§
Federal Government should give directives to all the states
in the country to introduce and back-up SCP activities in the
country.
4.3 Environmental issues raised through SCP Local activities
that required Global action
i) Waste issue
§
Construction of the in organic fertilizer plant as proposed
§
Sinking of boreholes in those areas mentioned earlier
§
Harnessing of the spring water
3.2 Urban Governance
The little EPM approach used so far in the city showed that there
is improvement in those areas.
15
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
National Experience of Sustainable Cities
Max Kep – Chairman for National Consultative Committee on Urbanization & Director Office of Urbanization, Department for
Community Development.
Elais Master – Director Lands, Department for Lands and Physical Planning
Riechert Tanda – Senior Aid Co-ordinator Officer, UNDP Desk Aid Co-ordination & Management Division, Department of National
Planning and Rural Development
Islands Provinces respectively instead of Rabaul. The Township
of Rabaul was destroyed during a 1994 volcanic eruption. The
township will continue to be under threat by the surrounding
active volcanoes in the future hence the relocation to Kokopo.
Innovations
Developing Capacity building through Sister City
programme
For some years now that the sister city programmes have been
established between three cities in PNG, namely Port Moresby,
Lae and Mt. Hagen and their corresponding partner cities in
Australia, which includes, Townsville, Cairns, and Orange city
respectively.
Addressing Urban Management and improving shelter
planning
The areas of concentration from UNHABITAT and the World
Bank have been Financial assistance, preparation of Physical
Development Plans, Development of Infrastructure services and
administrative capacity building. A number of technical advisors
from the international donor agencies were deployed under the
newly established Gazelle Restoration Authority (GRA), which
was set up purposely to restore what was destroyed during
volcanic destruction, but on a different location at Kokopo.
The sister city main programmes involves the Sister City
Councils to work out a programme upon which the Australian
City Councils can assist its PNG counterpart in building capacity
in the areas of administration, human resources, information
technology and planning.
GRA has become the implementing agency for both National and
Provincial government reconstruction programmes for relocation
of administration and other urban activities from Rabaul to
Kokopo.
Part of this strategy is the case of the National District
Commission of Port Moresby a four-year term ‘Project Hetura’
currently being implemented. The project Hetura is in its third
year of implementation with the initial seven (7) modules.
However, the focus now is in one area (Regulatory Services
Department) comprised of four (4) modules, which include;
§
Module. 1. Organizational structure
§
Module .2. Policy formulation
§
Module .3. Information technology
§
Module .4. Human Resources
The implementation of these modules aimed developing
capacities for physical planning development.
Other additional work activities which the international
programme has assisted through UN – HABITAT and World
Bank include preparation of a number of development plans, onthe – job staff training and involvement in planning and a
construction of a civic and commercial centre at Kokopo.
After a decade of collective efforts from within the country and
the involvement of the international programmes, the
implementation process of the restoration of an urban centre
destroyed by volcanic eruption is so far progressing smoothly.
One can recall a series of discussions over a number of projects
in mid 1980s between Un-HABITAT and World Bank and PNG,
regarding especially the self help housing, settlement upgrading
and urban subdivision design. The cost recovery was a
component on the agenda for discussion and implementation,
which the World Bank was interested in.
Introducing Public Private Partnerships through ‘Safer City
of Port Moresby” programme.
Also, with the National Capital District Commission of Port
Moresby a Programme for ‘Safer City of Port Moresby’ has been
completed in its first phase with technical and financial support
from UN – HABITAT.
Addresing urban planning issues
In respect of the cities of Lae and Mt. Hagen good will,
understanding, and exchange of visits have been established
between their counterpart sister cities of Cairns and Orange. No
other major programmes have been carried out recently except
for the preparation of an Urban Development Plan in the case of
Mt. Hagen. The Mt. Hagen Urban District Development is
jointly being prepared by Orange City Council, Mount Hagen
City Council and the Physical Planning Division of the
Department of Lands and Physical Planning. On a lesser extend,
short-term visit and training programmes have been part of the
sister city arrangement for all the affected cities in PNG.
In the case of Kokopo in East New Britain Province an urban
development plan has been prepared in the last decade with
financial and technical assistance input from the World Bank.
Kokopo is developed as the alternative provincial and regional
urban centre for East New Britain Province and New Guinea
A number of projects were identified especially in the North
Coast part of the country which was initiated as pilot projects
under a joint UN- HABITAT, World Bank and PNG
Government. Sites inclusive of Buko (Bumbu) Settlement in Lae,
Meiro Settlement in Madang and Kreer village Settlement in
Wewak were selected for pioneering the urban settlement
improvement programmes in the country.
At the National Level these projects were coordinated through
the National Housing Commission (now the National Housing
Corporation), which was responsible for implementing
government policy on self-help housing and settlement upgrading
programmes, whilst Physical Planning Authority, was responsible
for Physical Development Plans and urban subdivision standards.
16
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Some of the PNG’s urbanization problems can be regarded as
unique compared to cities in many other countries in the world. It
is unique because of its land tenure system, which comprised
only 3% of the country’s total landmass to be state land. The rest
of the 97% of land remains under customary ownership and is
owned by the ten thousand plus tribes in PNG.
National factors that have facilitated and/or
obstructed new approaches to improve urban
management in PNG
PNG being the largest Developing Nation in the South Pacific
area has been capturing the interest of UN-HABITAT for quite
sometime. But there has been little involvement through any
direct or major international programme to assist PNG in the area
of urban management.
Perhaps the second major difference of PNG’s urbanization
problem to other counties of the world, which makes it unique, is
that urbanization expansion has to cover land, which is owned by
many different tribes and cultures. It is both difficult and time
consuming to derive suitable policy and legal framework towards
registration, release and development of urban customary land,
let alone the technical problem relating to the application of
Physical Planning policy, zoning and standards subdivision
design.
These projects described above yielded both success and failure.
Only Kreer Village Project was completed, but Buko and Meiro
were never completed. Even Kreer village project at its
completion stage would not be considered as a complete success,
since in some areas infrastructure services have not been
provided as planned and to some ext ent land allocation was
properly managed. But the failure cannot be blamed on any one
of the particular stakeholders. Each of the main players had a part
to contribute towards the overall failure such as understanding
first, the programme they are to work on, and second, their
individual capacity to handle the programme and thirdly, the
environment where the programme is located.
Due to the ongoing claims of land compensation by customary
landowners over urban land, which have been purchased by
colonial government in the past, most of the claims are still
outstanding. The likely hood of releasing more customary land to
government at this stage is almost non negotiable. The problem
of managing urbanization in PNG would even increase when the
urban population at its present 4.5% growth rate would yield
about 2 million people living in urban areas by 2020.
In a developing country like Paua New Guinea, international
programme especially in respect of housing, social services, and
economic investment would always be welcomed with open
arms. But we often fail to meet our share of the contribution, in
terms of political will, financial commitment and capacity
building.
The thirty years of neglect by the government in not
appropriately addressing urbanization issues, has done injustice
to proper urban growth in PNG. Its worst picture is that the thirty
years of neglect has brought to surface accumulated urban
problems inclusive of unplanned settlements, poor infrastructure
services, squatting, illegal development, and the associated
social, economic and environmental problems which require
urgent attention by the government.
Listed below are some of the pointers, which could be seen as
obstacles towards proper implementation of International
Programme for managing urbanization in Papua New Guinea.
§
International technical expertise lacking adequate
understanding of the local environment, culture and attitudes
of people especially with regard to introducing new
concepts.
§
The question of costs of development and the cost recovery
component, the question of who pays what? What is the
affordability limit of the urban poor as an alternative to what
they have been accustomed to in the past etc are important.
§
Resistance against urban design standards. So often-urban
subdivision design standards are geared towards meeting the
economic cost and seem to neglect the social and
environmental aspects.
§
Lack of understanding by the parties concerned on suitable
land tenure system and the appropriate legal framework.
§
Lack of commitment by the respective country’s National
Government by means of political will and financial support
in order to operate the intended programme successfully.
§
Lack of capacity by the responsible national government
agencies.
§
Lack of full participation by the stakeholders (and especially
customary landowners and settlers).
§
Lack of understanding on the part of the National
Government on the intention and outcomes of the
International Urban Management Programme.
§
Lack of consultation and information dissemination of the
International Urban Management Programmes and what it
intends to do.
§
The question of ownership of the programme. Who owns it?
The UN-HABITAT or World Bank, or the Government of
PNG; or the Government agencies or the settlers or the
customary landowners?
The PNG’s urbanization problems are no longer a matter for
Physical Planners, urban administrators and of the bureaucrats,
but its urgency is to be considered as sensitive and grave concern
to the security of national development. Therefore, in order for
the government to address the outstanding urbanization problems
and bring urbanization process back to its manageable level, its
commitment in respect of financial support and strong political
will has to be a priority.
Aspects of SCP, which can contribute to
overcome difficulties or facilitate the process
of improving urban management in PNG
The International Agency whose intended programmes are
consistent with that of SCP agenda and has captured the
participation of a number of Local Level Governments, these
programmes are running well and achieving their purpose. The
common terms used for the International programme in PNG are
sister city (or Partner City), capacity Building (or Building
Capacity) and Corporate Planing or Corporatisation. Those terms
are modern global terms, which have originated from the
International Programme, that are intended to assist the Local
Level Governments or City Governments, particularly in
developing countries in improving their performance in
managing urbanization.
The global terms such as Capacity Building, Partner City,
Corporate Planning and Management have become buzz phrases
in PNG today. The introduction of international programme to
PNG through especially the UN Habitat, World Bank and
17
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
AUSAID have been received warmly by the National
Government and its other tier level of governments. The
International programmes are introduced and implemented under
mutual agreement and understanding between either the two
partner cities or the Government of PNG and the International
programme authority.
The National Capital District is the only City, which is
independent and is currently in charge of its city planning and
management. Apart from the problems of management of funds,
giving priority to right programmes and projects, the
management of Urbanization in NCD is progressing on well.
Both the past and current phases of ‘Project Hetura’ have given
further boost to improving the management of NCD
administration and urbanization today.
An example of an International Programme introduced at
National Level was the attempt to improve capacity building in
Physical Planing function in Mid 1980’s, under the World Bank
Programme for the Land Mobilization Programme (LMP) of the
Department of Lands and Physical Planning, was not successful.
The main reason for the failure was that Physical Planning sector
(where urbanization function was and is part of) was not properly
addressed and was given low recognition under LMP. The
capacity building for Physical Planning and urbanization at the
national level was not and still not a priority of national
government departments even now. Also, an attempt to improve
the performance of the Department of Lands and Physical
Planning under LMP on institutional strengthening and structural
change did not achieve its ultimate purpose.
There is a strong indication that the current ‘Project Hetura; in
the National Capital District will continue to improve with the
amount of effort currently provided under the sister (or partner)
city arrangement, together with the practice of good governance
principle by the National Capital District Commission Board and
its administration.
The failure of the past urbanization policies (namely White Paper
on Self Help Housing, 1975 and Managing Urbanization in Papua
New Guinea, 1977) has been due mainly to the many changes to
the governments through the vote of no confidence, and the
changes in government departments and the respective functional
responsibilities, especially the department which accommodates
the urbanization function. Other reasons for the failure in
implementation of past policies are lack of political will, and
government commitment on urbanization, and including lack of
clearly defined mechanisms to implement the policies.
Although the current Physical Planning Act has powers which
can be decentralised to the provinces and Local Level
Government, and such powers cover urban areas and
urbanization process, Local Authorities have not taken
urbanization mandate up until now.
Therefore, SCP with its good intention in building capacity,
would assist overcome this difficulty through councils by
establishing appropriate framework where by urbanization and its
management become the function of city government. For
example, the National Capital District Commission since 1998
has assumed the powers and function of Physical Planning, and is
now in the process of managing its entire urbanization.
The outlook of the current urbanization policies, under
preparation is very promising, mainly because there is certainty
of political will and government commitment at the present time.
In addition, the government has established both the Ministerial
Committee on Urbanization (MUC) and National Consultative
Committee on Urbanization (NCCU) 2005, which ensure that the
NUP is prepared and aligned with the overall vision of
urbanization process for PNG. In addition, the Office of
Urbanization was also established in 2003, whose main function
is to provide technical and administrative support for the policy
formulation and implementation.
Apart from the National Urbanization Policy, the next important
mainstreaming innovation at National Level is the preparation of
a National Urbanization Plan, which will cover all urban centres
in PNG. The National Urbanization Plan will become the
principle catalyst for implementation of the National
Urbanization Policy in the spatial development sectors.
These political and administrative frameworks as established now
are in fact assuring the seriousness in commitment of the national
government to deal with urbanization. The task of its bureaucratic
machinery is not only in tackling the urbanization issue, but more
so strategising on how to manage it as well. A strong political
stand and effective administrative framework advocating proper
management of urbanization at national level will provide
stimulus for city governments to adopt and appropriately
implement the urbanization policy at their level.
Also, the NUPLAN will provide a framework for the evaluation
of suitable locations for both public and private investment.
The NUPLAN will provide a framework upon which city master
plan, which can be developed, to give future direction to the
growth of the city, and at the same time allows city authorities to
formulate programmes and strategies toward managing
urbanization.
Whilst the National Urbanization Policy for PNG is still under
preparation, the recent National Executive Council approval of
the eight Directives of Decision No. 11/2005 give a green light
through its endorsement of the Interim Policy Statement. This
allows NCCU to begin the consultation and awareness process on
the progress of the policy starting first with the Parliamentarians
is a promising sign of support by the government. The
consultation that took place in March this year showed that the
Parliamentarians are very much concerned about urbanization
problems, which are affecting the country and are waiting to
contribute towards not only the policy preparation but its
implementation as well.
The new changes under the NUPLAN indeed integrates and
provides understanding between national government and city
governments of their respective contribution toward developing
and managing urbanization in the country.
Comparison of past city management with the
new concept of sustainable city programme.
Cities and towns in PNG, apart from the National Capital
District, have not been solely responsible for their development
planning, administration, generating revenues and carrying out
civil works. For this reason it is difficult to compare past
performance with the present.
This year NCCU had presented the NUP at three of the four
Regional Development Forums programmed for this year. These
regional forums were organised by the Government Consultative
18
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Implementation Monitoring Council (CIMC), which provided for
participatory and information sharing interaction between
National, Provincial and Local level Government on the issues of
National Development Planning, the Budget (Development Fund
and Recurrent) etc and urbanization. The forum captured a wide
range of representatives from all three levels of governments,
politicians, private entrepreneurs, academics, traditional
landowners, grassroots, squatters, and gender issue. This is the
right forum for both dissemination of information and receiving
suggestions, ideas, etc towards formulation of the NUP
contribution on the issue of urbanization. The participatory
approach in formulating an important policy such as NUP has
been very good. The National Urbanization Policy presentation at
Madang early this month captured a lot of interest and the
audience contributed very well. It is hoped that the last of these
series of Regional Development Forums, which will be held at
Kokopo in East New Province in early July this year will be
better still. The areas of focus advocated by SCP, which are along
the line of participatory approach, sharing of information,
innovation etc, have been practiced during these series of forums.
broad range of issues and these are categorized under the
following major sectors;
• Population and Employment
• Transportation and Infrastructure
• Urban Forms and Environment
• Land Availability
• Housing and Social Issues
• Law and Order
• Development Administration (Good Urban Governance)
These seven vital issues are the major components of the
urbanization issues that are often addressed all around the globe.
PNG is not an exception and in order to achieve each issue
systematically, the policy also outlines relevant strategies such
as;
• Urban Development Plan
• Settlement Upgrading Program
• Housing Site and Social Services
• Customary Land Release and Development
Urban Social Charter is a part of the National Urbanization
Policy which advocates the rights and responsibilities of urban
dwellers
Involvement of national actors in the
international debates on global agendas
A.2 The Mid-Term Development Strategies (MTDS)
Papua New Guinea is working closely with several international
organizations to build a secure and prosperous nation by
attempting to focus on some of the Global Millennium Goals.
Thus, in the year 2000, the Government of Papua New Guinea in
its national policies and programs have either directly or
indirectly pledge to achieve some of these global issues which
includes;
a). Urban Issues
b). Environmental Issues
c). Poverty Reduction and,
e). Sustainability
The MTDs is regarded as the road-map that guides the National
Government Priorities into national development. Nearly all
Government’s resources including the donor funding are directed
towards achieving these. The major objective of the National
Government is;
• Good Governance,
• Rural Development, Poverty Reduction and Human Resource
Development
• Export Driven Economic Growth
The Government of Papua New Guinea has also taken into
consideration the importance of Global issues such as good
governance and poverty reduction and has included these in its
MTDS. The MTDS sets 7 priority areas and Urbanization is one
of these which the National Government is serious to achieve its
objectives.
(A) Urban Issues
A.1 National Urbanization Policy
Nearly all urban centres of Papua New Guinea were once being
used as administrative centres by the former colonizers. After
independence, these centres are regarded as the towns and cities
and used for trade, business, education, politics and so forth. The
urbanization issues in PNG are similar to many other Developing
Nations of the Pacific, where much of its social, political and
economic structures reflect those of the colonial legacies with the
mixture of the existing social and cultural practices of the PNG
societies.
A.3 Other Recent Developments of Government Policies and/
Strategies
The National Government from the year 2000-2005 has
developed various policies and strategies as well as programs for
the new millennium of which some are related to urbanization
and are outlined below.
Therefore most of the urbanization issue have been neglected and
were never being addressed prop erly at the national level in terms
of policy directives. Until in 2000, a Special Parliamentary
Committee on Urbanization and Social Development was
established to address this issue. Following this, the Ministerial
Urbanization Committee (MUC) and the National Consultative
Committee on Urbanization (NCCU) were established to develop
the National Urbanization Policy.
Population Policy
Rapid population growth is a pressing issue that the National
Government attempts to control. The National government in
collaboration with the international partners has developed
various strategies to stabilize this increase. One of the main
approaches is the development of the National Population Policy
(2000 – 2010). The policy aims to guide PNG into the first
decade of the 21st century on the population issue. The policy
also focuses on various issues that are associated with population
growth such as employment, education, health and so forth. Some
of the main focus of the policy includes;
§
Improving the quality of life
§
Absorption of labour force
§
Improve reproductive health services
§
Reduction of infant and child mortality
The proposed Urbanization Policy addresses the current social,
economic and the environmental problems related to the towns
and cities of Papua New Guinea. Its primary focus is to ensure
urban benefits spread to all communities and to promote all urban
centres as Engines for Nation’s Development. The policy cover
19
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
§
§
§
Balance rural and urban development
Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Disease including
HIV/AIDS
Migration
Nearly all of these strategies are included in the Mid-Term
Development Strategy (2005-2010) and the National Government
is pooling its resources in achieving these objectives.
Urban poverty is sever, thus the urban authorities with the help
from the donors, the civil societies and the non-government
organizations have developed their own strategies to combat this
issue, one of this the formation of the Informal Sector Act.
On the basis of this policy the government addresses rapid urban
population growth and the mechanism for control.
The Review of the Law and Justice Sector in Papua New
Guinea in 2000 -2003.
This was one of the reviews by the major law and order agencies
in PNG. They include; the Royal Papua New Guinea
Constabulary, Correctional Services, the Department for Justice
and Attorney General, the National Judicial Systems and the
Judicial Staff Services. This review was purposely carried out to
identify opportunities to improve efficiency, effectiveness,
coordination and accountability in the agencies and across the
sector that deal with law and order issues.
Informal Sector Act
In 2003, the National Government in its attempt to promote urban
economy has implemented the Informal Sector Act. The main
purpose of this is to provide opportunities for the underprivileged
(unemployed and/ underemployed) to have equal opportunities to
part take in the urban opportunities and remain involved in the
economic activities. It also encourages local communities from
the urban peripheries to bring their local produce to sell at the
urban markets.
Urban Land Release for Development
One of the major urban issues is traditional land ownership of
urban prime land. In line with the National Urbanization Policy,
there is a new approach towards urban land registration and
release for development. A pilot project is proposed to be carr ied
in some selected cities/towns in PNG where traditional land
owners retain ownership to their land; however, the land is
released for urban development and expansion. This strategies
pens new avenues for local urban land owners to participate fully
with the urban development and there is much excitement among
urban landowners about the policy initiative.
Informal market activities is one of the recent Government
attempts which is in line with the MTDS. The purpose of this is
to trigger ht e private sector, including ordinary Papua New
Guineans in rural communities, to become productively engaged
in growing the economy, by harnessing the entrepreneurial spirit.
This would in a long run resolve many other social and economic
related problems of the urban population such as law and order
problems, urban poverty etc. In line with this, the government
also focuses on rural development in terms of agricultural
activities and improvement on transportation networks of the
country.
B. Environmental Issues
D Sustainability
Protection of the natural environment in PNG is a constitutional
obligation and is captured by the fourth National Goal and
Directives Principle of Natural Resources and Environment.
Ecologically sustainable development is a necessary condition to
ensure that PNG’s development policies are sustainable over the
long term and it is an explicit objective of the core development
strategy under the MTDS.
Sustainability is also an important issue in Papua New Guinea but
is rarely a new concept; for instance, sustainable development,
sustainable community, sustainable city, sustainable environment
and so forth. With the assistance from the international partners,
the National Government in various policy formulation and
strategies attempts to address sustainability, especially the quality
of life at the community level such as economic, social and
environmental systems that ensures healthy, productive, and
meaningful life.
In regard to the Global concern, Papua New Guinea being
recently introduced to the industrialized world, the environmental
issues such as biodiversity conversation, climate change,
prevention of global warming, protection of marine pollution and
so forth are not that severe like many Developed Nations.
However, the National Government with help from some
international organizations has developed strategies to address
some of the significant environmental issues.
However, due to the social and cultural complication and the
social and political scenario of the country, the progress of
sustainability is slow, but it requires sustained awareness to
address this issue in order to achieve the Global Millennium
Goal..
Type of support that is being received at
national level from global/international
facilities to implement the following global
agenda:
C. Poverty Reduction
Poverty is one of the major social constraints in the development
of Papua New Guinea. The National Government in collaboration
with several donor agents seriously attempted to address this
issue. In fact, poverty associates with other social and econom ic
factors such as population increase, law and order problems,
rural-urban economic activities and many other interrelated
factors. As such, the other policy and strategies such as Informal
Sector Act, the Government’s Export Driven Economy, Private
Sector-led Economic Growth, Resource Mobilization and
Alignment, and the recent “Green Revolution” effort by the
Prime Minister, Sir Michael are some of the current development
strategies that aim to alleviate poverty in the country.
Papua New Guinea has received various forms of assistance from
the international organizations in order to implement Global
agendas. Most of these include technical and financial assistance,
capacity building, international conferences and seminars,
expatriates, advisory and consultancy services and so forth.
A. Financial Assistance
Since independence, the National Government has received
substantial amount of financial assistance from the international
partners. PNG obtained assistance in the form loans, which the
20
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Government repays steadily over a period of time or in a form of
aid. Much of these are utilized in the developmental process.
A.1 Law and Order
Law and order being one of the major problem in this country,
not only in the urban but a nation wide issue it has, several
international donors have included in this.
As stated earlier, the funds are used according to the National
Government Budget priorities, which are set out in the MTDS.
Safer Port Moresby Initiative –This project was funded by the
UNDP and was executed by the UNHCS (HABITAT). This was
a city wide safer city initiative. It involves government, the
criminal and justice system, communities, NGOs, the private
sector and so forth. The initial stage involves the diagnosis of
insecurity in Port Moresby, results of the findings helps other
organizations such as Community Justice Liaison Unit to address
urban crime and violence in PNG.
A Technical Assistance
Technical assistance is also an important aid to PNG provided by
the international partners. Especially, in the social, political, and
economic sector such as agriculture, mining, industries and so
forth where expatriates are required. Papua New Guinea often
sought assistance from the international partners in order to
address most of the Global Issues.
C Capacity Building
Capacity building is one of the main priorities focused by most
international partners in terms of assistance. There are various
forms of capacity building, for instance, “learn by doing” is
where the national learn through the implementation of new
programs or projects by the recipient country. Other form of
capacity building is through research aboard, or taking up further
studies overseas. Also, foreign expatriates, volunteers and the
nationals conduct special training to embark special skills and
training that deemed necessary.
Australia Assisting Police – This is an initiative between the
Australia and the PNG government where the Australian Federal
Police assisted the PNG Royal constabulary to address crime in
the country. The AAP work along side with the PNG counter part
to address crime and lawlessness in the country.
Furthermore, capacity building programs are also provided in
terms of scholarship were many Papua New Guinea advance their
equational qualifications in their profession abroad.
Community Justice Liaison Unit - This funded by AusAid in
partnership with PNG Government. The program aims to involve
in crime prevention and restorative justice systems.
D International Conferences and Seminar
Papua New Guinea is a participant to many International
conference, seminars or meetings often held to discuss various
global issues. In such gatherings, PNG is recognized by other
international partners but most importantly, PNG gain its
assistance necessary to address global issues.
Guns Control - This is another recent major nationwide
awareness initiative taken by the National Government which
funded by the UNDP, the AusAID and the government of PNG.
It is related to gun smuggling which increases the illegal use of
firearms in the country.
AAP part of the Enhanced Cooperation Package, which is a 5year package of assistance will place personnel from a wide
range of Australian government agencies into positions within
key PNG agencies.
The Review of the Law and Justice Sector in Papua New
Guinea in 2000 -2003 –
This was funded by the AusAID.
F Expatriates advise and consulting services
After independence, PNG still maintains its relationship with the
international partners in terms of expatriate advice and consulting
services. International consulting services are often essential for
addressing global issues, In different fields, including
B Environmental Issue
UNDP is the UN’s global development network which advocates
nearly all the Millennium Development Goals in PNG. Currently
UNP is involved in addressing Energy and Environment for
Sustainable Development.
International organizations and their
involvement in Papua New Guinea
(references)
C Poverty Reduction
Several international donors address this issue either directly or
indirectly. Some of the major ones include JICA, UNDP,
AusAID, China, Thaiwan. Assistance are provided through
agricultural, Community development initiative, capacity
building programs and so forth.
The international organizations in partnership with PNG have
addressed the Global issues in many ways. Some of these
presented here below.
A Urban Issues
According to the Global Agenda regarding the urban issues, the
international partners, especially UN-HABIATAT, UNDP
AusAID and many others are involving in addressing the urban
issues, especially in the following areas;
D S ustainability
This is also a new areas where international organizations such as
JICA, UNDP, UN-HABIATA, AusAID, China, Thaiwan ect are
involved to various sustainable such as urban, agriculture,
environment and so forth.
Table 1: A summary indicating int ernational organizations that involved in assisting community groups, non-government organizations
(NGOs) and government agents.
International
Their involvement in PNG
Types of Activities Assisted
Organizations
1.
Head of Mission Direct
Aid Program (HOMAP)
•
Community
Groups
(women)
21
•
Development and self-help activities
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
International
Their involvement in PNG
Types of Activities Assisted
Organizations
2.
•
Community Groups, esp. women
•
Primary and Secondary education
•
Poverty Relief
•
Public Welfare
•
Environment. Population and HIV/AIDS
•
Basic Infrastructure
groups,
•
Improve living conditions eg. Water supply
women’s groups and youth
•
Generate some money for the community
groups
•
Improve health or skills levels
NGOs
•
Environmental projects in the areas of:
Facility Small Grants
•
Biodiversity conservation, Climate change
Program (GEF) UNDP
•
Prevention of Global Warming
•
Protection of international waters
•
Projects which aim to alleviate poverty through
British
High
•
NGOS, CBOs
•
Any
Commission (DFID)
3.
Japanese
Grant
Assistance
for
Grassroots
Program
non-profit
Organizations
(GGP)
4.
New
Zealand
Small
•
Project Funding
5.
6.
Global
Environment
Canada Fund
•
•
Community
Communities,
NGOs,
CBOs,
Health
and
improving access to health, family planning,
education institutions
nutrition, education, employment and decisionmaking.
7.
Japanese Empowerment
Program (JICA)
•
Volunteer
organizations,
•
Community Development
non-profit
organizations,
•
Elderly, disabled and child welfare Support
community
organizations,
•
Women’s empowerment
semi-government
•
Improvement of living environments
•
Capacity Building
•
Promotion of Local industries
NGOs,
organizations.
Australia’s funding mainly focuses on Governance, globalisation,
human capital, security and sustainable Resource Management.
UNDP also focuses at some areas which include reducing
poverty, democratic governance, crises prevention and recovery,
energy and environment for sustainable development and
responding to HIV/AIDS. Similarly, other international
organizations like ADB contributes significantly towards PNG
development.
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PERU
Experiencia nacional
Rosario Gómez
§
§
§
Objetivos
Informar sobre el avance de ambos programas en el Perú y su
contribución en la gestión urbana.
Los programas han promovido la integración de los actores
claves locales en la gestión urbano-ambiental y en la elaboración
de los presupuestos participativos. Para ello, se han diseñado
diversos mecanismos de participación (Cuadro No 1). Además,
la participación ciudadana ha sido mayor durante la década del
noventa a través de diversos mecanismos, por ejemplo, las juntas
de vecinos, los comités comunales o cabildos abiertos, entre
otros. Los diálogos han sido ricos en la discusión y provechosos
en los resultados, ya que no sólo han promovido el intercambio
de opiniones y recogido ideas y experiencias de problemas
comunes; sino que han contribuido a generar sinergias interinstitucionales en temas críticos y de urgente solución.
Brindar información sobre las actividades del PCS y A21L para
retroalimentar la evaluación de los programas PCS y A21L .
Para el logro de los objetivos propuestos se abordan tres temas:
§
Innovando
§
Integración de la innovación en el ámbito nacional
§
Integración de la innovación en el ámbito mundial
TEMA 1: Innovando
Contribución al logro de cambios positivos para enfrentar la
gestión urbano-ambiental.
Arequipa ha sido una de las ciudades más activas en procesos
participativos, ello ha facilitado la conducción de procesos
siguientes tal como: proyecto GEO Arequipa, entre otros.
Los programas PCS y A21L han contribuido en los siguientes
aspectos:
§
Integración de los actores locales
§
Facilitación de los procesos de planificación y gestión
urbano-ambiental
•
•
•
•
Desarrollo de capacidades y formación de líderes
Diseño de instrumentos para la prevención de desastres
Formación y consolidación de redes
La participación activa de los actores claves ha facilitado los
procesos de planificación y concertación. Aunque el avance aún
es lento.
Cuadro No 1
Mecanismos de incorporación de actores locales
Comités Ejecutivos Provinciales •
Directorio de los actores
•
Brigadas de ecologistas
de Medio Ambiente
•
Comité municipal
•
Comisiones mixtas
Comisiones Ambientales
•
Grupo promotor de la AL 21
•
Convocatoria de expertos en el
Regionales (CARs)
tema a través de alianzas
•
Entrevistas, encuestas y vínculos
Directorio de expertos
con profesionales relacionados a •
Firmas de convenios
Escuelas de líderes locales
los temas ambientales
•
Reuniones con especialistas
Fuente: UNHABITAT/Universidad del Pacífico (2004). Seminario La Experiencia Peruana en Planificación y Gestión Urbano-Ambiental.
El Consejo Nacional del Ambiente (CONAM) y os
l actores
locales están desarrollando tres experiencias piloto de apoyo a la
gestión ambiental integral, en Cotahuasi (Arequipa), Huarmey
(Ancash) y Tarapoto (San Martín). Las acciones que se impulsan
en las respectivas municipalidades son las siguientes: promover
el liderazgo del Alcalde, incorporar una visión descentralizada y
transectorial del ambiente, establecer una oficina ambiental
dependiente directamente de la alcaldía, implementar un enfoque
gerencial que permita una eficiente implementación de las
acciones, utilizar como herramienta la evaluación de impacto
ambiental y manejar de manera óptima la legislación ambiental .
diplomados) o seminarios en planeamiento y gestión urbanoambiental. Todos ellos orientados a desarrollar las capacidades
locales en los diversos temas de la gestión urbano ambiental local
(p.e. planeamiento urbano estratégico, uso de GIS, desarrollo
urbano sostenible, preparación y evaluación de riesgos, gestión y
administración del suelo urbano, liderazgo y manejo de conflictos
socio ambientales, entre otros).
Ello no sólo mejora las
capacidades profesionales y la destreza en el manejo de
instrumentos adecuados, sino que también genera un gran
compromiso de los profesionales para contribuir con la solución
de los problemas de su ciudad (p.e. Arequipa, Chiclayo,
Chimbote). Las ONG´s también han contribuido con el
desarrollo de capacidades para la gestión urbano ambiental
participativa
(Cuadro
No
2).
De otro lado, se ha promovido el desarrollo de las capacidades de
los líderes locales, lo cual se ha expresado en el establec imiento o
fortalecimiento de programas de postgrado (Maestrías o
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Cuadro No 2
Lima: Ejemplo de proyectos urbano-ambientales para desarrollar capacidades
Institución
Proyecto
Ámbito Geográfico
DESCO
Fortalecimiento de capacidades para la gestión urbana Cono
Sur
(Villa
El
participativa
Salvador)
Foro Ciudades para la Capacidades para construir sosteniblemente barrios y Villa
El
Salvador
y
Vida
viviendas populares
Chimbote
Sociedad Peruana de Programa de capacitación en gestión ambiental Lima Metropolitana y Callao
Derecho
Ambiental municipal
(SPDA)
Elaboración de diagnósticos ambientales locales
Fuente: PNUMA/CONAM/GEA (2005). GEO Lima y Callao
De otro lado, el Instituto Nacional de Defensa Civil (INDECI)
está ejecutando en el ámbito nacional el Programa de Ciudades
Sostenibles, primera etapa, en la cual se enfatiza en la seguridad
física de las ciudades. Dicho énfasis responde a que los efectos
producidos por fenómenos naturales y antrópicos pueden causar
pérdidas de magnitud que afectan la calidad de vida de la
población y limitan el desarrollo sostenible, si no se toman
medidas preventivas .
Este programa se enmarca en el Plan Nacional de Atención y
Prevención de Desastres, aprobado en el año 2004 genera un
conjunto de instrumentos claves para la toma de decisiones en los
ámbitos nacional, regional y local en el tema de prevención de
desastres. Entre los instrumentos se incluyen los siguientes:
mapa de peligros, plan de uso del suelo, propuestas de medidas
de mitigación ante desastres. El recuadro siguiente indica las
principales características y alcances del Programa de Ciudades
Sostenibles.
Programa Ciudades Sostenibles, primera etapa (PCS -1E)
Objetivos
ü Promover y orientar la prevención y mitigación de desastres en las ciudades, a través del crecimiento y
densificación de las mismas sobre zonas físicamente seguras.
ü Promover una cultura de prevención de desastres naturales.
Estrategia
ü Participación activa de todos los actores interesados en un desarrollo urbano seguro: gobiernos regionales,
locales, la población organizada, los sectores productivos y sociales, universidades, profesionales e
instituciones vinculadas con el terma.
ü Enfoque integral del problema.
Avances
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
En el PCS participan 103 ciudades y localidades de diferentes regiones del Perú.
87 de las cuales tienen mapa de peligros.
54 ciudades tienen planes de uso del suelo y medidas de mitigación ante desastres.
42 municipalidades han aprobado los estudios por ordenanza municipal y se encuentran en proceso de
implementación.
Se dispone de dos estudios de caso (Lambayeque y Huaráz).
Fuente: INDECI (2005). Programa Ciudades Sostenibles, primera etapa.
Finalmente, los PCS y A21L a través de los diversos proyectos y
actividades ejecutadas han promovido la construcción de redes,
lo cual ha facilitado el intercambio de información sobre
actividades en curso e información disponible, favoreciendo en
algunos casos, la identificación de proyectos institucionales de
común interés.
entre gobierno central, regional, local, población organizada,
ONG´s y sector empresarial es clave. En este proceso se
evidencia la participación de otros actores como sacerdotes,
periodistas, profesores, promotores de salud, entre otros, con un
rol clave en la formación de opinión pública local. Como
resultado de esta interacción, en algunos casos se han constituido
instancias para enfrentar problemas ambientales y de salud.
Factores nacionales que facilitan u obstaculizan los cambios
El liderazgo local permite optimizar el uso de los recursos
escasos y reducir los factores de riesgo en la gestión urbanoambiental. Dichos liderazgos pueden ser institucionales o
individuales, pero se requiere que alguien facilite la coordinación
entre los actores. Además el líder propone y prioriza planes y
acciones
.
Los factores que facilitan experiencias exitosas son
principalmente de carácter local, tales como: voluntad política y
activa participación de la autoridad local (p.e. San Marcos, Ilo);
liderazgo local y estable y capacidad local para manejar procesos
de concertación y negociación. La interacción positiva efectiva
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Arequipa: Participación en instancias de toma de decisionesEn diciembre del 2003, por mandato de la ley de municipalidades, se conformó el
Consejo de Coordinación Local Provincial. Dicho Consejo está integrado por autoridades municipales y por los representantes de las
organizaciones de base. Las funciones del Consejo son: coordinar y concertar el Plan de Desarrollo Municipal Provincial Concert ado y
Presupuesto Participativo Provincial, así como proponer prioridades en las inversiones y proyectos.
Fuente: PNUMA/Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa/Labor (2005). GEO Arequipa.
De otro lado, la elaboración participativa de planes de desarrollo
urbano ambiental, basados en estudios que determinan la
viabilidad de las acciones prioritarias, es un factor clave en el
éxito de la experiencia. Aquellos planes que responden a
necesidades de la comunidad, que establecen objetivos, metas,
responsabilidades, financiamiento, cronograma de ejecución y
mecanismos de monitoreo y evaluación, promueven proyectos
exitosos y replicables .
para la realización de determinadas actividades; sin embargo, los
sectores son los responsables de la normativa y de la fiscalización
En cuanto a los factores del ámbito nacional, cabe destacar que a
partir del año 2002 se inició un proceso de descentralización. En
dicho contexto, se han promulgado un conjunto de dispositivos
que demandan una planificación y gestión urbano-ambiental
efectiva y eficiente. Entre los principales se tienen los siguientes:
§
Ley de bases de descentralización (2002)
§
Ley orgánica de gobiernos regionales y su modificatoria
(2002), en la cual se regula la participación de los alcaldes
provinciales y la sociedad civil en los gobiernos regionales.
§
Ley orgánica de Municipalidades (2003). Establece que
corresponde a las municipalidades planificar, ejecutar e
impulsar el conjunto de acciones destinadas a proporcionar
al ciudadano el ambiente adecuado para la satisfacción de
sus necesidades vitales de vivienda, salubridad,
abastecimiento, recreación, transportes y comunicaciones.
Asimismo, señala que las Municipalidades son responsables
del acondicionamiento territorial dentro de su jurisdicción
debiendo regular el uso de la tierra y el establecimiento de
áreas urbanas.
§
Ley del sistema de acreditación de los gobiernos locales
(2004). Referida a la capacitación, asistencia técnica y
normas para determinar la capacidad de los gobiernos
regionales y locales para recibir y ejercer la funciones
materia de la transferencia y asumir competencias,
funciones, atribuciones y recursos. También establece entre
sus funciones la implementación de un sistema de
información para la gestión pública descentralizada; la
certificación del efectivo funcionamiento de las juntas de
coordinación interregional entre gobiernos regionales para
materialización
de
acuerdos
de
articulación
macrorregionales, entre otras.
En este sentido, si bien hay iniciativas de coordinación
interinstitucional en determinados temas (p.e. Iniciativa de Aire
Limpio), el proceso es lento.
De otro lado, un aspecto que limita el avance de los cambios son
los limitados recursos humanos en la función pública con
capacidades para la formulación y evaluación de proyectos. Hoy
en día en varias regiones los recursos asignados a inversiones
quedan sin uso por dicha debilidad .
Mecanismos creados para mejorar desde el nivel nacional el
proceso de cambio en el ámbito local
Entre los mecanismos creados para mejorar el proceso de cambio
en el ámbito regional y local se tienen los siguientes:
§
Sistema Regional de Gestión Ambiental (2003): tiene como
objetivo guiar la gestión ambiental regional. En este
sentido, orienta, integra, coordina, supervisa, evalúa y
garantiza la aplicación de las políticas, planes, programas y
acciones destinadas a la protección del medio ambiente y
contribuir con la conservación y aprovechamiento de los
recursos naturales en las regiones.
§
Sistema Local de Gestión Ambiental (2003): tiene por
finalidad desarrollar, implementar, revisar y corregir la
política ambiental local y las normas que regulan su
organización y funciones, guiando la gestión de la calidad
ambiental, el aprovechamiento sostenible y la conservación
de los recursos naturales, procurando el mayor bienestar de
la población local. Busca fortalecer la participación de las
municipalidades, los vecinos y demás gestores del desarrollo
local, a través del establecimiento de políticas e
instrumentos de gestión. Con la finalidad de facilitar a los
gobiernos locales la implementación de este sistema, el
CONAM ha desarrollado una Guía, la cual se encuentra en
proceso de validación y consulta pública.
