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- Union of International Associations
INTERNATIONAL
ASSOCIATIONS
ASSOCIATIONS
INTERNATIONALES
1973 - n° 1
25th year
25e année
UNION 0F INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
UNION
DES ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES
Executive Council, Comité de Direction
Président :
Président :
FA. CASADIO, Directeur. Societa Italiana per
I'Organizzazione Internazionale (Italie) :
janvier
January
Vice-Présidents :
Vice-Présidents :
W. ETEKl-MBOUMOUA (Cameroun).
Ancien Ministre de l'Education et de la Culture.
Mohamed Aly RANGOONWALA (Pakistan)
Chairman of the Pakistan. National Committee of
the International Chamber of Commerce.
Trésorier Général :
Treasurer General :
Femand GRAINDORGE (Belgique).
Membres
Members
Th. CAVALCANTI (Brésil).
Président de l'Institut de Drolt Public de la
Fondation Getulio Vargas.
F.W.G. BAKER (U.K.)
Executive Secretary, International Council of
Scientific Unions.
Editorial
5
Les ONG et la faim dans le monde, par le professeur Jean-Paul Harroy
7
La conférence de Stockholm vue par les observateurs
10
,NGO Déclaration
Déclaration des ONG
12
Nikola A. KOVALSKY (U.R.S.S.)
Directeur adjoint de l'Institut du mouvement
ouvrier international de l'Académie des sciences
de. l'U.R.S.S.
Roland RAINAUT (France)
Ancien Directeur de l'Information et de la Presse
de l'O.E.C.E.
Andrew E. RICE (U.S.A.)
Executive Secretary of the Society for international Development.
Mohamed Aly RIFAAT (R.A.U.)
Former Secretary-General of the Afro-Asian
Organisation for Economic Cooperation.
S.K. SAXENA (India)
Director of the
international
Cooperative
Louis VERNIERS (Belgique)
Secrétaire Général Honoraire du Ministère Belge
de l'Education et de la Culture.
Secrétaire Général >
Robert FENAUX (Belgique)
Ambassadeur honoraire
Déclaration des Jeunes
20
Statement of Youth and Student NGOs
20
Les relations des Nations-Unies avec les ONG
Managing Planetary Management
26
Genève, 2 et 3 octobre 1972
29
New York, 17-19 October, 1972
31
Maurice Strong's remarks to New York NGOs
36
Bradford Morse's statement
39
Secretary-General :
« International Associations »
• Associations Internationales »
Editorial Committee/Comité de Rédaction ;
Robert FENAUX
Georges Patrick SPEECKAERT
Geneviève DEVILLE
Jere W, CLARK
Anthony J.N. JUDGE
Ghislaine de CONINCK
Editor/Rédacteur :
Mardí RABER
The role of NGOs at the UN conference on the
human environment, by James E. Todd
42
A human environment ombudsman
46
Congressalia
49
New International Meetings Announced 54
Photo de la couverture :.par courtoisie de la revue « FORCES »,
Published MONTHLY by
Union of International Associatións (founded 1910)
Editor, Administration : 1, rue aux Laines. 1000 Brussels (Belgium)
Tel. (02)11.83.96.
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MENSUEL publié par
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ou
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INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS 1973
3
real nature of that world is that it is
THE REAL WORLD IS A The
complicated system of cause and effect
COMPLICATED SYSTEM arelationships
and, in our approach to
OF CAUSE AND EFFECT that world, we
have got to develop a
means of utilizing all man's energies and man's institutions us part of
the network of response; a network that does not have to reduce every
organization to a stultifying sameness; one that utilizes the great variety
that exists of institutions and institutional approaches, but which links
these as part of a network in which each can identify the area in which
it makes its special contribution, identify it as part of the total approach,
where its particular expertise can be recognized by the rest of the community, where there is no requirement for sameness but requirement
for communication, a requirement for acknowledgment of the special
role that each can play. That kind of approach within the non-governmental community, no less than within government itself, is the key to
our success in managing the basic problems that environment concerns
us with.
I
have
a
deep
conviction
that
governments,
in
their
response,
and
the
United
Nations,
in
its
response,
must
also
develop
this
network
approach
using
existing
centres of energy and expertise and insight, not creating new machinery .
that is unnecessary — using the tremendous resources of the United
Nations system itself, tying them into the resources that exist in national
governments, where most of the expertise really lies, linking them
together with the networks that you will be creating in the non-governmental community as part of a total human approach, using all the
human insights, all the human institutions, not some new pie-in-the-sky
super organization. We have got the ingredients for success here, our
task is to knit them together so this common approach can be given the
linkages and given the framework that
permits
us
to
work
together
THE NETWORK
APPROACH TO ENERGY, effectively.
EXPERTISE & INSIGHT
4
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1 9 7 3
— Maurice Strong
Editorial
De Stockholm à Nairobi
L'ENVIRONNEMENT HUMAIN DES ONG
coordination de New York et de Genève.
Cette dispension onéreuse permettra du
moins d'établir les liaisons nécessaires
avec le réseau des organisations non
gouvernementales et le secteur privé
des entreprises intéressées au premier
chef par les problèmes de l'environnement humain.
Nous avons plaisir à présenter un
numéro spécial de notre Revue consacré au grand sujet mondial de l'environnement humain. Le mot environnement, en anglais comme en français,
a, par sa racine même, un sens d'approximation qui correspond curieusement à une chose tout aussi approximative.
Où commence et où finit l'environnement ? Dans qulle mesure, par exemple, les catastrophes naturelles participent-elles du phénomène ?
L'Assemblée
générale
des
NationsUnies vient d'instituer, dans le cadre
du Secrétariat Général de l'Organisation, un nouveau Fonds avec un conseil d'administration propre qui nous
rappelle
l'organisation
de
l'Unicef.
Ce nouveau service de l'organisation
internationale s'apercevra, dès sa mise
en place et en œuvre, que sa difficulté sera d'abord de délimiter son champ
d'action par rapport aux divers programmes d'aide et de développement;
ensuite d'établir ses relations interdisciplinaires entre des activités sousjacentes; enfin de coordonner ses travaux avec ceux d'autres institutions
voisines
et
parentes.
M. Maurice Strong, Secrétaire Général de la Conférence de Stockholm,
qui aura la haute charge de ce nouvel
organe de la famille des NationsUnies, va s'installer à Nairobi. Cette
décision, acquise à la faveur d'une
majorité écrasante d'abstentions, va
obliger le nouveau Fonds à disposer
d'importants services en dehors de
son siège excentrique, aux points de
Nous avons déjà dit que la Conférence
de Stockholm avait agi comme un
véritable révélateur de la participation
nécessaire des forces transnationales
à l'action internationale. On en trouvera le témoignage dans ce numéro
qui reproduit la Déclaration des ONG
à Stockholm, le point de vue plusieures organisations de jeunesse, le
compte-rendu des conférences ONG
de Genève et de New York consacrées
à l'environnement et l'avis de M.
Maurice
Strong
lui-même.
On trouvera aussi ci-après un communiqué de la Chambre de Commerce
Internationale qui annonce la création
d'un centre international de l'industrie
pour l'environnement. Initiative heureuse qui s'ajoute à toutes celles déjà
prises par la CCI et qui permettra
«'d'établir des liens étroits entre l'Industrie et le Programme des NationsUnies en matière d'Environnement ..
Enfin, un article original du Professeur Jean-Paul HARROY. qui est un
véritable cri d'alarme, évoque avec
autorité les effroyables perspectives de
famines dont la menace pèse sur le
tiers-monde du fait d'une mauvaise
agriculture extensive et épuisante,
Le Conseil économique et social sera
bien près de se session quand cet éditorail paraîtra. On sait qu'il aura à
son ordre du jour l'examen du rapport du Secrétariat Général sur la
contribution des ONG aux programmes de la stratégie du développement.
Ses membres ne pourront pas manquer d'être frappés par le fait de plus
en plus évident que plus aucun programme de l'organisation internationale, qu'il relève du PNUD ou de la
CNUCED.
des
Commissions
régionales ou de nouveaux services des NATIONS UNIES, de l'UNICEF ou des
institutions
spécialisées,
ne
pourra
plus être mené à bien désormais sans
l'appui confiant et effectif du secteur
privé, en forces d'opinion, en cadres
sociaux, en apports scientifiques et
en
ressources
financières.
Cette réalité, bien différente de celle
qui existait au moment où a été rédigé l'art. 71 de la Charte de San
Francisco, est la raison de la proposition que l'UAI a faite au Conseil économique et social de songer à confier
à un groupe d'études la mission de
repenser-les relations de l'organisation
internationale avec les ONG et de
faire toutes propositions propres à
adapter ces relations aux besoins de
l'action internationale, y compris les
problèmes
de
l'environnement
humain.
Robert FENAUX.
VERS LA CREATION D'UN CENTRE INTERNATIONAL
DE L'INDUSTRIE POUR L'ENVIRONNEMENT
Les organisations industrielles, nationales et internationales, qui avaient participé à la Conférence des Nations Unies sur l'Environnement à Stockholm
en juin dernier ont décidé de franchir un nouveau pas vers la coordination
de leurs actions dans ce domaine en relation avec le Programme des-Nations
Unies en matière d'Environnement.
Un groupe de travail" comprenant des représentants d'organisations internationales industrielles, de fédérations nationales et de la Chambre de Commerce Internationale a été constitué en vue de préparer la création d'un
centre international de l'industrie pour l'environnement.
Cette décision vient d'être prise à Paris au cours d'une réunion organisée
sur l'initiative de la CCI avec la participation d'une quinzaine d'organisations internationales, de nombreux délégués de fédérations nationales et les
membres de Comité pour l'Environnement de la CCI.
Le représentant du Secrétariat Général de la Conférence des Nations
Unies sur l'Environnement, présent à cette réunion, a accueilli favorablement cette initiative qui doit permettre d'établir des liens étroits entre l'Industrie et le Programme des Nations Unies en matière d'Environnement.
Communiqué de la CCI
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
5
I
I
6
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
un cri d'alarme
le Professeur
Jean-Paul Harroy
Sous une forme ramassée, le présent article va s'efforcer de démontrer une thèse complexe en trois
points: 1°) l'examen objectif des faits
laisse craindre que de graves famines
séviront en beaucoup de pays du Tiers
Monde avant la fin du vingtième
siècle; 2°) une étrange conspiration
du silence règne à propos de cette redoutable menace dans toutes les sphères dirigeantes, nationales et internationales, où des mesures devraient
être prises pour la conjurer; 3°) en dehors de certaines ONG, on voit mal
qui
pourrait
efficacement
combattre
cette conspiration du silence, responsable d'une politique d'autruche à un
" moment où partout devraient se multiplier les cris d'alarme et les branlebas
de
combat.
1. La menace
Schématiquement, la prospective peut
se concevoir comme suit :
a)
parce que leurs collectivités paysannes,
numériquement
souvent
encore
très
majoritaires,
continuent, à de rares exceptions près,
à pratiquer une mauvaise agriculture extensive et épuisante, les pays
du Tiers Monde ont, depuis un
demi-siècle, détruit de considérables étendues de forêt, érodé leurs
meilleurs sols, désorganisé nombre
de leurs réseaux hydrographiques
et exterminé toutes leurs grandes
faunes sauvages, et ce, afin de pouvoir continuer à nourrir, plutôt
mal que bien, leurs populations ru-
rales et urbaines dont la masse
totale passait pendant cette période
approximative ment d'un milliard à
deux
milliards
d'unités;
b) si une agriculture intensive capable de majorer notoirement les rendements culturaux à l'hectare ne
peut
être
rapidement
substituée
à
la
mauvaise
agriculture
épuisante actuelle, il semble impossible
que ce qui reste de sols cultivables
dans beaucoup de ces pays du monde pauvre intertropical soit capable
de nourrir en l'an deux mille une
population qui d'ici là aurait encore au moins doublé en nombre.
