c 2017 FIZ Karlsruhe
Gabric, Kathleen; Lege, Jerry
Evolution by substitution.
UMAP J. 32, No. 1, 39-86 (2011).
Summary: This – and other BioMath Modules under development – arose from a conference in April,
2005, held at the Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (DIMACS) at Rutgers
University. The conference explored methods to establish connections between mathematics and biology,
bringing together those who have tried it, those who have made it work on the undergraduate level, and
those who know how to get new programs into the schools. From that conference arose the NSF-sponsored
Bio-Math Connection (BMC). It develops innovative classroom materials that highlight connections between
mathematics and biology and helps teachers use the materials at various grade levels, in either biology or
mathematics classes (or both). The main BMC products are 24 teaching/learning Modules (including this
one), together with a book (containing some of the Modules) intended for a one-semester senior-level noncalculus-based course that will satisfy part of state requirements for a fourth year of mathematics or science.
These materials are developed primarily for an audience of high school students, but with little adaptation
they are suitable for college students too. This module uses mathematics to examine the probability of
changes taking place over time in amino acids that make up proteins.
Classification: M64 M65 K64 K65
Keywords: biomathematics; biology; mathematical models; probability; Markov processes; transition matrices
February 10, 2017