La implementación de estos sistemas es gradual, considerando
que son relativamente recientes y se dan en un proceso de cambio
inducido por el proceso de descentralización.
En cuanto a los factores que limitan el avance de los cambios, se
encuentra la sectorialización, la cual es una característica de la
institucionalidad urbano-ambiental en el país. Ello se traduce en
conflictos
de
competencias,
limitada
coordinación
interinstitucional, información de acceso limitado, uso limitado
de criterios transparentes y difundidos para la priorización de
proyectos y la asignación de recursos.
Para hacer efectivos estos instrumentos en los diferentes ámbitos
se requiere de una coordinación interinstitucional efectiva y
eficiente, capacidades multidisciplinarias y sistemas de
información completos y actualizados.
Documentación y difusión
Por ejemplo, una de las limitaciones que enfrenta el gobierno
local es en el control de la calidad ambiental. En dicho tema, los
ministerios de cada sector son los que toman las medidas
pertinentes y no las municipalidades, pese a que los
establecimientos que afectan la calidad ambiental se encuentren
en el ámbito geográfico del gobierno local. Además, los Estudios
de Impacto Ambiental (EIA’s) han sido incorporados como
instrumentos de gestión ambiental en los municipios, exigidos
Las innovaciones impulsadas por el proyecto PCS-.A21L si bien
han sido debidamente documentadas en reportes y en varios
casos difundidas a través de foros, seminarios; son relativamente
escasos los libros y publicaciones impresas.
Este hecho sugiere que los proyectos futuros de los dos
p rogramas en referencia, tengan asociada una estrategia de
difusión y evaluación de impacto, lo cual permita extraer
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
lecciones aprendidas del proceso y que dichos resultados sean de
fácil acceso en diferentes presentaciones (p.e. libros, CD´s,
versión electrónica).
Además, es urgente mejorar la normatividad, ello implica
identificar inconsistencias, vacíos y superposiciones y realizar los
ajustes necesarios. Finalmente, es necesario establecer un
sistema objetivo de evaluación y promoción de la carrera pública
que permita estabilidad a los funcionarios con desempeño
destacado.
TEMA 2: Integración de la innovación en el
ámbito nacional
Las innovaciones son utilizadas para desarrollar
perfeccionar la política y estrategias nacionales
Uso de las innovaciones por parte del sector académico para
desarrollar y perfeccionar la currícula educativa
y
El sector académico ha respondido a las demandas de
competencias en planificación y gestión urbano-ambiental
desarrollando programas de especialización (Maestrías,
diplomados, seminarios). Además, tanto en el diseño como en el
desarrollo de estos programas, en varios casos, han participado
los actores que participaron en los proyectos de PCS o A21L.
Los procesos promovidos a partir del proyecto PCS-A21L han
permitido
desarrollar
capital
humano
especializado,
identificación de temas prioritarios, redes, lo cual contribuye a
perfeccionar la política y estrategias nacionales. A continuación
se indican, a modo de ejemplo, algunos campos de aplicación de
dichos procesos:
§
§
§
§
§
§
De esta manera, se ha transferido la experiencia profesional
adquirida al ámbito académ ico para su sistematización y difusión
(p.e. elaboración y discusión de casos), así como para hacer los
cambios metodológicos necesarios que permitan formar
profesionales con criterio para la toma decisiones en gestión
urbano-ambiental, capacidad de diseño e implementación en el
uso de instrumentos de gestión.
Acuerdo Nacional (2002): documento de orientador de la
política nacional suscrito por los representantes de los
diversos sectores político, económico, social y ambiental del
país. Las políticas 8 (descentralización política, económica
y administrativa para propiciar el desarrollo integral,
armónico y sostenible en el Perú y 19 (desarrollo sostenible
y gestión ambiental) señalan un mandato de liderar una
gestión pública eficiente y transparente con mecanismos de
coordinación en los diversos ámbitos de gobierno (nacional,
regional y local), donde la dimensión ambiental se maneje
de manera transversal.
Estrategia Nacional para la Competitividad (2005):
documento en elaboración de manera participativa bajo el
liderazgo del Consejo Nacional de Competitividad. En esta
oportunidad, a diferencia de la Estrategia de Competitividad
formulada en el año 2003, se ha incluido el tema ambiental.
Este tema no sólo se trabaja en la mesa ambiental sino que
se ha articulado con otras mesas (p.e. institucionalidad,
articulación empresarial, entre otras).
Sistema Nacional de Gestión ambiental (2004): señala los
alcances de las funciones ambientales en los ámbitos
regional y local.
üPlan Nacional de Atención y Prevención de Desastres
(2004). resultado de los primeros aportes del proyecto
Ciudades Sostenibles en Lambayeque y Huaraz.
Las Comisiones Ambientales Regionales (CAR) han
capitalizado los liderazgos locales desarrollados en el marco
de los proyecto PCS-A21L. Los actores locales que
participan en dichas Comisiones tienen un alto grado de
compromiso para aportar en la mejora de la gestión urbanoambiental.
Proyecto Estrategia de Lucha contra la Pobreza en Lima
Metropolitana (2004), financiado por el Banco Mundial para
la Municipalidad Metropolitana de Lima. Este proyecto
tuvo como objetivo identificar ideas de proyecto para
reducir la pobreza a partir de la solución de los principales
problemas de la ciudad. El proyecto incluyó un capítulo
ambiental.
En qué medida las innovaciones han sido incorporadas en
otros sectores de actividad.
Las innovaciones se van incorporando gradualmente en otros
sectores. Por ejemplo, el sector educación, en materia de
educación ambiental ha definido un enfoque de emprendimientos
sostenibles, el cual se difunde a partir del proyecto Escuelas
Saludables. El enfoque emprendedor promueve la formación de
líderes para identificar oportunidades de negocio que aseguren
rentabilidad, impactos sociales favorables y promoviendo el uso
eficiente de los recursos naturales y la conservación del
ambiente.
Si bien el proceso de incorporación es lento, los sectores
productivos y los gremios van instalando unidades de gestión
ambiental integral, comités de gestión ambiental, entre otros, para
un mejor diseño e implementación de sus políticas y medidas.
TEMA 3: Integración de la innovación a nivel
mundial
Relación entre las actividades nacionales de los programas
PCS y A21L y las Agendas Mundiales.
Los proyectos y actividades promovidos por PCS y A21L
guardan estrecha relación con la agenda mundial en el tema. Por
ejemplo, el proyecto GEO Ciudades (PNUMA) capitalizó los
liderazgos y capacidades locales. En el Perú, se están realizando
tres informes GEO Ciudad (Arequipa, Lima y Callao y
Chiclayo), a diferencia de otras ciudades latinoamericanas donde
por lo general se realiza solo un estudio.
Reformas necesarias en el campo de la gobernabilidad para
integrar los cambios en l a gestión urbano-ambiental local
A su vez, el Plan Nacional de Atención y Prevención de
Desastres se enmarca en la agenda mundial que enfatiza en el
desarrollo de ciudades seguras y sostenibles.
La incorporación de las innovaciones, de las propuestas exige de
una decidida voluntad política para realizar una reingeniería
institucional en el aparato público que facilite una gestión pública
eficiente, transparente y efectiva. Ello implica rediseñar y
armonizar las competencias, funciones y atribuciones urbanoambientales, tanto territoriales como sectoriales.
Finalmente, en el Perú se va a implementar la estrategia regional
de apoyo a la planificación y gestión urbano-ambiental, la cual
responde a la alianza entre PNUMA y UNHABIT AT. Ello es un
ejemplo del paso adelante que se da, en el proceso de hacer
26
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
transversal el tema ambiental y efectivizar el enfoque integral en
el desarrollo urbano.
PNUMA/CONAM/GEA (2005). GEO Lima y Callao. Lima:
PNUMA/GEA.
Bibliografía
PNUMA/CONAM/Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa/Labor
(2005). GEO Arequipa. Arequipa: PNUMA/Municipalidad
Provincial de Arequipa.
CONAM (2001). Informe sobre el Estado del Medio Ambiente,
GEO Perú, 2000. Lima: CONAM-PNUMA.
UNHABITAT/CIUP (2004). Seminario La Experiencia Peruana
en Planificación y Gestión Urbano-Ambiental.
Lima:
UNHABITAT/CIUP.
INDECI (2004). Programa Ciudades Sostenibles, primera etapa.
Lima: INDECI.
Miranda, Liliana (ed.) (1996).
Ciudades para la Vida,
experiencias exitosas y propuestas para la acción. Lima: DGISIpadel, IHS, PROA-PGU.
Páginas web
Municipalidad Metropolitana de Lima (2004). Estrategia de
Lucha contra la Pobreza en Lima Metropolitana. Tema: Medio
ambiente. Lima: Banco Mundial.
www.unsa.edu.pe
www.conam.gob.pe
www.indeci.gob.pe
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
AREQUIPA , PERÚ
Proyecto GEO-Agenda 21 Local de Arequipa
TEMA 1: Innovando
§
Contribuciones de los Programas de PCS y A21L a la Gestión
Urbana Ambiental de la ciudad
§
En Arequipa, los programas A21L y PCS han contribuido con un
nuevo enfoque para enfrentar la planificación y gestión urbana
ambiental de la ciudad.
§
§
Hacia fines de la década de los ´90, Arequipa se incorpora al
proceso de Agenda 21 Local como resultado de la acción de
líderes locales, instituciones y ciudadanos, frente a los problemas
ambientales de la ciudad. Se inicia una nueva forma de
identificación de las autoridades locales y la población con su
ciudad, se promueve la implementación de proyectos de gestión
ambiental en los procesos de desarrollo local. Así, en el marco de
la A21L se dieron innovaciones tales como:
En la Planificación del Desarrollo de la ciudad: se elaboró y
aprobó el Plan Estratégico de Arequipa Metropolitana y el Plan
Director de Arequipa Metropolitana.
En la Gestión Urbana Ambiental: a partir de la A21L se
priorizaron programas y líneas de acción referidas a la
descontaminación atmosférica, el manejo integral de las áreas
verdes, la recuperación del río Chili y la gestión de residuos
sólidos; que, progresivamente han ido formando parte de la
agenda de la ciudad.
En la Institucionalidad de la Gestión Ambiental: En 1999 se creó
la Comisión de Gestión Ambiental como instancia técnica
consultiva por la administración municipal, que impulsó los
procesos de A21L; en el 2003, se institucionaliza formalmente
mediante la creación de la Dirección de Gestión Ambiental y en
el 2004 se crea la Sub Gerencia de Gestión Ambiental, que forma
parte de la estructura orgánica de la Municipalidad Provincial de
Arequipa y, por tanto se le asigna personal y presupuesto.
§
(2003-2006) se dio continuidad a las mismas y además se
está implementando programas y proyectos.
Nuevas normas en los niveles nacional, regional y local que
promueven la participación ciudadana en los presupuestos
participativos, consejos de coordinación local y regional.
El interés de organizaciones públicas y privadas para
promover y difundir la problemática ambiental.
La capacitación profesional a través de estudios de post
grado en planificación y gestión ambiental y otros afines.
A pesar de ser escasos los espacios de concertación y
participación ciudadana, de carácter formal o voluntario,
estos han contribuido a ejercer presión sobre las autoridades
para asumir actitudes de cambio.
Las campañas de difusión y sensibilización han logrado que
la población tenga un mayor conocimiento de los problemas
ambientales,
Obstáculos:
§
La dimensión ambiental aún no encuentra los mecanismos
para articularse al desarrollo integral de la ciudad.
§
Los compromisos de las instituciones locales muchas veces
se quedan en intenciones y generalmente son asumidos de
manera personal, es decir, que no reflejan necesariamente
los compromisos institucionales. Quizá sea la razón medular
por la que no se llega a concretar acciones significativas en
los procesos de gestión ambiental.
§
La mayor parte de las acciones se centran en políticas o
normas que generalmente se traducen en planes que todavía
no han logrado implementarse. Existe una gran distancia
entre la formulación de planes y la implementación de los
mismos. Una de las principales razones se debe al limitado
presupuesto que se destina a los proyectos ambientales.
§
La escasa articulación entre los diferentes planes de
desarrollo local, incluso con algunas contradicciones entre
sí.
§
Predominan visiones de corto plazo con exigencias de
resultados inmediatos que no necesariamente se integran a
una proyección de cambios progresivos de mediano y largo
plazo.
§
Conflictos de competencias expresadas en superposición de
funciones, inadecuada definición y vacíos de competencias
§
El limitado acceso a la información oportuna, confiable,
sistematizada y actualizada para la toma de decisiones.
§
Las capacidades para la gestión ambiental al interior del
gobierno local aún son escasas, se requiere darle continuidad
al fortalecimiento de las mismas,
En el desarrollo de la Estrategia Urbana en Arequipa se ha
culminado la primera etapa del proceso, cuyo resultado ha sido la
producción del Informe GEO Arequipa. PNUMA y UNHABITAT. El proceso GEO Arequipa permitió la incorporación
de los puntos de vista y percepciones de expertos, instituciones y
políticos relacionados con la gestión ambiental urbana de
Arequipa y la construcción de consensos sobre asuntos y
cuestiones prioritarias.
En esta segunda etapa de la Estrategia consiste en la puesta en
marcha de acciones prioritarias de apoyo a la gestión, y a la
formulación de planes de acción urbano-ambientales en temas
específicos para su incorporación a los instrumentos de la
planificación municipal y territorial
Frente a las dificultades económicas se ha logrado destinar
algunos fondos del presupuesto participativo del gobierno local
para la ejecución e implementación de pequeños proyectos
ambientales, puesto que se requieren de inversiones fuertes para
proyectos de mayor envergadura e impacto. Se ha entablado
relaciones de apoyo con las empresas privadas locales y se está
gestionando financiamiento externo.
2. Factores que facilitan y/o obstaculizan logros en la Gestión
Urbana Ambiental
Facilitan:
§
La voluntad política es fundamental para darle continuidad a
la A21L, es así que en la gestión local de 1998-2002 se
formularon políticas, planes y normas; y, en la gestión actual
Se cuenta con apoyo técnico de instituciones con experiencia en
temas ambientales para fortalecer la gestión ambiental local y la
generación de capacidades al interior del gobierno local.
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
§
Comité Multisectorial Provincial de Gestión Ambiental
de Residuos Sólidos
§
Comité de Salud Ambiental de Arequipa
La participación de los actores aún es escasa, se requiere de
mayor apoyo logístico, técnico y económico para el logro de sus
objetivos, nuevamente los planes que se elaboran por estas
carencias no se traducen en acciones concretas
La Municipalidad Provincial viene liderando, promoviendo y
participando activamente en espacios de concertación
interinstitucional.
En el marco de los programas de A21L y el PCS se suscribieron
convenios tales como: PNUD (Estudio de Riesgos en Arequipa),
PNUMA/UN-HABITAT (Informe Urbano Ambiental GEO
Arequipa), UN-HÁBITAT (Estrategia Urbano Ambiental).
Capacitación:
§
Programas de formación y fortalecimiento de
capacidades (Gobierno local y Regional, Colegios
Profesionales, Sector Privado, CONAM, ONGs)
§
Programas de educación ambiental (CONAM, ONGs)
§
Programas de difusión y sensibilización (Gobierno
Local, CONAM y ONGs)
§
Estudios de postgrado (Universidades públicas y
privadas)
3. Mecanismos para apoyar el proceso de cambio
Normatividad:
§
Los mecanismos de carácter normativo y de sanción, todavía
tienen problemas para su implementación y cumplimiento.
Aún no se han generado instrumentos económicos que
pueden contribuir a una gestión urbana ambiental en la
ciudad más eficiente, menos costosa, más eficaz, más
participativa y menos burocrática. Razón por la que es
importante conocer los beneficios como los costos o los
problemas involucrados con su introducción e
implementación que generalmente están asociados a
obstáculos técnicos y políticos. Se requiere definir
instrumentos eficientes y eficaces acordes a nuestra realidad.
La capacitación es indispensable en todo proceso de cambio para
actuar con conocimiento y criterio en la búsqueda de soluciones
adecuadas a la realidad, aún es un aspecto que requiere
fortalecerse.
4. Documentación, difusión y reconocimiento
innovaciones impulsadas por el PCS-A2IL
Planificación:
§
Planes de Desarrollo (Plan Estratégico y Plan Director)
La planificación urbana aún carece de mecanismos que
hagan efectivo su cumplimiento para orientar el crecimiento
ordenado de la ciudad hacia zonas seguras con los servicios
y equipamientos básicos que garanticen la calidad de vida de
la población. Es indispensable e impostergable la
integración de los planes y estudios existentes así como la
actualización permanente de los mismos para una mejor
gestión del desarrollo urbano ambiental local.
de
las
La evaluación del estado actual del ambiente local, ofreciendo
elementos técnicos y políticos para fundamentar la toma de
decisiones en la planificación del desarrollo urbano y de la
gestión ambiental de la ciudad. Ha permitido identificar los
riesgos ambientales más significativos así como las
oportunidades de resolución e intervención del gobierno local y
la sociedad civil. Y, finalmente se ha logrado identificar los
temas emergentes que formarán parte de la agenda pública de la
ciudad.
La gestión municipal debe privilegiar el ordenamiento
territorial y del entorno ambiental, desde los enfoques de la
sostenibilidad del desarrollo, la gestión sostenible de los
recursos naturales y mejoramiento de la calidad ambiental,
así como la coordinación y concertación interinstitucional y
participación ciudadana en todos los niveles.
Los procesos de planificación han sido mediante actas de las
reuniones de trabajo y por informes; posteriormente han sido
reconocidas por el Concejo Municipal mediante Ordenanzas y
Acuerdos Municipales. Por lo general, las autoridades locales
reconocen los instrumentos de planificación y gestión de la
ciudad aunque existen problemas para la implementación de los
mismos; las instituciones públicas y el sector privado muestran
un limitado conocimiento de los mismos; las ONGs y grupos
comunitarios hacen uso de los instrumentos para orientar sus
acciones; las instituciones académicas los usan en sus procesos
de capacitación profesional
A través del tiempo la institucionalidad de la gestión ambiental
local se ha ido fortaleciendo, creándose las siguientes instancias:
§
La Comisión de Gestión Ambiental y SubGerencia de
Gestión Ambiental
§
El Consejo de Coordinación Local Provincial (participación
ciudadana)
§
La Comisión Ambiental Local y el Sistema Local de
Gestión Ambiental (en proceso de formalización)
Sin embargo, aún es incipiente la coordinación entre los ámbitos
de actuación política y ejecutiva dentro de la Municipalidad. La
atomización del tema ambiental, así como el manejo sectorial han
conllevado a que no se haya establecido un modelo orgánico de
gestión ambiental al interior de las municipalidades, por lo que
son un conjunto amplio de instancias las que atienden
fragmentadamente la gestión ambiental municipal.
Su difusión se ha dado mediante la publicación de los Acuerdos y
Ordenanzas Municipales en los diarios oficiales de la ciudad; la
publicación y difusión de diversos documentos como libros en
versión impresa y digital, encartes, conferencias, seminarios,
medios de comunicación (radio, televisión y prensa escrita).
TEMA 2: Integración de la innovación a nivel
local
5. Integración de las innovaciones en la gestión de la ciudad y
su institucionalización
Organismos Interinstitucionales:
§
Grupo de Estudio Técnico Ambiental de Aire
§
Grupo Técnico sobre las Aguas Servidas
§
Grupo Técnico de Campiña
§
Comisión Técnica Mixta de Transporte
§
Grupo Técnico de Transporte y Movilidad Urbana (en
conformación)
Las innovaciones han sido institucionalizadas mediante diferentes
instrumentos legislativos y administrativos tales como
Ordenanzas y Acuerdos Municipales, el Texto Único de
Procedimientos Administrativos, Reglamentos de Sanciones e
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Infracciones administrativas, Certificaciones, entre las más
importantes.
para la gestión del conocimiento que sirva como
instrumento para la toma de decisiones en la
planificación y gestión de la ciudad.
Estas innovaciones han sido integradas en el quehacer diario por
los actores locales en función a sus áreas de interés. Las
instituciones públicas locales hacen un cumplimento relativo
debido principalmente a la superposición de competencias puesto
que persisten conflictos; las ONGs, los grupos comunitarios y el
sector privado, las utilizan de acuerdo a sus actividades.
TEMA 3: Integración de la innovación a nivel
nacional
8. Cambios respaldados por la política nacional, legislación y
medidas administrativas
6. Fortalecimiento del planeamiento municipal y su función
coordinadora en el marco del PCS -A2IL
Desde 1999, el gobierno local ha promovido diversas iniciativas
para enfrentar los principales problemas ambientales de la
ciudad, mediante la concertación interinstitucional, buscando
consensos para articular acciones y comprometer recursos. Se
despertó el interés no sólo de las instituciones locales, sino
también nacionales.
En el marco de la Estrategia Ambiental Urbana se ha brindado
conocimiento e información mediante la innovación de
metodologías de planificación bajo enfoques estratégicos y
participativos para la toma de decisiones de los actores locales,
poniendo en evidencia la importancia de la planificación urbana y
gestión ambiental en procesos participativos en la búsqueda de
consensos y la concertación como instrumento para el desarrollo
sostenible.
Actualmente, el gobierno local está promoviendo la participación
ciudadana en la formulación, debate y concertación de sus planes
de desarrollo y presupuestos y en la gestión pública. Se ha creado
el Consejo de Coordinación Local Provincial (CCLP) que
participa en el diseño y aplicación de políticas, normas e
instrumentos de la gestión ambiental, de los planes, programas,
agendas ambientales y la evaluación y ejecución de proyectos de
inversión pública y privada.
Recientemente, se ha puesto en marcha acciones prioritarias de
apoyo a la gestión y a la formulación de planes de acción urbanoambientales en temas específicos para su incorporación a los
instrumentos de la planificación municipal y territorial.
§
Apoyo a la estructuración y puesta en marcha del Sistema
Local de Gestión Ambiental, a través del establecimiento de
sus instancias constitutivas y la formulación y adopción del
Plan de Acción Ambiental para la gestión sostenible de la
campiña y del transporte y la movilidad urbana.
§
Propuestas para la revisión del Plan Director, en referencia a
la gestión sostenible de la Campiña y la gestión del
transporte y la movilidad urbana.
§
Diseño y establecimiento del Sistema de Gestión de la
Información Ambiental, como herramienta fundamental para
el proceso de toma de decisiones y para el funcionamiento
del Sistema Local de Gestión Ambiental.
La gestión ambiental peruana y lo establecido en la normatividad
vigente, Ley Orgánica de Municipalidades (LOM) Nº 27972, Ley
de Bases de Descentralización Nº 27783 y otras, resalta que las
municipalidades ejercen una serie de compet encias que inciden
directa e indirectamente sobre la gestión ambiental, aunque,
muchas de ellas se encuentran dispersas entre distintas instancias
u órganos municipales, perdiendo organicidad y la lógica de
integralidad.
El apoyo nacional adicional que se requiere es optimizar y
acelerar el proceso de descentralización en términos
administrativos, de transferencia de funciones y competencias y
de recursos económicos. Se puede impulsar tanto en los niveles
centrales como locales; sin embargo, en la caso de Arequipa el
principal impulsor deberá ser el gobierno local como
representante de la ciudadanía y en correspondencia con la
historia nacional.
7. Insumos técnicos recibidos de las instituciones de apoyo
En el marco del proceso de A21L, desde 1999 el gobierno local
mediante la
suscripción de convenios bilaterales y/o
multilaterales ha realizado programas y proyectos en relación a:
§
Capacitación en planificación, ITC-IHS - Holanda (Maestría
en Planificación y Gestión Urbano Ambiental, Atlas
Ambiental, Plan Estratégico de Arequipa Metropolitana),
SwissContact (Programa Aire Limpio), PNUMA / UNHABITAT (Estrategia Ambiental Urbana)
§
Intercambio de experiencias Comisión Europea (Integración
de la Planificación del Transporte y la Planificación Urbana
en el marco de la sostenibilidad y de la A21L - Programa
URBAL)
§
Consultorías: BID (Desarrollo de un Sistema de Transporte
Urbano Sostenible en Arequipa), USAID (Plan de Gestión
Ambiental de la Cuenca Metropolitana del río Chili)
9. Gobernabilidad urbana
La situación ambiental es determinante en la calidad de vida de
su población, razón por la que el valor de la gestión ambiental
radica en integrar acciones que generen sinergias entre sí,
ofreciendo oportunidades estratégicas de desarrollo y calidad
ambiental.
La gestión ambiental exige contar con un respaldo político sólido
y debe estar dotada de los recursos humanos, técnicos, logísticos
y de gerenciamiento que permitan a las autoridades competentes,
ejercer a cabalidad sus atribuciones legales. Así, la priorización
política y el fortalecimiento de su propia gestión ambiental,
generará un mayor acercamiento entre municipio y ciudadanía,
mejorando la calidad de vida de la población y la propia
gobernabilidad de la ciudad.
El apoyo adicional que se requiere
§
Adiestramiento e información en relación al manejo de
sistemas de información geográfica, gestión de la
información, metodologías participativas, planificación
estratégica en temas especializados como movilidad
urbana, gestión del suelo, etc.
§
Intercambio de experiencias locales y asistencia técnica
§
Es urgente implementar una base de datos y sistemas
de información ambiental como parte de una política
Es necesario impulsar el desarrollo de una mayor sensibilidad y
responsabilidad de los ciudadanos respecto de la gestión
ambiental, a fin de promover actitudes proactivas y la
participación efectiva de la ciudadanía en la solución de los
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
problemas ambientales que emprenda el gobierno local, de
manera que se reduzcan las controversias entre la población y la
autoridad, se legitime su rol rector y se favorezcan sinergias para
el logro de los objetivos de la gestión ambiental municipal.
origen a un determinado estado del ambiente con impactos sobre
la calidad de vida en la ciudad y provocando respuestas
especificas del gobierno local y de la sociedad.
La primera etapa de la Estrategia Ambiental Urbana ha logrado:
sistematizar datos e identificar indicadores de calidad ambiental,
desarrollar capacidades técnicas para la evaluación integral del
estado del ambiente, promover la participación de los diversos
actores locales en el proceso y proporcionar una herramienta para
la adecuada toma de decisiones en los diversos niveles de la
planificación y gestión urbano ambiental de la ciudad.
La gestión ambiental debe desplegar mayores esfuerzos para
integrarse en las políticas del gobierno de la municipalidad pues
aún es concebida como una política autónoma o disociada de la
gestión municipal general. Asumiendo la gestión ambiental como
un medio para perfilar políticas de largo plazo orientadas a
cumplir una función articuladora del desarrollo de las actividades
socioeconómicas.
Se requiere optimizar los actuales canales de coordinación y
concertación interinstitucional para evitar la duplicidad de
esfuerzos y recursos, reforzando la participación institucional y
de la ciudadanía para el establecimiento de políticas e
instrumentos que impulsen el crecimiento económico, la
protección ambiental y la calidad de vida en el marco del Sistema
Local de Gestión Ambiental
11. Apoyo mundial recibido por el proyecto PCS A21L para
abordar las agendas mundiales
En el marco nacional, el Consejo Nacional de Ambiente
(CONAM), el Ministerio de Vivienda, Construcción y
Saneamiento (VIVIENDA), el Instituto Nacional de Defensa
Civil (INDECI), el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el
Medio Ambiente (PNUMA), el Programa de las Naciones Unidas
para los Asentamientos Humanos (UN-HABITAT) y el Programa
de la Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD), han decidido
unir esfuerzos para desarrollar conjuntamente la Estrategia de
Apoyo a la Gestión Ambiental Urbana en el Perú, la cual se
concibe como una iniciativa inter-ministerial e inter-agencial,
cuyo objetivo principal es el fortalecimiento de los procesos de
gestión ambiental urbana a nivel nacional, reforzando las
capacidades locales para la evaluación y la planificación urbanoambiental integrada, aportando a la construcción de los sistemas
locales de gestión ambiental como un elemento fundamental del
Sistema Nacional de Gestión Ambiental, contribuyendo a mejorar
los procesos de elaboración, revisión e implementación de los
planes directores municipales y demás instrumentos de
planificación urbana, y estructurando mecanismos nacionales de
apoyo técnico a los procesos locales en este campo.
A efectos de contribuir a fortalecer los criterios de transparencia
en el ejercicio de las funciones públicas y la propia democracia
participativa, es necesario que las municipalidades cumplan con
los mandatos legales establecidos a fin de involucrar a la
ciudadanía en la toma de decisiones, es decir, en el proceso de
elaboración y aprobación de las políticas, normas, planes y
programas municipales; en el otorgamiento de derechos; y, en
general, en la adopción de decisiones que puedan implicar una
afectación de la calidad de vida de la población.
De esta forma, la actuación municipal será dotada de mayor
legitimidad y se fortalecerá la gobernabilidad del municipio, así
como el propio liderazgo de la autoridad municipal. No obstante,
para ser efectiva, la participación requiere de mecanismos, vías y
reglas claras, por lo que la municipalidad debe generar vías
procedimentales para facilitar la participación responsable de la
ciudadanía, en la gestión municipal.
Para alcanzar estos objetivos adicionalmente se requiere
capacitación e intercambio de experiencias locales, pasantías,
financiamiento para la implementación de proyectos de impacto
real en la ciudad y sostenibles en el tiempo.
En este contexto, el gobierno local está promoviendo la
participación ciudadana en la formulación, debate y concertación
de sus planes de desarrollo y presupuestos y en la gestión pública.
Se ha creado el Consejo de Coordinación Local Provincial
(CCLP) que participa en el diseño y aplicación de políticas,
normas e instrumentos de la gestión ambiental, de los planes,
programas, agendas ambientales y la evaluación y ejecución de
proyectos de inversión pública y privada
12. Temas ambientales priorizados en el marco PCS-A21L
que requieren acción global
Arequipa ha tomado la forma de cualquier ciudad
latinoamericana, con un centro urbano altamente consolidado y
en buen estado pero con una periferia en proceso de deterioro y
precariedad.
TEMA 4: integración de la innovación a nivel
mundial
§
10. Actividades de los programas PCS y A2IL y su relación
con las Agendas Mundiales.
En América Latina y El Caribe, destaca el fenómeno de
urbanización para la comprensión de los factores determinantes
del estado del ambiente a nivel regional.
En el caso de Arequipa se tiene relación con las agendas de:
Urbanización (Agenda Hábitat) y el Ambiente (A21L y Acuerdos
Ambientales Multilaterales)
En Arequipa, durante la última década los procesos de
crecimiento urbano han incrementado los factores de presión
sobre los recursos naturales y los ecosistemas locales, dando
31
El principal problema ambiental es el deterioro de la calidad
de aire, por la emisión de sustancias contaminantes
(principalmente CO y material particulado PTS y PM -10)
que superan los Estándares Nacionales de Calidad del Aire,
producidas por el crecimiento del parque automotor (268%
en 13 años). Esto ha traído consigo cuadros alarmantes
sobre la salud pública y el ambiente. A pesar de los
múltiples esfuerzos de autoridades, empresas y sociedad
civil, son aún insuficientes. Tal es así que el sistema de
control y monitoreo, uno de los más completos del país, no
logra modificar las condiciones estructurales de la
contaminación. La renovación del parque automotor y el uso
de combustible limpio avanzan lentamente debido a las
limitaciones económicas de los operadores, a esto se suma
las dificultades para encontrar propuestas que sean
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
económicamente rentables y al mismo tiempo sustentables
en términos ambientales.
§
La principal característica de la gestión del agua es que ésta
sigue siendo esencialmente sectorial, orientada en función
de los usos, problemas o demandas específicas, y no al
recurso. La gestión está dividida entre un gran número de
instituciones con injerencia diversa en el tema, en las cuales
las responsabilidades se encuentran superpuestas, cuando no
contrapuestas entre sí, creando con ello una compleja
disfunción de competencias y dispersión de esfuerzos, que
conspiran contra el principio de unidad en la gestión del
recurso, no existiendo mecanismos de coordinación, lo que
deja muchos espacios vacíos en la gestión.
Los recursos hídricos en la subcuenca del río Chili cada año
varían debido principalmente a los cambios meteorológicos
y al incremento del consumo por el crecimiento urbano de la
ciudad. La tendencia actual es el déficit creciente del
recurso, la Cuenca del río Chili está declarada agotada, por
lo tanto no hay disponibilidad para el otorgamiento de
nuevos derechos solicitados para otros usos.
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PHILIPPINES
Applications of the Sustainable Cities Programme
Approach in Urban Environmental Governance in the
Philippines
1.0 Introduction
Section 3 provides the basis of the SCP/LA21 (Local EPM
Project) intervention in the Cities. Section 4 is a discussion on the
“EPM efforts” of the Philippines, while Section 5 is a discussion
on the adaptations or progressive contextualization of the
SCP/LA21 approach in Cities with analysis using the 5
researchable areas. Section 6 identifies gaps in the current EPM
efforts distilled from the previous sections, and Section 7 is a set
of recommendations to complete the SCP/LA21 cycle vis-à-vis,
mainstreaming the approach in City governance.
1.1 Beginnings of the Sustainable Cities Programme
involvement in the Philippines
The “greater democratic space” created in 1986 encouraged
participation from the various sectors, which has not been
observed in city governance in the country for a time. However,
the participatory approach was general, and usually confined to
taking part in discussions on the “talking points” developed by
the Local Government Units (LGUs) or in roundtable discussions
on broad concerns of development. Some cities established
“Non-Government Organization desks” and/or NGO liaison
officers.
2.0 Brief on the SCP/LA21 Process Framework
2.1 The 4-phase process framework
The sequential phases of the Framework include, phase 1- start
up, phase 2 – strategy and action planning, phase 3 – follow up
and implementation, and phase 4 – consolidation and replication.
Every phase is a cluster of activities and expected outputs, which
must be delivered before moving to the next phase. In other
words, the phase outcome has to be completed in order that the
succeeding activities could effectively take off.
The 1988 report “Our Common Future” provided the paradigm
shift in City governance, emphasizing the participation of
development players in planning and management of projects.
The Sustainable Cities Programme/United Nations Development
Programme in conjunction with the Department of Environment
and Natural Resources organized the Local Environmental
Planning and Management (EPM) Project in 1998 as an
intervention measure against the threat of environmental decay of
Philippine Cities, and the need to conduct more developmentenvironment projects within the SCP/LA21 process framework.
The pace of the processes for every phase is influenced by the
performance of the participating stakeholders. Some stakeholders
will tend to hold back the process, but with the crucial
orchestration of the assigned City unit, i.e., EPM Project Office,
the completion of every phase will be ensured.
1.2 Structure of the report
Figure 1. The SCP/LA21 Process Framework
(Source: SCP/UNCHS, 1997)
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
2.2 Innovative points: five EPM researchable areas
actions, (d) increasing efficiency of resource use, and (e)
sustaining or institutionalizing the SCP/LA21 approach.
The SCP/LA21 approach innovated on City planning and
management processes of the environment sector, with the aim at
addressing the issues of poverty, inequity, powerlessness, gender
inequality, and environmental degradation.
3.0 Basis of the SCP/LA21 intervention in Philippine Cities
3.1 Legal framework
In terms of a research agenda on City environmental planning
and management, the following are the researchable areas; (a)
information management, and harnessing and building up of
expertise, (b) broadened strategizing and decision making, (c)
enhancing implementation of strategies on collectively agreed
Laws and policies were enacted and adopted even before the
EPM Project intervention, invoking the need for an EPM process,
which is based on sustainable development principles and
approaches. This sub-section is a brief on the most relevant legal
framework of an SCP/LA21 approach to City environmental
planning and management.
Table 1. Legislative and executive actions to protect the environment.
Legislation
Executive/Administrative Orders
Republic Act 7160 (Local Government Code): the law defines
the devolution, decentralization and deconcentration of authority
of governance, including the scope of LGU authority on the ENR
sectoral concerns, e.g., 5,000 hectares of forest land to the LGU,
defines the Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Comprehensive
Development Plan of the LGU and correspondingly the Zoning
Ordinance, and resource management, among the salient features
of the law relevant to the SCP/LA21 development approach.
Republic Act 8749 (Philippine Clear Air Act of 1999):
institutionally defines the Environment Management Bureau
(now still within the DENR) as a line agency or a National
Executing Agency for clean air protection and management,
defines the protocols, guidelines and standards for air planning
and management by the Bureau and the LGU.
EO 15: defines the creation of the Philippine Council for
Sustainable Development and the use of the Philippine
Agenda 21 as the blueprint for sustainable development of
the country.
EO 291 prescribes for the integration of the Environment
Impact Statement (EIS) into the project development cycle
to promote its ultimate function as a planning tool for
sustainable development and environmental planning and
conservation.
AO 42 (Environmental Impact Statement System): defines
the EIA law of the Philippines
Republic Act 9003 (Ecological Solid Waste Management
Act): defines the planning and management of domestic wastes
by the National Commission on Solid Waste Management,
National Ecology Center and the LGU.
Republic Act 7586 (National Integrated Protected Areas
System) provides for an integrated management and sustainable
development approach for the country’s entire protected areas.
Republic Act No. Clean Air Act: defines the planning and
management of the atmosphere
Republic Act No. 7279
Urban Development and Housing Act :
fosters people’s participation in the urban development process,
empowers local government units in addressing urban
development issues and allows for private sector participation in
the national shelter program.
DENR-DAO 96-37 (Environmental Impact Statement):
defines the process, guidelines and standards in the conduct
of the Environmental Impact Assessment subsequently the
formulation of the Environmental Impact Statement;
subsequently superseded by DAO 2000-37, DAO 2000-05
and the most recent is DAO 2003-30.
DENR-DAO 2000-1304: defines the creation of the National
Support Program for ENR Planning and Management (NSPENRPM) for the LGU, an effect of the EPM Project
intervention.
DENR DAO 2001-34 IRR for RA 9003 defines the
implementing guidelines of the Ecological Solid Waste
management Act.
Republic Act 8425 (Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation
Act of 1997):
ensures the integration of various disadvantaged groups into the
political and economic mainstream and institutionalizes their
engagement with government in addressing poverty
3.2 Improving from past
development approaches
and
existing environment-
development have shaped a vibrant discourse and concrete
actions via programmes and projects, amongst the various
development players. The UN System remains a strong lead force
into the molding of policies, approaches, methods and tools on
sustainable development, in general. This sub-section briefly
The participation of the Philippines to the Earth Summit in 1992
and the commitments it pledged in pursuit of sustainable
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
describes in succession, some of the “EPM-associated” efforts
conducted in Cities.
The DENR is duty bound to assist technically the City when
requested.
The Philippine Strategy for Sustainable Development in 1989
was the document that the Philippine government presented in
the Earth Summit at Rio de Janiero in 1992. That same year, the
Philippine Council for Sustainable Development was created
through Executive Order No. 15 to chart environment and
sustainable development initiatives in the country. Three years
hence, the Integrated Environmental Management for Sustainable
Development Programme (IEMSD), which was supported by the
UNDP and executed by the DENR was established in 1995.
Through this programme the EPM Project concept was
formulated with assistance from the UN Habitat in 1998. Parallel
to the IEMSD, the Capacity 21 Programme was formulating the
Philippine Agenda 21 in 1996, but was approved by the President
in 1998. Several related efforts came into being like the
Integrated Environmental Management Programme for the
industrial sector, SWEEP for solid waste, PRIME for the private
sector and Mainstreaming Sustainable Development in the
Bureaucracy in 2003.
With the continuing advocacy led by the League of Cities in the
Philippines (LCP) on the benefits of a broad-base and bottom-up
approach to ENR planning and management as experienced by
the three EPM demonstration Cities, more Cities have established
regular ENR Offices or at least an ENR-designated City unit or
officer. The trend towards institutionalization was hastened by
the implementation of the Ecological Solid Waste Management
Act and the Clean Air Act, which instructs the LGU to locate the
ENR planning and management functions to a City unit or
officer.
The precursor IEMSD Programme of the EPM Project,
formulated models of Provincial Strategic Environmental Plan
which is an introduction to the ENR planning process, and the
Municipal CLUP with strong environmental articulation than the
usual. CLUP formulation guidelines were published together with
the HLURB. Particularly, the EPM generated-models of
environmental strategy plans for Lipa, Tagbilaran and Cagayan
De Oro Cities were picked up by more Cities under the federation
(LCP). The broad-base and bottom-up approach of the SCP/EPM
has further systematized the “multi-sectoral” approach of the
planning and management of the environment sector under the
generic policy of participatory governance.
The Galing Pook Awards for Innovation and Excellence in Local
Governance, 1993-2003 was focused in providing benefits to
performing LGUs in the country. A number of these were
promising in the context of the SCP/LA21 approach to urban
governance.
But, in 1998 the EPM Project was implemented to spearhead an
innovative City planning and management approach, by
illustrating the process in three major Cities. Virtually, the EPM
was a new introduction to the structured process of Cities. Three
follow through projects are considered as significant EPM associated, Public and Private Partnership in Urban Environment,
EcoGovernance, and the Country Development Strategy.