Sauf profonds renversements de situations, qui paraissent malheureusement
hautement
imprévisibles
d'ici la fin du siècle, la perspective
semble donc tragiquement inéluctable : des dizaines sinon des centaines de millions de décès par famine
dès
les
décennies
immédiatement
à venir.
Afin d'aller immédiatement à la rencontre des argumentations optimistes
qui invoqueront les progrès de la technologie — et, notamment, les bienfaits de la révolution verte — pour
mettre en doute la sombre prophétie
ci-dessus, énumérons, toujours en raccourci,
les
possibilités
matérielles
concevables d'un recours effectif et
suffisant à ces progrès technologiques,
dont il ne faut jamais oublier que la
mise en œuvre requiert invariablement du travail et du capital. Ces
possibilités se ramènent à trois rubriques principales : 1) la production par
l'agriculture classique du monde riche
de surplus de vivres en quantités capables de pallier les insuffisances du
monde pauvre; 2) la production de
nouvelles nourritures, par utilisation
généralisée des ressources de l'océan,
des protéines de pétroles, de l'aquiculture, etc. 3) l'adoption par les paysans du Tiers Monde de méthodes culturales intensives nées des découvertes
de la Science. Les deux premières formules, dont le coût en milliards de
dollars, à supposer par le monde riche, serait démesuré, sont à exclure
à priori, sauf à échelle insignifiante.
Seule la troisième, si des conditions
exceptionnellement favorables de cadre socio-politique et socio-économique se trouvent réunies, peut, de-ci,
dé-là, avoir, très localement, quelques
chances d'apporter le remède indispensable. Et la deuxième partie de
notre
raisonnement-démonstration
va
maintenant mettre en lumière pourquoi ces conditions de cadre sont si
rarement réunies et pourquoi, parallèlement, personne dans les sphères
officielles ne se hasarde à évoquer les
(1) M. Jean-Paul Harroy. professeur à l'Unlversite Libre de Bruxelles, Directeur du Centre
d'Ecologie humaine à l'institut 'de sociologie,
a été successivement Directeur de l'Institut des
Parcs Nationaux du Congo belge. Secrétaire Général de l'IRSAC, l'Institut pour la rechercha
Ruanda-Urundl.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
7
menaces de lamine que nous venons
de dénoncer, parce qu'en les évoquant,
on devrait de surcroît en reconnaître
les déplaisantes causes profondes...
2, La conspiration du silence
Les raisons de ce recours au manteau
de
Noé
sont
de
deux
ordres.
On a vu que te drame qui se prépare
résultera de ce que les ressources naturelles renouvelables du Tiers Monde : sols, eaux, forêts, faunes, sont de
plus en plus dévastées, un peu par des
surexploitations conduites à coupe de
bull-dozers par des sociétés capitalistes,
mais surtout par la déplorable agriculture épuisante que continuent à
pratiquer les paysans, toujours plus
nombreux, de ces «'campagnes hallucinées ».
Deux catégories de vérités devraient
alors être courageusement révélées
aux opinions publiques : d'abord,
rétendue et la gravité des dissipations
de ressources naturelles subies par chaque région au fil des dernières décennies; et en second lieu les véritables
raisons profondes de l'actuelle apathie
des paysanneries du Tiers Monde,
qui pourraient beaucoup mieux cultiver à condition d'investir dans leurs
Terres un peu de capital et passablement de travail supplémentaire, mais
qui jusqu'ici ne l'ont pas fait et ne le
font pas.
elles sont, elles aussl, chargées de tant
de dynamite politique que la plupart
des classes dirigeantes du Tiers Monde
répugnent également, sinon s'opposent véhémentement à ce qu'on en
fasse l'analyse objective, puis la description publique.
L'Institut . International des Civilisations Différentes (INCIDI) a entrepris depuis quelques années de rassembler des informations sur ces freinages
et blocages s'opposant à la réussite des
réformes agraires dans les pays en
voie de développement. Ce projet
«'FRA'» dont nous avons, entre autres,
démonté le mécanisme en des articles
qu'il est possible de se procurer à l'INCIDI
('),
couvre
logiquement
les
trois secteurs politique, socio-culturel
et économique. H fait déjà clairement
ressortir que le plus souvent le paysan intertropical n'est pas incité à travailler davantage pour accroître sa
production et surtout sa productivité
parce que «'quelqu'un » — dans le
cadre de ce que Paul VI a dénommé
les structures oppressives — est à
(*) Boulevard de Waterloo 11, 1000 Bruxelles.
Point n'est besoin de longues explications pour faire comprendre que les
autorités des pays concernés préfèrent ne donner de publicité ni à la
destruction progressive de leurs ressources naturelles nationales, ni aux
freinages ou blocages socio-politiques
qui découragent toute intensification
valable de leur agriculture paysanne.
La mesure et l'évaluation des zones
qui ont été érodées ou déboisées depuis quelques décennies, ne s'effectuent dans aucun pays intertropical.
Les offres étrangères de procéder à
ces mesures — par comparaison, notamment, de photographies aériennes
anciennes avec des documents similaires actuels — sont habituellement
déclinées ou rangées en priorité si
éloignée que le résultat en est le même.
Les cris d'alarme des écologistes qui
ont connu la situation ancienne et
qu'effraie le spectacle désolant d'aujourd'hui, retentissent dans le désert.
Aucun
gouvernement
ne
souhaite
connaître la dure vérité et encore
moins que ses adversaires politiques
puissent la connaître et s'en servir dans
leurs campagnes d'opposition Politique d'autruche ou manteau de Noé
donc, ou les deux à la fois.
Quant aux raisons profondes qui provoquent l'apathie du paysan, le menant à ces situations que souligne
fortement le dernier livre de René
Dumont : «'Paysanneries aux abois >,
8
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
s.
même de lul ôter l'essentiel de ce
que lui rapporterait son effort supplémentaire.
Cette brève évocation, qu'il n'est pas
possible de développer davantage ici,
suffit pourtant déjà à expliquer la
conspiration du silence à laquelle nous
voulions faire allusion ci-dessus. Parmi ces « quelqu'un » composant les
structures oppressives : féodaux, propriétaires fonciers, usuriers, commerçants immigrés, parasites coutumiers,
autorités fixant la fiscalité rurale, etc.
se retrouvent trop souvent ceux qui
détiennent le pouvoir politique aux
divers échelons du pays.
Il est peu étonnant, dans ces conditions, que les divers gouvernements se
montrent peu enthousiastes à voir
s'effectuer dans leurs régions rurales
l'enquête FRA de l'INCIDl.
Il est compréhensible, dans ces conditions, que ce qui se dit et s'écrit dans
les capitales du Tiers Monde à propos
de leurs paysanneries respectives ne
soit guère le reflet de la vérité locale.
Et l'on peut encore en déduire que
même les organisations internationales,
comme la
FAO, que ces situations
d'injustice sociale — responsables de
l'accroissement du nombre des paysanneries aux abois — devraient pourtant préoccuper au plus haut point,
sont ainsi logiquement amenés à manifester à l'égard de ces blocages une
extrême réserve et discrétion (1). A
nouveau : politique d'autruche, conspiration du silence ou manteau de
Noé, les conférences générales de ces
organisations voient les délégués —
majoritaires — des pays du Tiers
Monde, membres trop souvent euxmêmes de ces structures oppressives
responsables des injustices sociales à
combattre, intervenir avec véhémence
au nom de leurs souverainetés nationales sitôt que ce sujet explosif est soulevé. Et les fonctionnaires des dites
organisations, à qui le fond véritable
du problème n'a souvent pas échappé,
se le tiennent pour dit et se résignent
au mutisme.
La seule présentation des argumenta-
tions qui précèdent a suffi déjà à préciser les contours du troisième et dernier volet de notre démonstration.
Puisque la plupart des gouvernements
en cause, puisque la totalité des agences spécialisées ou organisations internationales gouvernmentales sont ainsi
condamnés ou incités au silence à
l'égard du tragique problème que René Dumont, encore lui, a défini dans
le titre d'un autre de ses livres : «Nous
allons à la famine», il est normal d'en
inférer qu'une approche objective et
une attaque internationales de cet
apocalyptique sujet ne peut logiquement
provenir
que
d'organisations
non
gouvernementales.
.
En ce qui concerne la dévastation des
ressources naturelles de tant de régions
du Tiers-Monde, après quelques voix
isolées (2) et restées sans écho, la
seule organisation à avoir répété inlassablement des cris d'alarmes à
propos de «'la Planète au pillage »
est l'Union Internationale pour la
Conservation de la Nature et de ses
ressources (UICN), fondée à Fontainebleau en 1948 et dont nous avons
assuré le secrétariat général depuis la
fondation
jusque
1955.
On vient de voir, d'autre part, que la
seule organisation internationale à tenter de soulever méthodiquement un
coin de ce manteau de Noé qui recouvre le contexte d'injustice sociale
responsable de ce que les paysanneries soient de plus en plus aux abois,
se trouve être une autre ONG, l'INCIDI.
On a pu noter, en revanche, les étranges prises de position des représentants
des pays en voie de développement
qui, à Lima, en novembre 1971,
préparant
la
conférence
CNUCED
de Santiago de Chili où ces conclusions
furent
acceptées, déclarèrent
que les pays développés, en adoptant
n'importe quelle mesure de défense
de l'environnement et de lutte contre
les pollutions, avaient l'obligation de
prendre en considération les impératifs de développement des pays en
voie de développement et d'assurer
que ces mesures n'affecteraient pas
défavorablement
leur
économie.
A
Stockholm aussi, à la Conférence des
Nations-Unies
sur
l'Environnement
(juin 1972), des thèses revenant à:
«'nous avons le droit de détruire notre patrimoine naturel, nous aspirons
à être pollués parce que pollution signifie industrialisation et donc développement ». ont été répétées par les
délégations du Tiers Monde, acceptées tacitement par les représentants
des pays riches, combattues seulement par des ONG comme l'UlCN
et par les contestataires des conférences parallèles.
Et peu de semaines plus tard, à Vienne, la conférence parlementaire internationale sur l'Environnement voyait
près de deux cents sénateurs et députés d'une cinquantaine de pays commencer l'une de leurs conclusions par
«'... regrettant que les recommandations de la conférence des NationsUnies sur le développement aient omis
d'aborder explicitement la plus grave des menaces pesant sur près de
la moitié de l'humanité pour le reste
du siècle : le spectre de la famine,
en particulier dans un grand nombre
de pays fortement peuplés du Tiers
Monde... ».
Notre démonstration est ainsi terminée.
Puisque, face à ce spectre de la famine, les organisations gouvernmentales sont condamnées au mutisme pudique, la parole est donc aux ONG.
Mis que celles-ci se hâtent d'intervenir, car il commence à être trop tard.