At the tailend of the EPM project came the WB-CA City
Development Strategy (CDS) Project which took consideration of
the effects that the EPM Project has created on the ENR planning
and management in the three demonstration Cities. The link
between the CDS Project and the EPM Project was natural in as
much as the SCP was a major player in the formulation of the
CDS project concept. Effectively, the CDS project has expanded
and magnified the innovations that the EPM Project propelled to
10 more cities nationwide.
4.0 SCP/LA21 Philippine experience
The section lists answer summaries to the 7-item guideline for the
national documentation of the SCP/LA21 experience.
The persistent advocacy on the SCP/LA21 approach and the
widened effect on other cities, the Department of the Interior and
Local Government (DILG) through its GO-FAR facility will
mainstream the EPM experience to replication cities. GO-FAR is
a Philippine strategy that aims to institutionalize nationwide the
replication of good practices including the EMP processes. The
mainstreaming design will integrate the SCP/LA21 approach
with past ENR planning and management experience of cities,
thus possibly producing a blended EPM local method. However,
it is early to gauge the effect of this mainstreaming effort but
such positive action reflects the significant impact that the EPM
Project has resulted to. For example, the process of identifying
the priority bankable projects through the Issue Working Groups
and finally implementing in levels commensurate to the City
capability but with up-scaled ideas, is an innovative concept from
the traditional quick and highly visible infrastructure-based
project. The Cagayan De Oro City EPM experience is a case of
‘starting small but thinking big”, the fact that they were able to
leverage additional resources out from the demonstration
projects. Another exemplary practice that mainstream the process
of EPM is the Integrated Solid Waste Management Program
(ISWMP) of Linamon, Lanao del Norte, which demonstrates
effective implementation of sound environmental practices that
include team building, participatory planning, and law
enforcement of ecological solid waste management.
Guideline No. 1: Compared with past city management
“business as usual”, explain how SCP/LA21 activities in your
country have contributed to positi ve changes (innovations) in
the approach applied in various aspect of City management,
such stakeholders participation, land use planning, service
delivery, environmental management, urban poverty reduction,
others.
The Local Government Code (RA 7160) mandates the city
governments to formulate their Comprehensive Land Use Plan
and support this with a City Zoning Ordinance for the future best
use of the lands within its territory. Under the scheme of the
Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) detailing the
CLUP formulation process, the environmental concerns are
subsumed in the economic sector. The formulation itself is a
technical task which limits the participation of the City
stakeholders through the process, unless the planning team takes
a participatory approach. Regarding the formulation of the
Comprehensive Development Plan, more participation is required
from City stakeholders, especially in the aspect on identifying
and prioritizing bankable or investment projects. On the main, the
entire process is top to bottom development planning.
Also, the law leaves to the LGU the decision to create a City
Environment and Natural Resources Office for systematic EPM.
Guideline No. 2: Explain national factors that have facilitated
or/and obstructed the SCP/LA21 activities to contribute to the
changes explained above. In case they were obstacles, how were
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
they overcome? Which type of technical support (expertise,
information, training) and legal and administrative support is
being provided from national level to local level to enhance
innovations you have explained above, and where has it come
from? Which additional support is being planned or would be
necessary?
afford to hire project preparers, continuous training on project
preparation and marketing will be very helpful.
Although the annual City sharing of the LCP is usually focused
on experiences and highly politically charged, techniques and
methods on EPM are discussed as well. In mid 2002, the
Philippine Urban Forum (PUF) was formed after a year from
closure of the EPM Project, to engage more actors into the
discussions on urban governance. This aggrupation is considered
as the public debate venue on all concerns pertaining to
sustainable urbanization, in which case, local innovations from
interventions such as the SCP/LA21 process framework will be
discussed in full.
The CLUP of the three demonstration Cities reflected deficiency
in profiling the environmental sector, besides not appreciating a
broad-base and bottom-up planning process. Two reasons were
cited. Firstly, it is expensive to conduct a comprehensive
environmental profile of the City because the City will need to
hire specialists like GIS experts, floral and faunal ecologists,
geochemists and hydrologists, social anthropologists, and
resource economists and there is no budget allocation for such
services. Secondly, the City’s mental set of planning is far from
being participatory or that multi-stakeholders’ participation in the
process is reduced to attendance of public meetings to “listen” to
the product of the planning process. Participatory planning is
oftentimes considered as time wastage. These factors most likely
represent the situation of many Cities in the Philippines.
Guideline No.3: If you think of the positive changes SCP/LA21
activities in your country have contributed as innovations,
explain how such innovations have been documented,
disseminated to and recognized by various national partners .
All of the EPM Project outputs were documented, published and
disseminated to the Cities while stocks of publications were left
with the DENR after project termination. Some of these were in
the form of tools or instrumentations. The following were
produced and distributed;
The HLURB is constrained to technically assist because the
agency does the review and approval, while input from the
DENR on the one hand, will still require budget and the fact that
the agency is not into City planning, neither is the LCP and DILG
into city planning as well. DENR has always been perceived by
the city as provider of technical support, usually in the provision
of environmental data (eg. quality status, standards, mitigation
measures). This explains the specific entry of DENR rather than
being part of the entire SCP/LA21 process (inception to upscaling). Outside of this input, DENR conducts its regulatory
functions with the City government.
a. Limited/City circulation
§
§
§
§
In other words, outside material input is necessary for an
SCP/LA21 planning approach. A seed fund and provision of
technical services for the activity are needed, but the City is
required to put up the equivalent counterpart, and agrees on the
planning approach. In the EPM Project, this arrangement was
stipulated in the memorandum of understanding between the
NEAs, City and the UN Habitat. The City Development Strategy
Project required similar City counterparts expressed in MOUs
between the WB/CA, the NEA and the City. It is believed that
even with capacity build up of City government staff and
officers, the need for specialists will be required through the
planning process, however limited.
§
§
§
City Environmental Profile of Lipa, Cagayan De Oro and
Tagbilaran Cities
CLUP Cagayan De Oro integrated with environmental
information and plan
Issues working papers (6 in Lipa City, 5 in Tagbilaran, 5 in
Cagayan De Oro)
Environmental Strategy Plan of Lipa, Tagbilaran and
Cagayan De Oro Cities
Packaged development project concepts as demonstration
projects (2 in Lipa City, 3 in Tagbilaran City and 3 in
Cagayan De Oro City)
Synthesis of EPM City experience, Phase1 (every City)
City Action Plan
b. National circulation
§
The formation of the NSP-ENRPM was an action taken to
address this constricted view of provision of technical support.
The national support program functioned for nearly six months
after the Local EPM Project, but waned thereafter for unclear
reasons except the fact that changes of appointive officials
hugged the headlines. Until today, there is no structured
provision of a more comprehensive support to the City by the
DENR.
§
The skills on project packaging and marketing for up-scaled
projects was key to Cagayan De Oro’s success in leveraging
additional funds for solid waste management. The same may be
concluded for the National SWM Commission, which got
funding from the UNDP/PPPUE for a project on cluster MRF.
On top of being a major player in the formulation of the
Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Ecological Solid
Waste Management Act, the experience gained from the SWM
demonstration projects of the three EPM Cities served as the
models for the NSWM Commission. For Cities, which could not
§
§
§
§
§
36
Institutional and Policy Study and Capacity Building
Scheme of Lipa, Tagbilaran and Cagayan De Oro Cities
(357pp); a main refefence to the institutionalization of the
SCP/LA21 approach in the Cities
Environmental Laws for the LGU (850 pp); a reference
material on laws and policies which are relevant to Local
EPM
Process Documentation Guide (booklet); guidebook for
practicing “EPMers” to process documents City EPM
experiences
Techniques in Stakeholders Participation (booklet);
guidebook for identifying, organizing and mobilizing City
stakeholders
Making the National Support Program on ENR Planning and
Management Work (booklet); presents the basis, rationale,
capacity of the DENR and direction of the support program
to the LGU
DAO (loose sheets); details the rationale and protocols for
the National Support Program on ENR Planning and
Management operations
Cagayan De Oro Synthesis of Experience (booklet); presents
in process documentation format the experience of the City
on the SCP/LA21 approach.
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
concrete experiences of Cities, national executing agencies,
NGOs, business, and other stakeholders. Other groups doing this
type of policy development is the LCP and national NGOs. The
outcomes of these discourses are not legally binding but these are
coursed through the pertinent NEA or the ENR legislative
committees at the Philippine Congress.
Every so often, one gets to recognize these publications during
meetings and conferences with City officers, obviously used as
reference materials and as guides. However, there is no single
repository of these documents, and seemingly, there is little
infusion of the EPM knowledge via training of staff of other
national executing agencies. Copies of the documentations are
kept or at least a list of where the documents are located, are with
the LCP and DENR database.
Currently, the PUF is attached with the Housing and Urban
Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC), which is headed
by the Vice President. It conducts its lobby work in this Council,
although it is non-voting and an adjunct body.
Other EPM -oriented projects have their documentations such as
the Asian Institute of Management, which handled the Galing
Pook Awards for Innovation and Excellence in Local
Governance, Proceedings of the Annual City Sharing of the LCP,
City Development Strategy of at least 3-dozen Cities which
clearly addressed the environment sector, PPPUE’s
documentation of the solid waste management experience in big
and thickly populated coastal urban poor villages at Calamba
City, otherwise, the documenters are the Cities themselves and
voluntarily reproduced by interested parties. The Kaakbay
Program which is supported by the Canadian Government under
its Local Government Support Programme has documentations
on solid waste management exemplary practices which are now
being replicated by other LGUs. The Mindanao Basic Urban
Services Sector Project (MBUSS) of the DILG provides loan
facility to LGUs with the aim of improving the quality of life of
urban residents in Mindanao by upgrading or rehabilitating basic
urban services or infrastructure which covers investment in water
supply, sanitation, solid waste management, drainage, flood
control, urban roads, bridges, and other public facilities.
Meanwhile, the UN Habitat Programme-Manila is suggesting to
establish a National Committee on Sustainable Cities (NCSC) as
a policy think-tank of the PUF and be integrated as a unit of the
HUDCC, thereby gaining access to policy formulation and
decision-making in the Council. Expanding on the notion of
anchor institution vis-à-vis, mainstreaming of the SCP/LA21
approach, a general concept was evolved (Figures 1 and 2). The
HUDCC orchestrates the mainstreaming processes, however is
necessary to constitute a National Committee on Sustainable
Cities for urban environment-development policy work. In this
suggestion, an anchor institution is defined according to key roles
it plays in the development of sustainable cities, within the
SCP/LA21 framework, i.e.:
Guideline No. 4: Review how the innovations you explain above
are being used to develop and improve national policy and
strategies as well as legislative and administrative instruments
to institutionalize such innovations at national level.
In section 3.1, the different agencies and their mandates were
given in relation with the practice of EPM in the City. The
directly relevant national government players are the DENR,
DILG, HLURB, and HUDCC; the PUF, LCP are quasigovernmental aggrupations; and the rest are national projects and
programs.
Administrative
instruments
guiding
the
implementation of national ENR policies are formulated called
DAO and EO. A typical example is DAO2000-1334 which drew
its basis from the EPM Project results.
The Philippine Urban Forum (PUF) is the seat for broad-base
policy discussions on EPM issues and lessons drawn from
37
§
Anchor institution for capacity building – this institution
will facilitate the development of curricula on broad base
and bottom up governance (operationally, in planning and
management) for sustainable cities, both for formal and nonformal education, and develop pools of SCP/LA21knowledgeable and skilled planners, policy makers and
managers of cities.
§
Anchor institution for mainstreaming in city government –
this institution will facilitate the formulation of standards for
sustainable cities, operationalization of the SCP/LA21
approach to urban governance, with particular emphasis on
building capacity of city government officials and staff, and
supervision monitoring of implementation of SD projects.
§
Anchor institution for advocacy and stakeholder
mobilization – this institution will facilitate sustained IEC
on the SCP/LA21 approach, policy discourse on sustainable
urban governance, and in the mobilization of the different
city stakeholders to undertake the governance approach.
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Anchor Institution for
Capacity Building
UP School of Urban
and
Regional
Planning
Anchor Institution
for Standards and
Mainstreaming
in City Governments
Anchor Institution for
Advocacy and Stakeholder
Mobilization
Bureau of Local
Govt. Development
Asian Institute of
Management
Environmental
Management
Bureau
Liceo de Cagayan
Others
League of Cities in
the Philippines
PCSD-NGO
Others
Others
Philippine
Urban Forum
Figure 1. A concept of orchestrating anchor institutions into a national effort on building Philippine sustainable cities
In Figure 2 the location of the NCSC in the HUDCC is shown,
and its connections to two general types of cities. The BLGDDILG and EMB-DENR may serve as Co-Chairs of the
Committee. The UN Habitat-Philippines as the focal UN body in
attaining the MGDs, and a major proponent of the SCP/LA21
approach will serve as an advisor of the Committee. Also the
UNH will consider the NCSC as the “sounding board” for tasks
like monitoring the mainstreaming process and project
preparation.
Housing and Urban Development
Coordinating Council
PUF
National Committee
on Sustainable Cities
Model/Prototype
Sustainable Cities
Other units
Other cities
Figure 2. Potential location of the National Committee on Sustainable Cities at HUDCC.
Guideline No. 5: Review how the innovations you explained
above are being used by the academic sector to develop and
improve training curricula.
The following are the levels of curricularization:
§
UP-SURP – Diploma on Master of Science
§
AIM – Master of Development Management
§
LDC – School of Environmental Planning
§
UPLB-CHE/CERP – Bachelor of Science, Master of
Science
§
LGA – Urban Manages Development Program
§
DAP – Master of Development Studies
Three academic institutions serving as anchor institutions (AIM,
UP-SURP, LDC) are in the forefront in the curricularization of
the SCP/LA21 experience of the demonstration Cities of Lipa,
Tagbilaran and Cagayan De Oro. These institutions have
developed their respective conceptual framework for the
curricularization and training of students, and in due time shall
commence work. On the one hand, the UPIHE-CERP has been
teaching the basic protocols and guideposts of participatory
broad-base and bottom-up ENR planning and management of
communities, including the urban sector.
Guideline No. 6: Explain how national actors are involved in
the international debates on Global Agendas on: (a) urban
issues (among other the Habitat Agenda), (b) environmental
issues (among other the Agenda 21 and International
Environmental Agreements) and (c) poverty reduction (among
38
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
other the MDG)? Which inputs are being used from
local/national experiences to feed into these debates?
as to address the global agendas described above? Explain how
such support could be enhanced.
During the implementation of the Local EPM Project, virtually
the DENR was the sole NEA, which actively participated in
international meetings convened by the UN Habitat in Nairobi or
elsewhere or in training activities like on solid waste
management held in Japan. The LCP was also an active
participant in as much as it was an integral party to the project. In
these meetings and conferences, the EPM Project presents
documented papers on the SCP/LA21 experience of the three
demonstration Cities, thereby feeding concrete applications of the
SCP/LA21 approach into the discourse.
While there is no SCP/LA21-type of project that is being
supported by the international community, the list below are
projects which are EPM-related and thus could be harnessed to
assess the effect of mainstreaming of the approach.
After project termination, the participation to the global
discussions continued in varying opportunities of sharing, such as
in the following fora:
§
Conference on “Environmentally Sustainable Urbanisation
(Developing environmental planning and management
capacities for poverty reduction)”, Alexandria, Egypt,
September 2003
§
Pacific Regional Workshop on Urban Development, Fiji,
December 2003
§
Launching of ASEAN Environment Year 2003, Siem Reap,
Cambodia, March 2003
§
Fourth Asian Mayors Forum and Workshop on Good Urban
Governance for Poverty Reduction and Urban Development,
Bangkok, Thailand, July 2002
§
Solid Waste Management Project is supported by the
PPPUE-UNDP which demonstrated the EPM process in
setting up a cluster Materials Recovery Facility as instructed
by RA 9003 and DAO 2001-34.
§
City Development Strategy project is supported by the
World Bank-Cities Alliance, which demonstrated the EPM
process in formulating the CDS of at least 31 Cities,
nationwide.
§
Promoting Local Environmental Planning and Management
through the Good Practices in Local Governance: Facility
for Adaptation and Replication (GO-FAR) is supported by
the United Nations Human Settlements Programme which
promotes the replication of the EPM program, tools, and
processes gained from the three SCP demonstration cities.
5.0 Progressive contextualization or adaptations in the
SCP/LA21 approach
A general conceptual model of indicating success of development
intervention such as the SCP/LA21 is shown in the cascaded
diagram as below. The variance in local specificities, the
adaptation of the approach results differently.
Guideline No. 7: Explain the type of support that is being
received at national level from global/international facilities so
Indices of
Impact
Indicators
Sustainable
Urbanization
Success
Parameters
Intervention
Improved
information
& expertise
City Situation
SCP/LA 21 process for sustainable
urbanization
Envtl decay
significantly
affecting City
well-being ,
e.g., delivery
of basic
services,
economy,
em pow erment,
etc.
e.g.
accessible
database
Indicator
n
Improved
strategies &
decision
mkng
Improved
implementation of
strategies
Efficient
use of
resources
Institutionalized
EPM process
process
Figure 3. Process of indicating success with the SCP/LA21 approach
in urban governance.
39
n
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
The analysis will focus on the five EPM researchable areas,
treated as the success parameters of the intervention, and utilizing
the EPM circumstances of the demonstration Cities as case
examples.
informed of facts and figures. In this regard, the EPM
published a process documentation booklet for field workers
and planners.
5.4 Making efficient use of resources
5.1 Improving information and expertise
§
§
Improvement of relationships between the City government
staff and officers as well as other stakeholders begins with a
formalized political commitment of the LGU to a broad-base
and bottom-up planning and management of environmentdevelopment City projects. The decision made by the Local
Chief Executive to enter into an MOU on the SCP/LA21type project will influence the team of City managers and
the rest of the staff. Once the mental frame is geared towards
the EPM method, the corresponding changes in attitude in
planning and management are expected. For example, the
complete transparency of the planning process provides the
stakeholders free access to information, besides being
involved in data and information generation. The
orchestration of the process by the City government spreads
the improvement of expertise to as many participants as
possible through “learning-by-doing”.
§
The deliberate process of identifying bankable projects via
participative methods should consider different angles of
resource management of the City. It will be certain that the
City stakeholders in their own ways, building into the
counterpart, will support priority projects. This multisupport becomes a significant leveraging schema for greater
entry of resources to the City, as experienced by Cagayan
De Oro City.
§
More efficient use of resources on-hand
“additionals”
§
§
An involved City government from the start of the EPM
process will provide legislators the necessary information to
legislate the SCP/LA21 approach and along with the
approaches, methods and tools in City planning and
management. The action is pivotal for ensured
institutionalization of the process besides possibly creating a
permanent City unit, which will sustain the broad-base and
bottom-up planning and management. Oftentimes, this
institutionalization serves as magnet for additional resources
for the activities.
§
The GO-FAR as a strategy in mainstreaming the EPM
process in the LGUs involves three major components:
advocacy/promotion,
knowledge
management,
and
replication of good practices. The LCP will lead in the
advocacy component in consideration of its influence on
City governments as well as its wide experience in
coordinating environment and development programs. A
database on MDG-related good practices including EPM
(compendium) has been developed for LGUs to access as
reference for replicating practices which are most
appropriate to their situation.
§
Knowledge management (KM) within GO-FAR basically
involves data generation and collation of information from
the documentation of the interventions undertaken by the
LGUs. Documentation includes learnings, gains and
challenges experienced by the LGU while doing the
replication; systems that facilitate storage, access and
retrieval of information collected; and processing of key
information, which can be used as resource materials for
training programs, and for policy and program development.
The Local Government Resource Center (LGRC) which will
be established in selected DILG Regional Offices and at the
Local Government Academy, is designed as an interactive
facility, and the repository of local governance knowledge
products including EPM. While using information contained
in the knowledge management system, the regional offices
and organizations build on data and information in the
database, and along the process encourage free access of
ideas, development experience and data amongst City
stakeholders as well as between Cities. It also serves as the
venue of consolidating LGSP knowledge products and
initiatives in Local Government Performance Management
System (LGPMS), local planning and replication as well as
Locating the EPM work in City planning and management
in the CLUP and CDP formulation enriches the database of
the City, and more importantly is owned by every City
dweller.
In the Philippines, the scheme of focus would be to organize
Technical Working Groups, either on the basis of
ecosystems or problem areas, a design adopted for the PA
21. They craft actions akin to the Issue Working Groups of
the SCP/LA21, although the TWG does not decide or
prioritize development projects, however may include in
their recommendations priorities. Therefore, the IWG
concept of the SCP/LA21 brings TWG responsibilities into a
higher plane that is to make decisions for the City. The
negotiations done during the City consultation on
environment-development priorities widens the decision
field, and synthesizing priorities into a City Action Plan
should further improve strategy as this will allow a complete
cycle of options analysis.
For groups like civil society organizations, conduct of this
type of planning is a normal thing, so that they could lead
and be more liberal with the City government, which is
usually struggling for this planning type. It should be an
opportunity for wider collective strategy and decisionmaking process for City development.
5.3 Improving implementation of strategies
§
The involvement of more City dwellers into the planning
process result to more choices of implementing the agreed
strategies, and thus should improve implementation
approaches. Consequently, the development of methods and
tools/instrumentations and training should even better the
implementation process.
§
The EPM experience suggests systematic management of
knowledge produced through the bottom up and broad base
planning and management process so that analysis is well-
the
5.5 Institutionalization of the EPM process
5.2 Improving strategies and decision making
§
and
40
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
complementation of various local government initiatives.
The LGA, on the other hand, shall organize materials
produced by the DILG (including those in the regions) that
are related to local urban and environment governance. This
includes documentation of good practices; development of
workbooks, training materials, guides, case studies, and
tools, among others. LGA will network with other resource
centers like DENR and other training institutions, ODAs
(like LGSP, USAID, PAGF, UNDP, etc.), academic
institutions (e.g. Miriam College, UP, Ateneo, DeLaSalle
Universities), and civil society groups like the Galing Pook
Awards Foundation.
network in Mindanao. The LRIs shall convene to conduct
workshops on strengthening of academic curricula,
identifying replicable projects; designing program activities;
presentation and analysis of case studies; and convergence
of efforts on EPM.
§
6.0 Present gaps in attaining completion of the 4-phase
SCP/LA21 process framework for sustainable urbanization
§
§
§
The replication component under GO-FAR requires formal
enrollment of interested LGUs to enable them to participate
in the inception workshop, which is a structured peer-to-peer
learning activity on how the good practice was successfully
done (as in the case of EPM). The Local Chief Executive
(Mayor) and the members of the Local Sanggunian as host
LGU plays a vital role in the inception workshop. The
“negotiating LGUs” must demonstrate their will and interest
via covenant signing as a manifestation of an institutional
sharing process. This document binds the host LGU and the
replicating LGU into a collaboration where the latter
commits to provide technical assistance to the replicating
LGU. The Replication Work Plan, which is drawn from the
inception workshop results, will guide both the replicating
and host LGU. Monitoring and documentation processes
are integral in the replication design.
One major activity of the mainstreaming process is the
integration of EPM into the City development plans. Series
of consultations with other local stakeholders are undertaken
to thresh out coordination issues and establish policies and
structures for the integration, resulting to an Integrated City
Development Planning System and a strengthened City
ENRO.
§
An important component of mainstreaming of the
SCP/LA21 approach is its translation into educational
modules or curricula. For example, the Liceo de Cagayan
University will integrate EPM knowledge, skills and tools in
the curriculum on environmental planning and management.
An internship program for students at the City ENRO and a
scholarship program equivalency for EPM courses may be
developed. The LDC shall link up with other academic
institutions engaged in curricularizing the SCP/LA21
approach sush as the University of the Philippines - School
of Urban and Regional Planning (UP-SURP), the
Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), the Asian
Institute of Management, College of Human Ecology of UP
Los Banos, and other learning institutions.
§
Significant milestones have been reached in innovating the
planning and management of certain Cities with particular
focus on the environment sector. These include the
establishment of the City ENR Office, which ensures that
the broad-base and bottom-up planning and management,
systematic knowledge management, and consultative
approach in the City governance are sustained past external
assistance from international organizations. City legislation
on this regard further ascertains that annual budget is
allocated to this unit.
However, there is the possibility of “politicizing” the EPM
process in the City governance, such that more effective
methods, tools and instruments in negotiations with City
protagonists, to include conflict resolution, will be needed
overtime. Until a critical mass of “EPMers” are consolidated
amongst the stakeholders, particularly those holding key
positions in government, the need for continuing and
consistent advocacy for the SCP/LA21 approach is a must.
To ensure that learning experiences and insights are
captured systematically, Local Resource Institutions are
contracted to document the replication processes, in
coordination with the City ENRO and the LGA. With
adequate information on hand, an purposive assessments to
upscale experience could be conducted vis-à-vis, the preconditions, support strategies, and required resources to
sustain the momentum of City progress towards sustainable
urbanization. The entire documentation will add into the
knowledge base of Cities.
§
Regional and international sharing of the City SCP/LA21
experience
In up -scaling knowledge on the EPM process, Local
Resource Institutions are organized to build linkages and
41
§
The effectiveness of the IWG negotiation vis-à-vis City
consultation was shown by the Cities of Lipa, Tagbilaran
and Cagayan De Oro during the implementation of the EPM
Project, and partially adapted with the 31 other Cities of the
CDS Project, in identifying and prioritizing bankable
environment-development projects. There is collective
ownership to this decision making process and therefore
commitments are made through the implementation phase.
However, a major concern is on “capitalizing” the bankable
projects, especially if a project is requiring levels of
investment that could only be sourced outside of the City
capacity. This is arguing the fact that a highly prioritized
project may not be the most economically feasible for the
City. Perhaps, some skills on blending technical information
with economics as input into the prioritization activity is
needed for better informed decision-making.
§
EPM knowledge is kept by the City through proper
placement of staff and officers in the City units, and
databases (EMIS). It is a reality however, that lateral and
vertical movements of staff and officers in the City happen
with changes in leaderships. Key EPM officers in the
process may be targets of these movements such that some
forms of shield or design to increase the absorptive capacity
of the EPM Unit on perturbations have to be set in place.
§
Iterative agenda on capacity building should anticipate
threats and risks of completing the SCP/LA21 cycle. A
significant change of attitude/behavior on City governance
biased on the framework will ensure that sustainable
urbanization is attainable. Otherwise, everything will only
be a façade.
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
§
A major prerequisite for institutionalization is the
establishment of the City ENRO, and on this regard,
significant inroads must be achieved on policy reform and
legislation, with more focus on debating against the
“optional” clause attached to the unit. The DENR’s priority
on the brown sector should be placed under review, more
importantly on how the Department could effectively assist
the City in their EPM processes. A related issue is the
pooling of anchor institutions orchestrated to up -scale
current EPM experiences by distilling insights, learning and
potentials for becoming citywide projects. The deliberate
development of that critical mass of “EPMers” must be an
immediate objective of the anchor institutions.
Coordinating Council (HUDCC) as the base unit for
sustainable urbanization be initiated as the avenue for the
Philippine Urban Forum to course the results of discourses
on policy and institutional development for sustainable
urbanization. A corollary work shall be on framing the
legislative agenda on sustainable urbanization, committed to
foster an enabling environment for the different City
stakeholders to engage in systematic and scientific
urbanization process. The PUF and the NCSC will play
crucial roles in the campaign advocacies to the general
public and government circles, respectively.
To ensure that the Philippines will retain a critical mass of
professionals enriched with the SCP/LA21 approach, anchor
institutions from the academic sector will develop
curriculum for Local Chief Executives, City Officers, civil
society leaders, business and City volunteers. These
curricula and resource materials will be used to train more
adherents of the process.
7.0 Recommendation
Following the successes of the Local EPM Project,
notwithstanding the weaknesses, the mainstreaming of the
SCP/LA21 approach in the country will need to leap frog
processes such as the following:
§
§
To hasten the institutionalization of the SCP/LA21-oriented
planning and management, capacity building efforts should
result to City dwellers, which are well informed,
knowledgeable, and skilled on the requisites of sustainable
human development. For wider application, innovative and
socially acceptable toolkits, which measure good
environmental governance must be developed and used
extensively. Training designs and programs, ENR planning
and management approaches and methodologies, case
documentation, and evaluation documents are valuable in
the synthesis-customization activity. City-City exchanges,
pooling of resource persons-trainers and the development of
Training of Trainers’ approach, advocacy materials and a
systematic knowledge management system will have to be
developed and conducted. All these, contribute to the
opportunity of establishing the City as a center for
excellence on sustainable urbanization.
It is suggested that a National Committee on Sustainable
Cities within the Housing and Urban Development
42
§
Refinement of the process on prioritization of bankable
projects will be necessary to highlight the merging of
environmental protection and economics. These projects
must be implemented at scales which could create ripples on
MDG #7. Examples include solid waste management,
coastal resource management, and clean water and health
protection. The crafting of specific project concepts will be
done the “EPM way”, which particularly draws strength in
positively committing City resources in the project.
§
Partnerships may be expanded from the city-to-city in the
Philippines to Philippine city-to-regional city and globally.
Innovative partnership mechanisms may be evolved to
sharpen approaches, methodologies/tools and even the
paradigm
on
sustainable
urbanization.
Shared
documentations of experiences and reflections on the
SCP/LA21 process and framework will be part of the
building of the common future for all peoples of the world.
The project will be active in the international discourse on
sustainable urbanization.
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
PHILIPPINES
Local Environmental Planning and Management in Lipa
City , Tagbilaran City, Cagayan De Oro City
connection to the Visayan islands. Travelling towards the central
portion of the island about 2 hours away are the muslim
provinces of Lanao Del Sur and Lanao Del Norte, on the north
are the logging and mineral exploring towns and urban center of
Surigao City in the provinces of Surigao Del Norte and Sur, and
on the south and east are coastal towns of Misamis Oriental and
Occidental provinces, mountain ranges where most of the
indigenous peoples, muslim communities and settlers from the
Visayan islands habitate.
Applications of the SCP/LA21 Approach in
Urban Environmental Go vernance in Three
Secondary Cities in the Philippines
1.0 Introduction
This documentation must be read in conjunction with the national
paper submitted separately as contribution to the Havana global
meeting of SCP/LA21 approach applicators in the Philippines. It
covers the experiences of the three demonstration cities of the
Local Environmental Planning and Management (LEPM) Project
(1998-2001). Some current data and information on the Cities’
performance past the LEPM Project life is indicated, with focus
on the up scaling and mainstreaming efforts of the Cities,
otherwise, the woven documentation is about the experience of
the Cities.
Politically, the City has had mixtures of executives from
traditional political families and upcoming and rising
professionals schooled from universities in the country and
abroad.
3.0 Structure of the document
The report answered the 9-point guideline in sequence. However,
since many of the guide questions are closely linked, reference to
earlier answers is cited.
2.0 The Cities
In the following sections, more description on the City are
provided.
4.0 SCP/LA21 experience of the Cities
Lipa City is west of Metro Manila about 80 kilometers from the
outskirts of the big City. The region is landlocked, but the City
itself is in the slopes of Mt. Malarayat due west and the Taal
ridge on the north. Coming from the east side (Laguna Lake), the
land travel provides a well-graded pediment slopes, which gently
undulates and rises until the City center. Further west about 18
kilometers away is Batangas City, which is a fast industrializing
coastal City, so that the shared boundary are some up-stream
industries, otherwise, the City is thriving on primary industry
such as poultry and piggery, and leisure (mainly golf courses)
resorts. With the expanding industrialization in the east, Lipa
City has become a “service City”.
Guideline no. 1: Compared with past city management
“business as usual”, explain how SCP/LA21 activities in your
city have contributed to positive changes (innovations) in the
approach applied in various aspect of city management, such as
stakeholders participation, land use planning, service delivery,
environmental management, urban poverty reduction, others.
An updated City Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) is
required under the Local Government Code (RA7160) for the
City to transact resource generation activities with the national
government like collecting their share of the internal revenue
allocation, development loan negotiations, and as basis for
investment projects, which are classified as environmentally
critical project or located in environmentally critical areas. The
operational policy for this CLUP is a Zoning Ordinance. In the
CLUP formulation guidelines, the City generates the socioeconomic profile as reference for the planning process. The
environment sector is considered as an economic resource. Figure
1 following illustrates a proposal by the Integrated Environmental
Management for Sustainable Development Programme (this was
the precursor programme leading to the Local EPM Project) to
situate, in fact later create a niche for planning and subsequently
management of the environment in City governance. The
proposal had a stiff opposition from the national government, and
was unsuccessful to move the publication of guidebooks on
CLUP formulation to actual conduct.
Politically, the City is typical of other Philippine Cities with
traditional rich and influential clans dominate the political scene,
although the City has had present-schooled professionals as
elected officials.
Tagbilaran City is the premier City of the island Bohol province
which is the 5th largest in the country, in terms of area. It is a
coastal City with an islet connected by a single bridge, which
serves as a major City resort area. Since the province is close to
Cebu where Spain first landed, the City structure still resembles
old Spanish towns and plaza with imposing churches. Similar to
Lipa City, it is thriving on primary industry with a couple of up stream industries, and is a favorite destination of tourists due to
its unique biodiversity, beaches and culture.
The experience of Lipa City in sensitizing the CLUP on
environment is worth mentioning at this point. The City CLUP
was formulated according to a national Memorandum Circular
2001-77 and thereafter 2002-30, however, the City decided to
enhance further the Plan by treating the environment as a special
sector. The timing of entry of the LEPM
Politically, the City has had executives from both traditional and
present-schooled professionals.
Cagayan De Oro City is a sprawling industrializing City in the
north-central coasts of the island of Mindanao, serving as a major
43
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Article I. Provincial Physical Framework
Plan/Comprehensive Land Use Plan
PROTECTED
AREAS POLICY
POLICY
FRAMEWORK
PRODUCTION
AREAS POLICY
SETTLEMENT
AREAS POLICY
ENVIRONMENTAL
STRATEGIC
ENVIRONMENTAL
INFRASTRUC TURE AREAS
POLICY
OTHER NATIONAL/
REGIONAL AREA
PLANS
IMPLICATIONS
PLAN
COMPEHENSIVE
DEVELOPMENT
OR ACTION
PLANS
ENV AND
NATURAL
RESOURCES
MGT. PLAN
SOCIAL
DEV’T
ECON
DEV’T
PHYSICAL
DEV’T
PLAN
PLAN
PLAN
ENVIRONMENTAL
INSTITUTIONAL
DEV’T
PLAN
OTHER
AGENCY
SECTORAL
PLANS
IMPLICATIONS
IMPLEMENTATION
INSTRUMENTS
Section 1.01 LEGISLATIONS
Local Development
Investment Plan
“SOFT”
“HARD”
PROJECTS
PROJECTS
Section 1.04
BUDGET
Section 1.03
REGULATION
MONITORING AND
EVALUATION
Section 1.02
EFFECTS AND IMPACTS
Figure 1. Locational Status of Environmental Planning in the City
Project then was perfect, as also there were mounting requests
from City residents to rationalize the land use of the City with the
increasing demand for space as well as basic services like water,
transport, housing and garbage disposal by the growing
44
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
population, business investors and industry. The LEPM Project
Deputy Manager was assigned to the task. Currently, the CLUP
has a clear environmental sector plan (Strategic Environmental
Management Plan) addressing the need for effective and efficient
garbage disposal and reduction, water sourcing and conservation,
City greening among others. A multi-sectoral City Ecological
Solid Waste Management Board is administering the solid
wastes, the members of which come from the Task Forces and
Issue Working Groups of the LEPM Project.
The SCP/LA21 approach influenced the planning attitude and
process of the three demonstration Cities. In both Tagbilaran and
Cagayan De Oro Cities, the LEPM Project had to convince City
executives and officers for the need for a discreet environmental
plan, and secondly, on the need to go through a multi-stakeholder
planning process. For example, the generation of the
environmental profile, strategy plan, and action plan were all
conducted through broad-base and bottom-up processes with
participation of nearly all sectors of the City. Admittedly, there
was resistance on the participatory process during the initial
stages of the planning process, particularly coming from the City
planners, technocrats and industry who were concerned on the
efficiency of the system, but this attitude was easy to tackle
through open negotiations. In the end, outputs were delivered as
scheduled. There were no dropouts through the planning process
or even when Issue Working Groups were tasked to implement
the demonstration projects.
progressive decision-making on protecting and ensuring that the
biophysical environment of the City sustains the input yields of
resources needed by the population. City dwellers know that data
on water, air and land quality are available.
The demonstration projects implemented by the Cities were
earlier identified as priority bankable development–environment
projects. A common project was on solid waste manage ment, and
for Cagayan De Oro and Lipa Cities, the demonstration projects
were up-scaled. Cagayan De Oro City got additional funds for
wider solid waste management project while Lipa City
established the City SWM Board.
Guideline no. 2: Explain local factors that have facilitated
or/and obstructed the SCP/LA21 activities in your city to
contribute to the changes you explained above. In case they
were obstacles, how were they overcome? Explain the
mechanisms that have been created to support the development
of these innovations. Analyse if these mechanisms are
sufficient/adequate, and explain how they could be enhanced.
So that the constraining factors are not taken out of context, a
brief situation of the environmental management of the Cities is
provided. For example, on the system of governance, the
Philippine Constitution and RA 7160 have devolved more powers
to the City for efficient execution, and for effective delivery of
environmental services to constituencies. Particularly, the Mayor
and the Council execute the rights and powers of the local
government. The City ENRO, on the one hand, formulates and
implements the plan for the environment and natural resources
sector. On law and policy making, there is a mix of ordinances on
environment and natural resources protection in the
demonstration Cities, although, Cagayan De Oro City has
codified ENR-related city ordinances until 1994. On the one
hand, Tagbilaran City has come up with a draft of a City
Environmental Code but has been found to be too genera l and
land use bias. Lipa City has yet to start preparing its own Code.
The general flow diagram of the appraisal, permitting and
licensing in the ENR-related City government structure is shown
in Figure 2 below. The LTO and DENR are national executing
agencies.
Part of the commitment of the three demonstration Cities to the
LEPM Project was to establish the City Environment and Natural
Resources Office (City ENRO) with regular staff and annual
budget. Both Lipa and Cagayan De Oro Cities have functional
City ENROs while three City units, namely, the City Planning
and Development Office, General Services Office and the City
Mayor’s Office, share the Tagbilaran City’s environmental
management function. In other words, the institutional requisite
for continuing urban environment management is in place. These
arrangements suggest the importance given to the environment
sector, vis-à-vis the City development and conservation
directions.
The emphasis on knowledge management techniques like the
EMIS provide the City opportunities to systematize
environmental data and information for iterative planning and
• Develops and implements procedures and standards for review of business
application prior to approval, or prior to issuance by Mayor’s certification
• Requires business applications for City Mayor approval or certification for
those covered by EIA process to be subjected for review by the City ENRO
• Enforces anti-smoke belching ordinance, and provides LTO with a
list of violators for non -renewal of vehicle registration
• Subjects all vehicles for registration to anti- smoke belching test
• Extends assistance in water quality analysis/ambient monitoring
• Requires project proponent to submit analysis of water sources
City Environment and
Natural Resources
Office
Permitting and
Licensing Division
Land transportation
office
City Water District
DENR
• Amends administrative orders to increase City ENRO’s role in EIA
process as enumerated above, furnishes copies of EIAs reports/ECCs
to City ENRO, and activates the Multipartite Monitoring Team with the City ENRO.
• Acts as a co -organizer in the scoping process with the project proponent under the supervision of
DENR, recommends a city representative/expert as member of the EIA review committee, enforces
Cease and Desist Order (CDO) issued by the Pollution Adjudication Board, and recommends local
hearing officer, mediator or conciliator from the city to facilitate conflict resolution between project
proponent and contesting parties.
Figure 2. City ENRO-biased coordination.
45
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Inadequate funding support and deficient institutional capacity
for environmental management are common realities of the
Demonstration Cities, which pose as threat to what has been
established by the Local EPM Project. However, the Cities could
exercise full autonomy to secure domestic and foreign grants
without the need for national government approval, and build
partnership arrangements among Cities and with the private
sector, to help overcome its financial constraints. Partnership
between public and private sectors for environmental protection
has emerged as an alternative mechanism of financial
arrangements as experienced by the private sector in Cagayan De
Oro.
Table 1. Priority problems facing the City ENRO in integrating EPM.
Priority
Lipa City
Tagbilaran City
Cagayan De Oro City
City Units
Private Sector
Private Sector
City Units
Private Sector
1
Low public support
2
Low environmental
consciousness
Low environmental
consciousness
Low public support
Complex environmental
protection methods
Low environmental
consciousness
Lack of appropriate
ordinances
Low public support
3
Inadequate/
unsupportive
leadership of
departments
Complex
environmental
protection methods
-
Inadequate/unsupportive
leadership of departments
Lack of interorganizational
communication
Complex environmental
protection methods
Lack of appropriate
ordinances
Lack of interorganizational
communication
Complex environmental
protection methods
Lack of interorganizational
communication
Lack of appropriate
ordinances
Lack of appropriate
ordinanc es
Low environmental
consciousness
Inadequate/unsupportive
leadership of institutions
-
Inadequate/unsupportive
leadership of departments
Lack of interorganizational
communication
Lack of appropriate
ordinances
-
Confused over coverage
of environmental
protection
Inadequate/unsupportive
leadership of institutions
-
-
-
-
Confused over
coverage of
environmental
protection
-
Inadequate/unsupportive
leadership of
departments
Low public support
4
5
6
7
8
-
While the political commitment of the local chief executive to the
LEPM Project may have been critical to the EPM work,
especially during the initial stages, the implementation of the
project was far from being smooth. Among the typical early
arguments against the SCP/LA21 approach were, (1) the
proposed planning is lengthy, too laborious and that data on the
environment sector has been adequately handled by the socioeconomic profiling activity, see Fig. 1, (2) it is expensive to
conduct the technical sampling, tests, and assessment on the
environment, besides not having the budgetary allocation, and
Division Chiefs would not dare tinker with approved budget
leaving nothing for non-budgeted introductions such as the
LEPM Project, (3) there are too many sectoral plans of the City,
and an additional plan adds to the confusion of implementers, and
(4) the City Planning and Development Office does not have the
environmental expertise for the demands of the exercise. In
response, the LEPM Project had to thoroughly explain the
benefits by showing experiences of Cities worldwide and
continuously advocate for the need for such an intervention in the
City environmental governance. LEPM champions had to be
located and mobilized for greater pressure on the City
government to connect and eventually apply the SCP/LA21
approach to planning and management. Capacity building
activities like orientation-workshops, training, exposure and cross
visits, attendance to international conferences, CapB needs
assessments, education module development and training,
institutional and policy studies, and provision of supply and
equipment support along with special training were programmed
-
to shape a critical mass among the City stakeholders to pursue the
SCP/LA21 approach in environmental governance. Such CapB
activities were continued, while new modules and training were
evolved like the EMIS and bankable project concept packaging.
Technical service providers such as the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Department of
Interior and Local Government (DILG), League of Cities in the
Philippines (LCP), academe, civil society and business were
linked and invited to actively participate through the process.
Respective Memorandum of Understanding was executed
between and among these institutions and organizations.
The three Cities differ in their process of institutionalization of
the City ENRO. Even the case of Cagayan De Oro City, which is
the most advanced among the demonstration Cities is in the
process of completing the phases of institutionalisation, although
a City ENRO is already existing. The four-process
institutionalisation was discussed during the implementation of
the LEPM Project, as follows:
46
§
Clarification/redefinition of the role and status of City
ENRO within the context of the Local Government Code
especially the devolved ENR functions, and the challenges
imposed by the key environmental issues identified in the
City Environmental Profiles and related project documents.
§
Definition of the new structure of City ENRO that can be
gradually filled-up in terms of personnel complement over a
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
period of time (i.e., 3-10 years) to allow the City
government to raise funds for personnel salaries and related
benefits, and for regular maintenance and operating
expenses. The specific functions of each division and
section in the new structure were clearly spelled out by
taking into account the redefined role of the City ENRO.
§
§
management, and explain how the policy, legislative and
administrative instruments are being developed, improved and
used to institutionalise such innovations. Review also how these
innovations are bei ng integrated in the daily way the various
local actors conduct their business.
The main office tasked to orchestrate and sustain the EPM
momentum in the City is the Environment and Natural Resources
Office, along with support from the civil society organizations.
Conceptually, the Issue Working Groups, which have multisectoral representation is the fora for which the EPM discourse
continually grow with changes occurring in the City.
Identification and definition of staffing requirements for
each division and section of the City ENRO, along with the
minimum qualification standards (i.e., education and
experience) for each position. As the ideal size of the
personnel may be difficult to be financially supported right
at the start of restructuring implementation, it is more
realistic to adopt a p hased approach to personnel
recruitment.
(a) Cagayan De Oro City ENRO
Currently, the Cagayan De Oro City Environmental Office have
seconded staff or loaned from various Departments and Divisions
of the City government. There are indications that the Office will
be regarded as a regular unit of the City government in the next
year or so. With the GO-FAR national project of the DILG (see
national paper), which utilized the experience of the three
barangays of the LEPM Project, the institutionalization of the
Office will be given substantial push.
Legitimization of the new organization, role, staff and
budget support for the restructured City ENRO with a status
of a regular department via the issuance of a City ordinance
to cover all these elements.
Guideline no. 3: If you think of the positive changes SCP/LA21
activities in your city have contributed as innovations, explain
how such innovations have been documented, disseminated and
recognised by various city-development partners.
The City EPM Project was able to leverage funds for
mainstreaming solid waste management with support from the
European Union, but the greater impact is that the City
SCP/LA21 experience is used as national model for replication
(GO-FAR, see national paper). As regards budgeting, the City
has spent for environmental protection and management such as
curbing smoke belching, drainage, pollution management,
greening, fishery development and others in 1995, and continues
to allocate funds for the said purposes until today. This behavior
of allocating resources of the City indicates the high level of
environmental consciousness of the City Officers.
Firstly, the Cities of Lipa, Tagbilaran and Cagayan De Oro are
members of the League of Cities of the Philippines, which hold
annual City sharing of experiences and other conferences and
meetings. Essentially, this is the venue for the three Cities to
inform and expand to other Cities within the concept of City
complementarity’s. In these meetings and conferences,
brochures, reports and large scale or simple documentation on the
experiences are distributed. Also, there is the DILG, which
provides documentation services to the Cities.
EPM news spread through the advocacies of civil society
organizations, which remained active after the termination of the
project. For example, the PUSOD Foundation, which produces
BALIKAS, a local newsletter on environment, has been the
venue for disseminating the EPM process framework and
methodologies. Subsequently, these views are picked up by the
participating academic institutions like the De La Salle
University in Lipa City, Xavier University and Liceo De Cagayan
in Cagayan De Oro and University of Bohol in Tagbilaran City
and used as examples in classroom teaching and student research.
(b) Tagbilaran City Environmental Office
The City environmental management tasks are presently lodged
with the CPDO. Earlier, a City-Environmental Management
Office was located with the Office of the Mayor and seconded
several staff from the various departments.
Taking off from the initial efforts of the Local EPM Project, an
up -scaled solid waste management design is being implemented
by the City, substantially reducing the scale of a sanitary landfill
as provided by law. A private sector investment was tapped to
manage the solid wastes with essential services like promoting
segregation at source, dump site, and hauling of wastes to dump
site are counterparts of the City. Anot her important effort is the
creation of an uptown site of the City, the plan of which is being
formulated using techniques and methods of the SCP/LA21
approach.
The following documentation of the Local EPM Project were
distributed widely in the Cities concerned.
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
City Environmental Profile of Lipa, Cagayan De Oro and
Tagbilaran Cities
CLUP Cagayan De Oro integrated with environmental
information and plan
Issues working papers (6 in Lipa City, 5 in Tagbilaran, 5 in
Cagayan De Oro)
Environmental Strategy Plan of Lipa, Tagbilaran and
Cagayan De Oro Cities
Packaged development project concepts as demonstration
projects (2 in Lipa City, 3 in Tagbilaran City and 3 in
Cagayan De Oro City)
Synthesis of EPM City experience, Phase1 (every City)
City Action Plan
(c) Lipa City ENRO
The City ENRO was established as a line department with a
budget, and composed of the, (a) Environmental and Waste
Management Division from the former Public Services Division,
and (b) Parks, Protected Areas, Wildlife, Forestry and Mining
Division. However, only the EWMD is functional and
concentrated on solid waste management. It is coordinating, in
fact serving as the secretariat of the Ecological Solid Waste
Management Board.
Guideline no. 4: Review how the innovations you explained
above are being integrated/applied into the daily routine of city
47
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
A continuing EPM work is being done in the City Planning and
Development Office (the Local EPM Unit was housed in this
department), particularly focusing on the integration of
environmental concerns and ensuring the SCP process in
planning activities.
City governance. However, they keep very close coordination
with the City Mayor, Administrator, ENR and planning offices.
The Task Force projects that as soon as the formulation process is
completed, they would have gathered wide support from
stakeholders and “pressuring” the City Council to legislate the
strategy plan. Such a technique grew from the solid waste
management experience when they convinced the village LGU to
issue a resolution on solid waste management, which was then
picked up by the City Council. The box following is a section of
the ordinance on two levels, while written in the vernacular for
wider understanding of the City population, is attached to
emphasize the approach taken by the LEPM Project.
Apart from the efforts of the formal structures, a creative way of
pursuing the SCP/LA21 approach has evolved as a response to
the political intramurals within the City government. A Task
Force on Strategy Planning composed of “EPMers” which
participated in the Local EPM Project is leading the formulation
of a 7-year Strategy Plan without formally locating itself in the
48
Republika ng Pilipinas
Lungsod ng Lipa
BARANGAY 6
SIPI SA KATITIKAN NG PANGKARANIWANG PAGPUPULONG NG SANGGGUNIANG BARANGAY NG BARANGAY
6, LUNGSOD NG LIPA NA GINANAP SA TAHANAN NG PUNONG BARANGAY NOONG IKA- 14 NG NOBYEMBRE,
2004 (Minutes of meeting and resolution passed by village Council).
MGA DUMALO : (present)
HINDI DUMALO: (absent)
Sa mungkahi nina Kgg. Violeta D. Reyes at Kgg. Enrique F. Mayo at pinangalawahan ni Kgg. Jaime U. Matanguihan, buong
pagkakaisang napagpasiyahan ng mga kasapi ng Sangguniang Barangay ng Barangay 6 ang mga sumusunod (motion to approve
resolution):
KAUTUSANG BILANG 01 - SERYE 2004 (Instruction No.)
KAUTUSAN NAGTATAKDA SA MALAWAKANG PAGBUBUKOD-BUKOD NG MGA BASURA MULA SA
PINANGGALINGAN AT MAGKAHIWALAY NA PANGONGOLEKTA NG MGA ITO PARA SA MGA MAMAMAYAN,
MGA BAHAY-KALAKAL, MGA INSTITUSYON, MGA ESTABLISIMENTONG KOMERSIYAL SA BARANGAY 6 NA
NAAYON SA ITINAKDA NG BATAS REPUBLIKA BLG. 9003 (ecological management of solid wastes).
...
BUONG PAGKAKAISANG PINAGTIBAY NGAYONG IKA-15 NG NOBYEMBRE, 2004. (approved)
AKING PINATUTUNAYAN ANG KATUMPAKAN NG SIPI SA KATITIKAN NG PINAGPULUNGAN NG SANGGUNIANG
BARANGAY NG BARANGAY 6 NA GINANAP SA TAHANAN NG PUNONG BARANGAY NOONG IKA-14 NG
NOBYEMBRE,2004 (date and place).
HEIDELIZA M. SILVA
Kalihim ng Barangay (Secretary)
Nagpatotoo : (approved)
Signed by members of the Council
REPUBLIKA NG PILIPINAS
LUNGSOD NG LIPA ( City Of Lipa)
ORDINANSA BLG. ____. SERYE 2004 (Ordinance No.)
KAUTUSAN SA PANGMALAWAKANG PANGKAKALIKASAN NA PAMAMAHALA NG MGA
BASURA SA LAHAT NG BARANGAY, MGA BAHAY-KALAKAL, MGA INSTITUSYON, MGA
ESTABLISIMENTONG INDUSTRIYAL AT MGA LUGAR NA PANG-AGRIKULTURA SA
LUNGSOD NG LIPA NA NAAYON SA ITINAKDA NG BATAS REPUBLIKA BLG. 9003 (Title:
implementing solid waste management according to Republic Act 9003).
PANGKAT 1 (Article 1)
Pamagat ng Ordinansa
Seksiyon 49. Pasisimulan. Ang ordinansang ito ay ipapatupad sa sandaling sinang-ayonan ng Sanguniang
Panglungsod at na ipalathala sa mga opisyal na pahayagan sa lahat ng Lungsod at Munisipalidad sa buong
Probinsiya ng Batangas sa loob ng sampung araw. (Effectivity)
Pangkat 12
Mga Panghuli Iba Pang Mga Takda
Buong pagkakaisang pinagtibay ngayong ika-_____ ng __________, 2004 sa Lungsod ng Lipa.
LYDIO B. LOPEZ
Presiding Officer
Pinatutunayan ni (attested):
MICAH MARALIT
Secretary
Sanguniang Panglungsod
Pinahihintulutan ni (approved):
VILMA SANTOS RECTO
City Mayor
Guideline no. 5: What type of technical inputs has been
received from support institutions to enhance the innovations
you have explained above, and where has it come from?
Explain which additional support would be required and
through which mechanisms local actors could contribute to
define them.
§
Training - Regional NEAs like DENR, DILG and DepEd
provide training inputs in relation to their mandate. National
programs and international organizations also conduct
orientation-seminars. However, from initial discussions with
City officials, training on the SCP/LA21 tools and
instruments have been stalled from the time that the Local
EPM Project terminated. The City ENROs felt that they still
need supervision to conduct the training themselves, except
for some areas on the EMIS, stakeholders participation, and
group dynamics which they have developed expertise.
§
Advocacy education – the civil society groups are active on
this essential task, sustaining the level of awareness of the
population on the SCP/LA21 approach to sustainable
urbanization.
§
Development projects – most of the projects are supported
by international organizations such as the UN bodies and
others. These are mostly for capacity build up, but those
from loaning institutions are usually a combination of
capacitation, infrastructure and economic venture.
On the main, the technical support to the Cities come from local
institutions such as the academe, civil society, and business.
Regional offices of National Executing Agencies also provide
inputs. The range of inputs comes in the form of the following:
§
Specialist advise – working concepts and skills to implement
specific development projects are volunteered by academics,
professional consultants, and practitioners living in the City.
The proposals are either institutional or individual, by
nature. The key groups providing inputs are the following:
§
University of Bohol (Tagbilaran City) – City
planning for the uptown site development
§
Xavier University (Cagayan De Oro City) – Solid
waste management
§
Liceo De Cagayan (Cagayan De Oro City) – River
protection
§
De La Salle University (Lipa City) – City planning
§
Associations of Professional Engineers, Architects,
Nutritionists, Environmental Planners
The concept of shaping institutions with specialist advise to
“anchor the SCP/EPM process” in the City is relevant in
ascertaining that capacity building on the methods, tools and
instruments shall be continuing and evolving with the
urbanization demands of the City. The Asian Institute of
Management, University of the Philippines-School of Urban and
Regional Planning, and Liceo De Cagayan are identified as
anchor institutions of the SCP/LA21 approach. However, an
expanded concept is being studied (see national paper) to
categorize anchor organizations as follows:
§
§
§
§
Anchor institution for capacity building – this institution
will facilitate the development of curricula on broad base
and bottom up governance (operationally, in planning and
management) for sustainable cities, both for formal and nonformal education, and develop pools of SCP/LA21knowledgeable and skilled planners, policy makers and
managers of cities.
Anchor institution for mainstreaming in city government –
this institution will facilitate the formulation of standards for
sustainable cities, operationalization of the SCP/LA21
approach to urban governance, with particular emphasis on
building capacity of city government officials and staff, and
supervision monitoring of implementation of SD projects.
Anchor institution for advocacy and stakeholder
mobilization – this institution will facilitate sustained IEC
on the SCP/LA21 approach, policy discourse on sustainable
urban governance, and in the mobilization of the different
city stakeholders to undertake the governance approach.
Guideline no. 6: What type of national policy, legislative and
administrative support has been received to enhance the
innovations you have explained above, and where has it come
from? Explain which additional support would be required and
through which mechanisms local actors could contribute to
define them.
It is difficult to establish the connection between the City EPM
efforts and provision of national policy environment. In fact,
these appear discontinuous at times. There is of course the
League of Cities in the Philippines where the Cities could use as
venue for advocacy, but it will only be through their respective
representatives to congress that the Cities will be able to pass
proposals for national legislation. NEAs, on the one hand, could
issue policy guidelines on existing laws, but they need to be
directly involved in the SCP/LA21 City efforts to reflect national
policy guidelines for use by the Cities.
In the national paper, the National Support Program on ENR
Planning and Management of the DENR, which was supposed to
provide the policy and technical support to the Cities was
discussed, although unfortunately, the program was short lived. If
the concept is revived, it is important to re-cast the framework
within the identified national mainstreaming facility of the DILG,
which is the GO-FAR project.
Guideline no. 7: Urban governance is characterised by various
aspects such as sustainability, subsidiarity, equity, efficiency,
transparency and accountability, civic engagement and
citizenship, and security. How have the SCP/LA21 activities in
your city contributed to improvement in each of these aspects?
Investment – local business, regional and national
corporations have shown interest in putting up ventures on
development projects. The environment for directed City
growth must have provided the encouragement.
Subsidiarity, participation, transparency and accountability – At
the national level, even after the termination of the LEPM
Project, the demonstration Cities have been continually tapped by
the DILG and the LCP to share their experiences to other Cities,
although this effort has not been made purposive or systematized.
As stated earlier, the GO-FAR Project took off from the
experience of Cagayan De Oro City, and most likely the
‘EPMers” of the City will be invited as resource persons by the
other replicating Cities.
Cagayan De Oro City – growing industrial estates
Lipa City – growing chains of retail industry and food
Tagbilaran City – growing leisure and resorts
As a criteria of good urban governance, it is believed that the
participatory and collaborative processes have encouraged City
units to synergize more by exchanging data and information, and
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
sharing expertise on governance, somehow creating cracks in the
“turfs” for more interaction and thus collective action. The scenes
that involved multi-stakeholders discussing issues and agreeing
on solutions together, raise the governance awareness for
transparency and accountability, especially when roles and tasks
are shared by the development players. Such wider space for
more players in urban governance is unusual to the technocratic
top -to-bottom City governance. Just how far will this type of
governance will be pursued remains a challenge for those
convinced on sustainable urbanization as a goal attainable only
through the concerted actions of the City collectivity.
sustainable urbanization. The current arrangement of the UN
Habitat to “assign” an anchor institution to a City is a welcome
intervention, since there was a gap of support since the closure of
the LEPM project in 2001.
5.0 Post note
The experience of the demonstration Cities shows the potential
for wide scale application of the SCP/LA21 approach to
sustainable urbanization. The building of capacities and the
setting up of mechanisms and structures on EPM within the City
government should open opportunities for implementing the
United Nations Development Assistance Framework for the
Philippines (2005-2009) in Cities, and eventually attaining the
millennium development goals until 2015, particularly MDG#7.
There will be resistance to this shift of governance approach. For
example, the process-orientation of the SCP/LA21 approach is
considered by some local chief executives as counterproductive
since it requires so much time to deliver the end-results, which
local chief executives would want achieved within their threeyear period in office. The attitude suggests that the priority of
these politicians is to leave a name or legacy just in case there
would be no second term of office, so that outcomes like learning
through the process is not valued as desired output. This
worldview is personally motivated, but real in City politics, and
anti-developmental. The implication of this very opposing
perspective is on the mainstreaming of the EPM -type of approach
in City governance. It is possible that the succeeding phase of the
SCP/LA21 framework will involve only the “more matured”
Cities and leaving the rest, therefore possibly creating an
imbalance in growth of Cities.
It is early to gauge the other criteria on governance.
Guideline no. 8: How have SCP/LA21 activities in your city
addressed global agendas such as urbanisation (among other
the Habitat Agenda), environment (among other the Agenda 21
and International Environmental Agreements), poverty (among
other the MDG)?
On several occasions, the Cities were invited to participate in
international meetings and conferences wherein they were
requested to share their experience in addressing global concerns
by acting locally. Usually, the papers carry actions taken on the
issues on environmental degradation, poverty, equity, governance
and other global problems. International commitments to
conventions and agenda are part of the study materials that are
discussed in the City, so that relating the local actions with global
development goals are always connected. Further enhancing this
globalizing effort is the presence of UN Habitat and UNDP,
which are on stand-by to provide the international context of the
City actions.
Several EPM tools and methods have been developed or
customized. These must be reprinted and disseminated to City
stakeholders, and studied by relevant City units. Training on the
use of tools and methods is encouraged, and this may be
conducted in collaboration with the LCP, DENR and DILG.
Meanwhile, the ENR Offices must be supported in developing
toolkits and methods to refine further their functions as EPM
units. The anchor institutions will play major roles in these tools
and methodological development while the academics translate
experiences into education modules, both for the formal and nonformal types of training.
Guideline no. 9: Explain the type of support SCP/LA21
activities received from global/international facilities so as to
address the global agendas described above. Explain which
additional support would be required?
The three Cities are recipients of projects supported by the World
Bank, Cities Alliance, USAID, UN Habitat, and UNDP, JICA
and other international donors, which employ similar approaches
on City governance, although not necessarily completing the
SCP/LA21 process framework, thereby creating patches of SCPLA21-type of processes. In other words, these projects have
discreet objectives and methodologies, thus establishing
processes, which may or may not be parallel to the SCP/LA21
approach, in fact confusing at times the City stakeholders.
The mainstreaming of the SCP/LA21 process framework, the
Cities stressed should include implementation of bankable
projects as identified by their environmental strategy plans,
although the process of preparing the project concept, planning
and implementing the project conforms with the SCP/LA21
approach. They believe that other Cities must be recipients of
support, thereby replicating the experience.
The space for participation and collective action established by
the SCP/LA21 process will be sustained with a strengthened City
ENRO. Assistance to this unit will be pivotal in pursuing the
processes defined by the framework as necessary in attaining
51
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
SENEGAL
Programme national d’appui aux Agendas 21 Locaux
El Housseynou Ly, Institut Africain de Gestion Urbaine, IAGU
partir de processus participatifs qui va de l’élaboration de profils
environnementaux, des consultations locales aux produits issus
des résultats des groupes de travail testés et validés par les
forums communautaires. (Identification des besoins, Programme
d’activités, Projets, Partenariat institutionnel, Participation
citoyenne, Accès aux services sociaux de Base, Réduction de la
Pauvreté,
Identification
et
Traitement
des
priorités
environnementales etc.).
Modes de gestion traditionnelle de la Ville au
Sénégal et les apports innovants de l’Agenda
21 local en termes de logiques opératoires
L’ Agenda 21 complète, et poursuit les mêmes objectifs
opérationnels des instruments traditionnels de planification
dans les unités urbaines comme les Plans d’Investissement
Communaux (PIC) et les Plans de Développement locaux (PLD)
tout en élargissant et en institutionnalisant l’implication des
populations et de la société civile dans le processus
d’identification des besoins et le choix des options de
développement local urbain.
Tous les plans susmentionnés souffrent de la prise en compte de
la dimension sociale notamment de la prise en compte des
besoins populaires, de l’implication des populations dans la mise
en œuvre des activités et de l’appropriation des citoyens.
L’agenda 21 offre des leviers puissants à la participation de ses
modes d’implication et de suivi des acteurs. Cette dimension a
été fortement soulignée lors de la mise en place du comité 21 de
la ville de Saint Louis en Décembre 2004 et dans la note adressée
au nouveau ministre de l’Urbanisme et de l’Aménagement du
territoire par le conseiller spécial en charge de l’agenda 21. Dans
cette note, le conseiller insiste beaucoup sur l’innovation de
l’agenda 21 par rapport aux exercices traditionnels en mettant
l’accent sur :
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La dimension sociale susmentionnée ;
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L’implication et l’intégration des groupes sociaux non
conventionnels ( associations de base, société civile, groupes
minoritaires, Ongs, pouvoirs périphériques etc.) dans la
conception et la mise en œuvre de ces plans qui se révèlent,
dans leur pluralité, comme des exercices technicistes et
ascendantes ;
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La communication participative pour le développement
urbain ;
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La participation citoyenne ;
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L’appropriation sociale la responsabilité et la transparence
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La prise en compte des discours et des pratiques dans la
mise en œuvre et le suivi des plans du fait de la prise en
compte des agendas et des intérêts souvent différents
Les PIC et les PLD sont des exercices qui aboutissent à des
documents de planification économique et sociale à moyen terme
de la Ville. Ils présentent pour l’entité urbaine la situation
économique et sociale, les objectifs et stratégies de
développement et les projets à réaliser durant la période du plan.
Le PIC bénéficie d’un partenaire financier à travers l’Agence de
Développement Municipal (ADM), ce qui lui garantit un taux
important d’exécution au contraire du PLD. En plus de
l’implication des acteurs non conventionnels, l’agenda 21
promeut un système de communication participative basé sur une
interaction dynamique et constante entre les appareils
municipaux et les autres acteurs du développement local à travers
la construction de coalitions autour de centres d’intérêt de la Ville
avec une mobilisation des ressources communautaires d’avant
tout.
Le projet d’appui à la formulation des Agendas 21 ol caux
renforce et garantit la dimension sociale des plans d’urbanisme
traditionnels au Sénégal. Il en existe de plusieurs selon le degré
d’élaboration et de précision. Il s’agit du Schéma Directeur
d’Aménagement et d’Urbanisme (SDAU), du Plan d’Urbanisme
de Référence (PUR) et du Plan directeur d’Urbanisme (PDU).
Les plans d’urbanisme tracent les axes de développement à long
terme de la ville concernée par une bonne utilisation de l’espace,
dans une perspective de développement harmonieux. Le caractère
techniciste de ces plans continue de mettre en ligne beaucoup de
suspicions et de réserves dans la communauté des professionnels
de l’urbain qui voient en l’outil agenda 21 une opportunité pour
résorber l’expression d’une insuffisance dans les systèmes
traditionnels de planification urbaine au Sénégal.
Eléments motivateurs et Facteurs bloquant
des innovations promues par l’Agenda 21 au
Sénégal
Facteurs nationaux qui ont facilité l’intégration
innovations dans le cas spécifique de la ville de Louga
D’un autre coté, l’agenda 21 alimente les documents de
planification sectorielle notamment ceux qui intègre les aspects «
décentralisation » dans leur mise en œuvre : C’est le cas du Plan
National du Développement Sanitaire (PNDS) en rapport avec le
Plan de Développement du District Sanitaire (PDDS) et le Plan
Régional de Développement Sanitaire (PRDS). On retrouve cette
même logique dans le Programme National de Lutte contre le
Sida (PNLS) en rapport avec les p lans départementaux et
régionaux, et aussi dans la mise en œuvre du Programme
National d’Actions pour l’Environnement (PNAE). A partir de
ces instruments de politiques, les collectivités locales doivent
élaborées des projets et programmes à mettre en œuvre et le
processus Agenda délivre des données intéressantes collectées à
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52
des
La large diffusion du succès de la ville de Louga a travers la
presse et le lobbying des élu(e) s de la ville, de ONU
HABITAT, de l’IAGU au niveau national et international
comme le Programme de Gestion Urbaine (PGU). Le projet
de la ville de Louga a pu arrimer beaucoup d’institutions et
d’organisations nationales et internationales dans l’exercice.
C’est le cas de l’ADM, du PADELU, des entités de
l’USAID comme le FHI, et le DISC, et des ONG comme
le Gadel, l’Aquadev, sahel international etc. Qui plus est,
les documents issus de l’agenda ont servi de référence pour
d’acteurs intervenant dans la ville. Il faut aussi noter
l’appropriation du projet par les élu(e) s, les autorités
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
§
§
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administratives et le mouvement associatif local et régional.
Ces différents acteurs sont présents dans toutes les instances
régulières du projet (comité de pilotage, groupes de travail
etc.)
Un engagement du Maire, des élus et du conseil municipal ;
Un soutien des autorités publiques, coutumières et celles
religieuses ;
Une méthodologie structurée ;
Des sessions de formation et de planification qui a permis à
tous les acteurs d’avoir une compréhension commune des
outils et des objectifs partagés du projet ;
Une large implication du mouvement associatif, des services
déconcentrés de l’Etat, du secteur privé et des ONG
§
§
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Facteurs nationaux qui ont facilité l’intégration des
innovations dans les nouvelles villes (Tivaoune, Guediawaye,
Matam et Saint Louis)
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§
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Facteurs négatifs qui bloquent et/ou ralentissent l’intégration
des innovations promues par l’agenda 21 dans toutes les villes
(Tivaoune, Guediawaye, Matam, Saint Louis et Louga)
Une forte tradition de planification dans les villes comme
celles de Saint louis et de Guediawaye ;
Une forte volonté politique des administrations municipales
et des élu(e) s en dépit de certaines carences liées aux
moyens disponibles ;
Une disponibilité d’une expertise locale facilement
mobilisable dans toutes les villes élues dans le programme ;
L’existence de projets à caractère participatif impliquant la
municipalité au premier degré comme institution
bénéficiaire ;
Les arrêtés municipaux qui institutionnalisent les unités du
projet au niveau local ;
La signature d’un protocole d’accord liant l’IAGU et les
municipalités a travers l’AMS
§
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Facteurs institutionnels qui ont facilité l’intégration des
innovations
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
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Les incompréhensions et les mésententes sur la répartition
des rôles et des responsabilités dues à l’absence d’un
protocole d’accord entre IAGU et la Municipalité. Seul
ONU HABITAT avait signé avec la Mairie de Louga.
La coïncidence du démarrage du projet avec les
consultations nationales entre 2000 et 2002 (élection
présidentielle, élections législatives ; référendums, élections
municipales etc.). Ces élections ont retardé le projet avec
les changements successifs au niveau du personnel politique
et dans les administrations.
L’absence d’un ministère d’ancrage du projet pour le
compte de la participation du gouvernement du Sénégal.
L’absence de projets démonstratifs financés par l’Agenda 21
compte non tenu des initiatives de l’ONG Aquadev et celles
de Onu Habitat dans le domaine du Vih Sida.
La modicité des ressources municipales en rapport avec
l’ampleur des problèmes soulevés dans les secteurs
transférés (Si la ville de guediawaye a un budget de 1,4
milliards de francs CFA, la ville de Tivaoune bouge avec un
budget de 284 Millions de francs CFA, celle de Matam a un
budget inconsistant de 400 millions de francs CFA) ;
Le taux élevé d’analphabétisme des élus et leur faible
capacité de maîtrise des textes qui organisent la
décentralisation ;
L’empressement des élus et des populations à voir des
actions concrètes en termes de projets ou de programmes
d’activités ;
La lassitude des acteurs au terme de processus participatifs
longs ;
Facteurs institutionnels qui bloquent et/ou ralentissent
l’intégration des innovations promues par l’agenda 21
La décentralisation au Sénégal au travers de la loi 9607 du
22 Mars 1996 qui stipule le transfert d’un certain nombre de
compétences aux municipalités dont (1) l’environnement et
gestion des ressources naturelles, (2) santé, population et
action sociale (3) jeunesse, sport et loisirs (4) Culture (5)
éducation, (6) planification (7) aménagement du territoire,
(8) domaines et (9) urbanisme et Habitat.
Une culture démocratique qui donne l’opportunité aux
citoyens de se prononcer sur les options de développement
local à travers plusieurs canaux de communication dont des
organes de presse libre et indépendante et des cadres de
mobilisation sociale et politique
Le choix d’un ministère d’ancrage du projet représentant le
gouvernement du Sénégal et assurant sa contrepartie en
termes de Participation de l’Etat
La mise en place des comités de développement de quartiers
;
Le soutien des autorités religieuses et coutumières ;
L’existence des documents de gestion urbaine (PIC, PDL ;
Plans sectoriels etc.) ;
L’existence d’ONG et la massivité du mouvement associatif
(OCB, GIE, GPF, ASC etc. ;
L’existence de structures de coordination du secteur public à
l’échelle des collectivités locales au Sénégal ;
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§
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§
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La tentation des élus et des conseillers municipaux à vouloir
circonscrire toutes les activités de l’A21 sur l’horizon
temporel de leur mandat électif ;
Le défaut d’une bonne circulation de l’information sur les
guichets de financement et les conditions d’éligibilité des
projets ;
Les rivalités politiques à l’échelle des conseils municipaux
composé de plusieurs partis politiques et de coalitions
changeantes au gré de l’actualité et des rapports de force
entre les differents partis politiques.
L’absentéisme des maires et des conseillers municipaux qui
le plus souvent sont installés dans la capitale ;
Le partage inégal de l’information au niveau des differents
acteurs du développement local ;
La réticence des municipalités à inter agir avec les ONG au
niveau local et vice versa ;
Le clientélisme politique et les préoccupations immédiates
des élus ;
Solutions réussies/prévues
§
Facteurs négatifs qui bloquent et/ou ralentissent l’intégration
des innovations promues par l’agenda 21 dans la ville de
Louga
§
53
Toutes les villes sont liées à l’IAGU par un protocole
d’accord largement discuté et partagé.Ce protocole est
parrainé par l’AMS .Sa signature a fait l’objet d’une
cérémonie officielle. Les dispositions se trouvant ont été
largement commentées par la presse.
Le MUAT a été choisi comme institution représentant le
gouvernement dans le projet
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
§
§
§
§
§
Les élus et les cadres des collectivités sont formés par
ENDA ECOPOP dans divers domaines de la gestion et de la
planification des collectivités locales sur la base des
modules portant sur les finances locales, le leadership, le
partenariat, la communication sociale, les finances publiques
etc.
Il est prévu la mise en place d’un comité 21 national dans la
perspective d’institutionnaliser l’agenda 21 dans les
politiques et les pratiques municipales
Il est prévu d’élaborer une cartographie des guichets de
financement sous forme de guides et/ou de manuels qui
seront mis à la disposition des municipalités et de l’AMS
La poursuite et l’institutionnalisation des forums
communautaires vont sûrement contribuer à l’intégration des
groupes non conventionnels dans les systèmes de
gouvernance des villes et à pacifier les rapports sur la base
de la promotion de sentiments d’appartenance commune
transcendant les clivages politiques et sociaux.
La mise en œuvre de projets démonstratifs va prévenir les
logiques de démobilisation sociale et de lassitude
projets y relatifs en parrainant les requêtes de financement
au niveau local et/ou national.
Les autres ministères sont faiblement et timidement impliqués
dans le projet. Il s’agit exactement :
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Du Ministère de la Décentralisation et des Collectivités
Locales qui a fourni des documents de référence qui ont
servi de substrat à la formation en direction des élus et va
s’impliquer à la mobilisation des services déconcentrés et la
mobilisation des ressources pour la mise en œuvre des plans
d’actions.
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Du Ministère de l’Environnement et de la Protection de la
Nature qui doit participer à la validation des profils
environnementaux à l’échelle de ses services déconcentrés
et participe aux événements clés du projet
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Du Ministère du Plan et du développement Durable
nouvellement installé suit le projet, au niveau le plus élevé,
après avoir contacté IAGU et doit être impliqué dans les
événements clefs du projet et dans la mobilisation des
ressources pour l’expérimentation sociale des plans
d’actions. La direction de la planification dudit ministère
avait activement participé à l’exercice de LOUGA
notamment au panel des partenaires.
Appui technique pour l’intégration et le
développement des innovations des agendas
21 locaux
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L’IAGU fournit une partie du financement et fonctionne
comme institution d’ancrage avec les responsabilités d’être
un centre de référence documentaire pour les villes et les
institutions partenaires. L’équipe de l’IAGU met en place
les unités de coordination du projet et les moyens en
partenariat avec les villes (comité 21, assistant technique,
plateforme technique etc.) et assure les sessions de
formation sur les outils de l’Agenda 21 local de même que
le suivi technique et administratif des activités du projet.
L’IAGU fait des commentaires sur les documents produits et
appuie les administrations dans l’organisation des
événements clés du projet tout en y participant. L’IAGU va
contribuer à l’identification et à la mobilisation des
partenaires et la mobilisation des guichets de financement
potentiellement intéressés à la mise en œuvre des plans
d’actions et à la réplication du projet dans d’autres villes du
Sénégal.
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ENDA ECOPOP œuvre au renforcement des capacités des
élus dans la maîtrise des textes qui organisent la
décentralisation et dans les domaines connexes comme le
Leadership, la communication sociale, le partenariat, la
levée de financement etc.
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L’Association des Maires du Sénégal (AMS) est un
partenaire stratégique du projet qui a signé avec l’IAGU le
protocole d’accord le liant autres villes. L’AMS participe
aux événements locaux et nationaux, internationaux, à la
mobilisation des ressources et à la diffusion des résultats au
plan national.
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Le Ministère de l’Urbanisme et de l’Aménagement du
territoire (MUAT) facilite l’appui politique et institutionnel
du Gouvernement du Sénégal et mobilise l’ensemble des
partenaires nationaux en relation avec le projet. Le MUAT
contribue au suivi technique du projet a travers ses missions
avec l’IAGU et le HPM de ONU HABITAT, à la
préparation des événements locaux, nationaux et
internationaux et à la mobilisation des guichets de
financement pour la mise en œuvre des plans d’actions et les
Tous les ministères susvisés participent timidement aux activités
des comités 21 locaux es qualité de membres mais reçoivent de
la part de l’IAGU et de ONU HABITAT des informations sur le
projet de manière régulière. La remobilsation de ces ministères
est une priorité au travers des consultations locales, de la mise en
place du comité 21 national.
Appui additionnel prévu et/ou nécessaire
54
§
L’IAGU envisage en relation avec ONU HABITAT, et
l’AMS de produire un document campant la cartographie de
tous les guichets de financement sur le plan national,
régional et international. Ce document qui sera conçu sous
forme de Guide devrait dérouler les guichets de
financements, la texture de leurs propositions, les secteurs
prioritaires, les conditions d’éligibilité etc.
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Le MUAT qui est l’institution d’ancrage du projet pour le
compte du gouvernement du Sénégal qui vient d’avoir une
nouvelle équipe suite à un remaniement ministériel;
envisage à la faveur d’une demande expresse de l’IAGU de
réunir tous les secteurs ministériels impliqués en vue de la
mise en place d’un comité 21 national au sein d’une « sous
commission Développement urbain » de la Commission
Nationale de Développement Durable. Le MUAT devrait
davantage appuyer la liaison du projet d’appui à la
formulation des A21 locaux avec les autres programmes
nationaux (DRSP, OMD, PNAE etc.) au travers d’une
stratégie clairement partagée avec l’AMS et les autres
ministères.
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L’AMS devrait bénéficier d’un appui de ONU HABITAT
et de l’IAGU pour le renforcement des relations de
coopération décentralisée entre les villes sénégalaises et les
villes du Nord notamment celles travaillant sur un Agenda
21.
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
06 au 08 Juin 2005) de la ville de Tivaoune a été faite en Wolof.
Tous les papiers et les conclusions des ateliers ont été déroulés
en Wolof avec la mobilisation d’un modérateur expérimenté,
directeur d’un projet national de développement rural implanté
dans ladite ville.
Documentation et diffusion des pratiques
innovantes des l’Agendas 21 locaux au
Sénégal
Le succès de la réplication, l’ancrage et l’institutionnalisation de
l’agenda 21 dépendent en grande partie de la documentation et de
la diffusion des résultats. Cette dimension qui est ressortie de
manière proéminente suite à la première expérience de la ville de
Louga est massivement pris en compte dans le projet d’appui à la
formulation des Agendas 21 locaux qui concerne 4 nouvelles
villes en plus de louga ou des activités de renforcement sont
prévues. En effet l’expérience de louga a été largement
disséminée en direction des ministères, des ONG nationales, des
établissements scolaires, des organisations de société civile, le
secteur privé et les ambassades et autres organismes consulaires.
La production d’articles de vulgarisation sur l’agenda 21 dans le
premier numéro du bulletin électronique de ANUMI sur
l’expérience de Louga par un chargé de programme de l’IAGU
en janvier 2005 et celle parue dans le dernier numéro de la revue
du MUAT par un conseiller technique du Ministre dans le
courant du mois de février 2005.
L’IAGU a en perspective une conception d’un dépliant sur
l’Agenda 21 local et une documentation du cas de Louga.
Aspects des approches Agenda 21
difficilement applicables au regard des
conditions particulières du Sénégal
Sur le plan local et national les rapports d’activités, les rapports
de consultation locale, les forums communautaires, la
participation à des rencontres nationales, la participation à des
émissions radiophoniques à Louga, guediawaye et Dakar, les
conférences organisées a l’échelle des établissements scolaires
par les unités de coordination de LOUGA ont largement
contribué à la dissémination des résultats de l’expérience de
louga et celles des autres villes nouvellement impliquées dans le
projet. Il faut aussi souligner la mobilisation de la presse
nationale au cours de tous les événements clés de l’exercice
présente et celle antécédente de Louga (forum de lancement,
consultation locale, forums communautaires, panel des bailleurs
de fonds etc.). La communication de la ville de louga a beaucoup
influé sur le succès de l’exercice, mais elle s’est faite sans plan de
communication énonçant les étapes majeures, les produits par
cibles .C’est pourquoi, l’IAGU a mis en place un plan de
communication, pour la réplication nationale, sur la base des
leçons et enseignements de l’expérience de LOUGA. Un
consultant a été recruté sur toute la durée du projet. Son rôle est
de concevoir des dossiers de presse pour les journalistes à la
veille de chaque événement, de mobiliser les journalistes, de
cordonner les interviews, de s’assurer de la qualité des
informations produites, de préparer des press book etc.