(1) II était fascinant, à uno récente conférence
FAO avail ouverte au public, d'observer le contraste entre les revendications sociopolitiques
des orateurs hippies à qui la parole était accordée
et les réponses embarrassées des exports officiels,
prompte à se retrancher sur le plan purement
technique pour éviter d'avoir à se compromettre.
(2) Nous avons publié «'Afrique Terre qui
meurt », Hayez, Bruxelles, 550 pp., en 1944.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS. 1973
9
vue par les observateurs
de l´UAI
Impressions
de
Madeleine Leroy-Boy
L'UAI a été représentée à la Conférence de Stockholm par une collaboratrice de longue date, Mme Madeleine
Leroy-Boy, dont nous publions aujourd'hui les impressions. D'autre part,
plusieurs membres de notre Institut
étaient présents à ce grand débat sur
l'environnement. L'un d'eux, le professeur Charles S, Ascher, a bien voulu nous envoyer ses notes.
10
La première conférence des NationsUnies sur l'environnement s'est réunie
à Stockholm sur l'invitation de la Suède qui avait fait adopter une proposition à ce sujet par l'assemblée générale de l'ONU le 3 décembre 1968.
Quelque quinze-cents délégués représentant cent-dix neuf pays participèrent au débat du 5 au 16 juin 1972.
Durant ces trois longues années de préparation, l'opinion publique fut de
plus en plus sensibilisée à des problèmes dont beaucoup ne soupçonnaient
ni l'ampleur ni la gravité. Des cris
d'alarme
retentirent
alors,
lorsqu'il
fut bien compris que c'était l'avenir
de la planète qui était en péril par l'accélération inquiétante d'une pollution
qui détruisait des éléments essentiels
pour l'existence humaine; la flore, la
faune, le sol, l'air, l'eau : tout était
menacé. La Conférence devait donc
se donner comme principal objectif
d'amener les Gouvernements à prendre conscience politiquement de ces
problèmes qui ne peuvent être résolus que par une coopération internationale.
S'il est relativement aisé de formuler
des recommandations de recherches
sur l'écologie, il est difficile de préci-
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
ser une politique de l'environnement
sans effleurer la souveraineté des Etats.
Les problèmes sont variés : on ne
peut dissocier l'environnement de la
population ni du développement, et
les thèses des pays industrialisés s'affronteront avec celles des pays en
voie de développement souvent surpeuplés; peut-on aussi, comme le soutient la Chine, déclarer sources de pollution les politiques qui admettent
l'«apartheid », la ségrégation raciale
ou des formes diverses de domination
étrangère ? Et que dire de l'utilisation des armes nucléaires ?
Cependant, après de laborieux débats,
et même des moments de « suspense »
où l'on croyait tout espoir d'entente
perdu, la Conférence put se félicier
d'un bilan positif : elle adopta un vaste
plan d'action qui prévoit des mesures
concrètes à mettre en œuvre au cours
des prochaines années, plan qui sera
financé par un fonds spécial lorsqu'il
aura été approuvé par la prochaine
Assemblée générale des N.U.; le tiers
monde a obtenu la considération à laquelle il a droit pour son développement; et surtout, on adopta à l'unanimité
(la Chine s'abstenant au vote) une Déclaration de 26 principes « fondamentaux », qui définit les règles générales
propres à assurer les équilibres écologiques nécessaires au développement
de toutes les sociétés humaines dans
des conditions économiques et sociales équitables.
Plus de mille journalistes «couvraient»
la Conférence, déjà objet de polémique bien avant son ouverture : des
groupements de chercheurs tout comme des mouvements de jeunesse
avaient exprimé la crainte que les
discussions trop politisées ne débouchent sur une impasse pour contenir
d'éventuelles manifestations pertubatrices, les autorités suédoises avaient
favorisé l'éclosion de réunions parallèles; une forte subvention fut même
accordée à un Forum de l'Environnement, organisé par la Commission
suédoise pour les N.U. et le Conseil
national de la Jeunesse suédoise.
Dans le cadre de cette « contestation
contrôlée », si le pittoresque ne fut
pas exclu, ni des accoutrements, ni
des panneaux déployés, l'ordre régna
toujours : des expositions diverses
étaient ouvertes; on put aussi assister
à des conférences, souvent de haute
tenue, suivies ou non de débat ou à
des séances de films, ou encore participer à des excursions ou à des visites
en des lieux présentant un intérêt écologique. Dans ces circonstances on
put une fois de plus constater que la
réputation d'hospitalité et d'esprit d'organisation des Suédois n'était pas usurpée...
A cause de tous ces fervents de l'environnement, on assista bientôt dans
le petit monde des Organisations NonGouvernementales à statut consultatif
à un phénomène tout à fait original
dans une conférence des N.U. Comme
toujours,
l'inscription
des
observateurs des ONG avait été strictement
réglementée, tes invitations ayant été
envoyées plusieurs mois d'avance !
On put vite constater que des demandes d'inscription affluaient dans les
locaux réservés aux ONG dans le
. Vieux Parlement >, venant de groupements divers dont les représentants
se mêlèrent étroitement aux premiers
observateurs, participant à toutes les
réunions ouvertes à ceux-ci, obtenant
eux aussi de présenter en séance plénière des programmes ou des projets
de déclaration. Une association des
ONG pour l'Environnement a même
été constituée. Il sera intéressant de
suivre l'évolution de ce phénomène
d'ONG non accréditées qui ont pratiquement forcé les portes de l'ONU :
voilà bien une preuve de la pression de
l'opinion publique... et cette vigilance
des ONG pourrait être précieuse
quand il s'agira de la mise en œuvre
des recommandations de la Conférence !
Les femmes, comme telles, manifestèrent également et très poliment... Elles n'ignorent pas le rôle très important qu'elles peuvent jouer dans la lutte
contre la pollution, mais, dans une
lettre adressée aux chefs de délégation,
elles ont simplement déploré le fait
que seulement onze délégations comprenaient une femme parmi leurs
membres et elles ont insisté pour qu'un
changement d'attitude à leur égard se
fasse jour. En fait, il n'y avait qu'une
femme chef de délégation : Helena
Benitez (Philippines), sénateur, qui fut
proposée comme présidente du premier Comité de travail. L'anthropologue Margaret Mead, joua un rôle important comme animatrice ou conférencière au Forum et dans les réunions d'ONG. Quant à Barbara Ward,
Lady Jackson, coauteur d'une publication préparatoire à la Conférence,
elle obtint un vif succès en prononçant un discours à l'ouverture de la
Conférence sur le thème : « Only one
Earth », et elle fut, elle aussi, très active dans tous les groupes en marge
de la Conférence. Ce fut encore une
femme qui remporta le plus grand succès parmi les orateurs de la Conférence : Indira Gandhi, premier ministre
de l'Inde, qui reçut une véritable ovation de toute l'Assemblée plénière,
debout, à la fin de son discours sur
la situation des pays en voie de développement. Ce n'est pas ici le moment
d'épiloguer sur la versabilité des foules...
Quelle conclusion donner à ces impressions sur la Conférence de Stockholm?
Dans son originalité, et peut-être aussi
à cause de toutes les péripéties qui
marquèrent son déroulement, cette
Conférence fut passionnante à suivre;
elle doit avoir un impact sur l'avenir
et marquer dans l'histoire de l'humanité, comme témoignage de la prise de
conscience de notre temps vis à vis des
générations futures.
M. Leroy-Boy
Notes
by
Charles S. Ascher
representative of International Institute
of Administrative Sciences, Eastern
Regional Organization for Public Administration
and
other
NGO's.
The Conference was typical of U.N.
meetings. Until the last day, the press
of the world circulated news of the
failure of the Conference. In lastminute sessions, until midnight, the
usual compromises were achieved, se
that new the press of the world callstthe
Conference a success. Note that the
delegates were authorized only to
make recommendations to the General Assembly. Maurice Strong, the
Secretary General of the Conference
promises a report by mid-August, so
that there will be a document for the
general assembly.
More than 250 NGO's sent some 600
observers. Communication with the
official delegates was poor. Few NGO
observers sat through the offical debates. But each morning we met for an
hour or more to receive a « briefing »
on the previous day's official acts.
This informal series of meetings became the forum to discuss the future
role of interested NGO's. Barbara
Ward (Lady Jackson) who had been
commissioned by U.N. to prepare one
of the basic papers for the Conference,
gave herself generously to the NGO's.
Dr. Margart Mead assumed the chair.
By the end of the Conference, the
NGO representatives agreed that further meetings should be convened in
Geneva and in New York in September to consider further the forms of
NGO cooperation. Mr. Hendrik Beer,
Secretary General of the league of
Red Cross Societies, accepted to convene the NGO's based in Geneva. Mr.
Glen Leet, Secretary General of the
Community Development Foundation,
long in the service of UNRRA, will
convene the NGO's based in New
York.
The forms of NGO participation will
depend on the pattern of continued UN
activity. Will the organ for the environment be a unit under ECOSOC, will
it be directly under the U.N. Secretary
General, will it be independent? Will
NGO contacts be governed by Article
71 of the U.N. Charter, which authorises ECOSOC to bring NGO's into
consultative status; or will there be
direct communication between NGO's
and the U.N. organ for the environment ? Mr. Strong stated that he would
promptly set up an officier for relations with NGO'S, Mr. L. Kyle, who was
active at Stockholm.
Initially, draft resolutions were presented to the NGO assembly on the
need for continued « input » by scientists. One of these proposals was in
terms of the relevant sciences of "
biology, physics, chemistry. Largely
through the efforts of Dr. J. H. van
Putten of the International Union of
Local Authorities, Mr. Leet and Mr.
Ascher, there was eventual recognition
that the social sciences, particularly
political science, sociology, economics,
public administration, also had an
• input >, since a concern was to
change peoples habits; the social
costs of pollution-control must be considered; and devices for the effective
coordination of the many ministries
with a concern for some aspect of the
environment had not yet been achieved
in any country.
Another issue that will arise is the role
of NGO's based in one country.
ECOSOC's governing resolution calls
for activity in five or more countries,
plus some years of activity to warrant
consultative status. Twenty years ago,
some national NGO's were admitted but not under the present rules.
In the field of conservation there are
now powerful NGO's, notably in the
U.S.A., with 100.000 members, with
large resources, well representaed at
Stockholm, that will want to be heard,
to influence intergovernmental action.
There was also recognition in the NGO
debates that there was a third order of
transnational or multinational bodies
with profound influence on the environment which should be brought into
relationship with the intergovernmental
organs and the NGO not for profit —
the great multinational corporations
whose influence on the environment
is enormous. Some of them, active in
seventy countries, already showed
awareness o( their social responsibilities for the effects of their activity in
the pollution of air, water, soil. Ways
must be found to work with them.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
11
We, who are Members of the Non
Governmental Organizations attending
the United Nations Conference on
the Human Environment at Stockholm, are honoured to address the
Plenary Session of the Conference and
to express to it the support and dedication of the bodies we represent. We
have signed the statement which follows in our individual capacities. It
does not necessarily reflect specific
policies of the organizations whose
representatives have signed it. But it
does encompass their general areas of
agreement.
We accept the principle that our planet's resources are limited, that its life
support systems are vulnerable, that
the combined effect of modern technology, consumption and population
growth can place our whole planetary
life at risk.