Les approches difficilement applicables au Sénégal sont :
L’AMS a bénéficié d’un séminaire de sensibilisation sur les
outils, techniques et expériences de l’Agenda 21 local. Elle
participe à l’organisation de tous les ateliers et séminaires
nationaux prévus dans le cadre du projet et aux évènements
majeurs au niveau international liés à l’Agenda 21 local.
Le Secrétaire exécutif et le chargé de programme en charge de
l’agenda 21 ont plusieurs fois été invités à présenter l’expérience
du Sénégal en matière d’agenda 21 dans les ateliers au plan
national et international durant ces 2 années. Les derniers en date
sont les ateliers organisés durant le mois d’Avril 2005
respectivement par la ville de Dakar en partenariat avec l’Institut
International pour le Développement Durable de Vancouver (
Canada) et celui de l’Ecole Nationale d’Economie Appliquée en
partenariat avec la coopération française. L’expérience du
Sénégal a été présentée lors du forum mondial sur la Pauvreté
Urbaine tenue à Marrakech en 2001 et lors du Symposium
international sur les méthodes participatives organisé en Juin
2002 à Niamey au Niger par la coopération belge et l’ONG
Aquadev.
L’utilisation du WOLOF comme langue de travail dans les
exercices de planification des groupes de travail et lors des
ateliers et forums communautaire a largement contribué à
l’acceptabilité sociale de l’Agenda 21. La consultation locale (du
55
§
Une mobilisation continue des acteurs sur la base du
bénévolat (réunions, forums, mobilisation de l’expertise
locale etc.).L’expérience de louga renseigne que la
motivation des acteurs (remboursement des frais de
transport des acteurs) a été un levier de la participation
communautaire. A preuve, le programme Vih Sida et
Gouvernance locale sur financement du PGU a souffert de
l’indisposition de ce montage dans le budget.
§
Une présence physique des maires dans les réunions
importantes du fait du poids des charges sociales et
politiques.Les maires au Sénégal occupent, dans leur
écrasante majorité, d’autres fonctions administratives dans
le secteur public ou celui du privé. Ils sont pour la plupart
des maires non résidents installés dans la capitale. Une
récente mesure prévoit, à long de les sédentariser par la mise
à disposition de salaires à la place des indemnités.
§
Une participation financière des municipalités dans les frais
de fonctionnement des unités de coordination (frais de
téléphone, fax, déplacement des assistants techniques,
documentation etc.) est difficilement mise en œuvre. Les
municipalités ont de réelles contraintes à procéder à des
décaissements a cause de la lourdeur du contrôle à posteriori
et de la lenteur de la mise à disposition des fonds de
dotation.
§
Un dialogue constant et régulier entre les associations des
élus et les ministères impliqués dans l’exercice du Sénégal.
L’AMS est à la recherche d’une légitimité sociale et
institutionnelle devant les résistances issues de la tradition
jacobine de la gestion des affaires publiques dont le
couvercle résiste encore à la décentralisation, en dépit des
avancées significatives qui ont été notées ces dernières
années.
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
est de susciter la création d’une sous commission
collectivités locales au sein du CNDD.
Adaptation et intégration des innovations au
niveau national
§
Municipalités et AMS
§
§
§
Le projet d’appui à la formulation des agendas 21 locaux
vise à doter les municipalités d’un plan stratégique de
développement urbain et permettra au Sénégal de se doter
des modalités institutionnelles de production et de gestion
d’Agendas 21 locaux et de mettre en place des modalités
pérennes d’appui aux collectivités locales dans le domaine
de la planification participative appliqué aux problématiques
de l’environnement.
Structures universitaires
Le projet vise à soutenir le développement des capacités des
collectivités locales et de leurs partenaires dans des villes
secondaires du Sénégal, pour conduire des processus
participatifs de préparation d’Agendas 21 locaux, monter
des projets prioritaires et mobiliser les ressources
nécessaires à la mise en œuvre des plans d’action de ces
Agendas 21.
le projet renforcera également les capacités de l'Association
des Maires du Sénégal à participer à l’élaboration et la mise
en œuvre des volets urbains des stratégies nationales telles
que le Document Stratégique de Réduction de la Pauvreté (
DRSP) et le Plan National Action sur l’Environnement (
PNAE) et à accompagner les pouvoirs publics dans la mise
en œuvre du plan d’action et des recommandations issus des
deux campagnes globales sur la sécurité de l’occupation
foncière et immobilière et la gouvernance urbaine. Le projet
aidera les municipalités à élaborer une stratégie de
développement (élaboration d’un plan stratégique de
développement urbain).
§
Le projet envisage de développer des modules de formation
en partenariat avec l’ENEA et L’ISE. Ces modules seront
administrés dans le secteur universitaire pour construire une
communauté de spécialistes en Agenda 21 local et des
sessions spéciales seront organisées en direction des
associations d’élus, des ONG nationales, et des mouvements
associatifs.
§
Les discussions avec l’ISE et l’ENEA sont en cours et il est
prévu la signature de protocoles d’accord pour sceller de
manière administrative les liens avec le programme en
attendant de finaliser la revue et l’adaptation de tous les
manuels du programme « cités durables » dans le contexte
francophone.
Adaptation et intégration de la démarche au
niveau mondial
§
Les acteurs nationaux de l’Agenda 21 local sont très
engagés dans les débats internationaux. Par exemple on
peut citer la communication du ministre de l’Urbanisme et
de l’Aménagement du territoire lors du sommet mondial sur
le développement durable à New York en Avril 2005, qui a
porté en partie sur l’agenda 21 au Sénégal. L’IAGU a été
approche pour la préparation de ce sommet, par le ministère
du Plan et du développement durable pour disposer de toutes
les informations relatives au projet, lesquelles ont été
transférées au Directeur de la Planification. C’est lors de ce
sommet que l’IAGU a été contacté par le maire de Bissau
via le conseiller technique du MUAT qui suit le projet et qui
est intervenu dans les débats pour énoncer les objectifs
opérationnels et la philosophie du programme de ONU
HABITAT au Sénégal. La Primature et cinq ministres ont
participé à ce sommet (MUAT, Santé et Prévention,
Assainissement, Plan et développement durable et
Environnement).
§
Les thèmes environnementaux prioritaires des villes
sénégalaises en rapport avec les agendas mondiaux sont : la
gestion des déchets solides et celle dangereux, l’érosion des
cotes en relation avec les changements climatiques, l’accès à
l’eau potable et à l’assainissement, l’habitat irrégulier, les
inondations, la mobilité urbaine dans la capitale et les chefs
lieux de région, la désertification et le péril plastique.
§
L’état des objectifs sur le millénaire pour le développement
et les priorités sur les DRSP ont été intégrés autant que faire
se peut et selon les logiques du canevas adopté dans les
profils environnementaux des villes concernés par le
programme de même que les indicateurs sur la gouvernance
urbaine dans les chapitres IV des profils des villes.
§
Les types d’appui reçu au plan international de la part des
mécanismes internationaux sont : les guides produits qui
servent de référence (PNUD pour les OMD, ONU
ONG et organisations de la société civile
§
Le projet appuiera l’IAGU et ENDA à se doter d’une
capacité d’appui aux municipalités pour conduire ces
processus.
Le MUAT et les autres Ministères
§
§
§
Le rôle du HPM est de faciliter les liens entre les
programmes nationaux et l’agenda 21 et il participe à toutes
les activités du projet et les réunions avec les partenaires de
IAGU et de ONU HABITAT.
Le MUAT envisage d’articuler les plans traditionnels (PUR,
SDAU, PDU) avec les agendas 21 locaux dans une logique
de complémentarité. Cette Vision a été clairement énoncé
par le nouveau ministre de l’Urbanisme et de
l’Aménagement du Territoire qui est très sensible à
l’innovation du projet avec l’implication des groupes
communautaires et tous les acteurs de développement
urbain.
Le rôle de l’A21L dans la mise en œuvre des campagnes sur
la gouvernance urbaine et la tenure foncière est de
documenter les problématiques dans chacune des villes
élues par le programme et de sédimenter cette
documentation en une seule pièce qui servira de contribution
à la campagne.
La mise en place du comité 21 national est sous de bons
auspices avec les discussions engagées avec le MUAT par le
HPM et l’IAGU. Le MUAT envisage de convoquer tous les
ministères impliqués dans le projet pour adresser cette
question et visiter les modalités pratiques de la mise en place
de ce comité 21 national en partenariat avec l’AMS. L’idée
56
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
HABITAT pour les OMD notamment le focus sur la Cible
11, le financement pour la production des rapports
diagnostic sur la tenure foncière et la gouvernance urbaine
par ONU HABITAT et celui de l’état des lieux des
indicateurs sur les OMD pour tous les secteurs par le PNUD.
Il faut aussi noter le financement des problématiques
prioritaires définies par le nouveau plan de développement
et les documents sectoriels y afférent. On peut citer le
DRSSP par la Banque mondiale, qui assure aussi le
financement de la Mobilité Urbaine dans la capitale dans le
cadre du Programme de Mobilité Urbaine (PAMU). Le
PNLS et le Programme eau à long terme sont aussi financés
par la Banque Mondiale. La lutte contre le paludisme est
financée par le fonds mondial Vih sida, tuberculose et
Paludisme. Il faut aussi noter la présence qui va
s’accroissant de ONU HABITAT dans les domaines de la
planification participative, l’assainissement urbain, le
renforcement de la décentralisation par la formation des
élus, la restructuration foncière. Le Programme d’Appui à la
Réduction de la Pauvreté (PAREP) est mis en œuvre grâce
au concours financier du Pnud dans le contexte de son
soutien au DRSP de même que le Programme National de
Bonne Gouvernance qui s’inscrit dans le même cadre
stratégique. Il est aussi à souligner la présence de l’OMS, de
ONUSIDA , du BIT et de l’UNICEF dans des programmes
nationaux qui se rapportent à l’enfance, à la santé
maternelle, au Vih Sida et au travail décent qui sont des
thématiques importantes inscrites dans les agendas
mondiaux.
Le type de soutien additionnel requis est
§
d’appuyer davantage les municipalités à s’impliquer dans les
differents volets des programmes nationaux ;
§
L’implication des élus dans les politiques nationales par
l’amélioration des connaissances et des savoirs,
§
le renforcement des capacités de négociation avec les
guichets de financement, l’Etat et les ONG
§
la production de documents sectoriels locaux (OMD, DRSP,
Campagnes mondiales sur la gouvernance et la tenure
foncière etc.) devrait permettre aux municipalités d’être des
acteurs à part entière dans la mise en œuvre des politiques
nationales.
§
La participation des élus aux réunions internationales
organisées par Onu Habitat, le PNUE, la Banque Mondiale
notamment celles
portant sur des thématiques de
développement durable, sur les objectifs du millénaire, sur
les accords internationaux et les conventions internationales
57
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
LOUGA, SENEGAL
Agenda 21 Local de Louga
Equipe de projet
Contexte général de l’agenda 21 local
Cette dynamique a permis de mobiliser les populations lors des
consultations locales pour l’élaboration des projets du PADELU,
notamment dans les domaines de l’éducation, de la santé et de la
voirie communale.
Le processus agenda 21 de louga, grâce à sa démarche innovante
a permis aux différents acteurs qui ont travaillé autour du
programme d’adopter d’autres stratégies plus pertinentes, mieux
élaborées caractérisées par une dimension communautaire de la
gestion de la cité à travers l’identification, la priorisation et la
mise en œuvre des actions. Cette démarche a permis à des acteurs
traditionnellement peu liés dans le passé d’entrer en contact,
d’échanger et de travailler pour une même cause.
Cela a permis la naissance d’initiatives locales grâce à
l’interaction entre les populations elles mêmes et les consultants
locaux recrutés par la municipalité.
En résumé, le processus agenda 21 local de Louga est une
réussite grâce à l’engagement des populations à travers les
groupes de travail et l’assistant technique. Dans sa démarche,
l’agenda 21 a beaucoup innové avec l’implication des
populations dans la formulation des projets après avoir identifié
les problèmes. Cette démarche participative a beaucoup aidé la
municipalité auprès des partenaires au développement. C’est le
même mécanisme qui a été utilisé dans le cadre des projets du
PADELU.
Rôle de la Mairie dans la mise en œuvre du
processus
Coordination du programme au niveau local
La Mairie, grâce à la mise en place d’un dispositif a concouru à
la bonne marche de l’agenda 21 en recrutant un assistant
technique qui a fini par être intégré dans l’équipe municipale
dans laquelle il assure les fonctions de chargé des projets et de la
planification. Par ailleurs, l’institutionnalisation des cadres de
concertation aussi pertinents que le comité de pilotage et les
groupes de travail a favorisé et permis de rendre dynamique la
démarche, en ce sens que les membres desdits cadres se sont
sentis investis d’une mission.
Le poste d’assistant technique est un maillon qui manquait dans
le dispositif municipal. Interface entre la municipalité et
l’ensemble des acteurs communautaires, l’assistant technique
constitue un élément d’appui au maire, au secrétaire général et est
un réceptacle pour tout citoyen désireux d’avoir certaines
informations sur les projets de la commune en termes de
réalisation, de perspectives etc. La création du poste constitue en
soi une bonne chose. Mais il y a une différence entre créer un
poste et doter ce poste des moyens adéquats pour bien remplir sa
mission. Dans la pratique, avec la complicité consciente ou
inconsciente du partenaire technique, l’assistant technique a
joué quasiment le rôle de Coordinateur, ce qui, en son temps a
terriblement frustré celle qui était préposée à cette tâche. Dans
son travail, l’assistant technique n’a pas bénéficié de l’appui de
toute l’équipe municipale. A un moment donné, il a travaillé dans
des conditions très difficiles (pas de téléphone, pas Internet).
L’élargissement des compétences de l’assistant technique est une
responsabilité qui doit aller avec des moyens qu’il n’avait
toujours pas et d’un autre point de vue. Toute convocation ou
invitation à une réunion de groupe de travail ou à un séminaire
est suspendue à la signature d’un adjoint au maire qui n’est pas
toujours présent et disponible à temps, ce qui occasionne des
retards énormes dans l’envoi de tels documents.
La dissémination du message auprès des OCB est certaines fois
assez difficile parce que leurs représentants ne font pas toujours
les restitutions qui s’imposent pour une meilleure mise à niveau
de leurs mandants, d’où la nécessité d’initier des sessions de
formations à leur intention en techniques de communication et
organiser de plus en plus des forum communautaires.
Toutefois, le processus a accusé du retard à cause de la non
implication des conseillers municipaux qui n’ont pas eu une
bonne compréhension du programme. Cela est dû aux nombreux
changements d’équipes municipales. A cela s’ajoutent des
rapports conflictuels entre certains responsables administratifs de
la municipalité, qui ont déteint négativement sur sa mise en
œuvre.
Grâce aux différentes mesures prises par l’autorité municipale, la
démarche a été formalisée et chaque acteur a pu savoir et jouer le
rôle que l’on attendait de lui. Malheureusement, un déficit de
communication avec les populations a causé une difficulté pour
les populations de s’approprier le programme.
Communication autour de l’agenda 21
Certes, il y’a eu le forums communautaires avec, à la clé, une
traduction orale en wolof des travaux. Ce qui a permis de mieux
faire passer le message. Il est dommage que cette traduction se
soit limitée à la parole et non à l’écrit.
Pour les partenaires, la diffusion par la presse écrite et la presse
parlée ainsi que la fourniture des rapports et documents liés au
programme a aidé à la mise en évidence des activités et des
réalisations de l’agenda21 dans la commune.
Partenaires oeuvrant dans le programme
Ce projet est porté conjointement par Enda TM/Ecopop, le
Ministère de l’Urbanisme et de l’Aménagement du Territoire,
l’Institut Africain de Gestion Urbain (IAGU) et le Programme
des Nations Unies pour l’Habitat (ONU Habitat). Institution
d’ancrage, l’IAGU assure l’encadrement technique des différents
agendas 21 locaux, au moment où Enda s’occupe de la
L’agenda 21 a réussi la prouesse de mobiliser les populations
autour de thèmes centraux ayant trait à la gestion de la commune
et représentant les préoccupations réelles et actuelles de la
communauté.
58
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
composante formation et renforcement du leadership des
autorités locales à l’élaboration d’agendas 21 locaux.
L’ensemble de ces activités ont surtout répondu à des besoins de
formation qui malheureusement ne profitent pas toujours à la
cible. Relativement aux élus locaux, il est regrettable de noter que
la plupart du temps, un élu sur deux convoqués assiste à ce genre
de rencontre au moment où les acteurs des OCB insistent pour y.
Par ailleurs, l’appui matériel aussi est à mettre à l’actif des
partenaires tel que l’IAGU qui a renouvelé le matériel
informatique de l’assistant technique qui est du même coup
connecté à Internet.
6. Concours de l’Etat
§
maîtrise d’œuvre sociale mise en place par ENDA pour les
projets du PADELU constitue une innovation de taille pour
une association et une participation responsables des
populations qui doivent bénéficier des projets municipaux
Par voie de suite, la gestion desdits projets et programmes
en devient plus transparente, parce que à plusieurs niveaux,
les populations représentées par les OCB, ont un droit de
regard sur le processus.
Pour réduire la pauvreté de moitié à l’horizon 2015, l’Etat
sénégalais a décidé de mettre en place de manière soutenue, une
politique économique et sociale permettant de relever
significativement ses performances socio-économiques et de
placer le pays sur un sentier de développement humain durable.
A cette fin, le Sénégal a initié en 2000 un processus participatif
de préparation d’une stratégie de réduction de la pauvreté fondée
sur une croissance distributrice et la satisfaction des besoins de
base des populations pauvres. Le consensus autour de cette
stratégie met l’accent sur la nécessité d’une mobilisation des
décideurs politiques, des acteurs nationaux et des partenaires au
développement pour lutter contre la pauvreté et l'exclusion à
travers l’établissement d’un lien étroit entre la réduction de la
pauvreté, le progrès économique et le renforcement des capacités.
La démarche participative retenue par l’Etat du Sénégal pour
élaborer le DSRP a impliqué aussi bien au niveau local que
national l’ensemble des acteurs du secteur public, du secteur
privé, de la société civile et les partenaires au développement.
Cette même démarche participative a prévalu dans le cadre de
l’agenda 21 dont les 3 thématiques principales cadrent
parfaitement avec les
grandes problématiques mondiales
(mobilité urbaine/réduction de la pauvreté), (déchets/gestion de
l’environnement) et (vih/sida/santé des populations)
L’implication de l’Etat à travers le Ministère de l’Urbanisme et
de l’Aménagement du Territoire dans la mise en œuvre de
l’agenda 21 local constitue une initiative très importante qu’il
conviendrait de reproduire avec d’autres ministères tel que celui
de l’environnement.
L’organisation de tables rondes de bailleurs aussi est
d’importance capitale pour la prise en charge des besoins et
budgets arrêtés pour la mise en œuvre des plans d’actions
identifiés dans le cadre des forums communautaires et
consultations locales. Cela permet une synergie des actions des
différents bailleurs.
Agenda 21 et stratégies de développement
La mise en œuvre de l’agenda 21 entre en droite ligne de la
déclaration de Dakar qui prône de nouvelles stratégies et
démarches pour l’atteinte des objectifs de développement du
millénaire. Spécifiquement à Louga, l’agenda 21 a permis
l’implication de certaines couches populaires qui n’avaient
jusque là jamais été impliquées dans des processus de
développement surtout sur les 3 thématiques identifiées que sont
le vih/sida, les déchets et la mobilité urbaine. Aujourd’hui, des
OCB revendiquent leur implication, leur participation et leur
collaboration à l’agenda 21 local. Cela fait plaisir de voir que des
populations veulent intégrer les cadres de concertation de
l’agenda 21 pour participer à l’effort communautaire et municipal
d’une gestion concertée et citoyenne des préoccupations des
populations. Cela induit plusieurs conséquences :
§
Les
responsables
politiques
locaux
impliqueront
nécessairement les populations s’ils veulent la réussite des
projets et programmes mis en œuvre ;
§
L’efficacité est plus garantie puisque les bénéficiaires des
projets et programmes sont impliqués. A cet effet, la
Agenda 21 local et initiatives internationales
L’organisation de forums et de rencontres internationales telles
qu’Alexandrie 2003 et la Havane 2005 constitue des moments
forts de partage entre acteurs d’agenda 21 d’horizons divers.
Mieux que tout cela, des échanges d’expériences, à travers des
voyages, entre les différents agendas des pays ayant en commun
ce programme serait une initiative pertinente de capitalisation
d’expériences. A titre d’exemple on peut citer la ville de Bayamo
à Cuba et Louga au Sénégal sur la problématique de la mobilité
urbaine qui est au cœur des préoccupations des populations.
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
GUEDIAWAYE, SENEGAL
Agenda 21 Local de Guediawaye
Assistant technique
Les activités A21L devraient permettre aux citoyens d’œuvrer
pleinement à l’amélioration de leur cadre de vie du fait de leur
implication parfaite et de la mise à leur disposition d’outils de
planification adaptés et opérationnels.
Le programme A21L est encore dans sa phase d’implantation à
Guédiawaye toutefois, le développement des innovations qu’elles
prônent, est facilité dans la ville par la mise en place d’un certain
nombre de mécanismes d’appui.
De plus, l’innovation majeure, à Guédiawaye sera la recherche
concertée de solutions durables pour la préservation des
ressources environnementales facilitée par l’élaboration et la
mise en oeuvre d’un plan de communication couplé à la mise sur
pied de cadres de coordination (comités21 de ville et
d’arrondissement) regroupant les différents acteurs de la
gouvernance urbaine locale (Etat, Municipalités, Organisations
communautaires de base, ONG, Privé,…)
D’abord, la création d’un poste d’Assistant Technique du projet
dans l’organigramme des services de la ville et son implication à
toutes les activités de développement et tâches de gestion initiées
dans la ville.
Ensuite, l’innovation majeure à Guédiawaye demeure être, la
mise en place dans les cinq (05) communes d’arrondissement, de
« comités21 d’arrondissement », prolongement et clone du
comité 21 de la ville. Ces structures ont été légalisées par des
arrêtés pris par les différents Maires d’arrondissement.
Les facteurs locaux favorables à l’intégration de l’A21L, à
Guédiawaye, demeurent être principalement : l’existence, depuis
1994, d’un projet de ville dont la démarche d’élaboration a été
participative et très similaire à celle de l’A21L ; l’existence de
Plans Locaux de Développement (PLD) dans les différentes
entités locales de la ville ; un tissu associatif très développé ;
l’inexistence de plans de gestion des risques environnementaux
(inondations, gestion de la bande de filaos, l’extraction du sable
marin,…) ; le manque d’un cadre de concertation permanent et
transversal ; une volonté politique manifeste pour trouver des
solutions durables ; l’existence d’une expertise locale disponible;
la subdivision de la ville en communes d’arrondissement
permettant l’élaboration de politiques sectorielles pouvant
engager différents niveaux de citoyens.
Ces structures d’appui devraient se renforcer avec l’amélioration
de leurs stratégies de communication, (restitutions publiques dans
les quartiers ; points de presse périodiques ; création de bulletins
d’information ou de radio- communautaire.) ; l’accroissement de
leurs moyens didactiques, financiers et techniques ; la prise en
compte de leurs recommandations par les conseils municipaux
dans leurs programmations des tâches de gestion.
L’appui technique pour la mise en œuvre des activités A21L au
niveau de la ville de Guédiawaye sont du ressort de deux
institutions : l’IAGU et ENDA/ECOPOP.
L’IAGU a en charge la conduite des aspects purement techniques
du programme : mise à disposition à la ville d’outils pour
l’élaboration du profil environnemental, l’organisation de la
consultation de ville, montage de groupes de travail pour
l’élaboration de projets,…Il assure aussi un appui- conseil et un
suivi des tâches exécutées par l’Assistant Technique.
Cependant, malgré l’existence de nombreux paramètres
favorisant l’intégration du processus A21L, force est de constater
que, les obstacles à son assimilation sont légion et, nous pouvons
en citer notamment :la lassitude manifestée par les populations
dans les programmes ; les difficultés à dérouler un plan de
communication local ; les difficultés de faire assurer le portage
politique par des élus, à majorité analphabètes et peu formés ; les
difficultés de s’appuyer sur un personnel municipal pas ou peu
formé et mal équipé ; l’absence et/ou le manque d’organisation
des archives municipales ; le manque de coordination et de
concertation dans les actions ; les rivalités et clivages entre
hommes politiques ; l’absence d’un Système d’Information
Géographique (SIG) ; la faiblesse des moyens financiers,
matériels et humains.
Cette institution- d’appui apporte une innovation à la manière de
planifier la résolution des problèmes environnementaux avec une
démarche concertée, séquencée et menant à des solutions
durables.
L’appui est conséquent mais, il gagnerait à mêler tous les
partenaires techniques de la ville et à renforcer davantage le
plateau technique du projet.
ENDA/ECOPOP est chargé du volet formation de l’A21L ;
notamment le renforcement des capacités des acteurs locaux du
comité 21 local.
Ses modules de formation répondent à certains besoins identifiés
par les acteurs toutefois, ils demeurent insuffisants face à
l’ampleur de la demande.
Toutefois, ces obstacles pourront être surmontés par la mise en
œuvre d’actions telles que :le renforcement des capacités des
différents acteurs locaux (élus, techniciens, agents municipaux,
OCB,…) ; la création de certains services dans les municipalités
(des archives, un SIG,…) ; la formation des acteurs locaux en
techniques de communication et mise en place de médium (radio
communautaire, bulletins d’information) ; la mise à disposition
de moyens financiers, logistiques et humains suffisants à l’équipe
chargée de piloter les activités du programme AL21 ; la mise en
œuvre effective des projets qui seront retenus comme prioritaires
lors de la consultation de ville.
Les aspects de la gouvernance urbaine que l’A21L devra
permettre d’améliorer dans la ville de Guédiawaye seront les
suivants :
§
60
la durabilité : Guédiawaye est une ville où les activités
commerciales et les programmes de développement
foisonnent mais les impacts sur les ressources sont très
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
souvent négligés ou simplement ignorés. L’innovation dans
la gestion urbaine induite par les activités de l’A21L peut
amener une prise de conscience sur la nécessité de mener
des activités qui ne puissent pas compromettre la survie de
la communauté et celle des générations futures.
§
manières de susciter un intérêt majeur et un engagement
sans faille des populations.
§
l’équité : La gestion des affaires locales est exclusivement
du ressort des élus locaux; par conséquent, une frange
importante de la population risque de ne pas se retrouver
dans les décisions prises pour la gouvernance locale. Les
innovations induites par l’A21L encouragent l’implication
de divers acteurs et la recherche collective de solutions
durables partagées unanimement.
§
l’efficacité : Le modèle A21L ne se limite pas seulement à
identifier les besoins, à les prioriser et à définir des
stratégies d’action mais, il permet aussi, l’élaboration de
projets et la mise en œuvre de certains d’entre- eux. Un tel
procédé annonce une rupture d’avec les prévisions irréalistes
et irréalisables du passé.
§
la transparence et la responsabilité: La transparence est
garantie par l’approche qui permet à chaque acteur de
participer et de disposer des informations voulues à tout
moment car la structuration du programme entraîne de facto,
le partage.
§
Le partage entier des informations et l’implication totale de
tous aux différentes étapes du processus devront découler
vers la responsabilité pleine et entière des acteurs.
§
l’engagement civique et la citoyenneté : La livraison de
données
pertinentes
d’analyse
de
la
situation
environnementale et la création de cadres de concertations
élargies à tous les démembrements de la ville (comités 21 de
ville et d’arrondissement, consultation locale) sont de belles
la sécurité : Les activités de l’A21L participent à la
compréhension des interrelations entre l’habitat et le cadre
de vie et permet ainsi, d’éviter des propositions de solutions
ponctuelles qui cachent souvent mal les germes d’une
insécurité.
Le Profil Environnemental de la ville de Guédiawaye fait
ressortir essentiellement les thèmes et les problématiques ci-après
: la gestion côtière, l’eau et l’assainissement, la pollution, la
santé, l’habitat, la pauvreté. En effet, le cadre environnemental de
la ville est marquée par une destruction aigue et prononcée des
ressources environnementales (pédologiques et forestières), le
phénomène cyclique des inondations, la contamination des eaux
souterraines, la pollution, le développement de maladies
(paludisme, choléra, etc…), l’existence de quartiers spontanés où
règne une extrême pauvreté, les risques de glissement de terrains
relatifs aux maisons bâties sur des talus de dunes.
Ces problèmes sont devenus tellement aigus et partagés par un
nombre important de nations et d’êtres humains que des agendas
d’actions mondiaux contre leur éradication ou leur réduction sont
élaborés, notamment : les Objectifs du millénaire pour le
Développement (recommandations 1 ; 6 et 7 cadrent avec les
problématiques décelées dans le profil), les recommandations du
Sommet Mondial pour le Développement Durable de
Johannesburg en 2002, le DSRP pour la réduction de la pauvreté
à l’horizon 2015, les campagnes mondiales sur l’insécurité
foncière et immobilière, le Programme pour l’Habitat,…
61
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
MATAM, SENEGAL
Agenda 21 Local, Matam
Assistante technique de Matam
La mise en œuvre du projet Agenda 21 Local a été l’occasion
dans la ville de Matam, de créer une rupture dans la stratégie de
gouvernance urbaine. En effet, la gestion des affaires urbaines
dans la commune est du ressort de la municipalité. Cette gestion
est marquée par un cloisonnement des activités avec une
multitude d’acteurs qui se côtoient dans ville mais en l’absence
de toute logique communautaire. Avec la promotion de la
participation communautaire qui est un des principes clé du
programme, la participation citoyenne sera une réalité à travers la
mise en œuvre de mécanismes permettant à la municipalité
d’intégrer les visions des citoyens dans ses programmes
prioritaires. C’est également l’occasion de mettre en ouvre des
mécanismes de planification urbaine dans la mesure où Matam
est marquée par l’absence de tout document de planification
comme les Plans locaux de développement (PLD) ou les plans de
développement urbain (PDU). Le profil environnemental,
diagnostique environnemental de Matam permettra à la
municipalité de mieux cerner les problèmes environnementaux de
la collectivité et en accord avec elle d’y apporter des solutions.
attentes des populations et de les intégrer dans la vulgarisation
des politiques de développement et de prendre en compte leurs
préoccupations afin de les intégrer dans ces programmes, mais
aussi, de permettre à tous ces groupes d’acteurs d’échanger sur
leurs visions du développement urbain.
A travers la supervision des activités du programme, chaque
membre du comité, représentant un organisme a apporté une
contribution à la réalisation du profil environnemental. Les
réunions du comité local se sont tenues pour apporter des
solutions à des problèmes ponctuels rencontrés dans le cadre de
l’élaboration du profil environnemental. Bien que crée par arrêté
municipal, la participation du comité local est théorique et
passive et il serait salutaire de mettre en œuvre des mécanismes
permettant au comité de prendre des décisions dans un cadre
légal.
L’équipe de projet mise en place rassemble l’assistante
technique, le coordonnateur et l’adjoint au maire. Cette équipe
coordonne les activités de l’agenda et définit les orientations et
les moyens à mettre en œuvre pour la réalisation des activités :
profils, consultations.
La ville de Matam est marquée par une volonté commune des
populations d’œuvrer pour le développement d’une ville qui du
temps de la colonisation jouait un rôle prépondérant aussi bien
sur le plan économique qu’administratif. Avec l’érection en 2002
d’une nouvelle région dont Matam est la capitale régionale, les
espoirs de la population se sont cristallisés. Le désir commun de
voir la ville tenir son rang dans la stratégie nationale de
développement et de lutte contre la pauvreté a permis de susciter
l’adhésion et les espoirs de la population, qui s’est engagée à
œuvrer pour la réussite du programme Agenda 21 Local. De plus,
les organisations communautaires de base sont très bien
implantées et ont acquis au fil du temps l’expérience nécessaire à
la participation aux actions de développement.
Dans le cadre des appuis à l’élaboration de l’agenda 21, des
structures ont apporté leur concours à la municipalité. Il s’agit de
:
L’appui de l’institut africain de gestion urbaine (IAGU)
L’IAGU intervient dans le domaine de la gestion et de la
planification environnementale, de l’aménagement urbain et de la
gouvernance locale entre autres. Elle a eut à capitaliser une
grande expérience dans la conduite des processus de
consultations locales, outils de planification stratégiques
participatives au niveau municipal. Comme institution d’ancrage
du projet, l’IAGU est chargé par ONU-Habitat de l’appui
technique et institutionnel pour la mise en ouvre du programme.
Toutefois, la multiplicité des convictions politiques de ces
acteurs, de même que leurs intérêts divergents les conduit
souvent à œuvrer à contre-courant de la municipalité. Ce qui
constitue un obstacle pour une bonne mobilisation sociale. Mais
la multiplication des actions de sensibilisation sur les enjeux du
programme permettrait de mieux contourner ces facteurs. Le
problème le plus important reste l’absence de données à l’échelle
de la commune. L’inexistence d’une base de données urbaines et
d’une cartographie de la commune a réellement constitué un frein
à l’élaboration du profil environnemental.
Dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre des Agenda locaux, les
équipes de projet ont suivis des sessions de formation de IAGU
portant sur les méthodes d’élaboration du profil environnemental
et des consultations locales. A cela s’ajoutent les documents mis
à la disposition des équipes et qui servent de support pour la
réalisation des profils. Cette institution, chargée d’apporter un
appui technique aux équipes pourrait dans des cas comme celui
de Matam caractérisé par une absence notable de documentation,
s’impliquer dans la recherche de solution à ce problème
particulier qui a considérablement ralenti l’élaboration du profil
environnemental. Un meilleur appui technique est nécessaire
dans la réalisation du programme. A cela s’ajoute la faiblesse des
moyens financiers dont dispose l’équipe de projet.
La mise sur pied d’un comité de pilotage pour la supervision au
niveau local des activités du programme a constitué un déclic.
Non seulement par la diversité des intervenants : représentants
des OCB : association des commerçants, GIEs de femmes, GPFs,
Clubs de solidarité, association des usagers du fleuve ; des
services déconcentrés de l’Etat : Développement social,
aménagement du territoire, agent voyer et des Association
d’appui au développement : ADOS, ADECOM et la presse. Les
services techniques et les OCB qui s’étaient toujours sentis
marginalisés par l’institution municipale, se sont vus impliqués.
Cette mise en synergie d’acteurs de différents horizons va
permettre à la municipalité de mieux mesurer les aspirations et
ENDA Ecopop chargé de conduire le volet renforcement des
capacités des élus locaux (par ONU-Habitat) dont l’objectif est
de mieux outiller les élus locaux pour une meilleure prise en
charge des affaires de la ville. Apres une évaluation préalable des
besoins en formation qui a permis de déterminer en rapport avec
le contexte local et national, la tenue de deux sessions de
62
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
formation : sur les textes de la décentralisation et sur le
leadership des acteurs. Les résultats ne se sont pas faits attendre
au sein de l’institution municipale avec la redynamisation des
commissions au sein du conseil municipal jusque la léthargiques.
Mais au delà, les conseillers sont devenus plus conscients du rôle
qu’ils auront à jouer dans la mise en ouvre de l’agenda.
Le thème de la réduction de la pauvret é est prépondérant dans la
ville. En effet, à Matam, 70% de la population vit des activités
agricoles. Ce secteur, face aux aléas climatique de ces dernières
années, à l’appauvrissement des terres et à la baisse des
rendements, a subi de graves bouleversem ents. Les
aménagements hydro agricoles réalisés sont une réponse mais la
faiblesse des superficies aménagées limite la portée de l’action.
Sur l’initiative du maire appuyée par Enda Tiers Monde//Ecopop,
la mise sur pied du comité de suivi des actions de la commune
(CSAC), composé des délégués des unités communautaires de
développement (UCD) des différents quartiers de la ville a
permis à la municipalité d’instaurer les jalons d’un dialogue avec
la population pour la prise en compte de ses préoccupation mais
aussi de vulgariser les actions de la commune à la base. Dans la
mise en œuvre de l’Agenda 21, cette structure joue un rôle
prépondérant car appelée à servir de relais dans la diffusion de
l’information pour réussir la participation citoyenne.
La pauvreté urbaine est très importante dans la ville avec un taux
d’activité des population d’environ 22% en 1993. De ce fait,
comme beaucoup d’études l’ont montré, les atteintes à
l’environnement demeurent très importantes. C’est ainsi que la
couverture végétale ne cesse de régresser victime à la fois des
actions anthropiques et des rigueurs du climat. A ce titre, comme
recommandé par le plan national d’action pour l’environnement
(PNAE) et le plan national d’action de lutte contre la
désertification (PAN/CLD), la région de Matam s’est dotée d’un
plan d’action forestier régional (PAFR) qui constitue un cadre
légal de mise en œuvre des différentes actions de lutte prévues
par les conventions et traités internationaux dont le Sénégal est
signataire.
Matam est marqué par un faible degré de participation des
populations dans l’élaboration des politiques. La municipalité,
seule responsable de l’efficacité des actions entreprises, doit
lutter contre l’exclusion de certains groupes sociaux
(particulièrement les femmes) pour assurer une gestion efficace
des affaires locales. L’agenda 21, dans le souci d’améliorer la
participation citoyenne dans les affaires de la commune, par le
mécanisme des consultations locales, permettra d’interroger les
préoccupations de la population en matière de gestion urbaine et
de problèmes environnementaux. L’implication de toutes les
catégories d’acteurs dans le comité local 21, est une garantie de
transparence dans la conduite des actions au sein de la
municipalité.
La mise en œuvre de l’Agenda 21 local tout en promouvant le
développement économique urbain, reposera sur la préservation
des ressources naturelles. Un des principaux axes de la stratégie
de préservation de la biodiversité nationale reste le renforcement
de la prise de conscience des acteurs sur la nécessité de la
préservation mais aussi sur le rôle joué par ces acteurs sur le
phénomène de dégradation et de disparition de la biodiversité. A
ce titre, le programme Agenda 21 local se pose en contribution
dans la mise en œuvre de cette action.
63
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
SAINT-LOUIS, SENEGAL
Agenda 21 Local de Saint-Louis
Mamadou Dia, Assistant Technique
Emilie Cabo, Stagiaire
L’Agenda 21, une innovation au service de la ville : une
meilleure interaction entre les différents acteurs du
développement local et la sensibilisation à la durabilité ?
groupements d’intérêt économique (GIE) pour mieux se prendre
en charge. Ce vaste phénomène social a concerné toutes les
couches de la population. La participation de ces structures
associatives au développement de leur localité a favorisé
l’émergence de nouveaux acteurs porteurs d’une nouvelle
citoyenneté. Ces citoyens de types nouveaux ont investi le
champs urbain en développant un discours novateur : la gestion
de la ville doit se faire avec et pour les citoyens de la ville.
En responsabilisant les différents acteurs de la ville et plus
particulièrement les élus, l’approche PCD/A21L participe à faire
rencontrer, dialoguer, des acteurs qui, jusqu’ici, travaillaient de
manière sectorielle.
En effet, la démarche consiste à amener différents acteurs à
partager une vision commune sur la situation actuelle
(diagnostic) et à venir (sous forme de plan d’actions) de la ville.
L’approche A21L va dés lors au delà de la simple consultation
entre acteurs en introduisant des changements de comportements
durables chez eux en ce qui concerne la gestion de la ville.
Ce discours émis sur la ville a été fortement entendu par les
autorités politiques et administratives de la ville. En effet, des
pratiques hardies d’implication des différents acteurs dans
l’animation du développement de la cité ont été initiées. Nous en
voulons pour preuve la volonté affirmée des autorités
municipales manifestée par la mise en place de l’Agence de
Développement Communal (ADC) qui a pour mission entre
autres l’installation de Conseils de Quartiers dotés d’outils de
planification locale comme les Plans de Développement de
Quartiers (PDQ). Ces Conseils de Quartiers constituent de
véritables écoles d’apprentissage de la démocratie locale. (Pour
de plus amples informations visiter le site de la Commune de
Saint-Louis à l’adresse suivante : http : //www. communedesaintlouisdusenegal.com).
Dans un passé récent, la ville de Saint-Louis a connu une
démarche partagée de planification urbaine lors des Assises de
Saint-Louis en 1998, avec l’élaboration du Programme de
Développement Communal (PDC). Par contre, les projets
identifiés n’ont pas intégrés l’implication des acteurs dans la mise
en œuvre.
L’approche Agenda 21 Local, nous a semblé innovatrice en ce
sens que grâce à l’élaboration du Profil Environnemental
(Document diagnostic sur la ville), elle interroge l’ensemble des
acteurs sur des questions de durabilité, de citoyenneté
participative, d’équité et de justice sociale, de pauvreté urbaine et
de gouvernance locale. Désormais les acteurs comprennent aussi
que la gestion des ressources naturelles, fortement exploitées par
les activités humaines, est au centre de l’interrogation sur la
survie de l’espèce humaine en ce début de troisième millénaire.
A cela s’ajoute un fort maillage du territoire communal par les
services déconcentrés de l’Etat, les ONG et autres programmes
d’appui au développement de la ville.
Cependant, ce fort potentiel d’acteurs et de pratiques de gestion
urbaine ne risque-t-il pas de poser des problèmes de mobilisation
durable des acteurs autour de l’Agenda 21 Local ? C’est en ayant
toujours cette interrogation à l’esprit que nous nous sommes
évertués, lors de rencontres ou de restitution du PE avec les
acteurs locaux, d’expliciter en quoi la démarche Agenda 21 Local
est novatrice tant par les problématiques soulevées que par les
structures chargées de son animation.
Dans une ville comme Saint-Louis, ville d’eau, de forte pression
foncière qui connaît un faible niveau d’activités économiques (le
tissus industriel y est presque inexistant), l’approche Agenda 21
Local peu innover en favorisant la prise en charge par l’ensemble
des acteurs des questions liées à la gestion de l’environnement
et à la réduction de la pauvreté urbaine.
Saint-Louis : une ville propice
démarche Agenda 21 Local
à
Le renforcement des acteurs locaux grâce à une nouvelle
organisation
C’est ainsi que dans la mise en œuvre du processus A21L
différentes structures ont vu le jour au niveau local. Dans un
premier temps, une équipe projet, composée d’un Assistant
technique et d’un Coordinateur a été mise en place.
une
La ville de Saint -Louis fut l’une des premières villes de l’Afrique
Occidentale à mettre en pratique des outils d’organisation et de
gestion de l’espace urbain dans des domaines aussi variés que
l’aménagement du cadre urbain ou encore l’installation et la
répartition d’équipements collectifs.
Suite à la perte de son statut de capitale, en 1959, la ville de
Saint-Louis a développé différentes stratégies de gestion urbaine.
Elle s’est notamment appuyée sur la coopération décentralisée,
avec la ville française de Lille, effective depuis vingt ans dans la
gestion municipale, à travers l’association « Partenariat avec
Saint-Louis et sa région ». Parallèlement, le tissu associatif local
s’intensifie et se densifie. Les populations se sont ainsi organisées
en réseaux d’entre-aide (tontine), en associations et en
L’Assistant technique a été choisi au sein de « l’équipe
environnement » de l’Agence de Développement Communal de
la ville dans un souci d’ancrage institutionnel du projet A21L et
de mise en cohérence avec les autres programmes de
développement de la ville. Entièrement mis à disposition du
projet, il est de fait l’une des pièces opérationnelles du dispositif
local.
Le Coordinateur, Directeur de cabinet du Maire assure, en
dehors de ses missions d’appui à l’assistant technique, une bonne
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
institutionnalisation du projet dans les structures de la Commune
et autres institutions de la ville.
La coordination entre structures d’appui (IAGU et Enda/Ecopop)
peut être améliorée dans le planning de leurs activités afin de
poser moins de contraintes aux équipes projet.
Cependant, compte-tenu de l’ampleur du travail à effectuer et des
délais très serrés, il serait judicieux de renforcer en personnel
l’équipe technique et de tenir plus régulièrement les réunions de
coordination interne (au sein de l’équipe projet) pour faciliter les
échanges et développer la communication autour du projet.
Sur ce volet qui concerne le renforcement des capacités des
acteurs, il faut noter l’intervention remarquable des services
locaux des Impôts et du Trésor public qui ont formés les élus,
sur sollicitation de l’équipe projet, sur les stratégies de
mobilisation de la fiscalité locale et sur le processus
d’élaboration et d’exécution du budget. Cette formation a été
financée par le Partenariat avec Saint-Louis et sa Région et
l’Agence Régionale de Développement (ARD).
Par la suite un Comité 21 Local, chargé du pilotage du projet est
mis en place par Arrêté du Maire. Ce comité de 18 membres est
composé d’élus, des chefs de services communaux, de services
déconcentrés de l’Etat, de responsables de la société civile et de
personnes ressources. Ce Comité s’est réuni deux fois, lors de
l’atelier d’évaluation des besoins de formations et de son
installation officielle lors de laquelle une restitution de la
première version du PE leur a été faite ; et deux fois pour la
préparation de la Consultation Ville.
Cette forme de mobilisation de financements et d’expertises au
niveau local mérite d’être renforcée pour mieux valoriser les
compétences locales dans le cadre de la démarche Agenda 21
Local et l’exercice d’une gouvernance urbaine de qualité.
Une gouvernance locale à renforcer
L’efficacité réelle de ce Comité doit être renforcée à la vue des
missions qui lui sont confiées. A titre d’exemple et par souci
d’articulation avec le niveau national, les Ministères devraient
adresser des lettres circulaires aux autorités administratives
locales, pour mieux asseoir leur participation au processus.
En ce qui concerne la ville de Saint-Louis, le processus A21L
peut renforcer la gouvernance locale sur les aspects comme la
durabilité, la transparence, la responsabilité et l’engagement
citoyen.
Un appui technique extérieur pour consolider
la démarche A21L
En effet, la mobilisation des acteurs se fait suivant une logique de
projet sans vision sur le long terme. Elle épouse la durée des
projets et souvent le citoyen ordinaire (même bénéficiaire) ne se
sent pas concerné par le suivi et l’appropriation une fois que les
partenaires financiers sont partis. L’une des raisons aussi de non
participation des acteurs à l’action municipale, est liée à
l’absence de transparence et/ou d’accès à l’information.
Par ailleurs le dispositif d’appui technique (formation,
renforcement de capacités, équipements) va considérablement
aider les acteurs dans l’exécution de leurs différentes missions.
En effet, pour assurer une participation de qualité des différents
acteurs et rendre efficientes les structures du projet, des sessions
de renforcement des capacités ont été exécutées par deux ONG
Sénégalaises : l’Institut Africain de Gestion Urbaine et
Enda/Ecopop.
Adaptation et intégration de la démarche au
niveau mondial
La ville de Saint-Louis, située dans l’estuaire du fleuve Sénégal
connaît jusqu’à nos jours des difficultés d’aménagement de
l’espace urbain. En effet, l’espace urbanisable est régulièrement
inondé. En dehors de l’île, zone aménagée depuis la période
coloniale grâce à d’énormes efforts de remblais, la majeure partie
des autres quartiers de la ville est bâtie sur d’anciennes vasières
avec un habitat souvent de type précaire. Des actions de
restructuration et de régularisation foncière sont des
préalables à l’amélioration du cadre de vie des populations.
La session de formation organisée par l’IAGU autour de
l’élaboration du Profil Environnemental a permis une
compréhension claire du projet et de ces différentes étapes.
L’IAGU, en tant qu’institution d’encrage, par l’équipement
informatique du projet et sa connexion Internet au haut débit
a apporté de meilleures conditions de travail en facilitant les
échanges et la recherche d’informations. La structure d’encrage
local (ADC) du projet se trouve ainsi renforcée, ce qui augure
une bonne institutionnalisation du processus dans les
institutions municipales.
La ville de Saint-Louis est aussi soumise aux influences de la
zone sahélienne. Elle est exposée aux effets cumulés du déficit
pluviométrique et de la désertification. A cela s’ajoutent les
difficultés d’assainissement. Le réseau d’évacuation des eaux
usées, s’il existe dans certains quartiers, reste d’accès difficile
aux populations à cause de la cherté des coûts de branchements.
L’intervention d’Enda/Ecopop dans le renforcement des
capacités des acteurs locaux est partie d’un atelier d’évaluation
des besoins de formations en rapport avec le processus Agenda
21 Local. Lors de cet atelier interactif, les membres du Comité 21
ont pu arrêter des types de formations clés pour chaque type
d’acteurs.
Par ailleurs, l’élaboration du PE a permis de mettre en évidence
l’acuité des problèmes de gestion de l’environnement marin et
côtier. En effet, la ville est nichée sur les flancs de l’Océan
Atlantique dont elle est séparée par un mince cordon littoral,
appelé la Langue de Barbarie. Ce fragile cordon littoral, seul
rempart naturel de la ville contre l’Océan, est soumis à toutes
sortes d’agressions : extraction du sable marin, destruction de
peuplements de filaos, forte pollution. Cette zone mérite plus
d’égard compte tenu de la richesse et de la diversité de son
écosystème.
Cependant, à Saint-Louis, des besoins de formations, exprimés
par les élus sur la maîtrise des outils de gestion urbaine comme le
Code de l’eau, le Code de l’environnement, le Code foncier…ne
semblent pas être intégrés dans les prévisions de formations
même si à l’évidence elles peuvent participer à aider les élus dans
l’exercice des compétences transférées.
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
Sur le plan économique, on a pu constater que les activités de la
ville se sont fortement tertiarisées. Le secteur informel contribue
pour une bonne partie à la formation du Produit Local Brut.
Cependant c’est un secteur qui échappe pour une part non
négligeable à la fiscalité locale et ne contribue pas à la création
d’emplois durables. L’activité industrielle y reste marginale.
de qualité, faible niveau d’instruction constaté dans les
couches de populations les plus vulnérables.
Cependant de réelles potentialités de développement
économique existent, notamment dans le secteur de la pêche.
Pour cela il s’agira entre autres, d’assurer une gestion durable et
la restauration des ressources halieutiques, la formation des
acteurs du secteur et la mise à disposition d’instruments
financiers accessibles et susceptibles de favoriser des
investissements privés.
Selon le DSRP, la prévalence de la pauvreté est très forte au
Sénégal et touche 57,9% de la population. Saint-Louis n’échappe
pas à cette situation. En effet, la majeure partie de la
population est frappée par la pauvreté. Les conséquences
sociales sont visibles : difficultés d’accès à des soins de santé
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
TIVAOUANE, SENEGAL
Agenda 21 Local de Tivaouane
Assistant Technique de Tivaouane
Mode de gestion traditionnel de la ville : cadre
justificatif de la mise en œuvre d’A21L
§
La gestion de la chose publique incombe à l’équipe municipale
dont les domaines de compétence ont été élargis à la gestion de
l’environnement, à la planification urbaine, aux domaines, à
l’éducation, à la jeunesse, à la culture, à l’aménagement du
territoire, à la santé et à l’urbanisme et l’habitat.
§
Toutes ces compétences poursuivent des objectifs de
développement économique, de développement culturel et
éducatif et de développement sanitaire et social. C’est dire que le
développement local, dans tous ses aspects doit être pris en
charge par les acteurs et élus locaux.
L’existence d’enjeux communs comme les questions
d’insalubrité, de risques urbains, de détérioration des
services communs de base et de conflits entre acteurs dans
l’utilisation des ressources de l’environnement.
Les problèmes de développement et d’environnement
ressentis par la plupart des populations et qui sont liés à des
actions anthropiques : dégradation de l’environnement,
difficultés dans l’aménagement et l’exploitation des
ressources, mauvaise occupation de l’espace urbain, accès
inégal aux services publics etc.
Les facteurs défavorables sont :
§
Le défaut d’une culture de la citoyenneté du en partie à
l’analphabétisme et au manque d’instruction mais aussi aux
représentations socio-culturelles vis- à - vis du pouvoir et de
l’autorité et aux rapports non républicains de la plus grande
majorité des acteurs à la chose publique.
§
Niveaux inégaux d’information : l’information est
inégalement partagée entre les différents acteurs civils,
administratifs, politiques, économiques et autres. Chaque
institution se comporte comme une forteresse et les
échanges d’information sont limités, dérisoires. Les
membres du Conseil municipal se situent eux aussi à des
niveaux inégaux d’information et entre l’équipe municipale
et les acteurs à la base, l’information et la communication
sont toujours biaisées par les comportements stratégiques
des uns et des autres.
§
Logique politicienne des élus : les préoccupations
immédiates des élus locaux sont d’abord d’ordre politicien
c’est-à-dire s’inscrivent dans le cadre de la recherche
d’allégeance des d’acteurs individuels et collectifs et dans
l’entretien d’une clientèle électorale qui passe par les
réseaux familial, parental, économique, amical et autres.
§
Mode de gestion traditionnel : Le mode de gestion
traditionnel de la ville hérité du pouvoir et des compétences
traditionnelles de l’équipe municipale associe mal les
acteurs à la base et demeure impuissant dans la prise en
charge des compétences dévolues au niveau local. La
concertation est rare dans la gestion de la chose publique
accaparée par l’équipe municipale. En plus les structures
municipales mises en place laissent en rade beaucoup de
domaines de compétences qui tardent à être intégrées dans
les préoccupations de la gestion urbaine. Les comportements
hérités du mode de gestion et des prérogatives traditionnels
des élus locaux restent défavorables à l’innovation et au
changement dans la gestion des affaires courantes du fait de
la volonté de pouvoir des élus.
Les actions promues dans le cadre d’A21L ont offert
l’opportunité de mieux s’engager dans la prise en charge de ces
différents domaines de compétence et d’ébaucher des
comportements nouveaux dans la gestion de la chose publique
par :
§
La mise en interrelation des acteurs et institutions à travers
des ateliers et séminaires.
§
La mise en place d’un cadre de concertation et d’actions
collectivement élaborées et planifiées
§
L’élaboration d’une carte analytique du développement et de
l’environnement urbain, support dune bonne planification du
développement urbain durable.
Facteurs favorables et/ ou défavorables à
l’intégration des innovations promues par
A21L
L’intégration des innovations promues par A21L se heurte à
quelques facteurs limitants même si l’existence de facteurs
favorables est à noter.
Parmi les facteurs dits favorables, il faut distinguer ceux qui sont
relatifs aux conditions favorables à l’opérationnalisation du
processus A21L de ceux relatifs à la justification de la mise en
œuvre d’un processus A 21L dans la Commune de Tivaouane.
Pour les premiers on peut retenir :
§
L’existence de groupes d’acteurs politiques, institutionnels,
économiques, sociaux (partis politiques, équipe municipale,
famille maraboutique, familles nobiliaires, organisations
communautaires
de
base,
organisations
socioprofessionnelles etc.).
§
La décentralisation qui stipule le transfert d’un certain
nombre de compétences aux collectivités locales et qui offre
le cadre politique, juridique et institutionnel de
responsabilisation des élus et acteurs locaux dans la gestion
de la chose publique et dans la promotion du développement
économique et social.
Les mécanismes mis en place pour appuyer le
développement des innovations promues par
l’AG21
La mise en œuvre du Processus A21L a permis de mettre sur pied
des structures dont les rôles et les modes de fonctionnement sont
de nature à apporter des changements dans le mode de gestion
Pour l’autre catégorie de facteurs il faut retenir :
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
des affaires courantes de la ville car y associant les divers acteurs
à la base..
qui permet le fonctionnement des structures mises sur place et
qui aide à l’opérationnalisation du processus A21L.
Le recrutement d’un Assistant technique, membre de l’unité de
coordination a permis de travailler à temps plein sur A21L et de
faciliter son opérationnalisation
Un comité 21local est aussi mis sur place, chargé du portage du
Programme et composé de notables, de conseillers municipaux,
de
présidents
de
groupements
et
d’associations
socioprofessionnels Le comité 21local constitue un premier
plateau de personnes-ressources qui s’occupent aussi et surtout de
la validation sociale et politique des actions envisagées.
L’institut Africain de Gestion Urbaine fournit le plateau
technique et logistique (recrutement d’un assistant technique,
dotation en matériels informatiques, connexion à Internet,
formation des membres de l’unité de coordination sur les étapes
du processus, budget de fonctionnement, documentation etc.).
Toutes ces actions répondent à des besoins que le budget
municipal ne permet pas de satisfaire.
Les déplacements et donc la mobilité nécessaires de l’unité de
coordination souffrent de moyens. Un appui additionnel est
nécessaire en termes de facilitation de la mobilité de l’unité de
coordination et en termes de ressources permettant de mobiliser
de façon régulière les membres du comité 21 local et du groupe
consultatif.
Seulement le fonctionnement de ce comité se heurte à
l’irrégularité des rencontres et de l’absentéisme des membres. Il
en est ainsi car en dehors des activités promues dans le cadre
d’A21L, le comité 21local n’est guère associé par l’équipe
municipale dans la gestion et la gouvernance locales.
Face à la difficulté de réunir tous les membres et de manière
fréquente, des entretiens et consultations individuels sont initiés
depuis par l’unité de coordination qui utilise les membres du
comité pour recueillir des informations sur les réalités socioéconomiques et environnementales de la ville.
Un groupe consultatif est aussi mis sur pied, composé de
techniciens des services déconcentrés, des responsables d’OCB,
d’experts locaux etc.
C’est à travers cette mobilisation que les acteurs locaux
pourraient avoir l’occasion de participer à la définition des
besoins et au renforcement des mécanismes de fonctionnement
du processus A21L.
Ce groupe est chargé de la validation technique ainsi que du suivi
des plans et actions envisagés. Des groupes de travail sont
identifiés à travers les ateliers et séminaires déjà tenus.
Le groupe consultatif aussi n’est utilisé que dans le cadre de la
mise en œuvre du processus A21L.
L’équipe ecopop d’ENDA TM intervient dans le cadre du
renforcement des capacités des élus et acteurs locaux au moyen
de sessions de formation centrées sur les textes et lois de la
décentralisation, sur la communication et la mobilisation sociale,
sur le plaidoyer et la gestion des conflits et aussi sur la
planification et la gestion urbaines. Ces formations se déroulent
sous forme d’ateliers qui offrent l’opportunité de réunir toutes les
catégories d’acteurs autour des problèmes de développement et
de gouvernance de la ville.
Ce groupe fonctionne néanmoins et contribue considérablement à
la conception et à la planification dans le cadre d’A21L.
L’apport d’ENDA consiste à aider les élus et acteurs locaux dans
l’élaboration et la formulation d’agenda 21 local.
L’unité de coordination reste la seule structure qui fonctionne à
temps plein.
Les autres appuis techniques sont fournis par les divers services
déconcentrés qui interviennent au niveau départemental et qui
sont basés à Tivaouane. Seulement ces appuis sont limités par les
moyens dérisoires de ces services et par les limites du budget
municipal.
Le problème fondamental auquel se heurtent le comité 21local et
le groupe consultatif demeure l’inappropriation du processus qui
fait que ces structures n’existent et ne fonctionnent que sous
l’impulsion de l’unité de coordination et à l’occasion des
réunions et ateliers. Elles ne prennent pas d’initiatives qu’elles
attendent toujours de l’unité de coordination.
Renforcement de la gouvernance urbaine à
travers A21L
A21L offre l’opportunité de renforcer la gouvernance locale dans
ses divers aspects.
Le renforcement de ces structures est indispensable et passe par
la multiplication des rencontres et ateliers qui requiert des
moyens financiers (restauration, perdium). Ce renforcement passe
aussi et surtout par la reconnaissance effective de ces structures
et par une définition claire et acceptée de leurs modalités
d’intervention et de participation dans la gestion des affaires
courantes. Ces structures sont certes créées par décret municipal
mais leurs prérogatives se limitent dans le cadre des activités du
Processus A21L. Elles n’interviennent pas dans la gestion des
affaires courantes. C’est dire que leur intégration effective dans le
système de gestion et de gouvernance locales doit être promue et
facilitée par l’équipe municipale.
Rôles et apports des institutions d’appui
Durabilité : En réunissant tous les acteurs autour des réalités
environnementales de la ville et en les responsabilisant dans la
gestion et la sauvegarde des ressources qu’ils utilisent dans le
cadre de leurs secteurs d’activité respectifs, A21L offre les outils
et les mécanismes pour renforcer et rendre efficace la
gouvernance locale dans le sens de la promotion de la durabilité
économique et urbaine qui passe par une utilisation rationnelle
des ressources épuisables. Une mauvaise connaissance de
l’écologie urbaine et l’absence d’un cadre de réglementation et de
gestion de l’environnement demeurent à Tivaouane les
principales causes de l’utilisation néfaste des ressources du
milieu. A21L offre l’opportunité de corriger ces défauts.
Les institutions d’appui comme l’Institut Africain de Gestion
Urbaine (IAGU) et l’équipe écocop d’Enda TM apportent un
concours d’ordre technique, matériel, financier et pédagogique
L’équité : L’accaparement de la chose publique par une minorité
élitiste (religieuse, politique, administrative etc.) constitue la
principale source du traitement inégal des populations et de leur
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
accès inégal aux services publics. C’est pourquoi l’association
des divers acteurs à la gouvernance urbaine promue par A21L
peut bien promouvoir l’équité étant donné que chaque catégorie
d’acteur économique, politique et social a l’opportunité de se
faire représenter au sein d’un cadre de concertation, de décisions
et d’actions visant à promouvoir une démocratie participative.
Aussi les volets habitat, environnement, réduction de la pauvreté
et durabilité sont-ils pris en charge dans le cadre des activités
A21L.
La transparence et la responsabilité : Les mécanismes créés
offrent en même temps des moyens de contrôle, de suivi et
d’évaluation via le comité 21 local, le groupe consultatif et
l’unité de coordination. Ils garantissent en même temps le partage
des responsabilités entre les différents acteurs qui se contrôlent
mutuellement et favorisent la coordination et la communication
La dégradation de l’environnement (recul du potentiel agropastoral, destruction de la mangueraie) est la principale source de
l’appauvrissement d’une partie très importante de la population
de Tivaouane de même qu’une mauvaise planification de l’espace
urbain y pose des problèmes d’habitat et d’insalubrité. La
surutilisation des ressources et des équipements collectifs
(scolaires, sanitaires, commerciaux) constitue le principal
obstacle à leur durabilité.
Le développement urbain d’ailleurs concerne tous ces volets qui
entretiennent des relations d’interdépendance très étroites.
L’engagement civique et la respo nsabilité : L’acceptation par
les membres des structures des objectifs visés, qui sont d’ordre
communautaire, suffit à montrer que l’engagement civique et la
responsabilité peuvent être promus. En effet l’expérience déjà
acquise dans le cadre d’A21L permet d’affirmer que la
responsabilisation des populations est un moyen efficace
d’obtenir qu’elles s’engagent au profit du bien collectif et public.
Les questions relatives à l’assainissement, à la mobilité urbaine,
aux ressources foncières, hydrauliques et végétales, à la pollution
atmosphérique ainsi qu’aux risques environnementaux,
industriels et urbains sont toutes prises en charge dans
l’expérience de Tivaouane.
Mais ces attentes supposent une reconnaissance et une définition
au préalable des modalités d’intervention des structures comme le
Comité 21 local et le Groupe consultatif.
La transparence et la responsabilité ainsi que l’engagement
civique et la citoyenneté peuvent aussi être promus à travers
A21L. Seulement cette promotion suppose des moyens financiers
et matériels supplémentaires qui permettent de multiplier les
rencontres, réunions et ateliers. Elle suppose aussi et surtout une
volonté manifeste de l’équipe municipale allant dans le sens de
partager le pouvoir et les responsabilités.
L’élaboration du Profil Environnemental de la ville a d’ailleurs
permis de recenser un certain nombre de problèmes
environnementaux parmi lesquels le rabaissement du niveau de la
nappe, les risques de salinisation des eaux souterraines,
l’insalubrité, la destruction des sites de végétations naturelles etc.
Les principaux facteurs et agents de la destruction de
l’environnement sont aussi établis ainsi que les modalités de
l’action de chaque acteur et agent.
Les questions relatives à la gestion et la gouvernance urbaines
sont aussi soulignées par le P.E. Ces questions sont très
largement débattues lors des ateliers et des séances de formation
sur la gouvernance et le Leadership locaux organisés dans le
cadre d’A21L et mobilisent l’attention des participants toujours
très motivés à en débattre.
Adaptation de la démarche au niveau mondial
Les activités A21L, dans la ville de Tivaouane s’inscrivent dans
le cadre de la promotion du développement social et économique
via une meilleure planification de l’utilisation des ressources
environnementales, un meilleur aménagement de l’espace urbain
ainsi que des ressources potentielles et une meilleure
appropriation par les acteurs de la gestion de la chose publique.
Toutes ces questions rejoignent les préoccupations des agendas
mondiaux dans les quels s’intègre l’expérience de Tivaouane.
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
SRI LANKA
Sustainable Sri Lankan Cities Programme
K. A. N. Perera, Executive Director MArGG
This pilot projects has demonstrated that the composting is a
sustainable method of reducing waste. The rate of acceptability of
this method is very high. However, being a program that needs
total participation of the residents, participatory methodologies
such as this require greater involvement and follow up by the full
time staff to educate and motivate the end users.
INNOVATIONS
Several innovations were tried out initially in Colombo, Kotte
and Dehiewala Mount Lavinia through a series of small- scale
demonstration projects. These experiments tried to address the 3
key issues mentioned above.
Biogas
The MC initiated a demonstration project to experiment on the
viability of using the market waste for generation of biogas.
Market waste constitutes about 10-12% of the total volume of
city garbage. In 2001 a biogas unit with 4 cubic meter capacity
was installed at an orphanage run in a Buddhist temple close to
the Municipal Council. The ITDG provided the technical advice
while an NGO with the support of the WG facilitated the launch
of the project. The MC provided market waste to the site. The gas
chamber has the capacity to hold 8 metric tons of market waste
which is sufficient to produce gas for a period of six months.
Issue No.1- Solid Waste
Prior to the launch of SCP program, almost all Sri Lankan cities
considered land-fill as the only Method of solid waste
management. The practice adopted for disposal of solid waste
was to collect and transport the household and commercial waste
to collection points along the main roads and then dump at
landfill sites. The waste disposal was done through some slow
paced externally funded Projects. Almost all these cities by then
considered collection and disposal at land fill sites was “The
Solution” to the problem of solid waste Management. Public
displeasure and organized protests were growing against
increasing volumes of uncollected urban waste and the frequent
transport of waste through their human habitats. As a result of a
non-governmental legal action, the Supreme Court has been
directing the major municipal councils to search for more
comprehensive options to address the problem.
The Impact of this demonstration was high. The orphanage has
been able to reduce the energy cost (US$ 280 per month)
incurred in cooking for 345 people by 30% and the MC its’
transport cost by US$ 688 per annum for not having to take the
waste to a far away dump site.
Through mutual consultations, the working groups and
stakeholders were able to convince the Local Authorities that the
landfill is not the only solution to SWM and that it requires more
innovative and non traditional strategy based on the 3R principle
i.e. Reduction, Re-use and Re- cycling method if a viable and
sustainable solution is to be found for the problem.
Recycling - Community Based Waste Collection and Sorting
Centre at Badowita
The Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia Municipal Council (DMMC)
worked closely with a re-settled low-income community at a new
township called Badowita and set up a community-managed
waste separation centre.
The SCP guided the councils to adopt new technological
alternatives. One of the examples is Kotte, the administrative
capital of the country. During 2000 -2003, it experimented with
home-level separation of waste and composting. It also
introduced an experimental bio-gas plant to use market waste.
SCP continued the solid waste management experimentations in
other cities too with similar success.
UN-Habitat helped send a team of community leaders and
municipal functionaries to Thailand and the Philippines on a
study tour to learn new innovative methods of addressing the
solid waste issues through community initiatives. The WG set up
a waste re-cycling centre in the heart of the settlement. The
households were motivated to separate non- degradable waste
and sell them to the centre. The waste-recycling centre is now
fully managed by the community organisation and has become a
model for replication. It has proved to be an excellent
demonstration on community managed pilot project on waste
segregation & recycling.
The local authority (SJKMC) identified two middle-income
residential areas and introduced home level composting bins to
600 households at subsidised rates as a demonstration project.
Residents were educated on the objective and the advantages of
the project. They were convinced that composting methodology
will help produce compost required for their home gardening and
that there is no need to throw away the bio degradable waste.
Subsequently, the number was increased to over 2000 extending
the service to several other localities .
It has helped reduce around 30% of waste previously thrown out
for municipal collection. The quality of the environment, roads
and canal in the area has improved significantly. It has provided
permanent employment for 3 persons. Each participating family
earns minimum US $1 a month from recyclable waste sold to
the centre which is adequate to pay the water bill and local rates.
The Centre is now a replicable model visited and emulated by
many other cities.
Subsequent evaluations proved that it had resulted in a substantial
reduction of the volume of kitchen waste entering the main
stream of waste collected by the MC. It is estimated that 50% of
the waste generated by those households who received a compost
bin has ceased coming into the main stream proving that if the
entire 30,000 households can be mobilized to use compost
barrels, the overall volume could be reduced at least by 40%.
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Issue No. 2 - Environmental & Health
land reclamation Development Corporation (SLLRDC) Open
University, and three NGOs.
Green Star Homes Project
The Municipal Council of Colombo launched an innovative
project called The Green Star Homes (GHSP) in July 2001. It
was a city-wide environmental sanitation project covering the
entire residential population of the city. The immediate objective
was to combat the cyclic Dengue Fever epidemics. The
methodology was to visit, educate and encourage every home to
be environmentally safe. Through follow up visits all well
maintained residential premises were declared as environmentfriendly “Green Star Homes” using a six (6) point indicator
system. Within two months, the Public Health Department was
able to reach out to 43,000 homes with mass support from other
department, agencies, NGO and Schools.
The project helped to make an overall improvement of
environmental and sanitary conditions through reduction of Solid
waste through Compost bins, provision of metered individual
water connections at subsidised rates ,avoidance of water
stagnation through clearance of open drains with community
participation, removal of unauthorised constructions with
community consensus, improvements to infrastructure by
repairing the damaged culverts through ‘self help’ programs
initiated by the youth of the area and resultant flood prevention
during heavy rain.
Urban Air Quality Management (UAQM) Project
Traffic congestion and deterioration of air quality has rendered
the health of the residents of the city as well as that of commuters
vulnerable. Air pollution is an inevitable consequence of rapid
urbanization, but it could be kept at an acceptable minimum level
if the urban authorities are prepared to enforce the environmental
standards and to educate citizens and persuade them to cooperate.
The project was launched after giving written notice to all
households adequately explaining the six criteria for strict
compliance followed by comprehensive media coverage. The
teams revisited the houses to ensure that people understood and
applied the transmitted messages. Where the households had
failed to meet the set criteria, the teams followed up, educating
them further. Those who failed or refused to conform were first
warned and then charged under the municipal regulations on the
prevention of vector-borne diseases.
The SCP initiative in Colombo called the Urban Air Quality
Management (AQM) Project was a technical initiative to improve
the air quality of Colombo city. Like the GSHP, this project too
was successful in engaging the attention and commitment of all
the related agencies. Through extensive collaboration, the project
created public awareness on air quality and the adverse effects of
the leaded petroleum products and the emission of fumes from
motor vehicles. Many corrective measures were taken to
vigorously implement the pollution rules and regulations. After
the implementation of this project, a study revealed that the lead
level in the blood samples of traffic police men has come down
by 86% compared to 1992.The sale of leaded petrol has
completely ceased.
The project proved effective in enhancing the environmental
conditions of the city reducing the vulnerability to mosquito
breeding. It also created an unprecedented civic awareness and
commitment to clean environments.
It also proved that successful implementation of environment
projects need mass public support, community participation and
strict law enforcement and Inter-sectoral approaches, institutional
partnerships and community participation is the key for
sustainable development.
As a result of the demonstration, the initiative was soon
transferred from the CMC to a national level Taskforce under the
Ministry of EnvironmentThe AQWG was re- named in 2001 as
Clean Air Initiative (CAI) to fall in line with the Clean Air
Initiative for Asian Cities.
The Green Star Home Project was a “Gold Winner” at the
International Green Apple Awards for Environmental Best
Practices in 2003. The contest was conducted by the Green
Organization of the UK and the awards ceremony was held in the
House of Commons UK.
Issue No.3 - Low income Settlement’s water supply
Welligodawatta Community Development (WCD) Project
The WCD Project was an effort to improve the social cohesion
and environmental sanitation within a large slum settlement in
the North of the Colombo city. Based on the places of origin
from where the different ethnic and social groups migrated to this
colony a generation ago, the community remained divided. Each
group vied to protect its identity and distance from each other and
therefore, collective bargaining at the municipal level for basic
services was not possible.
Non Revenue Water Wastage Reduction Project (NWRD)
Supplying water to poor groups is a major municipal
responsibility. For many decades, the Colombo Municipal
Council has been providing safe drinking water to the poorer
settlements free of charge through public stand posts. This
service was called “non- revenue water” because water supply
did not bring any revenue to the MC. However, due to lack of
ownership, these public taps are untended. Water continues to
leak throughout the day resulting in a huge loss of costly water.
These taps meant for the poor are often used by the non-poor for
washing their vehicles and for construction of roadside buildings,
thereby causing a considerable loss of revenue to the
municipality.
This project demonstrated the organizational capacity of the poor,
help federate different resident societies into one, in the end
becoming a voice and force that the municipal system would
reckon and trust. Community action planning was done and
major environmental issues that need be addressed were
identified. The respective municipal departments were mobilized
to help implement the plan.
The Non Revenue Water Wastage Reduction (NRWR) Project
was introduced by SCP to reduce this colossal waste. The project
demonstrated that, with attractive subsidies, participatory &
interactive decision-making, effective public awareness creation
and proper motivation, the poor communities could be persuaded
to obtain metered water connections to their private homes
without depending on the road side stand posts.
The demonstration project was initiated after forming issue
specific working groups which included the relevant departments
of the CMC, Weligodawatta Community Development Council
(WCDC), National water supplies & drainage board (NWSDB),
National housing development Authority (NHDA), Sri Lanka
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Through working group mechanism the projects aimed at
educating and encouraging them to obtain their own water
connections that they too perceived would, increase their legality
of ownership, social status and privacy. Working with nine (9)
communities in different locations, the project organized and
mobilized a total of 277 households into resident associations.
The residents volunteered their free labor in digging the trenches
and helped the council workers in laying the pipelines thereby
reducing the construction costs. Un-metered stand posts were
gradually withdrawn.
different set of skills and attitudes the programme attempted to
build Local Government Capacities in three stages.
In the first two years, the project organized a series of training
programmes on participatory methodologies. Until 2002 the
orientation training in EPM Process was given by the SCP
Project Support Services team under the leadership of the NTA.
A subsequent training needs survey conducted revealed that the
capacity building must be a comprehensive exercise and that it
needs an action plan which calls for more intensive and long term
training. As a result the SCP Capacity Building on a strategic
plan was started in January 2003. Eventually this initiative
resulted in a national level training programme being developed
with the EPM process is built into the training modules.
Projects Initiated and Abandoned
Despite success stories outlined above there were a few projects
which did not take off the ground due to various reasons. So me
projects were abandoned half way through. Two such projects
are given below.
The SCP Project Support Team (PST) identified two key national
level training institutions, i.e. the Sri Lanka Institute of Local
Governance (SLILG) and Centre for Urban and Regional
Planning (CURP) to assist in the training work. SLILG focused
on building technical capabilities including the training in EMIS.
The CURP specialized in training on social mobilization and
participatory methodologies.
Solid Waste Management (SWM) Project - CMC
SWM project launched by CMC was short lived. Due to a lack
of motivation of its leader, it suffered from teeter-totter
syndrome, i.e., instances of great enthusiasm followed by
indifference and lack of involvement. The project was abandoned
after several well-attended initial meetings.
UGSP Training
Instead, the department on solid waste management directed a
parallel experimentation using the CMC funds assigned to
demonstrate the efficacy of the home composting system to
reduce the volume of waste coming out of private homes for
municipal collection. There was no formal working group
involvement but, a small group of departmental personnel met on
and off to discuss the progress.
With the expansion of the programme to 18 cities and the
broadening of its scope to cover good governance and poverty
issues, SCP was renamed in 2004 as Urban Governance Support
Programme (UGSP). There was a growing demand from local
authorities for staff training. The participatory mechanisms that
were being introduced required training in social mobilization
skills and sensitivities. As a result, in January 2004, the UGSP
launched a strategic plan aimed at further improving the design,
quality and the content of the capacity building progrmame.
600 composting barrels were distributed. However, there was no
social preparation before the issuance of the barrel nor was there
sufficient follow up to ascertain what really happened. No proper
evaluation was done and the initiative did not gather momentum.
The Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies (IHS),
consultants of The Netherlands provided the technical services to
develop the new capacity building strategy. The new strategy has
been based on the draft of SCP initiated National Policy and
Strategy for Capacity Building of Local government formulated
in 2003. As the new strategy follows the guidelines of the
National Strategy, it could play a supportive role in the
implementation of the National Policy.
Perhaps, the failure can be attributed to the fact that the CMC
was negotiating with a local private Sector Company to outsource
the collection and disposal of waste. The company had been
insisting on a guaranteed daily volume of 500 tons as their break
even. Presumably, time was not right to attempt any reduction of
waste through composting.
Under the UGSP program a comprehensive curriculum that
includes 10 well-structured workshops with new and improved
modules has been developed. The strategy aims to empower
trainers on EPM, Good Governance, Poverty Reduction and
Gender Parity through Training of Trainers (TOT). For this
purpose, the design, methods and content of training modules
were newly developed. The new strategy has also set a target to
increase the share of women’s participation in training programs
at least to 40%.
Re-Ordering of Low Income Housing on a Designated
Beachside - DMMC
The Beach Project initiated by the DMMC had a very promising
start but came to a halt after the local government elections and
consequent change in municipal leadership. After many meetings
and good planning when the area-plan and the structure model
were ready, the project lost its steam as the Mayor who
spearheaded the initiative was replaced at the 2002 Municipal
Elections.
The New UGSP training program is demand driven. The local
authorities are free to decide the type of training they need for
their staff. The response is encouraging and the LAs are making
the best use of it. Please refer annex 1 for more details of the
UGSP training program.
Urban Governance Support Programme (UGSP)
Training & Capacity Building
The Background
The project focused on building local government capabilities to
promote and sustain cooperative efforts, consultative processes
and public private partnerships. To most of the local authorities,
working group and participatory mechanisms were a totally new
concept. As working with communities requires a completely a
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sectoral approach advocated by the SCP. Without this approach,
it would not have been possible to launch projects of this nature
which requires extensive cross sectoral support. The green Star
Home project has been successfully replicated at Matara which is
a non SCP city located in the Southern Province.
Mainstreaming The Innovations At Local
Level
Following the success of these innovations, the micro
experiences were up-scaled in own towns and replicated in other
cities. The lessons from these experiences have begun to inspire
local leaders of municipal administrations. Many local authorities
undertook study visits to these successful demonstrations and
emulated the experience. In many cities, the successful SCP
micro experiences were up-scaled with funds from the Council
budget. Many of these councils use the working group
mechanism when they require local stakeholder participation.
SCP process was instrumental in activating municipal interest in
looking at urban issues and inter-agency partnerships in a
positive manner. The AQM and Green Star projects were shining
examples. It is evident that the SCP process was instrumental in
activating municipal interest in new issues and looking at the
urban issues in a new light. The AQM is a collaborative effort
between the CMC, Central Environmental Authority (CEA), the
Department of Meteorology, the Department of Police and media.
The CEA provided technical leadership and the others bear
implementing responsibility.
The Environment Planning and Management (EPM) process
introduced by SCP has been gaining ground gradually. The
process is now active in 18 cities. Several positive results are
already evident.
The working groups have been the most effective tool to bring
the different stakeholders such as NGO’s and the private sector
into a collaborative partnership with the local authorities. The
Working Group meetings are well attended by the stakeholders.
In some cities, the management has given the Working Groups a
considerable degree of autonomy in deciding on mainstreaming
the demonstrated strategies. The working groups have been the
most effective tool for NGO’s and the private sector to become
involved in the process of city management. The engagement of
Sevanatha, MaRGG and Arthacharya as national partners has
been possible due to this. In the replication cities the
collaboration between the council and the national agencies
appears to have improved considerably. The monthly city
development meetings at Kotte, Ratnapura and several other local
authorities are well attended by the stakeholders.
The Positive changes of SCP
Improved Municipal Approaches
The SCP helped the municipalities understand the value of
scientific data collection and analysis as a starting point to
formulate creative responses. Data management has improved in
the SCP cities. Preparation of the City Environment Profile as
required by the EPM process called for a detailed situation
analysis. The initial assessment of the core environmental
problems affecting their cities created the need for detailed
analysis of the situation Therefore, information collation and
analysis has now become a felt need. To that extent, SCP
registered its first victory in changing the mindset of the
municipal administrators and planners
The attitude of the senior management of the participating
municipalities towards the involvement of stakeholders in
municipal management is changing. Understandably, the process
is slow. Though there are no legislative measures yet to
consolidate the working group mechanism, senior managers at
local and central level have become more amenable now to
involving community and stakeholders as partners in the EPM
process.
SCP helped create the facilities for Environmental Management
Information System (EMIS) in 2003 set up at SLILG under the
auspicious of the UNDP in 2003 with an improved training
package for Municipal Councils. In some municipalities it has
already made a discernible impact. The European Union funded
“Management Information for Local Environment in Sri Lanka”
(MILES) project furthered the local government interest and
potential to employ information management systems. It has
resulted in better dissemination of information and therefore, an
increased awareness among municipalities about the necessity of
having a profound data base.