We accept the need for economic systems which do not exceed renewable
resources and the carrying capacity
of the environment. We accept social
systems which are based upon the fair
and equal sharing of material goods
and of services and upon the pursuit
of exponential growth where it alone
is possible — in the goods of the mind
and the spirit. We accept political
systems which see the planet itself as
a center of loyalty and renounce racial
and political oppression, economic exploitation and the final environmental
insult of war.
We believe that the Stockholm Conference marks the beginning of a new
international understanding
of our
planetary life. Men have thought of
the planet as a place with unlimited
resources to exploit, unlimited energies to manipulate, unlimited lands to
develop and settle, and unlimited air
12
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
C'est un honneur pour nous, membres
des Organisations non gouvernementales participant à la Conférence des
Nations Unies sur l'environnement à
Stockholm, que de prendre la parole
en séance plénière de la conférence
et de lui exprimer l'appui et le dévouement des groupes que nous représentons. Nous avons signé la déclaration qui va suivre chacun en notre
nom personnel. Elle ne reflète pas nécessairement les politiques spécifiques
des organisations que représentent les
signataires. Mais elle englobe les notions générales sur lesquelles elles sont
d'accord.
Nous acceptons le principe selon lequel les ressources de notre planète
sont limitées, les systèmes qui permettent d'y entretenir la vie sont vulnérables, et les effets cumulés de la technique moderne, de la consommation
et de la croissance démographique
peuvent mettre en danger tout ce qui
vit sur la terre.
Nous acceptons la nécessité de systèmes économiques compatibles avec
la possibilité de reconstitution des ressources et avec l'aptitude de l'environnement-à les supporter. Nous acceptons les systèmes sociaux fondés sur le
partage égal et équitable des biens
matériels et des services, et sur la
poursuite de la croissance exponentielle dans le seul domaine où elle soit
possible: celui des biens de l'intelligence et de l'esprit. Nous acceptons
les systèmes politiques qui reconnaissent la souveraineté de la planète et
qui rejettent l'oppression raciale et
politique,
l'exploitation
économique,
et ce suprême outrage à l'environnement
qu'est
la
guerre.
Nous croyons que la Conférence de
Stockholm marque le début d'une nou-
and water to cleanse the world of the
wastes produced by man. Now we
realize that not one of these propositions is true. So great has been the technological thrust of our science and
energy, so rapacious our consumption
of non-renewable resources, so rapid
our growth in numbers, so heavy the
load we place on our life-supporting
systems, that we begin to perceive the
finite qualities of the biosphere of soil,
air and water which make up the environment of all living things in our
planetary home.
This is a revolution in thought fully
comparable to the Copernican revolution by which, four centuries ago,
men were compelled to revise their
whole sense of the earth's place in the
cosmos. Today we are challenged to
recognize as great a change in our concept of man's place in the biosphere.
Our survival in a world that continues
to be worth inhabiting depends upon
translating this new perception into
relevant principles and concrete action.
The following principles seem to us to
flow from our new perception of the
vulnerability of planet earth :
1. The main focus of the master force
of the modern world — science and
its applications in technology — must
be shifted to a new and sensitive appreciation of the delicate interdependences between all forms of planetary
existence and to scientifically sound
management of the habitats and ecosystems upon which all life depends.
2. We must accept new economic perspectives. Developed economies which
have tended increasingly to stress the
highest production and consumption
of material goods as the chief index of
prosperity, must be redirected towards
a more careful recycling of materials,
use of energy and disposal of wastes
and towards a greater emphasis on
non-material satisfactions — services,
recreation, art, knowledge, civic amenity and, above all, altruism in the pursuit of the common good. At the same
time the fundamental material needs
of developing lands must take priority
over high consumption standards in
developed economies and among the
elites in developing lands. Both in
production and physical consumption,
the world economy must come to be
in balance with environmental carrying capacity. Exponential growth is
possible only in the realm of mind and
spirit. Equally, by means conforming
. to differing cultures, traditions and
levels of population pressure, the
world's peoples need to accept the aim
of achieving levels of population
which do not surpass the dependable
productivity of natural resources.
3. Such a balance can be achieved
only if we face honestly the problem
of social justice and redistribution.
Since endless economic growth for
rapidly rising populations is not conceivable, resources which are basically limited have to be submitted to
velle manière Internationale de comprendre la vie sur notre terre. Les
hommes l'ont considérée comme un
lieu qui leur offrait des ressources illimitées à exploiter, des énergies illimitées à mettre en œuvre, des terres illimitées à cultiver et à peupler, des
quantités illimitées d'eau et d'air pour
nettoyer le monde des déchets produits par l'homme. Nous constatons
aujourd'hui qu'aucune de ces propositions n'est vraie. Nous avons poussé
notre technique avec tant de science
et d'énergie, nous avons consommé
des ressources non renouvelables avec
tant d'avidité, nous avons proliféré si
vite, nous avons imposé à nos systèmes d'entretien de la vie des charges
si lourdes, que nous commençons à
nous rendre compte que la biosphère,
où tous les êtres de notre planète trouvent le sol, l'air, et l'eau nécessaires
à leur vie, constitue un monde fini.
Il s'agit là d'une révolution de la pensée tout à fait comparable à celle que
Copernic a déclenchée il y a quatre
siècles en contraignant les hommes
à réviser totalement leur notion de la
place qu'occupé la terre dans l'univers. Nous nous trouvons aujourd'hui
mis en demeure d'accepter une révision tout aussi totale de notre notion
de la place de l'homme dans la biosphère. Si nous voulons survivre dans
un monde qui vaille d'être habité, il
nous faudra traduire cette notion nouvelle en principes appropriés et en
action concrète.
. Voici les principes qui nous paraissent
découler de cette notion nouvelle de
la vulnérabilité de notre planète :
1. L'énergie maîtresse du monde moderne, à savoir la science et ses applications techniques, doit être désormais
concentrée vers un objectif nouveau :
la perception et la compréhension des
interdépendances complexes qui existent entre toutes les formes de vie sur
la planète, là gestion scientifiquement
saine des habitats et des écosystèmes
dont toute vie dépend.
2. Nous devons accepter de nouvelles
perspectives économiques. Les économies développées ont jusqu'à présent
considéré la production et la consommation maximale des biens matériels
comme le principal indice de la prospérité; il faut les réorienter pour qu'elles assurent avec plus de prudence le
recyclage des matériaux, l'utilisation
de l'énergie et l'élimination des déchets, et pour qu'elles mettent davantage l'accent sur les satisfactions autres
que matérielles: les services, les loisirs, l'art, l'étude, l'harmonie entre les
citoyens et, par-dessus tout, l'altruisme
dans la recherche du bien commun.
En même temps, il faut faire passer
la satisfaction des besoins élémentaires
des pays en voie de développement
avant celle des consommateurs comblés que sont les pays riches et les
élites des pays pauvres. Tant en matière de production qu'en matière de
consommation physique, il faut réaliser l'équilibre entre l'économie mon-
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
13
some principle of sharing and equality.
In the planet at large, it is unacceptable that the third of the people who
are technologically developed should
continue to command three-quarters
of the world's wealth. It is equally unacceptable within each society that a
rich minority should enjoy a very
large percentage of the society's material resources.
4, In our political systems, inescapable interdependence in our shared
biosphere has to be matched by a
new dimension of planetary loyalty.
Nations, races and cultures give the
world its much-prized richness and
diversity. But they can no longer be
sources of aggression and destructive
competition. We pledge ourselves to
the support and improvement of the
international institutions already established in the United Nations system.
We look to further development of
powerful and representative institutions to express our common political
life at the regional and global levels.
We reject all forms of racial oppression or political enslavement. Above
all, we see in war the ultimate misuse
of science, the baleful destroyer of
all economic and social benefit and
the final betrayal of our common
humanity.
ment. La croissance exponentielle n'est
possible que dans le domaine de l'intelligence et de l'esprit. De même, il
faut que l'humanité consente à se proposer pour but de maintenir, par des
moyens conformes à la diversité des
cultures, des traditions et des pressions
démographiques, un niveau de population compatible avec ce que peuvent fournir les ressources naturelles.
3. Un tel équilibre ne peut être atteint
que si nous abordons honnêtement le
problème de la justice sociale et de la
redistribution. La rapidité de l'expansion démographique rend inconcevable une croissance à l'infini de l'économie. Aussi devons-nous assujettir
des ressources essentiellement limitées à quelque principe de partage et
d'égalité. A l'échelle planétaire, on
ne saurait admettre que le tiers de
l'humanité
techniquement
développé
reste maître des trois quarts des richesses du monde. On ne saurait davantage admettre qu'au sein de chaque
société une minorité de riches bénéficie d'un très fort pourcentage des
ressources matérielles que cette société possède.
4. Dans nos systèmes politiques, il
faut qu'à l'inévitable interdépendance
qui régit le partage de la biosphère
corresponde une dimension nouvelle :
celle de l'allégeance à la planète souveraine. Les nations, les races et les
civilisations donnent au monde une
richesse et une diversité infinement
précieuses. Mais elles ne peuvent plusêtre des sources d'agression et de
compétition destructives. Nous nous
engageons à soutenir et à perfectionner les institutions internationales déjà
créées dans le cadre des Nations
Unies. Nous aspirons à la poursuite du
développement
d'institutions
puissantes et représentatives par lesquelles
s'exprimera notre vie politique commune aux échelons régionaux et planétaires. Nous rejetons toutes les formes d'oppression raciale et d'asservissement politique. Et par-dessus tout
nous 'considérons que la guerre est le
pire des usages qu'on puisse faire de
la science, qu'elle détruit sinistrement
tous les bienfaits économiques et sociaux, et qu'elle est une suprême trahison de notre humanité à tous.
1. Planning and Management of Human Settlements.
We wish to place special emphasis on
the need for new research and action
under
the
following
headings
:
a) General land use policies should
secure the rational development and
allocation of a scare resource — the
land itself — between a variety of different human needs — work, settlement and recreation — and preserve
and maintain outstanding architectural
monuments, archeological sites and
areas of open space and natural
beauty.
1. Aménagement et gestion des établissements humains.
Nous désirons mettre particulièrement
l'accent sur la nécessité de la recherche et de l'action dans les domaines
suivants :
a; Les politiques générales d'utilisation
du sol doivent assurer le développement et la répartition rationnels d'une
ressource peu abondante, à savoir le
sol lui-même, entre des besoins humains très divers : le travail, le logement et le loisir; elles doivent aussi
préserver et entretenir les trésors de
l'architecture, les sites archéologiques.
14
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES. 1973 •
The Stockholm
agenda :
policy and action
Ordre du jour
de Stockholm :
politique et action
b) Urban and rural planning should
secure public control of urban land
uses and abolish the disparities between rural and urban settlements. It
should create or restore true neighbourhoods and reduce or circumvent
urban sprawls. It should also bring the
use of the automobile under control
by devising orderly transport systems.
c) Policies should be introduced to
reduce the human stress and physical
deterioration which occur as a result
of inadequate diets (particularly in
infancy), the lack of decent housing,
intolerable noise and the absence of
any adequate assistance (or responsible
parenthood.
2. Environment Aspects of Natural
Resource
Management
National land use planning should
account responsibly for the regional
and global impacts of national actions
and should conform to the following
principles and procedures :
a) Renewable natural resources must
be subjected to ecologically sound
sustained yield management.
b) Rare or endangered animal and
plant species, as well as unique natural
sites and habitats, should be given
complete protection.
c) The mining of fresh water, minerals and petroleum reserves must be
regulated. The recycling of materials
should
become
standard
practice,
Those who extract must be responsible
for the restoration of mined and scarred landscapes to acceptable environmental standards.
d) Decisions on natural resource development should be preceded by examination of their environmental and
social impacts. Where technical resources are not yet available for such
evaluations, they should be developed
as speedily as possible. The findings of
such examinations should be made
public prior to conclusive decisionmaking.
e) Nations should pool substantial
funds and capabilities in research in a
major international effort to develop
clean and abundant energy sources as
rapidly as possible.
1) Increased financial, technical and
educational assistance should be made
available to less developed nations to
enable them to manage natural resources for sustained productivity.
3. Identification and Control of Pol- '
lutants of Broad international Character.
a) Governments must accept responsibility for any international pollution
caused by the activities of their nat-.
ions.
b)
A
United
Nations
world-wide
Earthwatch to monitor the distribution, movement and disposal of pollutants will enable governments to regulate pollution and enforce compliance
to the regulations. The United Nations must also accept responsibilities
for enforcement.
c) Appropriate control and inducements must be introduced to secure in-
les espaces libres et les beaux paysages.
b) L'aménagement urbain et rural
doit remettre à la collectivité le contrôle de l'utilisation des sols urbains
et abolir les disparités entre établissements ruraux et urbains. Elle doit
créer ou restaurer des quartiers authentiques, limiter ou canaliser la
croissance anarchique des agglomérations. Elle doit aussi maîtriser l'utilisation de l'automobile en organisant des
systèmes de transports.
c) IIi faut entreprendre des politiques
destinées à réduire les contraintes et
les dommages infligés à l'homme par
une alimentation inadaptée (en particulier dans la première enfance), par
la pénurie de logements convenables,
par le bruit excessif et par l'absence
de toute assistance permettant aux individus de ne procréer qu'en pleine
conscience de leurs responsabilités.
2. Gestion des ressources naturelles du
point de vue de l'environnement.
L'aménagement de l'utilisation des sols
à l'échelon national doit être responsable de l'incidence régionale et plané- ,
taire de ses interventions, et se conformer aux principes et aux procédures suivants :
a) Les ressources naturelles renouvelables doivent faire l'objet d'une gestion économiquement saine destinée à
en maintenir le rendement.
b) Les espèces animales et végétales
rares ou en danger de disparition, ainsi
que les sites naturels uniques en leur
genre, doivent recevoir une protection
totale.
c) L'extraction de l'eau, des minéraux
et du pétrole doit être réglementée.
Le recyclage des matériaux doit être
généralisé. Les extracteurs doivent
être responsables de la restauration
des sites fouillés et dégradés, de manière qu'ils retrouvent un aspect conforme aux critères de l'environnement.
d) Toute décision d'exploitation des
ressources naturelles doit être précédée d'un examen de ses incidences sur
l'environnement et sur la société.
Lorsque les moyens techniques nécessaires à de tels examens n'existent pas,
il importe de les créer le plus rapidement possible. Les résultats de ces enquêtes doivent être rendus publics
avant toute décision définitive.
e) Les nations doivent mettre en -commun les ressources financières et techniques nécessaires pour étudier l'élaboration la plus rapide possible, à
l'échelon international, de sources
d'énergies inoffensives et abondantes.
f) II faut augmenter l'assistance financière, technique et éducative aux nations moins développées, afin de leur
permettre de gérer leurs ressources
naturelles bout en maintenant le rendement.
3. Détermination des polluants d'importance internationale et lutte contre
ces polluants
a) Les gouvernements doivent assumer
la responsabilité de toute pollution internationale causée par l'activité de
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
15
dustry's cooperation in the Invention
and introduction of non-pollutive technologies,
d) Since radioactive substances are the
most dangerous and long-lasting pollutants, all testing of nuclear weapons
should cease at once. The development of nuclear energy should proceed
with the utmost caution and safeguards.
e) The use of biocides in war should
be prohibited by international regulation.
f) The phasing out of such long-lasting
pest control substances as the chlorinated hydrocarbons should be achieved
with all possible speed on a worldwide
basis. The process should be accompanied by intensive research into and
production of effective and acceptable
alternatives. Where their use is more
expensive, developing lands should
receive additional funds to cover the
cost of abandoning cheaper but more
damaging substances.
g) Since eroding soil is still mankind's
most common pollutant, the greatest
emphasis must be placed on sound
practices of soil conservation. New
efforts are also needed to return human and animal wastes to the soil.
h) Regional institutions should begin
at once to supervise the health or the
recovery of surface and underground
water systems. Where such agencies
exist, regular progress reports should
be made available to governments and
citizens.
4.
Educational,
Informational
and
Cultural Aspects of the Environment.
a). The United Nations should be responsible for a centralized exchange
of
environmental
information.
In
planning such exchanges, account
should be taken of existing collections
and services and the advice of librarians and information specialists should
be sought.
b) The United Nations should encourage the training and use of scientists
in environmental sciences in all countries. It has a particular responsibility
to assist their training and use in developing countries so that they can
effectively participate in monitoring
and managing the changing environment.
c) The essentially interdisciplinary,
humanistic and ethical aspects of environmental education — the science
of ecology, planetary loyalty, respect
for life, care for others and a lack
of all rapacity — should be stressed
at every level of education and mass
communication .so that all people
develop a primary love for their fellow human beings and for their native
planet.
5. Environment and Development
a) We recognize that many of the
worst environmental problems of the
world — in particular the most dangerous impacts of disease and premature
mortality — have their roots in destitution.
b) We affirm the over-riding necessity of moving at once to a significant
I6
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
leurs ressortissants.
b) Une Vigie à l'échelle mondiale, organisée dans le cadre dos Nations Unies
afin de veiller à la répartition, aux
mouvements et à l'élimination des éléments polluants, permettra aux gouvernements de réglementer la pollution et de faire appliquer ces règlements. Les Nations Unies doivent également assumer des responsabilités en
matière d'application,
c) II faut instituer des contrôles et des
incitations qui permettent d'obtenir la
coopération des industries en vue de
l'invention et de la mise en œuvre de
techniques non polluantes.
d) Les substances radio-actives étant
les polluants les plus dangereux et les
plus persistants, il faut cesser immédaitement tout essai d'armes nucléaire. Le développement de l'énergie nucléaire doit être poursuivi avec la prudence et les précautions les plus extrêmes.
e) L'utilisation des biocides pour la
guerre doit être interdit par une réglementation internationale.
f) L'abandon des pesticides persistants
tels que les hydrocarbures chlorés doit
être réalisé le plus rapidement possible
à l'échelle mondiale. Ce processus
doit s'accompagner de la recherche
intensive et de la fabrication de produits de remplacement efficaces et
acceptables. Dans les cas où l'utilisation de ces derniers entraînerait des
frais supplémentaires, il faudra donner aux pays en voie de développement des subventions complémentaires destinées à compenser l'abandon de
substances moins coûteuses mais plus
nocives.
g) L'érosion étant toujours le plus répandu des polluants, il faut accorder
la plus grande importance aux procédés rationnels de conservation du sol.
Il faut également multiplier les efforts
pour restituer au sol les déchets animaux et humains.
h) Les institutions régionales doivent
immédiatement entreprendre le contrôle de la qualité sanitaire et de la
récupération des eaux de surface et
souterraines. Partout où de tels organismes existent déjà, ils devront mettre
leurs rapports périodiques d'activité à
la disposition des gouvernements et
des citoyens.
4. Aspects éducatifs, sociaux et culturels des problèmes de l'environnement et question de l'information.
a) Les Nations Unies doivent prendre
la responsabilité de l'échange centralisé des informations sur l'environnement. L'organisation de ces échanges
doit tenir compte des collectes et des
services existants, et s'appuyer sur les
conseils des bibliothécaires et des spécialistes de l'information.
b) Les Nations Unies doivent encourager la formation et l'emploi de spécialistes des sciences de l'environnement dans tous les pays. Elles ont en
particulier le devoir d'aider à leur formation et à leur emploi dans les pays
en voie de développement, afin qu'ils
redistribution of the world's resources
in favour of the developing countries.
The 0.7 per cent of GNP In grants
and low-interest, long term loans for
concessionary assistance proposed in
the Pearson Report should be seen as
the beginning of a planetary tax system.
puissent
participer
efficacement
à
l'organisation et à la gestion d'un environnement
en
pleine
mutation,
c) A tous les niveaux de l'éducation et
de l'information des masses, il faut
souligner l'importance des aspects essentiellement
interdisciplinaires,
humanitaires et moraux de l'étude de
l'environnement : science écologique,
allégeance envers la planète, respect
de la vie, souci d'autrui, renonciation
à toute avidité, afin que tous les hommes aiment avant tout leurs frères
humains et leur planète natale.
5. Développement et environnement
c)
Environmental
regulations
introduced in developed lands should be
so designed as to place no unjustifiable barriers to the exports of developing countries.
d) Extra costs incurred by developing
lands in order to protect or enhance
environmental quality should be covered by additional flows of capital assistance from the developed states.
The introduction of non-polluting technology is one aspect of a wider effort
to see that developing nations avoid
the environmental mistakes made by
the already developed states. This
need is particularly clear in the siting
and planning of human settlements.
6.
International
Organizational
Implications of Action Proposals.
a) We affirm our support for the proposal of a separate United Nations
Secretariat for the Human Environment under an intergovernmental governing council.
b) We support the proposal for a
special fund for the environment but
regard the provision of S 100 million
over five years as quite inadequate in
relation to the magnitude and complexity of the task.
c) We request close cooperation between the Secretariat and the NonGovernmental Organizations, between
citizen bodies and commercial and industrial interests concerned with quality of the environment. In order to
a) Nous reconnaissaons que nombre
des plus graves problèmes d'environnement qui se posent au monde, et en
particulier les plus dangereuses incidences de la maladie et de la mortalité prématurée, ont leur origine dans la
misère.
b) Nous affirmons qu'il est avant tout
nécessaire d'entreprendre dès aujourd'hui une vaste redistribution des ressources mondiales en faveur des pays
en voie de développement. Les 0,7
pour cent du PNB proposés dans le
Rapport Pearson sous forme d'octroi
de subventions et de prêts à long terme à intérêt réduit doivent être considérés comme l'amorce d'un système
fiscal planétaire.
c) Les règlements relatifs à l'environnement institués dans les pays développés doivent être conçus de manière à
ne pas opposer d'obstacles injustifiables aux exportations des pays en voie
de développement.
d) Les dépenses supplémentaires encourues par les pays en voie de développement en vue de protéger ou
d'améliorer la qualité de l'environnement doivent être couvertes par un
afflux supplémentaire de l'aide en capitaux fournie par les pays développés.
L'adoption de techniques non polluan'tes est un des aspects d'un effort général entrepris pour que les pays en voie
de développement évitent de répéter
les erreurs commises par les pays déjà
développés. Ce besoin se fait particulièrement sentir en matière de choix
de remplacement et d'aménagement
des établissements humains.