Integration of lessons from the demonstrated strategies in city
development plans and budgets reflects the new commitment of
urban administrations to upscale the experiences. In many
instances the municipal councils have integrated the proven
innovations developed in their annual plans and municipal
budgets. Integration of new strategies in city development plan
and budget reflects the interest of the administration to up scale
the experience. In several cases the municipal councils have
integrated SWM strategic approaches developed under SCP in
the city development plan and municipal budget.
The Public Health Department of Colombo City has integrated
the Green Star Home project in the department’s policy and
budget, replacing previous health programmes.
SCP demonstrations were instrumental in convincing many
doubting Municipal Councils of the efficacy and usefulness of
social mobilization and community action planning as vital
ingredients to address urban issues. The Working Group system
and participatory planning processes were the contributing factor.
Municipal councils ventured out to address the urban issues
through social mobilization and community action planning as a
vital strategy option. The planning was done more at community
level meetings than at the city hall. Occasionally, the strategies
that the groups initially opted for were not technically sound. In
such cases, the related CMC departments guided them.
In DMMC and Kotte the SWM Working Groups have been
integrated into the municipal council’s solid waste management
strategy within the National Solid Was te Management Strategy
framework.
SCP demonstrations were instrumental in convincing many
doubting Municipal Councils of the efficacy and usefulness of
social mobilization and community action planning as vital
ingredients to address urban issues. The Working Group system
and participatory planning processes were the contributing factor.
CMC was able to develop Green Star Home project and the
Urban Air quality Management Projects addressing health,
environment and social issues because it adopted the cross
Badowita recycling (DMMC) center experience has been
replicated in other locations such as Kollonnawa, Kotte and
Ratnapura with council funds. The project costs are included in
the Council budgets. The home composting project and new
recycling center projects too, have been developed under the
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SWM Working Group mechanism in Kotte are financed through
the municipal budget.
city with local authority funds. Not only that it was up scaled, but
also its scope and the content too were expanded making it a
settlement based project as against a home based project and was
later re named to read as “Green Settlement Programme”.
The innovations at Beddagana, Kotte and Badowita at DMMC
were aimed at building linkages with local level institutions that
could takeover the onerous responsibility of educating large low
income settlements to adopt new alternative methods. Again
Ratnapura and Kandy Municipal council and several other cities
have followed their example and the replication has begun.
After 3 years the Project continues with annual public awareness
campaigns. While the sticker scheme has not shown
sustainability having lost the initial penchant that the residents
had for it, the Public Health Department is continuing with the
public education and awareness work throughout the year using
the departmental cadres of the Public Health Education Unit and
the Curative Health Department. This year the project continues
with schools as centre points. The students check all premises
located within the radius of 50 meters for cleanliness.
In this context, the demonstration projects on solid waste
management initiated by Kotte and Dehiwala- Mount Lavinia
municipalities have proved that there are alternate methods to
mere disposal, which has resulted in the development of a
municipal solid waste management strategy in Kotte and DMMC.
EPM process has made an important impact in this respect. There
are positive signs that this will be emulated by the other
municipal councils in the near future.
As a sequel to the GSHP the Healthy School Campaign funded
by WHO was initiated in January 2003.
The Air Quality Management project made a deep impact on the
environmental and health concerns. A mass awareness campaign
under the slogan “Smoke Kills” was organised jointly with Air
MAC, Rotary club, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of
Environment & natural resources and the CAI working group of
SCP to make general public aware of the adverse impact of the
vehicular emission on health.
The issue-specific Working Group mechanism has made a
tremendous impact on improving the co-ordination between the
departments. Since solid waste and sanitation were found to be
priority problems in most of the local authorities coordination
and interaction between the Public Health and Engineering
Departments are generally observed to be good as they are jointly
responsible for SWM and sanitation.
UGSP training
Increased Demand for Training
Officially MDTUs of the Provincial Councils are responsible to
provide training facilities for the local authorities. 4% of the
annual budget of the local authorities has been allocated for this
purpose. MDTUs are responsible for developing a training action
plan for LGs depending on their needs and train the staff. But in
practice this is being done only in the Central Province where a
separate Local Government Training Unit had been set up.
The Heads of Department Working Group was an instrument that
SCP introduced at the city level not only to review its
implementation but also review the progress of all other major
projects and programmes of the city. This arrangement has
helped galvanize the interaction between projects and
programmes and make them interdependent as part of an
integrated city development strategy. In a few replication cities,
the management has given Working Groups a considerable
autonomy in deciding on new strategies through demonstration
projects. The City Development Committee in Kotte has proved
to be more effective in interdepartmental co-ordination.
In this context , the capacity building training programme initiated
by SCP has created a tremendous demand for training in the local
authorities. EMIS/GIS unit set up at SLILG under the MILES
project further strengthened the UGSP training p rogramme.
Several municipal councils like Kotte and Kandy were given the
opportunity to follow the GIS training which has produced
commendable results.
The SCP lessons in the capital city of Kotte inspired the Council
to become the first ever local authority in Sri Lanka to develop a
citywide integrated SWM Strategy with a long term vision under
the Basic Urban Services (BUS) program sponsored by UNHabitat and IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Delft,
The Netherlands.
The New UGSP training program is a demand driven project.
The local authorities are free to use their discretion and decide
the type of training they need for their staff. The response is
encouraging and the LAs are making the best use of it. The
demand is so great that the UGSP was compelled to introduce the
system of Training of Trainers (TOTS) for capacity building
partners to meet the demand and strengthen the repertoire of
training resource personnel.
The demonstration projects have helped to augment the
deficiencies by providing, through the working groups, practical
examples and solutions for improved municipal solid waste
management. This resulted in a solid waste management strategy
in Kotte and DMMC being replicated in several other
municipalities.
Moreover, large scale private sector manufacturers have now
entered the market to produce compost bins in mass scale.
SCP’s promotion of home-based composting has attracted new
partners from the private sector. Many leading private
manufacturers have now entered the market with quality compost
bins. The Project has necessarily created a new Municipal
propensity to promote composting.
Critical Look At traditional Approaches
Even though the EPM process is not a daily routine in the
Municipal Councils yet, the SCP has laid the foundation for the
Municipal Councils to critically look at their organizational
deficiencies and the validity of their traditional approaches to
urban issues. This is amply manifested through the frequent
requests made by the councils for training in Performance
Improvement, Public Relations, EMIS and Strategic Planning.
UGSP training program 2004-2005 will help local authorities to
understand the value of EPM process better and support its
implementation.
In Colombo the integrated approach of addressing multi faceted
issues has been a path finder for institutional coordination
The Green star homes project (GSHP) of CMC became an
attractive initiative and soon it was up scaled covering the entire
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Change of Attitude
The attitude of the department heads and senior management
towards the involvement of stakeholders in municipal
management is changing. But understandably, the process is
slow. Though there are no legislative measures to consolidate
the working group mechanism, senior managers at local and
central level are convinced to a considerable extent about the
importance of involving community and stakeholders in the EPM
process. For example, the Colombo MC is experimenting with
participatory budgeting, benchmarking and E-governance. Their
Partnership Promotion Programme is an important mechanism to
promote attitudinal change towards participatory planning, which
could serve as an example for replication cities.
Support of the National level training Institutes
Involvement of two national level agencies, i.e. the Sri Lanka
Institute of Local Governance (SLILG) and Centre for Urban and
Regional Planning (CURP) in the training work has helped
implementing the UGSP Capacity Building Strategy.
Involvement of two national level organizations, i.e. the Sri
Lanka Institute of Local Governance (SLILG) and Centre for
Urban and Regional Planning (CURP) to assist in the training
work facilitated the implementation of SCP Capacity Building
plan. The former is a state-sponsored organization with a
mandate for local government capacity building with direct
access to local authorities while the latter is the training arm of a
professional non -governmental body -Institute of Town and
Country Planners of Sri Lanka. These two agencies were
assigned with the task of implementing the Capacity
Development Action Plan. While SLILG focused on building
technical capabilities including the training in EMIS the CURP
specialized in training on social mobilization and participatory
methodologies.
Factors that facilitated and/or obstructed the SCP Activities
Facilitating Factors
Background
There are many reasons for these early successes. One of the
main reasons is that SCP was introduced at an opportune time
when the local authorities were under Supreme Court direction to
search for more effective solid waste management strategies. The
Interest shown by the Supreme Court in urban environment
issues was also a blessing in disguise. It has created the necessary
leveling of field to sow the seeds of change. The creation of a
Solid Waste Management Authority and the consequent
preparation of a National SWM Strategy too have helped attract
municipal interest to attract innovations. Secondly, it was
introduced at a time when a new cadre of provincial municipal
leaders was being elected to guide local development. They were
brimming with enthusiasm to initiate new things. There were
other factors too.
Urban Governance Facilitation Committee (UGFC)
The Urban Governance Facilitation Committee (UGFC) has been
established under Phase II of the programme at the Ministry of
H&PI and is chaired by the Ministry Secretary who is also the
National Project Director. The Secretary of MHAPC&LG is also
co-chairman of UGFC and actively participates in UGFC
meetings. . This has resulted in a better flow of information and
better collaboration. One good example of improved
collaboration between ministries and the decision to assign a
senior Director to assist the SCP implementation undertaking to
visit the local authorities allotted to him by the implementing
ministry.
State Support
State Commitment to the program during the phase II was a great
strength. The Ministry of Housing and plantations Infrastructure
recognizing that ‘learning by doing approach’ of SCP falls in line
with its core role of urban support started playing a leading role
in SCP implementation. Concurrently the Ministry of Home
Affair, Provincial Councils and Local Governments
(MHAPC&LG) too, increased its support to the program.
The role of the UGFC is to promote and support good urban
governance functions at Provincial and Municipal levels through
dissemination and promotion of good urban management
practices. It does not only review SCP progress, but co-ordinates
support from all major national projects at the Municipal level. It
also monitor, document and synthesize policy/legal implications.
UGFC meets quarterly to review the progress of each partner
organization and to clear national level constraints. Cadre needs
and budgets are regularly reviewed at the UGFC meetings. The
UGFC has proven to be quite effective in terms of political
support to the SCP and promoting good urban governance
principles. Through the UGFC the cabinet paper for
institutionalizing good urban governance in local government has
been submitted for approval of the Cabinet. In addition the
Ministry of Policy Development & Implementation and Ministry
of Housing & Plantation Infrastructure (MHPI) developed an
Urban Policy Framework for better coordination between
ministries, departments and agencies in urban sector. The
National Capacity Building Strategy is being finalized now and
has already been discussed with all stakeholders in the UGFC.
Early in its implementation, the Ministry of Urban Development
and Water Supply recognized that the ‘learning by doing
approach’ of SCP falls well in line with the Ministry’s own
vision and core role as an urban governance support agency. The
Ministry has assigned a Senior Director and several technical
officers to oversee the SCP implementation on full time basis.
Similarly, the Ministry of Western Regional Development, too
assigned a Senior Director on part time basis to coordinate SCP
implementation. The team was made responsible for guiding and
coordinating the programme. It works very closely with the
Ministry of Provincial Councils and Local Government
(MPC&LG). This cooperation is one of major strengths
facilitating the SCP process.
Municipal Urban Governance Units (UGU)
In the 3 Municipalities Urban Governance Units (UGUs) have
been set up, but at this moment it is only operational in Colombo
and Kotte. The Urban Governance Unit at the DMMC is still not
operational. Also Gampaha, Kandy, Negombo and Kollonawa
have set up UGUs now. Office space, e-mail/internet and
computer facilities have been provided for all these
M unicipalities. However, except for Colombo no special staff
personnel have been assigned to manage the UG unit.
Involvement of the ministry during the early years was limited.
There was a lack of clarity about the role of the ministry. The
general attitude of the ministry was based on the small budget
that the SCP programme was associated with. However, after
convincing the objectives of the programme and its inherent
nature of being a process aimed at effecting far reaching and
sustainable impact on local government capacity building and
Good governance the importance of the SCP process was
convinced.
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Project Support Team (PST)
In the second half of 2003, the PST employed two additional
project officers, and is now operating with a total of 3 project
officers, who have been allocated a number of SCP cities each.
These project officers visit the SCP cities assigned to them and
follow up the various activities such as the Working Group
meetings, demonstration projects, training programmes etc.
Their presence gives strength and confidence to the MC staff.
The PST gets first hand information of what is happening. They
also co-ordinate the activities of the NGO partners and the
training institutes responsible for the implementation of the SCP
programme.
authorities. However the training is impeded by their inability to
release staff for longer training periods due to inadequate staff
numbers. Hence the training courses had to be sized down to
short courses. The fact that local authorities have always been
understaffed due to fiscal constraints, have prevented them from
finding suitable substitutes to help release the permanent staff for
longer periods of training.
Depletion of Initial Support given by the Western Provincial
Council
The programme initially received great support from the
Provincial Council in the first 2 years. This initial interest in and
support suffered a set back when high ranking
people who supported the programme in its initial stages retired
and were replaced by people. Commissioner Local Government
(CLG) was transferred to the Ministry of Home Affairs
Provincial Councils and Local Government, from where he still
supports the SCP programme. Since then the Urban Governance
Unit at the Western Provincial Council has remained inactive.
This proves that the SCP/EPM process needs to be
institutionalized in the local government system to ensure its own
sustainability and prevent it from being susceptible and
subjective to whims and fancies of individuals. This is important
as WPC’s role in SCP is to facilitate and support municipalities,
urban councils and their local partners to adopt good urban
governance principles and practices in the development process.
It is responsible for the province-wide replication and up scaling
of demonstration projects. However, the PST has taken over this
role.
Ineffective
GIS/EMIS Training
Although important as a first step in the SCP process, a few
factors constrained optimal use of GIS/EMIS training facility.
The staff of the three municipalities was given training in 2001,
but due to in sufficient facilities (except for Colombo) and lack of
resources they were unable to put into practice the knowledge
gained through training. Also the training itself was too short for
effective application. Limited access to GIS/EMIS facilities at
municipal councils is another drawback. This was because the
senior official trained by SCP, was apparently not willing to
freely share the facility and information from other municipal
departments.
Even though the GIS/EMIS facility is still in its initial process,
the awareness of the need for good information and expertise is
there. In addition the introduction of computers, email and
Internet facilities by SCP has been an important step in
improving information technology and communication facilities.
Ineffective Linkages between the LAS and the Ministries of
WPC.
The Municipal Councils have no effective linkages with the
Ministries of the WPC. It has been difficult for them to channel
all communications to higher authorities through the WPC.
Although the WPC has a training arm, which could be very
useful for training of local government staff, there has been not
much support for the SCP programme from the WPC. Although
approval had been granted to provide WPC funds for local
government training in 2002 and 2003, in practice it has been
very difficult to obtain necessary funds due to bureaucratic
constraints.
Factors obstructing the implementation
Weak institutional capacity of Local Authorities
A main draw back to the implementation of this program was the
weak institutional strength of the Local authorities with limited
staff who lacked professional skills. The moratorium on
recruitment imposed by the central government in 2002 further
aggravated the problem as it prevented the filling of vacancies
created by transfers, resignation and retirement of staff.
Weak institutional capacity is a persistent drawback to good
governance of the local authorities. In most cities the local
government staff lacks professional orientation to new and
emerging urban issues and the skills to tackle them. It is
commendable that despite these drawbacks the SCP programme
has been able to register such an impressive array of
achievements in such a short period on such a shoestring budget.
We are hopeful that the new IHS capacity building strategy will
help overcome this problem
Documentation and Dissemination of SCP Experiences
Then the documentation of demo-projects and their dissemination
at the SCCP National Replication Workshop (October 2001), the
Provincial Replication Workshop (December 2001), the National
Mayors Forum (July 2002) and the National Seminar on Good
Urban Governance (July 2002) are important aspects in nationallevel “functions. Furthermore, dissemination takes place through
leaflets on Good Urban Governance, as well as the new Sri Lanka
SCP toolkit promoting Good Urban Governance.
Shortage of Staff
In the event of a transfer of the municipal commissioner or the
deputy commissioner who normally spearheads the program,
there were instances where the program had temporary suffered
due to the ignorance of the successor about the SCP process.
These Problems were overcome through constant monitoring and
orientation programs initiated by the partner agencies facilitating
the program implementation. The appointment of project officers
by the partner agencies at local level has contributed immensely
in closely monitoring the work and assists the Local authorities.
At the end of Phase I in 2001, the initial experience in the three
core cities was documented and shared with mayors and senior
officials of other urban local authorities at a National Replication
Workshop. The documentation was helpful in getting the
Documentation and Dissemination of SCP
Experiences
Western Provincial Council to replicate the SCP process in
several other cities in the Province during 2002-3. Subsequently,
in 2004, with UN-Habitat assistance, the Institute for Housing &
Constraints to training programs
Human resource development training is an essential prerequisite for the promotion of the EPM process in local
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Urban Development Studies (IHS) of the Netherlands prepared a
comprehensive voluminous documentation on the experience of
the first two Phases of SCP. These documents together helped
the Government understand the potential of the programme in
enhancing the quality of municipal management on a shoestring
budget. The experience in these cities were documented and later
shared with a large number of mayors and senior officials of
other urban local authorities at a National Replication Workshop
held toward the tail end of Phase I. This was complemented by a
similar workshop organized a month later in December 2001 by
the Western Provincial Council which resulted in a path-breaking
decision to up scale the application of SCP process in the
Western Province by adding more urban local authority areas
within the province during 2002-3
related sub sectors, which will eliminate inconsistencies in sub
sector policies and activities within the frame work of common
goals of the urban sector.
World Bank mission that undertook a review of Urban Sector
Policy recommended early preparation of a coherent National
Urban Sector Policy framework and Operational Strategy for
urban upgrading and institutional strengthening. The 14 member
high level task force appointed by the government of Sri Lanka
for the formulation of the framework included the SCP National
Technical Advisor (NTA) and the UN-Habitat Program Advisor.
The Ministry of Policy Development & Implementation with
Ministry of Housing & Plantation Infrastructure (MHPI)
developed the Urban Sector Policy Framework. The Government
used SCP experts in developing the Urban Sector Policy
Framework. It is one successful example in which SCP played a
catalyst role in its contribution to the development of the Urban
Sector Policy Framework.
The implementation of the SCP programme in the 3 Core- City
area MCs i.e. Colombo , Kotte and Dehiwala Mount Lavinia and
its experiences have now been comprehensively documented by
the Institute for Housing & Urban Development Studies (HIS)
The Netherlands supported by the UN –Habitat. The document
series is available in the following titles:
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
The framework was developed through working groups in the
following sectors and incorporating good governance and
stakeholder participation as their approach:
“Documentation of lessons learnt in the Sustainable Sri
Lanka Cities Programme - capacity Building on a
Shoestring”
“Documentation of lessons learnt in the Sustainable Sri
Lanka Cities Programme - capacity Building on a
Shoestring” with Annexes
Capacity Building review of the Sustainable Sri Lanka
Cities Programme
Proposed Capacity Building Agenda 2004-2005
Annexes to the Report Capacity Building review under
SSLCP & capacity Building Agenda 2004-2005Sustainable Sri Lanka Cities Programme-Phases I & II Self
Evaluation Report April 2004
Sustainable cities Program- SCP Sri Lanka – Demonstration
Projects
§
§
§
§
§
§
Urban economy, urban planning & stakeholder consultation;
Urban governance & Local government institutional
strengthening;
Urban Land;
Urban Housing, Upgrading & Service Delivery;
Urban Environment;
Urban Finance
The USPF provides the necessary policy framework in which
City Development Plans will have to be developed and therefore
will support municipalities to implement their new roles and
responsibilities. SCP through its promotion of Good Governance
has been the catalyst for this policy framework and will have a
major responsibility in supporting implementation of the USPF in
Local Authorities, through the UGFC. The USPF is currently in
its final stage of completion and approval. Please refer annex 2
for det ails.
Mainstreaming Innovation at National Level
SCP has had an impressive share of influence on national
planning strategies. Its demonstrations were a useful anvil to
sharpen the national strategies. It was instrumental in setting up
four important cross-cutting national facilities. They are (i): the
Urban Sector Policy Framework, (ii) the National Strategy on
Local Government Capacity building the Cabinet paper on
institutionalizing the Principles of Good Governance in Local
Authorities, (iii) the National Strategy on Solid Waste
Management and (iv) In addition, the SCP experiment in AQM
has evolved into a national exercise with a National Action Plan
2007 for AQM formulated by the Central government.
Concept paper on capacity Building for local Government
SCP’s capacity building initiative has helped the two Ministries
understand the importance of developing a full-pledged
programme of local government capacity building. Hence, the
Ministries have now formulated a Local Government Capacity
Building Strategy which will soon come into effect. SCP
successfully engineered the development of the draft National
strategy for Local Government Capacity Building that is
supposed to be placed before the Cabinet of Ministers soon for
approval.
National Urban Sector Policy Framework (USPF)
The SCP, under the direction of the UGFC, established a “core
Capacity Building Working Group” in 2002, with the view to
bringing together all available Capacity Building inputs, tools
and training materials from various projects and programmes in
the urban sector. In March 2003 SCP partner agency MaRGG,
volunteered to prepare a concept paper on capacity building for
local authorities in response to a request made by the Ministry of
Housing and Plantation Infrastructure.
Background
The absence of a National Urban policy Framework has
contributed to the lack of coordination between the Ministries,
Departments and agencies functioning in the urban sector.
Formulation of an urban Policy framework to provide for more
integrated, sustainable and equitable urban development capable
of addressing the economic and social needs of the nation was an
urgent need. It is a key policy priority to improving urban
governance while encouraging people’s participation and civic
engagements. The main objective of this exercise was to
formulate an urban sector policy framework which embraces all
The paper sought to offer a comprehensive scope, strategy and
approach to capacity building at Local Government level
enabling the local authorities to improve the quality of
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Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
§
administration and service delivery under the decentralized
government structure. The concept paper has been prepared
taking into account the changing role of the local authorities and
the major deficiencies in the local government of Sri Lanka.
Changing Role of the Local Authorities
The concept paper has placed emphasis on the changing role of
the Local authorities they are no more the sole provider of
services. Private sector and non governmental organizations are
beginning to engage in poverty reduction and in the delivery of
basic urban services. The emerging new trends have modified the
role of authorities from being the traditional provider to be a
facilitator of private and civil society actions in delivery of urban
services and in social development. The local administrations are
becoming more and more visible and challenged by citizens and
civil society vigilance groups more than ever before. The local
authorities must therefore, consider capacity building a one of
their prime responsibilities. The new local government
empowerment processes ask not only for technical expertise but
also socio-political knowledge and skills in human dynamics and
relations
The concept paper has also stressed that the municipalities
develop training strategies and set up a Training unit in their own
organizations and plan training programmes in keeping with the
actual training needs.
The report emp hasizes the important role which the Provincial
Councils Management Development Training Units can and
should play. The strategy proposes the setting up of a National
Coordination Committee on Local Government Capacity
Building and also the preparation of an Annual Implementation
Plan jointly by the major training institutions
Cabinet paper on Institutionalisation of Good Governance
in Local Authorities
The principle concepts of good urban governance has been
acknowledged and accepted by the government of Sri Lanka and
the political hierarchy. The Ministry of Provincial Councils and
local Government will be the executing agency through which
the concept would be introduced into the local authorities.
However, although there is a wider acceptance of the concept of
good governance, due to the weak institutional structure and
systems existing in the local authorities, implementation of the
programme has not been effective.
Major Deficiencies in Local Government
The concept paper has been prepared after a careful assessment
of the key deficiencies in local authorities to which a
comprehensive capacity building strategy should respond to as
well as the new role that they have to play in the changing
conditions. These deficiencies are elaborated in detail in the
concept paper (page 8 – 10) and can be summarized as follows.
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
Strategic Administration enforcement and financial
management: Office management systems, administrative
mechanisms, role and responsibility of main officials, result
oriented management and performance review, recording
and reporting meetings, mechanism for stakeholder
participation and investment, reliable public complaints
management, institutional discipline, appropriate use of
information technology: GIS/EMIS systems.
Low productivity & impact
Insensitivity to public needs
Unresponsive structures, processes and procedures
Weak rule of law
Inadequate resources
Weak Human Resources
Lack of orientation to development
The current local government systems in Sri Lanka do not permit
stakeholder involvement at the municipal level. There is no clear
mechanism for civil society stakeholders to participate in local
authority decision-making processes. Neither do the municipal
ordinances and allied legislation promote municipal-private
sector partnerships. There is also exists various restrictions to
donor assisted projects and therefore does not allow the
municipalities to gain the maximum output from these projects.
There is also no clear mechanism for stakeholders to be active
participants in local authority decision making.
The most of the deficiencies outlined above corresponds with the
deficiencies identified at SWOT analysis’ conducted by SCP in
the second half of 2002 and during the workshop (March - 2004)
on the institutional constraints for implementing the SCP training
programme. The concept paper has discussed the capacity
development needs in the local government under five critical
headings outlined below.
§
Decentralization
&
Devolution
This
includes
Constitutional provisions for devolution, statutory
limitations, methods and functions of decentralization, local
government role and responsibility, ways and means of
carrying out the role functions.
§
Good Governance: Difference between government and
governance, major attributes of governance, indicators of
governance, methods to measure the level of governance(
surveys ,report cards etc )
§
Development Planning & Management: Envisioning ,
structure planning, area development planning systems and
methods, community organization ,
§
mobilization and engagement, mechanisms for stakeholder
participation , facilitation of economic investments and
growth, municipal bonds management
§
Service Delivery Planing and Management: Ward level
planning systems , convergence of basic services,
community action planning , monitoring and management,
local area resource mobilization through local government
finance management system, introducing technical and
managerial innovations, public-private partnership building.
SCP was involved in formulating a Cabinet Memorandum to
Institutionalize the Principles of Good Governance in Local
Authorities. The Ministry of Provincial Councils & Local
Government (MPCL&LG has already submitted a Cabinet
memorandum for institutionalization of Good governance. It aims
at institutionalizing the identification and participation of
stakeholders in addressing key urban issues through participatory
working group system.
The ministry of Provincial councils and local government is
currently updating the Municipal Council BY Laws to
incorporate the practice of good urban governance.
Until such time the bye laws are adopted the ministry has devised
a plan of action for all local authorities, and in particular the
municipalities to strengthen and institutionalize good urban
governance through the following principles. This will be
implemented in close collaboration with the respective provincial
Councils.
§
§
§
78
Identification and participation of stakeholders
Identifying key issues of management and environment
Coordination with national agencies
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
§
§
§
Transparency and accountability
Participatory budgeting
Gender Equity
new policy and national level decision-making and legislation the
Air Resource Management Centre (Air MAC) of the Ministry of
Environment & National Resource undertook to get the national
level support for the implementation. As a result the air quality
action plan is being implemented through Air MAC at national
level and through CAI at local level. The Air MAC under the
auspicious of the Ministry of Environment & National Resources
have finalised the national action plan 2007 for AQM.
The Ministry of Home Affairs, Provincial Councils and Local
Government (MHAPC&LG) in collaboration with the SC P
project support team, formulated a cabinet paper for approval by
the Cabinet of Ministers set up an agenda of action for municipal
and urban councils to take steps to institutionalize good
governance principles. This cabinet paper therefore is an
immediate action plan to strengthen the process of public
participation and good governance in municipal and urban
councils until the MHAPC&LG has updated the legislation
process of bye laws and ordinances, incorporating the practice of
good governance. Recommendations were accepted by Cabinet
and are now being developed into guidelines and regulations, for
enactment. Please see the annex for the full text of the cabinet
memorandum.
Non Revenue water
Following the success of the Non-revenue water reduction project
initiated by the special project titled “Randiya Non- Revenue
Water Project”, Randiya means “valuable or golden water” to
provide individual water connections to low income settlements
in urban areas. It is now being replicated nationally.
Experience in Setting up Cross cutting
National Support facility to assist Cities in
Capacity Building.
National Strategy for Solid Waste Management (NSSWM)
SCP expertise provided the technical and conceptual directions
for the preparation of The National Strategy for Solid Waste
Management formulated by the Ministry of Environment &
Natural Resources in 2002. The work done by SCP in the field of
solid waste management has strongly influenced the government
strategy on solid waste management. It is interesting to note that
the SCP approach to solid waste problem i.e. waste avoidance,
reduction, re-use, re-cycling and thereafter disposal of the
residual waste in an environmentally sound manner is enshrined
in the National Strategy
SCP has been successful in instilling a new “Work Culture” in
the local authorities through EPM promoting private public sector
partnerships and cooperation. It has been witnessed in the Green
Star Home project and the Air Quality Management projects
carried out by the CMC where the council was able to rally the
cross sectoral support effectively , which included all relevant
Government Agencies, private sector organizations, NGO
partners, schools ,CBOs, community and other stakeholders. It
was also able to impose law and order strictly for environmental
improvement thereby proving that the mobilization of cross
sectoral support is possible when you are committed to address
the urban issues with the consensus of all parties concerned.
The UGSP training is carried out with the active participation of
the local training institutes and the local resource personnel. SCP
has been able to successfully replicate the project in 15 other
cities during the last 3 years due to ready support it has got from
the various quarters of the Sri Lankan society.
The NSSWM was developed by the Central Environmental
Authority (CEA) in 1999 and was finalized during a 3-day
workshop in 2002 with stakeholder participation. The CEA
therefore organized a second workshop in July 2003 for all
stakeholders and with participation of SCP as a response to the
lack of implementation of the strategy, as well as the growing
concern of SWM, which has lead to civil society taking action
against municipalities for improper disposal of solid waste. The
workshop was meant to achieve commitment from all
stakeholders at local, provincial and national level to implement
the strategy and Municipalities were ordered to submit their own
SWM strategy. The CEA, being fully aware of the work SCP had
done in the field of solid waste management at municipal level,
invited the SCP to take the lead in supporting the Municipalities
in implementing the SWM strategy.It is relevant to quote the
observations made in the National strategy for Solid waste
management (page11) stressing the need for a well designed
strategy for solid waste management.
Use of Innovations explained above by the Academic Sector
to Improve Training Curricula
Use of SCP Innovations to Improve Training Curricula
SCP demonstrations are attracting a fair level of academic
interest. A national level training institution –SLLG - has already
used the experience and revised its training curricula into 10
interactive modules based on lessons taken from the ground level
SCP activities. The demo sites continue to serve as living
laboratories proving the effectiveness of the EPM process. SCP
experiences have been extensively documented and therefore, the
trainers and the academic sector have easy access to use them as
reference sources.
Quote “Recent analysis of data pertaining to solid waste reveals
that the real problem associated with solid waste at present lies to
a great extent with the present haphazard disposal practices more
than with the rate of generation. However, rate of generation of
solid waste is also increasing with the increase of population,
technological development and the change of life styles of the
people. Therefore policies should be formulated to encourage
solid
waste
management
practices
through
waste
avoidance/reduction, reuse and recycling, and thereafter final
disposal in an environmental sound manner.” Unquote Please
refer annex 2 for details and the framework of NSSWM.
The academic sector or in other words the training resource
personnel entrusted with the tasks of developing training modules
were not familiar with the EPM process at the initial stages. They
were briefed about the process but it was not adequate for them to
grasps this new concept in its correct perspective.
The
theoretical knowledge exchanged and imparted was not enough
to produce far reaching results. However, when the demo
projects started gaining ground and showing positive results they
were directed to visit the sites and see the effects by themselves
and interact with the community members and the other
stakeholders who are directly involved in the implementation for
National Air Quality Action plan 2007
Air Quality Management (AQM) has become a recognized issue.
It has now reached a point when the government agencies have
taken over the management of AQM. As AQM strategies involve
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first hand information. In this regard the demo sites serve as
living laboratories proving the effectiveness of the EPM process.
Now of course, the experiences have been extensively
documented, the resource persons and the academic sector have
easy access to use them as source of reference to improve
training curricular.
Environmental Issues
MILES Program – “The European Union funded “Management
Information for local Environment in Sri Lanka” is in operation.
Millennium Development Goals
The government of Sri Lanka has pledged its support to the
millennium declaration at the UN – habitat millennium summit
and is committed to realize the set goals before 2015. SCP will
implement the program at local level to initiate programmes to
realize the objectives of the programme. As only national level
statistics are available SCP has already delegated the
responsibility to local NGO partners to develop a data base on
millennium issues on local level.
Mainstreaming Innovations at Global Level
Sri Lankan delegates to numerous regional and international
meetings have regularly presented the SCP’s local experience at
these parleys generating interest and discussion. The experience
in expanding the SCP focus and scope to encompass issues other
than environment such as governance and poverty has received
wide acclaim and influenced strategy revisions and reforms in
other countries though we have no documented evidence.
Delegates from other countries often acknowledged the
usefulness of the experience of SCP innovations leading to and
influencing policy and strategy development at the national level.
Poverty Reduction
In the early years the SCP focus was mainly on the
environmental Issues. As they were the pressing problems that
the cities faced at the time of introducing the SCP it is natural for
local authorities to give priority for such issues and apply the
newly introduced EPM process to solve them. Poverty reduction
was only an eventuality and not a planned action during this
period. Some of the cities during the phase III of the program
have undertaken to address the poverty issues and formulate pro
poor plans for poverty reduction. The Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs) have recognized the eradication of extreme
income poverty as the number one goal. Proportion of population
below national poverty line is 22.2 as at 2004.The Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) have set the target to bring this
down to 13 by 2015 and the SCP cities will be involved in the
process through EPM.
On the other hand, SCP had been able to mainstream some of the
innovations at the global level such as the Agenda 21 and MDGs.
As mentioned earlier, the SCP demonstrations in implementing
the Agenda 21’s emphases on extending water supply to the poor
in a sustainable manner has now received national level
recognition and acceptance. The National Water Supply &
Drainage Board has incorporated the lessons of the SCP
experiences into their Water Supply Delivery strategy. Similarly,
in a recent move, SCP has joined the national campaign to
streamline the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by
localizing the promotion and monitoring of MDGs through the
local government authorities.
Documentation of Experiences
The Institute for Housing and Urban development studies (IHS),
The Netherlands, supported by UN-habitat has developed a
research framework to evaluate the SCP program in Sri Lanka
and has documented it.
Urban Issues
Basic Urban services (BUS) Initiative of UN –habitat is now
being implemented in two local authorities i.e. Kotte and Wattala
UC. The project is supported through specialized technical inputs
from the IRC International Water & sanitation center in the
Netherlands.
Other
In addition SCP plays a key role in implementing several other
projects such as The Lunawa lake rehabilitation project and Post
Tsunami rehabilitation program
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TANZANIA
Implementation Of The Sustainable Cities Programme In
Tanzania
Martin Kitilla, National Programme Coordinator
James Sauramba,Technical Adviser
2.1 Contribution To National Urban Development Policies &
Processes
1.0 Background to the SCP in Tanzania
Sustainable Cities Programme was launched in Tanzania under
the auspices of Sustainable Dar es Salaam Project (SDP) in the
Dar es Salaam City Council in 1992 which engaged its
stakeholders in managing the growth and development of the city
through the Environmental Planning and Management (EPM)
process.
In the case of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam city’s entry objective was
to apply the EPM process to prepare the city's Strategic Urban
Development Plan (SUDP) that would "replace" the city's Master
Plan whose planning period was expiring in 1999. Subsequently
every effort and focus was on the preparation of such a plan. This
approach revolutionised urban planning from the traditional
spatial Master Plans to the more integrated SUDP’s which take
cognisance of the social, economic and spatial land-use
considerations.
Prioritized issues tackled under the SDP were Solid Waste,
Upgrading of Unserviced areas and Servicing City Expansion,
Open spaces, Recreational areas, Green Belts and Urban
Agriculture and City Economy and Integration of Petty Trading.
Others were Air Quality and Urban Transportation, Surface
Water and Liquid waste, Coastal Resources and Coordinating
City Center renewal. Through the EPM process, SDP became the
best project among the Phase I worldwide demonstration cities
and was nominated the best UNDP Project in Tanzania in 1994.
In order to strengthen the replication and the implementation of
the EPM process, the government through the Ministry of Lands
and Human Settlement Development (MLHSD) is utilising the
capacity of the staff previously working with SDP and others
who have been trained by UASU to replicate the approach in
medium and small towns in Tanzania. The MLHSD established
its Strategic Urban Development Section (SUDS) which received
technical support and capacity building from UASU. Urban
centres supported so far through the SUDS include Shinyanga
(municipality), Songea and Kibaha (Regional Townships),
Karatu, Lushoto, Vwawa, Masasi and Makambako (district
centres) and Tunduma (small upcoming centre). The Ministry has
also prepared and issued guidelines pertaining to the preparation
of SUDP’s through the EPM process to assist these and any other
centres requiring technical assistance.
Some of the successfully implemented action plans developed
around the above issues include Privatisation of solid waste
management, parking facilities and pit emptying services. Others
were the establishment of the central up-country bus terminal at
Ubungo, Initiation of a pilot Non Motorised Transport (NMT)
project, Improvement of some open spaces, recreational areas and
city horticultural gardens, Privatisation of public toilets,
Changing some of the streets into one-way street system,
Contracting of cleansing of city roads/streets, Construction of
small scale traders markets, Provision of infrastructure and
services in Hanna Nassif, Kijitonyama and Tabata through
community participation, Reorganisation of petty trading
activities along the streets through the use of agreed “structures”
for displaying/storing various goods/items for sale to effect space
sharing.
The successful piloting of the SDP culminated in the initiation of
the replication of the Sustainable Cities Programme’s EPM
approach to ten other cities and municipalities in mainland
Tanzania and Zanzibar in 1997 namely: Arusha, Dodoma, Iringa,
Mbeya, Morogoro, Moshi, Mwanza, Tabora, Tanga and
Zanzibar. This was followed in 1998 with the establishment of
the Urban Authorities Support Unit (UASU) under the
Presidents’ Office, Regional Administration and Local
Government (PORALG). UASU’s mandate is to coordinate the
SCP in Tanzania and to provide technical support to the urban
local authorities in replicating the EPM process by drawing on
existing local, national and international resources and
experiences.
The successful implementation of these projects attracted interest
from other stakeholders such as UNDP, UN-habitat, ILO,
DANIDA, IGP etc. in leveraging resources to support the
management, capacity building and implementation of the action
plans including capital investment projects.
2.0 Innovation
Initiatives
Under
the
SCP/LA
21
Also as part of the replication process, each local authority
created the new role of a Sustainable Cities Programme
Coordinator (PC) on their staff establishments. These
coordinators are responsible for overseeing the application of the
EPM approach. Such SCP Municipal Programmes are located in
the Municipal Directors’ (MD) office for ease of coordination
with the Heads of Departments. The PC’s report their activities to
the MD’s and to the standing committees of the Councils.
Innovation is a result of distortion or imbalance in the status quo
which compels people to think and act in certain ways either to
restore the balance or improve the situation. The birth of the
global SCP programme and the introduction of the EPM
approach in the various demonstration cities of the world led to
different innovations and hence entry objectives.
The application of the EPM process in Tanzania has led to
significant improvement in urban governance through its
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participatory planning approach where citizens now participate in
urban management. Participatory budgeting, resources
mobilization, gender awareness as well as poverty eradication
have gradually been rooted in urban planning and management
activities in a more integrated manner than ever before. This
outlook is making the urban centres more business oriented,
hence requiring multi-disciplinary urban managers.
In addition, lessons learnt are captured during SCP national
coordination workshops and seminars for all participating local
authorities. The workshops are organized by UASU with support
from Danida.
2.3 Constraints to Implementation of SCP/LA 21 Initiatives
Capacity
Moreover, the approach has significantly contributed towards the
implementation of poverty reduction and environmental policies
in that more poor people are engaged in income generating
activities through taking part in implementing popularly
developed action plans and that the communities are provided
with more relatively cost effective services such as properly
managed solid and liquid waste, roads, water supply, storm water
drainage, etc. The utilization of Public Private Partnerships in
urban management received a huge boost .
One major constraint experienced to date is to mobilize and
sustainably build capacity, empower as well as motivate
stakeholders to successfully move through the various steps of
the EPM process such as issue identification and prioritization,
strategy formulation, action planning and implementation and
subsequently institutionalization.
The huge success of the EPM approach also led to exertion of
immense pressure on the generally already over-stretched
capacities of UASU, MLHSD and the local authorities
themselves. In addition, the upcoming restructuring of PORALG
and the local authorities (under the LGRP) cast a shadow of
uncertainty on the future status and role of UASU as well as the
position of the EPM coordinators within the local authority
structures respectively.
Apart from the guidelines for SUDP developed by MLHSD, the
EPM process has also influenced changes in other policies in
Tanzania such as the National Human Settlements Development
Policy which categorically states that all urban development
plans in the country should now be prepared through the EPM
approach rather than the conventional master planning approach.