6. Incidences internationales sur le
plan de l'organisation des propositions
d'action.
a) Nous affirmons notre adhésion à la
proposition de créer un secrétariat
distinct des Nations Unies pour l'environnement, sous l'autorité d'un conseil d'administration international.
b) Nous sommes en faveur de la proposition d'un fonds spécial de l'environnement, mais considérons le montant de 100 millions de dollars en cinq
ans comme tout à fait insuffisant eu
égard à l'étendue et à la complexité
de la tâche.
c) Nous, demandons une coopération
étroite entre le Secrétariat et les Organisations non gouvernementales, entre les groupements de citoyens et les
intérêts commerciaux et industriels
concernés par la qualité de l'énviron-
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS. 1973
I/
secure a better balance of world representation, we request finances and
other facilities for developing nations
to enable them to take a more effective part in the proposed United Nations Secretariat for the Human Environment. The means of providing this
support should be discussed by the
Non-Governmental Organizations.
a) We reaffirm the concept of organized citizen support for the work of
the United Nations and believe that
the Stockholm conference and the ongoing work of the United Nations in
the area of the environment can encourage all those who have long worked in this field and draw on the enthusiasm of new recruits. We therefore
intend to urge our organizations to
mobilize and expand their membership in support of the work of the
United Nations in general and the
Environmental Secretariat in particular.
b) In consultation with the existing
conference Secretariat, we will seek
the most appropriate ways in which
our separate bodies can mobilize citizen support for the Stockholm decisions during the months between the
Stockholm conference and this year's
General
Assembly.
Thereafter
we
wish to establish permanent forms of
liaison with the Secreteriat, with each
other and interested bodies.
c) We will consult with each other to
work out the most various efforts,
mobilizing joint pressure for environmental change and avoiding, where
possible, overlapping activities. We
will also seek to secure the support
of various organizations for special
fund-raising for specific environmental programs.
d) At the national level, all environmental organizations should seek to
participate in governmental decisions
affecting the environment and insist
on advance information concerning
projects of environmental impact.
e) A particular year for reassessment, say, . The Planet in 1980 »,
should be made the focus for official
non-governmental' and citizen programs and action in understanding and
protecting the planetary environment.
18
nement. En vue de mieux équilibrer
la représentation de toutes les nations,
nous demandons que des moyens financiers et autres soient mis à la disposition des pays en voie de développement afin de les aider à participer
plus efficacement au Secrétariat des
Nations Unies pour l'environnement
envisagé. Les moyens de fournir cette
aide doivent être discutés par les Organisations non gouvernementales.
Le rôle
des organisations
non gouvernementales
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
The role
of nongovermental
organizations
a) Nous réaffirmons notre attachement
à l'appui apporté par les groupements
de citoyens à l'œuvre des Nations
Unies, et nous croyons que la Conférence de Stockholm et les travaux que
poursuivent les Nations Unies dans
le domaine de l'environnement peuvent encourager tous ceux qui travaillent depuis longtemps dans ce domaine, et susciter de nouveaux enthousiasmes. Nous nous proposons donc d'inviter instamment nos organisations à
se mobiliser et à recruter de nouveaux
membres pour appuyer l'œuvre des
Nations Unies en général et celle du
Secrétariat
de
l'environnement
en
particulier.
b) Nous examinerons avec le Secrétariat de la présente Conférence les
moyens propres à permettre à chacune de nos organisations de mobiliser
l'appui du public en faveur des décisions de Stockholm au cours des mois
qui s'écouleront entre cette Conférence et l'Assemblée générale de cette
année. Nous souhaitons par la suite
établir des liaisons permanentes avec
le Secrétariat, entre nos organisations,
et avec d'autres organismes intéressés.
c) Nous nous consulterons entre nous
afin d'élaborer les moyens les plus
propres à intensifier nos efforts, à
mettre en œuvre des pressions conjuguées en faveur de l'environnement,
et à éviter dans toute la mesure du
possible les doubles emplois. Nous
nous efforcerons également d'obtenir
le concours de diverses organisations
en vue de collectes spéciales destinées
à financer des programmes spécifiques
en matière d'environnement.
d) A l'échelon national, toutes les organisations qui s'intéressent à l'environnement doivent s'efforcer de participer aux décisions des gouvernements
dans ce domaine, et demander avec
insistance à être informées à l'avance
des projets pouvant affecter l'environnement.
e) Nous proposons de désigner une
année particulière avec un thème, disons par exemple « La Planète en
1980», au cours de laquelle les programmes officiels et l'action entreprise par les organisations non gouvernementales et les groupements de citoyens pour mieux comprendre et
protéger l'environnement seront réexaminés.
We pledge ourselves, in our work,
our loyalties, our contacts and our own
styles of life, to try to live as citizens
of a loved yet endangered planet and
to share our common heritage with
respect for all living things and in
justice and amity with the people of
planet Earth.
Nous nous engageons, dans notre travail, dans nos allégeances, dans nos
relations, et dans notre style même de
vie, à nous efforcer de vivre comme
des citoyens d'une planète que nous
aimons et qui est en danger, et à partager notre commun patrimoine dans
le respect de tout ce qui vit, dans la
paix et la concorde entre tous ceux qui
peuplent notre terre.
20
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
La * Déclaration de ta Jeunesse » ciaprès, émanant de onze organisations
non gouvernementales de jeunesse a
été présentée en séance plénière à la
Conférence des Nations Unies sur
l'environnement, à Stockholm, dans
l'après-midi du 12 juin 1972. A titre
d'introduction, le porte-parole de ces
organisations a expliqué qu'il s'agissait
d'une déclaration non pas «unanime»
mais « cumulative », qui rassemblait
les points de vue d'organisations de
jeunesse ayant des positions sociales
et
politiques
diverses...
La déclaration a été rédigée par des
représentants des organisations suivantes :
The following « youth statement » of
eleven youth NGO's was presented to
the plenary session of the UN Conference on Human Environment in
Stockholm the afternoon of June 12,
1972. As preface to the statement, the
spokesman explained that the statement was not « unanimous > but « Cumulative », a collection of the viewpoints
of the youth organisations which have
diverse social and political positions...
Representatives of the following organisations prepared this statement :
Boy Scouts World Bureau
International Union of Students
Ex-Volunteers International
World Assembly of Youth
International Student Movement for
the United Nations
International Youth Hostel Federation
World Association of Girl Guides and
Girl Scouts
World Student Christian Federation
World
Federation of Democratic
Youth
World University Service
International Youth Federation for
Environmental Studies and Conservation.
Bureau mondial de scoutisme
Union internationale des étudiants
Ex-volontaires international
Assemblée mondiale de la jeunesse
Mouvement international des étudiants pour les Nations Unies
Fédération internationale des auberges
de la jeunesse
Association mondiale des guides et
des éclaireuses
Fédération universelle des associations
chrétiennes d'étudiants
Fédération mondiale de la jeunesse
démocratique
Entraide universitaire mondiale
Fédération internationale de la jeunesse pour l'étude et la conservation
de l'environnement
Nous, les représentants d'organisations
internationales non gouvernementales
de jeunesse, nous sommes réunis pour
exprimer, dans la présente déclaration,
notre ferme conviction que la Conférence est nécessaire. Nous félicitons le
Gouvernement suédois, ainsi que le
Secrétaire général de la Conférence et
ses collaborateurs des efforts qu'ils ont
consacrés à assurer son succès. La présente déclaration, que nous avons rédigée ensemble, est le résultat non seulement des réunions de la semaine qui
vient de s'écouler mais aussi d'une
coopération antérieure dans le domaine de l'environnement et les autres domaines qui intéressent la jeunesse.
Nous sommes les représentants de diverses organisations sociales et politiques de jeunes et d'étudiants dont les
membres se comptent par centaines
de millions dans le monde entier.
Nous constituons une force qui agit
par la mise en œuvre de notre programme pour susciter une prise de
conscience plus étendue du devoir qui
s'impose à notre génération et aux générations futures.
Nous sommes inquiets de voir que,
deux semaines seulement après l'échec
de la 3e CNUCED, la présente conférence semble, d'après certains signes,
prendre la même direction par la faute
d'intérêts nationaux et économiques
unilatéraux. La crise de l'environnement qui menace l'humanité a atteint
des proportions exigeant l'adoption de
solutions radicales et à long terme,
qui doivent être mises en œuvre sans
Introduction
We the representatives of international
youth non-governmental organisations
have come together to express in this
statement our firm belief in the necessity of this Conference. We commend
the government of Sweden and the
Secretary-General of the Conference
and his team for their efforts devoted
to the success of this Conference. This
statement which we have elaborated
together is the outcome not only of the
meetings of the past week but also of
previous co-operation in environmental and other fields of concern to
young people.
We are the representatives of various
social and political youth and student
organisations with members numbering hundreds of millions of young
people over the whole world. We are
a force acting through the implementation of our programme to create a
wider awareness of the imperative facing our own and future generations.
We are concerned that only two weeks
after the failure of UNCTAD III this
Conference is showing signs of heading
in the same direction due to one-sided
national and economic interests. The
environmental crisis facing mankind
had reached proportions which demand radical and long-term solutions
which may be speedily implemented
in order to ensure a meaningful existence for all future generations on our
planet.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
21
tarder si l'on veut assurer à toutes les
générations futures de notre planète
une existence qui vaille la peine d'être
vécue,
Pour placer la Conférence dans sa
juste perspective, nous tenons à attirer
l'attention sur ce qui nous parait étre
certains de ses principaux manques :
1. Nous déplorons qu'un certain nombre de pays industriels socialistes
soient absents de la Conférence en raison de manœuvres politiques dirigées
contre le principe de l'universalité qui
est indispensable a la solution des problèmes mondiaux de l'environnement.
2. Des mesures immédiats devraient
6lre prises pour mettre (in à la destruction de l'environnement par la guerre.
La Conférence aurait dû se pencher
sur l'horrible guerre destructive du
miliou que le gouvernement des EtatsUnis méne en Indochine et sur des
guerres analogues dans d'autres parties
3. La question dos essais d'armes nucléaires no figure pas à l'ordre du jour
do la Conférence. Néanmoins, nous
appuyons sans réserve l'inillative des
gouvernements qui ont soulevé celte
question on termes énergiques à propos dos essais nucléaires que la France
porjette dans le Pacifique,
4. Nous regrettons que dos intérêts
particuliers aient entraîné la suppression du débat sur les problèmes quo
les transports supersoniques posent
pour l'environnement.
5. La Conférence n'a mentionné qu'en
passant l'éducation. Ello n'a pas consacré assez d'attention à ce sujet qui
est un facteur clé si l'on veut encourager le grand public á prendre conscience do l'environnement et do ses responsabilités à son égard. Plusieurs de
nos organisations ont pour objet d'aidor la jeunesse à respecter les principes écologiques et à vivre en harmonie
avec la nature en y trouvant un plaisir
réel. Nous demandons aux Nations
Unies et aux Etats membres d'accorder une priorité urgente à l'institution.
on collaboration avec les organisations
non gouvernementales, de programmes d'enseignement en matière d'environnement.
6. Nous nous félicitons que la Commission chargée du thème Développement et environnement ait convenu
que les mesures prises par les pays industrialisés en faveur de l'environnement ne devaient pas être prétexte à
discrimination contre les exportations
des pays en voie de développement
et que la majorité des pays aient finalement accepté le principe de la
compensation. Nous nous félicitons
aussi que la Conférence ait demandé
que soit étudiée ta possibilité de réduire les niveaux de production des produits synthétiques en faveur des produits naturels que pourraient fournir
les pays en voie de développement.
22
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
Les manques
Shortcomings
In order to put this Conference in its
right perspective, we wish to draw
attention to what we believe to have
been some of its major shortcomings :
1. We deplore that a number of industrial socialist countries are absent from
this Conference because of political
manoeuvring aimed against the principle of universality which is indispensable to solving global environmental
problems,
2. Immediate action should be taken
to end the deliberate destruction of the
environment by warfare. The U.S.
government's disgraceful war of ecocide in Indo-China and simitar wars in
other parts of the world should have
been dealt with by this Conference.
3. The issue of nuclear weapons testing was omitted from the agenda of
this Conference. Nevertheless, those
governments who have forcefully raised this issue in connection with the
planned French nuclear tests in the
Pacific, have our fullest support in this
initiative.
4. We regret that sectional interests
have caused the suppression of discussion on the environmental problems of
supersonic transport,
5. This Conference has in passing
mentioned education. Too little attention has been paid to this subject
which is the key factor in promoting
public awareness and responsibility
about the environment. Several of our
organisations are involved in helping
young people to respect ecological
principles and to live in harmony with
nature and to derive a positive enjoyment from this relationship. We ask the
United Nations and member stales to
give urgent priority to the establishment of environmental education programmes in collaboration with nongovernmental organisations.
6. We were pleased that the Committee
on
Environment
and
Development
agreed that environmental measures
undertaken by industrialised countries
should not be a pretext for discrimination against the exports of developing countries, and that compensati
on was finally accepted by a majority of countries. We also welcome the
call lor an examination of the possibility of reducing production levels of
synthetic products in favour of natural
products which could be produced by
the developing countries. However,
throughout the debate the richest of
the developed countries continued to
manifest the same narrow economic
self-interest that was all too apparent
a few weeks ago at UNCTAD Ml. In
the unlikely event that all the recommendations adopted are successfully
implemented, and the negative aspects
Cependant, tout au long de ce débat,
les plus riches des pays développés ont
continué de manifester l´égoisme économique étroit dont ils n'ont que trop
fait preuve il y a quelques semaines à
la 3e CNUCED. Dans l'éventualité
improbable où toutes les recommandations adoptées seraient mises en œuvre avec succès, cette action ne constituerait toujours pas, si les aspects négatifs des mesures en faveur de l'environnement
étaient
minimisés,
une
attaque réelle contre les problèmes
fondamentaux, tels que la pauvreté,
qui se posent aux pays en voie de
développement.
of environmental measures are minimised, this would still not constitute
an attack on the fundamental problems
such as poverty facing the developing
countries.
7. There is an urgent need for an
institutional
framework
within
the
United Nations system to ensure that
the decisions of this Conference and
other environmental policies as ratified by the General Assembly will be
implemented. In any such arrangement all governments, specialised agencies and international non-governmental organisations must be represented.
7. Il est indispensable qu'un mécanisme institutionnel, créé dans le cadre
du système des Nations Unies, garantisse l'exécution des décisions de la
Conférence et des autres politiques relatives à l'environnement que l'Assemblée générale pourra ratifier. Dans
ce mécanisme, quel qu'il soit, devront
être représentés tous les gouvernements, toutes les institutions spécialisées et toutes les organisations non gouvernementales internationales.
La Conférence doit déterminer les causes profondes de la crise de l'environnement et concevoir des solutions assez radicales pour améliorer l'environnement de façon réelle et durable.
Nous ne sommes pas satisfaits du niveau actuel du débat et présentons ici
quelques-unes des questions fondamentales
qui
exigent
des
solutions.
Les ressources disponibles sont susceptibles d'exploitation excessive par des
systèmes économiques orientés vers la
croissance et le profit plutôt que vers
la satisfaction des besoins réels de
l'homme. Le bien-être de l'humanité
dépend de la répartition, de la sage
utilisation et du recyclage de ces ressources. La présente iniquité de la répartition des richesses entre pays industrialisés et peu développés et entre les différents secteurs de la-population de chaque pays est intolérable.
Beaucoup de nations industrialisées
en sont venues à dépendre de la croissance qu'elles réalisent grâce à une
surconsommation
artificiellement
induite et à l'exploitation de ressources
des pays en voie de développement
que ceux-ci n'ont même pas pu utiliser
pour assurer un niveau de vie suffisant
à leur propre population. L'instrument de ce processus d'expropriation
n'est autre que les sociétés multinationales qui échappent au contrôle des
gouvernements et dont les profits ne
sont pas distribués dans les pays où
elles opèrent. Une autre cause absurde
d'épuisement des richesses disponibles
réside dans les immenses dépenses militaires d'une incessante course aux armements qui ne contribue en rien aux
progrès
de
l'humanité.
L'accroissement exponentiel du nombre des êtres humains menace de dépasser la capacité de la biosphère d'assurer à tous une existence d'une qualité suffisante quant à l'alimentation
Questions
fondamentales
Basic issues
The Conference should appreciate the
root-causes of the environmental crisis
and conceive solutions which are sufficiently radical to bring about real and
lasting improvements in the human
environment. We are not satisfied with
the present level of discussion and
point out here some of the basic issues
which
demand
action.
Available resources are subject to
overexploitation by economic systems
geared to growth and profit instead of
real human need. Human welfare depends on the distribution, wise use and
recycling of these resources. The present inequitable distribution of wealth
between industrialised and less-developed countries and between different
sectors of the citizenry within each
country is intolerable. Many industrialised nations have allowed themselves to depend on growth which is.
achieved by induced over-consumption
and exploitation of sources from developing countries while
the
latter
have not even had the chance to secure a decent standard of living for
their people. Instrumental in this process of expropriation are the multinational corporations which are beyond
the control of national governments,
and whose profits are not distributed
in those countries where they operate.
A further senseless drain on available
wealth is the vast military expenditures in a continuing arms race which
contribute nothing to the advancement of mankind.
The exponential increase in human
numbers threatens to outstrip the capacity of the biosphere to provide a
decent quality of life for all in terms
of food and living space, and hinders
the efforts of the human race to secure improvement in this direction.
The effect of population increases in
industrialised countries is particularly
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
23
et à l'espace vital, et elle entrave les
efforts déployés par la race humaine
pour améliorer sa situation à cet égard.
Les effets de l'accroissement des populations des pays industrialisés sont
particulièrement graves en raison de
leur
surconsommation
irresponsable
et de leur gaspillage des ressources
naturelles.
La différence qui existe aujourd'hui
entre le niveau de vie des riches et
celui des pauvres ne peut se justifier
par aucune raison morale, écologique ou autre. La solution ne peut résider que dans un système économique
planifié qui mettrait fin à la notion
de croissance économique telle qu'on
la comprend aujourd'hui et la remplacerait par un nouveau concept qui,
tout en assurant la satisfaction des besoins
matériels
fondamentaux
de
l'homme, lui donnerait une nouvelle
. raison d'être >. Dans ce système,
l'on assurerait l'emploi en encourageant les industries fondées sur la
main-d'œuvre plutôt que sur le capital. Le développement économique
nécessaire pour résoudre le problème
prépondérant de la pauvreté dans le
tiers monde exige la libération des ressources qui sont actuellement uniquement réservées aux exigences de la
croissance des nations industrialisées.
La conservation de l'environnement
n'est pas la prérogative exclusive des
gouvernements, elle intéresse tout le
monde. Nous prions instamment les
gouvernements de faire participer autant d'organisations populaires que
possible à la mise en œuvre des recommandations qu'ils se seront engagés à
appliquer.
L'Organisation
des
Nations Unies, dans les dispositions qu'elle prendra à la suite de la Conférence,
devrait collaborer étroitement avec
les organisations non gouvernementales internationales, et en particulier les
organisations
de
jeunes.
En terminant nous tenons à informer
les politiciens qui sont ici que l'écart
de crédibilité qui s'est creusé entre la
plupart d'entre eux et les peuples qu'ils
prétendent représenter s'élargit rapidement. Ceux qui sont venus avec le
grand espoir de voir réussir la Conférence l'ont vue dégénérer en débat
politique classique de la nature la
plus stérile. Pour s'assurer la confiance des peuples, les politiciens doivent
s'attaquer à la crise qui menace le
monde et collaborer à l'échelon international pour en trouver les solutions. Dans l'état actuel des choses, les
paroles constitueraient un bon début
si elles représentaient un examen sérieux des problèmes réels. Pourtant,
en fin de compte, c'est dans les actes
que se trouvera le vrai testament de
la Conférence,
24
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
serious because of their irresponsible
over-consumption and waste of natural resources.
The differential standard of living
which exists today between rich and
poor cannot be justified on moral,
ecological. Indeed on any grounds.
A solution can only be found within
a planned economic system which
would mean an end to the notion of
economic growth as it is presently
understood and its replacement by a
new concept, which while providing
for man's basic material needs will
give him a new * raison d'être ». In
such a system employment could be
assured by the encouragement of labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive industries. The economic development necessary to alleviate the
overriding problem of poverty in the
Third World requires that the resources currently tied up by the growth
requirements
of
the
industrialised
nations be released.
Conclusion
Environmental conservation is not the
exclusive prerogative of governments,
it is the concern of all people. We urge •
governments to significantly involve
as many people's organizations as possible in carrying out the recommendations to which they will have pledged
themselves. The United Nations Organisation, in its follow-up arrangements to this Conference, should work
Closely with and through the international non-governmental and in particular
youth
organisations.
In closing we would inform the politicians here that the credibility-gap
between most of them and the people
they claim to represent is growing rapidly wider. Those who came with high
hopes for the success of this Conference have seen it degenerate into conventional politics of the most unproductive kind. To secure the confidence
of the people, politicians must apply
themselves to the crisis facing the
world and collaborate at an international level to find solutions. In the
present situation, words would be a
good beginning if they meant that
real problems were being considered.
But in the end the only testament will
be found in action.
La collaboration entre l'UAI et I'ONU
LES RELATIONS DES
NATIONS-UNIES
AVEC LES ONG
Extrait du Rapport
du Secrétaire Général
à l'Assemblée des Nations-Unies
sur l'activité de l'Organisation
(16 juin 1971 — 15 juin 1972}
.« Conformément à la résolution 334 B
(Xt) du Conseil, le Secrétariat continue à collaborer avec l'Union des
Associations Internationales à l'établissement de l'édition annuelle de son
Annuaire des Organisations internationales ».
Rapport de Mr. K. Waldheim. p. 161
Au 15 juin 1972, les organisations non
gouvernementales dotées du statut
consultatif auprès du Conseil économique et social étaient au nombre de 518,
dont 17 appartenaient à la catégorie I,
168 à la catégorie II et 333 étaient
inscrites sur la liste.
Au cours de l'année considérée, les
organisations
non
gouvernementales
ont présenté de nombreux exposés
écrits qui ont été distribués comme
documents du Conseil, de ses commissions ou autres organes subsidiaires. En outre, elles ont été entendues
à diverses occasions par le Conseil, ses
commissions et autres organes subsidiaires.