The EPM process is also featuring as an integral part of
curriculum development in the institutions of higher learning in
Tanzania. For instance the Department of Regional and Urban
Planning at the University College of Lands and Architectural
Studies (UCLAS) now emphasizes on the participatory EPM
approach instead of the traditional master planning approach.
Funding
The launch of the Safer Cities Programme in Tanzania is a
consequence of the success of the EPM approach. This
programme seeks to address urban violence and delinquency
through crime prevention initiatives. Apart from community
policing and law enforcement the p rogramme addresses the
underlying problems of insecurity such as unemployment,
poverty reduction, governance and general inclusion of
marginalized groups (women and youths), and the poor in urban
development.
Some local authorities piloted geographic working groups to try
and speed up the implementation of projects. Some utilized city
wide working groups and yet others used a combination of these
extremes. These diverse approaches are testimony of how some
local authorities would like to use the EPM approach to identify
projects rather than to develop SUDPs with many initiatives,
hence attempting to circumvent the process.
The operationalization and sustaining the Working Groups also
presented one of the greatest challenges. This has resulted in
working groups not meeting regularly thereby jeopardizing the
whole participatory dimension of the EPM process.
The prospects of participation ushered by the EPM approach has
created a huge demand for funds to implement environmental
initiatives. This has unfortunately not been matched with the
budgetary support from local revenues, national budgets nor
external donors. This applies at national and local levels, thus
subsequently curtailing the success of the SCP at large.
Other initiatives being implemented in Dar es Salaam and born
from the success of the implementation of the EPM in Tanzania
are the Community Infrastructure Upgrading Programme (CIUP)
being supported by the World Bank and the Bus Rapid Transit
(BRT) system. In addition, the Cities Alliance Project (CAP) is
also being implemented in Arusha and Dar es Salaam.
3.0 Mainstreaming SCP/LA 21 at National And Global Level
2.2 Documentation & Dissemination Of SCP Innovations
Over the years, SCP in Tanzania enjoyed close collaboration
amongst numerous NGOs, CBOs, institutions of higher learning,
Environmental Management Information System (EMIS) and
GIS firms as well as consulting firms dealing with environmental
issues both at local and national level.
Through support from UN Habitat, SCP Tanzania is finalizing
the documentation of the lessons learnt through the years of
experience implementing the innovations. The documentation
will include a Toolkit to support preparation of SUDP’s based on
the SDP experience; inventory of existing spatial and text
information and published/unpublished documents by topic, year,
etc; Comparative and analytical issue specific documentation on
one typical issue of common municipal concern as well as the
synthesized lessons of experience both at national and local level
including blips of examples and source references.
The
documentation is scheduled to be concluded in time for
dissemination at the Dar +12 multi-stakeholder consultative
workshop scheduled to be held in May 2005.
At the national level the SCP gets policy guidance from the
National Programme Advisory Committee (NPAC) which was
established in 1999 and is chaired by the Permanent Secretary of
PORALG and UASU is the Secretariat. (See attached
oganigram). The committee is composed of about twenty
institutions drawn from government ministries/departments (e.g.
MLHSD, Department of Environment, Ministry of Health,
Ministry of Water & Livestock Development, Ministry of Natural
Resources & Tourism, Land Use Commission and National
Environmental Management Council); private sector membership
organizations (e.g. Tanzania Chamber of Commerce, Industries
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& Agriculture), local government associations (e.g. Association
of Local Authorities of Tanzania-ALAT), institutions of higher
learning (University of Dar es Salaam & University College of
Lands and Architectural Services-UCLAS), international
development organizations (e.g. UNDP, UN Habitat, Sida, GTZ,
Danida, ILO, World Bank and SNV) as well as the Local
Government Reform Programme in Tanzania.
The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania recently
received support from the Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign
Affairs/Danida for two years up to the end of 2006. The support
aims to capacitate UASU to fulfill its mandate regarding
backstopping of the local authorities participating on the SCP as
well as to facilitate the process of designing of a new national
component for support to Urban Environmental Management
(UEM) in Tanzania scheduled to commence in 2007.
The brief mandate of the NPAC includes informing participating
local authorities on relevant national policies, promoting the
application of the EPM approach in policy advocacy as well as
serving as the strategic hub or clearing house for the formulation
of future urban environmental management programmes. By the
very nature of its composition, the NPAC enjoys exposure to
global perspectives in urban management and national policy
development and application. As an example, the development
cooperation support to Tanzania is well supported by the Joint
Action Strategy (JAS) which takes into account various national
and international perspectives.
The new national UEM Programme seeks to strengthen the Local
Government sector to deal with urban environmental challenges
in a decentralized decision making context in line with the
national policies on local government reforms, poverty reduction,
gender, etc. In this context, National and Regional authorities
should be involved and enabled to assist the local authorities in
improving the integration of sustainable environmental
considerations in development planning and budgeting with the
participation of all stakeholders including the civil society,
development partners, NGOs, CBOs, the local communities and
the private sector.
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THAILAND
Thailand National Experience
The Thailand Environment Institute
Under the new constitution, a set of ‘organic laws’ were required
to be enacted within two years. Subsequently, the
‘Decentralisation Act’ was promulgated that set the framework
for establishment of a National Decentralisation Commission that
in turn adopted a decentralisation plan detailing a phased
approach to implementation of a decentralisation master plan and
action plan. The Decentralisation Plan is set forth in 2 phases – 4
years and 6 years. The first four years (2001-2004) dealt
primarily with reclassification and allocation of service
responsibilities among levels of government, outlining reform of
key central administrative systems regarding inter-governmental
relations and proposing a planning framework.
Innovations
Past attempts of innovations in urban management have met with
varying degrees of success in Thailand. This is largely due to the
previously highly centralized form of administration which saw
many of these ‘innovations’ be applied at the local level as a
parallel process or a one-off application while the standard
‘business as usual’ was highly regulated by centrally mandated
procedures, processes and regulations for local “administration” –
not “management”. Whether the SCP/ LA21 approaches, or
those demonstrated by others such as DANCED or GTZ, etc.,
have had mixed results because of this.
Policy was elaborated for reform of regional administration
concerning public service provision as well as revitalising laws
and regulations concerning local service performance standards.
Important objectives were also established that would affect
changes in the budgeting and accounting system. Civil service
reform policies have been elaborated and are to be implemented.
The 2nd phase (2005-2010) looks to continue the reclassification
and devolution of public service responsibilities, finance, and
personnel administration to the full-scale operation. The target is
to have all local services fully devolved to local authorities.
More recently, with a number of frame conditions rapidly
changing in Thailand (see next section), introducing meaningful
change at the local level for improved urban management has
seen some breakthroughs. The most notable recent innovation is
the testing and application of ‘Strategic Planning’ and ‘Strategy
Management’ approaches for local urban environmental
management that was formulated and demonstrated for all three
levels of local governments. This approach built upon many of
the principles as expounded by many of the previous approaches
such as being high ly participative, bringing in a land use planning
component and stressing poverty reduction and improvement in
quality of life. However, the success is these approaches move
well beyond ‘action planning’ and proposed a more integrated
and balanced approach to local development that can be used
truly as a management tool.
Under the plan, six areas of public services are to be devolved to
local governments:
§
Construction and maintenance of local infrastructure
(including urban planning);
§
Social welfare;
§
Public safety;
§
Local economic development;
§
Natural resource and environmental management; and
§
Cultural promotion
The formulation of local strategic plans accompanied by a 3-year
rolling plan of operation has now replaced the long-practiced
one-time 5-year sectoral plans on a nation-wide basis. Under this
new approach many local authorities were able to formulate their
strategic plans, however many of them faced problems in
‘strategy implementation’.
The testing of a ‘Strategy
Management’ model has proved successful for a number of local
authorities and has potential for much wider application and
spreading. This work is complemented by a very participative
and bottom-up formulation of Sustainable Cities Indicators that
help municipal authorities better monitor and subsequently
manage development in their jurisdictions.
In line with the increased devolution of services to local
authorities, the decentralisation act provided financial
decentralisation benchmarks where, by fiscal year 2002, 20% of
the national revenue should be allocated to local authorities and
by 2007, 35%. By comparison, in fiscal year 1999, local
governments received an estimated 9% of national revenues .
Prior to the adoption of the constitution, what was called a
significant initiative for decentralisation occurred in 1994 with
the establishment of the ‘Tambon Administrative Organisation TAO’ (Or Bor Tor). This was a first step in introducing elected
local officials at a very local level for the rural sector. Previous to
that, the provincially elected legislature (under an appointed
governor) was the most locally based elected representative of
the rural population. The jurisdiction of these TAO conform
largely to the existing Tambon boundaries that typically cover all
areas of a province except the municipalities and former sanitary
districts.
National factors that have facilitated or/and obstructed the
introduction of new urban management approaches
In the opening paragraph it was noted how the highly centralized
system of local administration inhibited the introduction of new
urban management approaches. This changed drastically in
October 1997, when Thailand took a major step forward with the
adoption of its new constitution that established an important
enabling framework for change in both formal decentralisation
and further democratisation. The adoption of this new
constitution is perhaps the most visible signal that the Thai
Government is dedicated to decentralisation. Concurrent to this,
decentralisation of authority is also being emphasised as an
important component of civil service administrative reform.
A more important step towards increasing local autonomy
occurred after adoption of the constitution in which sanitary
districts were no longer recognised as a form of local government
requiring the upgrade of all 981 sanitary districts to full
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municipal status. This represented a significant change in the
local urban authority landscape. Until that point there had been
only 149 municipalities in the country representing the most
autonomous form of local government. Previously, the sanitary
districts were administered under a mix of appointed and elected
officials and formed part of the territorial administrative
framework. With the upgrading of the sanitary districts there are
now 1,129 municipal authorities in the country requiring
elections, staffing and management to municipal standards.
that only advocate ‘action planning’ or a ‘single sector’ emphasis
(such as on environment). Such approaches are no longer
applicable in the increasingly complex urban situation in
Thailand except perhaps in the smallest of urban centres. Urban
development issues are now becoming increasingly complex and
frequently at a stage where we must increasingly turn to strategic
guidance and approaches as an orientation for any ensuing
actions and projects. What is needed are ways and means that go
beyond the project (and even program) oriented approach and
offer a more balanced and integrated way of working to address
the ongoing problems. Limiting inputs to too narrow a field, is in
itself, unsustainable and does not facilitate the integration of
development issues and subsequent responses. The difficulty is
in finding approaches that are truly able to offer an integrated and
balanced means for urban management that moves beyond only
‘planning’ and offers innovations that are really ‘management’
oriented.
To further facilitate the implementation of local management
processes, other important frame conditions are now in place at
the central level. The current government is emphasizing efficacy
of all government organizations and requiring the application of
strategic planning as a management tool. Such approaches are
also asking all government units to have both strategies and
indicators for measuring success. Given these new demands by
the central level, many government units, including local
authorities, are now very willing to adopt new and innovative
practices.
Mainstreaming innovation at national level
Use of innovations to develop and improve national policy
and strategies
Documenting and disseminating innovations.
The underlying strategic planning approach was introduced
nation-wide by the Department of Local Administration as a
means to better support local planning and management under the
decentralized framework. This has been supported by a
handbook and curriculum to support building of local capacity.
The formulation of the ‘Strategy Management’ approach was
initiated by the Thailand Environment Institute with support from
the Office of Policy and Planning of Natural Resources and
Environment, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment as
a means to strengthen more sustainable development approaches.
This has been documented in a five-volume handbook that has
been disseminated to all local authorities.
At present, urban development is not a stated priority of the
national government which is currently emphasizing rural
development potential and growth. However, there are sufficient
frame conditions that have both facilitated and encouraged the
spreading of such innovations by creating a demand from the
local urban level (ongoing decentralization initiative; requirement
for all agencies to have both strategies and indicators for
measuring development success. Much of the work is now
increasingly involving the National Municipal League of
Thailand as a strategic partner in the formulation and application
of such innovations. By building capacity within this national
institution, and associated regional chapters, there appears to be
more potential for ‘institutionalizing’ such innovations than
through only the nationally based line ministries as in the past.
Initiatives under the Sustainable Cities Indicators included the
selection of 12 municipalities from 5 regions to participate in the
formulation and implementation of sustainable cities indicators,
training of more than 700 personnel of the executives and
administrative officers of the 5 regional chapters of National
Municipal League of Thailand (NMLT), presently the process for
identifying 12 Good Practices of Self-Improvement through
Implementation of Sustainable City Indicators has been
conducted, and awards will be given in October 2005.
Documentation of good practices will be shared through the
website of the NMLT, and through a series of training events.
Setting up cross-cutting national support facility to assist
cities in capacity building
At the national level, close collaboration is being carried out with
a number of actors that will support the further spreading and
replication of good practices. Government agencies such as the
Department of Local Administration and the Ministry of Natural
Resources and Environment have been close co-operation partner
in many such activities. TEI also supports the capacity building
of the National Municipal League of Thailand to provide
additional inputs and services for its members either directly or
through each of its five regional chapters.
In addition to the work with national partners, there has been a
growing trend of dissemination carried out through peer-to-peer
exchanges of experience and good practices. Such forums
include regular meetings among regional chapters of the
Municipal League. There are also international exchanges
directly on a city-to-city basis supported by NGOs and other notgovernment agencies.
A number of specfic initiatives have been introduced and
experienced gained in encouraging and building local capacity to
undertake development planning and implementation on a more
integrated and participative approach and to build good practices
that can be shared and replicated on a national as well as subregional basis. While a wide range of initiatives have been
conducted over the years involving an equally wide range of
actors, the following outlines a limited number of such initiatives
and experiences that have either been, or in the process of being,
carried out by TEI in conjuction with other national and
international agencies:
Aspects of the introduced new urban management
approaches that are most difficult to adapt to Thailand’s
particular circumstances
At present, the issue is not necessarily about difficulty in
adapting approaches such as SCP/ LA 21 to Thailand’s
circumstances, but rather it is one of offering truly innovative
approaches that reflect the rapidly advancing nature of local
urban management and the overall capacity at the local level.
Part of the response requires that we must go beyond approaches
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A. Building Regional Learning Networks
This UN-Habitat supported initiative is part of a wider project
designed to support overall decentralization. This component
focuses on the establishment and operation of five Regional
Learning Networks (RLN) throughout Thailand as a means for
facilitating the delivery of capacity-development services to
municipalities. The basis for such a RLN has already been
established with resources mobilized, especially under the SCI
initiative (described below) which brought together the resources
of the Municipal League at the regional level with key resources
from academic institutions and progressive municipalities. A
number of mayors from these progressive municipalities have
already been mobilized to be ‘trainers’ whereby, with
professional support, they can ‘translate’ many of the innovations
and good practices they have already applied through cooperation projects into practical and concrete terms. These
existing networks are being used as the foundation for the RLN.
Each of the regional networks will pursue the same overall
programme objective and have common core network members:
resource cities (those cities most advanced in the implementation
of sustainable urban management); National Municipal League of
Thailand (NMLT) leader members; and regional/ national
universities and training institutes.
within co-operating countries and eventually for the sub-region
through:
§
Providing direct services to local authorities (in their own
cultural context and language) to improve their local
practices, as well as to generate documented good practices
for others to learn from;
§
The ongoing elaboration and refinement of approaches and
tools and new innovations that become more context
specific for each of the specific applications sites;
§
Working through academic institutions to provide a more
formal and regular educational input to reach local
governments on the topic matters and seeking to expand into
the area of ‘distance learning’ through co-operation of
institutions that have the ‘hardware’ but lack the syllabus;
§
Working through national and regional chapters of local
authorities’ representatives (city/ municipal leagues – e.g.:
National Municipal League of Thailand and its five regional
chapters, etc.) to build capacity at these levels to
increasingly assume a greater role in the support and
services to their members;
§
Involving national and provincial agencies within the
process to support the further spreading and replication on a
national basis; this involvement with typically also include
training of trainers at this level – depending on the country
context.
§
Networking with national and international organizations
(NGOs and others) to complement services and tools offered
to the local level;
§
Providing and knowledge centre that is both electronic and
hardcopy based that combines both international material as
well as an increasing amount of locally based reference
information and good practices.
This will be
complementary and linked to other ongoing related
documentation and knowledge management activities aimed
to support local authorities.
Recognising that some cities, institutions and regions have
progressed further, each RLN will also develop its own approach
reflecting regional and local priorities, needs and capacities,
complemented by an e-based national information platform
anchored in the NMLT which will be responsible for instituting
knowledge management nationally. These advances will be
captured as good practices and form the basis for exchange visits
and other forms of sharing and networking at various levels from
local to global.
The focus of capacity development activities and means of
delivery will be based on much of the emerging work and
innovations being developed for the local level and further
elaborated on the basis of regional network meetings with an
emphasis being placed on the experimentation of differing
methods of capacity delivery in each of the regions. These
methods will have already been highlighted in the national
replication strat egy for consideration by the regional networks.
An agreed participatory monitoring and evaluation procedure will
be established and agreed amongst the RLNs and used for
verifying, evaluating and documenting the capacity building
methods employed and their effectiveness in improved urban
management and governance.
C. Sustainable Cities Indicators (SCI)
Through a very bottom-up participatory approach, this project
undertook to develop livable indicators for all levels of
municipalities in Thailand and offer a means to evaluate
municipalities in term of their progress towards achieving a more
liveable and sustainable city. The result was an identification of
47 indicators for a range of economic, social, environmental and
organizational aspects.
Such output was subsequently
implemented through five training workshops for 12 pilot
municipalities on “Indicators…tools for strategy development of
municipalities”. There were approximately 500 participants from
municipalities coming from all five of the Kingdom’s region’s.
B. Sustainable Cities Resouce Centre
A joint co-operation has been formed between TEI and the SCP
to establish a Sustainable Cities Resource Centre. This builds on
TEI’s stated commitment to extend its services to help support
neighbouring countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS)
and in particular their commitment of increasingly ‘going local’
to support the ‘sustainable cities movement’, and combines
SCP’s experience gained in implementing its EPM approach in
other parts of the world with TEI’s work in Strategy Management
and other methods. This centre is in the very early stages of
being established and will provide knowledge and training on
which to support local authorities not only in Thailand, but
through the sub-region with a range of tools, good examples,
approaches and techniques to assist them as they work toward
achieving greater sustainability in their development initiatives.
To facilitate the implementation of such a process, some
important frame conditions were in place at the central level. The
current government is emphasizing efficacy of all government
organizations and requiring the application of strategic planning
as a management tool. Such approaches are also asking all
government units to have both strategies and indicators for
measuring success. Given these new demands by the central
level, many government units, including local government, are
now very willing to adopt new and innovative practices.
An award is also in process to be given to municipalities in
October 2005 which show the most progress in attaining their
proposed actions in responding to their agreed or selected
indicators.
A multi-level strategy is being developed and pursued for
achieving effective coverage of local urban governments both
A number of lessons can be derived from the training exercises
carried out in these 12 pilot municipalities and used as a model
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for other cities to implement indicators as a strategic management
tool.
§
Most importantly, by using a bottom-up approach to
formulate the indicators, where the municipal
representatives had the responsibility for elaboration, greater
ownership at the local level was achieved. This is in
contrast to typical top-down imposition of indicators that
often are applied as ‘auditing’ tools.
§
Such an approach facilitates municipalities taking a holistic
and integrated approach to pursuing their sustainable city
objectives.
By integrating the four components of
economic, social, environmental and organizational aspects
the municipalities were not tied to any p articular dimension.
§
With the sense of ownership and taking an integrated
approach, local authorities were able to establish their own
priorities based on their own idenified needs selecting from
the range of indicators.
§
Application of these SDIs became an important tool for
change and development at the local level. Mayors and
other local leaders now had better knowledge on which to
manage and make changes in their development objectives.
By having very specific and measurable indicators that were
linked to their vision, strategy and action plan, decisionmakers were better able to respond to development needs as
well as communicate objectives and track implementation at
the staff level.
The exposures and exchanges of experiences in the three year
programme of the municipal executives and officers from 10
cities in Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and 2 cities in
Canada have created a great deal of sharing of knowledge and
encouragement.
E. Strategy Management for Local Government
This initiatives have been introduced to encourage and train
municipalities to undertake a more strategic approach to local
development planning that emphasizes shifting from an
incremental approach in the planning and budgeting process to
one that establishes a vision and works to formulate action plans
for achieving it.
During the course of implementation of typical development
plans, one of the greatest weaknesses that had been discovered
was the lack of execution and management of the formulated
strategies. To help overcome these weaknesses, the Thailand
Environment Institute with support from the Ministry of Natural
Resources and Environment worked with 50 local authorities, at
the provincial, municipal, and community levels, to help bridge
the gap in institutional carrying capacity by adapting a model to
strengthen local approaches to strategy formulation and
management that helps local authorities take better control of
their future and work towards more effective management of
their natural resources and environment.
D. Localizing Climate Change Protection
It is this aspect of ‘strategy management’ using the ‘Balanced
Scorecard’ (BSC) and ‘Strategy Map’ techniques that has begun
to show promise for some municipalities where they can both
measure and report on the performance of their strategy.
In collaboration with ICLEI - Local Governments for
Sustainability, the Thailand CCP™ has worked with six local
governments to understand their roles in influencing and
mitigating climate change and to integrate this understanding into
their activities by undertaking the five milestones of the CCP™
Campaign:
1. Greenhouse gases Inventory and Forecast for
corporate and community sector
2. Target Setting
3. Development of Action Plan
4. Measures Implementation
5. Monitoring
A number of lessons have been drawn from this experience. If it
is applied in the local administration organization, this strategy
management approach and related tools can certainly help
increase the capacity of local government, by building
preparedness for action on matters relating to budgetary,
personnel, knowledge and technological aspects. A summary of
the lesson learnt include:
§
Size and type of local government are not important to the
success of the application. Ability to understand and apply
the various approaches and tools were successfully applied
in a range of circumstances and situations from the smaller
and typically under-staffed local units up to the more
‘capable’ provincial organizations.
§
Political commitment represents the most critical aspect
relating to success of the implementation. In localities
where the mayor gave his/her commitment, then the
‘machine’ typically moved forward and the model was
successfully applied.
However, in all cases it was
highlighted that they could not do it alone and support was
needed from the staff level of the organization. Substantial
time and communication is required to achieve an agreement
to undertake such a process that is different from current
practices.
To achieve effective co-operation,
communication and motivation between the executive and
the working groups became of paramount importance to
seeing the model applied and the results achieved.
§
Clarification
of
clients
and
organizational
responsibilities: The most successful application of this
approach and associated tools occurred once the
organization was able to clearly enunciate who their ‘clients’
were and what the organization ‘ought to be doing’ to serve
those clients.
The completed GHG inventory of each city has made each city
aware of how much emission the city contributes to the
atmosphere. The program also assisted cities in improving their
knowledge on climate change issues through training activities.
Deeper awareness and understanding has motivated them to take
concrete actions to reduce emissions.
The project also produced 3 publications namely:
§
Global Warming Hot Stuff for younger generation
§
Sustainable Transport for Sustainable Cities; and
§
Local Actions for Climate Protection.
Three key lessons learnt have been extracted from this work:
§
By keeping the topic practical and immediately usable,
the local level was very willing to implement. The
project was able to very clearly show the impact of
such an approach in monetary terms from efforts to
save energy.
§
Such efforts must also go down to the local community
level – right to daily life and work aspects.
§
There is significant value in providing exposure and
supporting the building of local to local networks from
the national to regional and global level that encourage
sharing and exchange of experience.
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§
§
§
§
Data is perhaps one of the major stumbling blocks to
efficient implementation. Often it is very difficult to obtain
needed data to complete environmental scanning activities
and in many cases, that basic data contained several flaws.
Currently, data collection systems still are designed to serve
national needs and have not yet been adapted to reflect local
requirements for carrying out their own development
planning initiatives.
Measurements: In short – “the clearer the better”. By
establishing clear and concrete measurements, there is much
better commitment throughout the organization to pursuing
implementation down to the project level. Considerable
effort and time must be taken to establish such
measurements as they must be understandable and
realistically applied by all staff levels to get meaningful
implementation and subsequent feedback.
Holistic and Comprehensive: Strategy management works
to achieve vertical integration with other concerned
agencies. These planning and management efforts must be
brought outside of only the context of a single jurisdiction
and recognize the inter-relationship of issues between local
government and other agencies. It is in this regard that the
current jurisdictional boundaries often limit consideration of
wider and more complex issues.
Strategy review and improvement: Significant investment
in time and other resources must be put in place to commit
to not only establishing the plan for action and its
subsequent implementation, but also to undertake a review
and measurement of the performance in a systematic way
according to the agreed indicators. The administration must
accept that the strategy may have to be adapted in response
to the feedback, and that flexibility will be required to adapt
and respond to the results.
Incorporating innovations in other sectors of activity
These innovations have been progressively accepted mostly by
local governments that want to reform their existing modus
operandi of planning and development. Though the Strategy
Management has not been well integrated and accepted by all
central governmental agencies, there are some agencies, such as
the Regional Natural Resources and Environment Centers, and
some of the Provincial Natural Resources Centers that have made
use of the model to train their own officers as well as local
governments in their administrative zones in formulating local
and regional strategic and action plans. There have been a
number of Provincial Strategic Development Plans formulated by
the Strategy Management Model. More recently, the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs), which has been implemented in
Mae Hong Son Province as the first pilot project under the
supervision and support by UNDP, and the National Economic
and Social Development Board, Thailand Environment Institute
has made use of the Strategy Management Model in the training
of provincial staff and in formulation of Provincial Strategic
Development Plan.
Presently, Thailand Environment Institute has been preparing a
number of different types of training curricula for local
government executives and administrators with the
Decentralization Committee and the Department of
Environmental Quality Promotion. It is expected that this
innovative model could be more extensively utilized by the local
governments and other interested agencies.
Mainstreaming innovation at global level
Involvement of national actors in the international debates on
Global Agendas:
Use of innovations explained above by the Academic Sector to
improve training curricula.
(a) urban issues (among others the Habitat Agenda),
Participants from Thailand in such forums often include
representatives from national government (e.g.: MOI, MONRE,
etc.), local authorities (municipal government, Bangkok
representatives, etc.), the National Municipal League of Thailand
and NGOs such as TEI, Community Organization Development
Institute (CODI). Internationally sup ported projects usually
include a partnership of these main groups that work together to
gain synergy and share experiences by contributing lessons learnt
and feedback to not only the national level but also regionally
and globally.
The innovations outlined above are largely targeting a learningby-doing approach through on-the-job training. There are few
‘academic’ institutions that are structured to really provide this
form of training and support to local authorities. This is one of
the rationales behind the establishment of the above described
‘Sustainable Cities Resource Centre’. Linkages are being made
on a strategic basis with key academic partners, such as
Assumption Business Administration College (ABAC) who offer
potential ‘distance-learning’ through their facilities, and the five
regional institutions that will participate in the ‘Regional
Learning Network’ (described above).
(b) environmental issues (among other the Agenda 21 and
Multilateral Environmental Agreements)
Thailand is a signatory to most of the major multilateral
environmental agreements and participates in many of the
forums.
To support such innovations, capacity building also needs new
approaches and forms that result in real change. It must be
realized that the traditional approach of ‘training’ through formal
institutions does not necessarily lead to ‘learning and change’.
Efforts must be applied to where capacity building attempts to
mobilize and leverage local and regional resources that can lead
to learning by one’s own actions and can synthesize and integrate
the lessons learnt. In this regard, exposure is a form of capacity
building that has typically been underutilized, but one that works
because it is practical. Such an approach allows executives to be
able to bring together the policy perspective with action which
have often been treated as ‘separate’ in many training events.
Too often many capacity building inputs for urban management
have focused on the policy level without offering ways and
means to translate the policy into effective and truly manageable
action.
(c) poverty reduction (among other the MDG)
As Thailand has already achieved a number of the goals set in the
global MDG report, it has subsequently formulated an MDG Plus
Report that seeks to go beyond the global framework and reflect
its own situation and targets.
d) sustainability
The Economic and Social Development Board, the Ministry of
Natural Resources and Environment and the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs are jointly responsible for implementing and reporting of
WSSD and CSD commitments. Concretely speaking, Thailand
Environment Institute has been support ed by the NESDB to
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initiate the process of drafting the Sustainable Development
Indicators (SDIs) on the national and regional levels. There have
been a series of interesting discussions and debates on the
effective means of linkages of the global, national, regional and
local levels of the Sustainable Development.
attempting to balance capacity building and related networking at
the global, regional and local level, it is believed that we must
first understand the regional learning context and develop our
own strengths in this regard. Only by establishing a strong
regional framework and good practices for structures, people,
networks and organizations can the global learning context be
properly applied and international exchanges be truly successful.
Support received at national level from global/ international
facilities to implement the global agendas described above
One of the opportunities that forums such as this meeting in
Havana offer is to work to identify (and share) cross regional
strategic issues, particularly among the countries of the South.
South-South Dialogue with the support of North should be
strengthened. Principles and styles of management of urban
governance should be respected, learnt and shared both by
capitalist and socialist societies To be useful for the local level
action, such issues must also be as concrete as possible and able
to be carried out on a regional basis. Whether such issues deal
with ‘urban agriculture’ or the ‘built environment’, they must
relate to trying to address some of the key urban development
issues on an integrated and strategic basis that helps cities to
regain an identity and plan their responses in a sustainable
manner.
There has been a notable decrease in ODA to Thailand from both
multilateral and bilateral agencies. This is partly reflective of the
current government’s position as being more capable of
supporting all aspects of its development agenda with national
resources. However, there is still co-operation from global
agencies to non-government agencies to implement such global
agendas both nationally and at the sub-regional level. Much of
the input focuses on capacity building and networking rather than
on financial and technical assistance to implement global
agendas, reflective of the improving development status of
Thailand.
However, this support could be further enhanced to support
building a strong regional framework as a basis for the global. In
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ZAMBIA
Role of National Capacity Building Institutions in
documenting and mainstreaming Experiences in Zambia
Daniel Apton Phiri, Copperbelt University
National Capacity Building institutions in Zambia have been
collaborating with UN-Habitat for more than ten years now
beginning with the City Summit in Istanbul in 1996 and have
participated in the Global Sustainable Cities Programme since
1996. The Chalimbana National Institute of Local Government
was one of the first to start capacity building programme in
implementation of the Habitat Agenda and LA21. The University
of Zambia participated in the Lusaka Sustainable Project through
technical assistance in the preparations for the City
Environmental Profile and the City Consultation. The Copperbelt
University was the anchor institution for the Support to the
Implementation of HABITAT National Plans of Action (SINPA)
Zambia Project (1998-2002) which was a follow up to the City
Summit. The Copperbelt University has since June 2000
provided technical assistance to the Kitwe City Council in
programme formulation, development and implementation of the
national replication programme-the Sustainable Kitwe
Programme. It can be seen that national capacity building
institutions have been actively involved in SCP/21 Programmes
in Zambia and will continue to do so for a long time to come in
as much as capacity building is a major component of the EPM
process.
benefits more than the other. Lack of commitment towards
common planning meetings and discussions affects
implementation of programme activities. Poor communication
and information flow between CBIs and stakeholders has been a
major problem. In Zambia for example the members of the
Copperbelt University EMEG felt marginalized and irrelevant
when the Kitwe City Council failed to consult them on out
sourcing of technical assistance. It was learnt that the Council did
not officially communicate with the CBI on their intention to
outsource, sound though the idea was.
In line with the theme of the 2005 Global Meeting of Partners:
innovating for local and global results Capacity Building
institutions in Zambia have performed an introspection to
evaluate their role, successes and constraints they have faced
during their participation in the SCP national activities.
Documentation of SCP/LA21 programme
experiences in Zambia
Inadequate support from the national stakeholder is one other
reason for failure of Capacity Building institutions to perform.
The CBIs have to work within national policy frameworks and
action plans but absence of any meaningful dialogue and a
national agenda for urban management impedes the full
contribution of capacity building institutions. There is also the
issue of lack of political support and will to implement national
programmes. Donor agencies, UN-Habitat included have
indicated willingness to provide support in urban environmental
management but there has been little will at national level to start
implementing the programmes.
An examination of all SCP/LA21 programmes in Zambia
indicates that capturing of lessons of experiences and
documentation has been generally poor. Whereas there are
isolated cases in which documentation has been achieved there is
no evidence of systematic documentation either at Capacity
Building Institutions or by national and local level partners. The
only evidence of documentation is the various project documents,
quarterly and annual reports and project evaluation reports. CBIs
have from time to time shared documentation on SCP/LA21
activities with other institutions and consultants and have used
the documents in research activities. A number of reasons can be
cited for inability of CBIs to conduct documentation:
•
there is no established culture for documenting lessons of
experiences due to lack of in-built mechanisms for
monitoring and documentation;
•
lack of appropriate skills and technical expertise for
documentation is another major constraint, particularly in
the area of Monitoring and Evaluation
•
Inadequate equipment for documentation and resources for
special research activities to capture both tangible and
intangible experiences from SCP projects
•
Absence of deliberate institutional policies for
documentation
Most of these constraints could be resolved locally and with little
international support.
Innovations
The collaboration with UN-Habitat and participation in the
implementation of SCP/LA21 activities in Zambia has enabled
capacity building institutions to reposition themselves towards
capacity building needs of local stakeholders in urban
environmental management. CBIs have responded by providing
client specific services tailored to address urban environmental
issues in a more proactive manner. The Copperbelt University for
example has formed an Environmental Management Expert
Group (EMEG) which directly provides technical assistance to
the Sustainable Kitwe Programme. The Local Authority
perceptions on the importance of collaborating with CBIs is
changing for the better with more and more consultations taking
place than ever before.
Factors inhibiting effective collaboration
between national stakeholders and capacity
building institutions
A number of factors affect the smooth collaboration between
CBIs and the local and national level stakeholders. The major one
is mistrust and misunderstanding of respective roles the partners
are supposed to play in implementation of programme activities.
Mistrust is mainly caused by the lack of transparency and proper
accountability of resources and the perceptions that one partner
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Discussions have been held between local authorities, CBIs and
donor agencies of the need to establish an urban forum which
would enable stakeholders come together to exchange
information and lessons of experiences. A national support
facility is envisaged in Zambia but only after the lessons of the
SLP and SKP have been fully captured and documented, and key
recommendations made for upscaling of the SCP/LA21
programmes in Zambia.
Adaptation of SCP/LA21 programme aspects
Experiences working with SCP/LA21 programmes have
indicated that there are some aspects of the programmes which
have been readily adapted while others have been very difficult to
integrate in the daily routines of institutions. Acceptance of the
EPM approach of planning and management by the people who
are used to old routine systems that offer little innovation is one
area requiring more effort. It has been easy to prepare the
environmental profile since consultants are involved but
stakeholder mobilization has been somewhat difficult. This
impinges on ingrained perceptions that when people attend
meetings that have to be paid for it or at least be reimbursed for
expenses. There is no sense of ownership of the process in which
case SCP/LA21 activities are perceived as imposed on the
people. Integrating and institutionalizing some of the aspects e,g
popularizing the EMIS has proved difficulty in the absence of
any meaningful or tangible impacts. Local and national
stakeholders on other hand have appreciated and supported
demonstration projects since these have produced tangible results
and changes in the physical environment to which the people
easily relate.Within CBIs it has not been easy to integrate
SCP/LA21 experiences into the training curriculums.
There are major plans in Zambia to review University curriculum
to follow the SCP/LA21 principles that promote sustainable
development. As more experience is gained in the on-going
programmes, more cases and lessons will be available for such a
curriculum review. This will require the technical assistance of
already established institutions such as the IHS or UCLAS within
the sub-region.
Mainstreaming at global level
Zambia is fortunate in that national actors have been actively
involved in SCP/LA21 programmes at the International level.
Participation of national actors has included presentation of
policy and position papers, technical papers and moderation of
meetings. National actors have also participated in International
Consultative Forums and Expert Group meetings. The level of
participation of national actors is limited and should be
broadened so as to enable them participate in other global
agendas
Mainstreaming innovation at nation level
the framework of the SCP in Zambia mainstreaming will be
achieved through a planned national documentation on the urban
environment. The experiences of the Sustainable Lusaka Projects
have had an impact on national solid waste policy in as much as
SWM is now regarded as an activity that should be conducted in
participatory manner. There hasn’t been much influence on the
legislative instruments though there is so much scope for this in
the future.
UN-Habitat/UNEP has provided the bulk of the technical and
financial support to enable national actors to participate in
international debates. What is discernibly lacking the support of
national level institutional towards national actors participation in
International debate. Such support could be enhanced through
concerted efforts aimed at fund raising to ensure that national
actors participate at global level.
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LUSAKA, ZAMBIA
Innovating through Sustainable Lusaka Programme
Kangwa Chama, EMIS Officer and Ag Director, City Planning, Lusaka City Council
Daniel Phiri, Lecturer, Urban Management Unit, Copper Belt University
Sustainable Lusaka Programme (SLP) was a follow-up and third
component of UNDP/UN-HABITAT supported components in
the Social Sector Rehabilitation and Development. SLP's
development objective has been to support measures aimed at
poverty alleviation in communities of high poverty levels
especially in peri-urban settlements, through promotion of
environmentally sustainable development and growth. The
Programme has supported long-term sustainable growth and
development of the City through capacity building programmes
and demonstration activities in communities of high poverty
levels especially in the peri-urban areas. The programme has had
three phases: Preparatory phase; Implementation phase
(prioritization, working groups and demonstration activities); and
Strategic Development Planning
•
SLP’s contributions to Positive Changes
•
•
•
Local factors that have Obstructed SLP
activities
•
•
•
•
By supporting capacity building programmes at community level
and local authority level, SLP has enabled:
•
formation of a professional pool from which information
and expertise could be drawn from.
•
change of attitude of Lusaka City Council towards
stakeholders and vice versa
•
positive exposure of programme staff to different
developmental experiences
•
empowerment of communities to organise themselves, plan,
mobilise resources and undertake development activities
•
Political interference in the running of community-based
organisations such as Resident Development Committees.
High poverty levels hindered the participation of some
community members in developmental programmes
Inadequate institutional support by Lusaka City Council to
the local council offices
Largely ineffective institutional structure in LCC
Changing
political and administration arrangements
negatively affected developmental programmes in the
communities
Minimal capacity in LCC in terms of resources and staff
competencies
Mechanisms that have been created to
support development innovations are:
•
•
Other contributions include,
•
creation of opportunities to engage in entrepreneurial
ventures
•
The preparation of participatory community profiles in three
squatter settlements led to establishment of priority
environmental issues and formulation of strategies and
action plans and Sensitisation of communities on other
development issues such as gender and HIV/AIDS.
•
Implementation of action plans in at least 3 selected areas
led to the building and strengthening local capacity to plan,
co-ordinate and manage urban development and growth. at
all levels (i.e. communities, NGOs, public and private
sector)
•
Development of a strategic urban development/environment
plan for Lusaka provided the City with a development
framework.
•
Customisation of EMIS to addressing day-to-day spatial
information needs of the communities has enable an allinclusive information management facility
•
•
Strengthening of the EMIS Team
Strengthening of the District Development Co-ordinating
Committee by recruiting a District Planning Officer
Formulation and review of by-laws
Strengthening of the Public Relations Section of Lusaka
City Council
Necessary Technical Inputs to Enhance the
Innovations
•
•
•
•
Local factors that facilitated SLP Activities
•
Existence of Non-Governmental Organisations which
facilitate community development and undertake poverty
alleviation programmes locally.
Presence of Council staff in the communities working hand
in hand with local residents
Community members' spirit of hard work.
Sustained capacity building programmes for staff and
communities by area-Based Organisations and the local
authority
Improved networking among stakeholders, such as the
Council, community leadership, NGOs and CBOs, the
private and public sectors, on developmental matters
Sensitisation of communities on their role in development
initiatives in their midst by the Council.
Backstopping from support institutions such as UN-Habitat
National Policy, Legislative and
Administrative Support required
Existence of community structures in the form of
Community-Based Organisations such as Resident
Development Committees which provide entry points into
the communities and co-ordinate development
•
•
•
92
Review of the Housing (Statutory and Improvement Areas
Act) CAP 194
Review of the Town and Country Planning Act CAP 283
Full implementation of the National Decentralisation Policy
Havana 2005 - Documentation of experience SCP/LA21
•
•
Provision of resources by Government for comprehensive
implementation of the National Housing Policy
Civic Engagement and Citizenship - through encouragement
of civic leaders to participate constructively in promoting
development programmes in their communities
Governance
Global agendas likely to be addressed by SCP
include:
The SCP has contributed to Improvement of Urban Governance
by:
•
Sustainability- through promoting ownership of the
development programmes by stakeholders and their full
participation
•
Efficiency- through capacity building and training
•
Transparency and accountability - through promoting the
creation of democratic structures in the communities such
as Resident Development Committees
•
•
•
•
93
Control of urbanisation in order to check unsustainable
population growth in the City
Security of land tenure for the urban poor
Provision of adequate shelter for the urban poor
Halting of environmental degradation through unsustainable
agriculture practices and illegal development of land.
Protection from greenhouse gases will require global action.