Conformément
aux
critères
définis
dans la résolution 1296 (XLIV) du
Conseil, le Comité du Conseil chargé
des organisations non gouvernementales a achevé, au cours de sa session du
mois de janvier 1972, l'examen de
demandes d'admission ou de réadmission au statut consultatif et de demandes de reclassement présentées par des
organisations
non
gouvernementales
ainsi que d'autres questions que le
Conseil lui avait renvoyées à sa cinquantième session, portant sur les mesures à prendre à la suite des décisions
prises en application de la résolution
1580 (L) du Conseil relative à la contribution des organisations non gouvernementales à la mise en œuvre de
la Stratégie internationale du développement pour la deuxième Décennie
des Nations Unies pour le développement et de la résolution 1651 (Ll) sur
l'application de la Déclaration sur
l'octroi de l'indépendance aux pays
et aux peuples coloniaux par les institutions spécialisées et les organismes
internationaux associés à l'Organisation des Nations Unies. Le Comité
a fait rapport au Conseil à ce sujet.
A sa 1814e séance, le Conseil était
saisi du rapport du Comité du Conseil
chargé des organisations non gouvernementales, lequel contenait des recommandations relatives a) à l'admission de certaines organisations non
gouvernementales au statut consultatif et au reclassement de certaines autres, b) aux mesures à prendre en
application des résolutions 1580 (L)
et 1651 (Ll) du Conseil. A la même
séance, le Conseil a examiné le rapport de son comité et pris les décisions suivantes : a) il a placé sept organisations dans la catégorie II et en
a inscrit six sur la liste; b) il a reclassé
une organisation, sur sa demande, dans
la catégorie I et six autres, sur leur
demande, dans la catégorie H; c) il a
rejeté la demande de reclassement
dans la catégorie II d'une organisation
et a décidé de la maintenir sur la liste;
et d) il a pris note d'un document
l'informant de l'intention du Secrétaire général d'inscrire cinq organisations sur la Liste. Le Conseil a également pris note du chapitre III du rapport du Comité du Conseil chargé des
organisations
non
gouvernementales,
lequel exposait les mesures à prendre
par les membres du Comité et par le
secrétaire du Comité en application
des résolutions 1580 (L) et 1651 (Ll)
au sujet desquelles le Comité devait
présenter un rapport au Conseil à sa
cinquante-quatrième session. Le Conseil a également pris note des chapitres
I et IV du rapport du Comité portant
sur
l'organisation
des
travaux.
Le Secrétaire général a donné effet
aux dispositions relatives aux consultations arrêtées par le Conseil aux termes de la résolution 1296 (XLIV); à
cet effet, il a donné des consultations,
procédé à un échange de correspondance, prêté assistance aux organisations lorsqu'elles sont entendues devantle Conseil et ses organes subsidiaires
ou lorsqu'elles leur présentent des documents, et en envoyant des représentants à un certain nombre des principales conférences de ces organisations,
Une documentation a été établie sur
les organisations présentant des demandes d'admission ou de réadmission au
statut consultatif aux termes des dispositions de la résolution 1296 (XLIV)
du Conseil.
Conformément à la résolution 334 B
(XI) du Conseil, le Secrétariat continue à collaborer avec l'Union des
associations internationales à l'établissement de l'édition annuelle de son
Annuaire des organisations internationales.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
25
MANAGING PLANETARY
MANAGEMENT
« Pollution Secrecy »
Although the traditional British policy of keeping secret all pollution
control data has now been abandoned by both industry and government, the Nanny knows best attitude remains firmly entrenched in
the Alkali Inspectorate at least.
The inspectorate's recently published 108th annual report (HMSO
75p), while playing lip service to a
more open policy, nevertheless
contains a classic restatement of
the view that pollution control is
best fixed up behind closed doors
among those whose education and
experience fits them to comprehend such arcane terminology as
grains per cubic foot and muriatic
acid. «'We regard communication
with the public as extremely important », writes chief inspector
Frank Ireland, «'and we are trying
to develop the best ways of putting
it into practice ». However, this
belief in
communication
apparently falls short of providing the
public with facts and figures.
«'Many of the issues cause great
controversy even amongst the experts, and lead to opposing opinions about the effect of pollution.
The relationship between emissions and their effect on the environment is complicated and only
a relatively few people are capable
of properly assessing emission
data ».
In other words, data should be
restricted to those who can understand the impact of pollution on
the environment. Since even the
experts are liable to disagree, it
is best to withold figures and concentrate on reassuring generalites.
The possibility that « the experts »
themselves — ecologists, for instance — might disagree less if
they were allowed access to emission data is tacitly ignored ».
(Editorial New Scientist,
23 November 1972)
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
26
The reactions to governmental and
intergovernmental responses to environmental issus have ranged from
optimism to scepticism. International
organizations undoubtedly have a responsibility to maintain an attitude of
optimistic pressure in an effort to
focus support for any positive action
taken. This responsibility should not
however hinder realistic assessment
of the progress made and problems to
be encountered. The following paragraphs are an effort to note some of
the apparently unresolved difficulties.
Coordination : the prime characteristic of environmental problems is
their interrelationship which is often
hidden.
Different
organizations
are concerned with different problems. The creation of a new United Nations body is a direct threat
to the programme responsibility of
other agencies in the UN family.
The coordination problem posed by
the «development » issue has
only been partially resolved by
making the UNDP a major channel
for programme funds. The same
difficulty is raised in connection with
the «'environment» issue except
that, in addition, the relationship
to the «development» mechanism
must be taken into account. No
solution seems to be emerging which
will avoid the emasculation of the
environmental programme.
Location : the advantages and disadvantages of locating the new UN
body in Nairobi are fairly clear.
Whether the political value of this
symbolic move can be backed up
by an effective secretariat operation remains a great unknown. Is
this location really a deliberate political effort to isolate and emasculate the environmental programme
or is it a well thought out attempt to
involve the developing countries
in this new problem dimension ?
Interdisciplinary linkages : a major
achievement of the debate on the
environment issue has been to create
an awareness of the interdisciplinary nature of the programmes required. Each problem is known to
have many aspects and each is linked to others which are the guarded hunting grounds of other disciplines — in fact it is less the problems taken individually which constitute the crisis of today and more
the degree of interconnection which
makes any one problem difficult
to solve in isolation. It therefore
comes as a surprise that the new UN
body is organizing its action into the
following sectors : pollutants, climate, natural disasters, information
refund system, genetic resources,
integrated planning, land and water
management,
aquatic
resources,
energy, wild life, international economic
relations,
human
settlements,
conservation,
population,
education and general. On closer
examination of the recommendations behind each sectoral approach
it appears that no thought has been
given
to
interdisciplinary
links
between the sectors. « Integrated
planning» (Recommendations 6063, 65, 68 and 100) seems to
refer mainly to the interrelationship between environment and development programmes and not the
relationship between the problems
for which the programmes are
conceived. It does not refer to an
integrative perspective on the relationships between the other sectors.
« General » (95, 97 and 102) is
even less concerned with the intersectoral question.
The only two references to an « interdisciplinary » approach are a disappointment. The first looks almost
perfect
out
of
context
:
97 (c) « Support the concept of development of an interdisciplinary
and interorganizational system primarily involving centres already in
existence ».
But this refers to the marine research effort only. The second is
more hopeful :
96 « take the necessary steps to
establish an international programme in environmental education,
interdisciplinary in approach, in
school and out of school... *
It does however bring to mind the
old cynic's view « if you cannot do
it, teach it ».
It seems a pity that the new UN
body's
programme
should
itself
reinforce the barriers between sectors which the environmental issue
has been so helpful in breaking
down. One wonders whether the
well-documented
inter-state
political problems in wording the Declarations and Recommendations were ,
not in fact matched by an invisible
manoevering in defence of territ-
ory on the part of the representatjves of the
stronger disciplines.
The
Recommendations
certainly
highlight the success of the lobbying
by a few disciplines. The disciplines which seem to have acquired least
territory from the battle are those
associated
with
the
non-physical
quality of life — namely psycho-social and cultural disciplines concerned with the well-being of the individual in other than economic terms.
Nongovernmental
organizations
:
it
was a great pleasure to listen to
Maurice Strong, speaking as Secretary General of the UN Conference
in Geneva (October 1972). Some
of the forward looking phrases jotted down by this observer include :
— « new dimensions of cooperation
amongst NGOS are required »
— « network of relationships, network of institutions, tapping into all available sources of data
linked into world-wide networks »
— « official networks will not function adequately without an NGO
complementary network closely
related to it and, in a larger sense, part of it »
— « balance between centralization
and decentralization i.e. inclusive, open and involving ».
— « NGOs should speed up their
contact mechanisms »
— « NGOs should organize themselves within their own community and create a dynamic imput-feedback
network
complementary to the official one *.
But when one turns to the Stockholm Conference results there is
very little awareness of NGOs in
what
was
recommended.
For
NGOs were specifically named but
not as NGOs. References to « nongovernmental organizations » appeared six times in the exhortive
portions of some Recommendations,
for
example
:
« The organizations of the UN
system, including the regional economic commissions and UNESOB, will
be called upon to participate in this
activity, as will other international
governmental and nongovernmental
agencies ».
But the degree of mention seemed
to vary between Recommendations
according to the power of the scientific NGO in that sector. In some
Recommendations there are only
vague references to « other international bodies » which could
be interpreted in a very restrictive sense. The most specific reference was, as might have been
predicted, in connection with the
mobilization of NGOs in support of
the UN :
(97) (a) To establish an information programme... In addition, the
programme must provide means
of stimulating active participation
by the citizens, and of eliciting interest and contributions from non-
governmental
organizations...
»
But in the final analysis It is not
clear how the NGOs are expected to contribute or whether they
are to be allowed to participate. This
is particularly evident in connection
with the proposed information clearing house.
Information : an information Refund
Service is planned. But despite al
the references to participation :
« The users of the Refund Service
would be governments and bodies
of the United Nations system. The
Service could (sic) be gradually
extended to other users, subject to
the availability of financial resources ».
(A/CONF. 48'/49, para. 131)
NGOs are expected to contribute
to it but are not permitted to derive
any direct benefit from it. This
guarantees low-quality input and an
ineffective service. This whole matter has been explored in detail with
reference
to
the
development,/
environment
issue
in
;
Judge,
A.J.N.
International
Organizations and the Generation of
the Will to Change; the information
systems
required.
Brussels, Union of International
Associations,
1970,
89
p.
Extracts were published in « International Associations » in 1970
(pages 135-152, 221-225, 355-361)
under the title «Planning for the
1960s
in
the
1970s
»).
This approach is a reflection of a
traditional governmental opinion that
most problems are best solved by
self-elected experts behind closed
doors. The lessons of the First Development Decade still remain to be
learned. It seems that forward-thinking
phrases
such
as
:
* Voluntary associations for the
protection of the environment and
the defence of users and consumers should be able to play an active
part — an arrangement which, furthermore, would favour the practice
of
democracy
».
(A/CONF.
48/49
para.
92).
seem to be included purely for
public relations purposes. The UN
does not appear to want to assist
NGOs to function more effectively
as an integral part of the world-wide
network of organizations. Until the
UN agencies give operational meaning to the existence of this network, outside the administrative
context
of consultative
relationships, the attitude towards « other »
bodies will continue to resemble
that of the feudal baronies in the Middie Ages to serfs in their outlying
territories.
A.J.
9
Le rapport de la Conférence des ONG
intéressées par les problèmes de
l'environnement
Principes généraux
La Conférence de Genève des ONG
s'occupant de l'Environnement humain réaffirme son engagement à
l'égard des principes et des lignes de
conduite, énoncés lors de la Conférence des Nations Unies sur l'Environnement, tenue à Stockholm en juin 1972.
Elle suggère également que le Bulletin
de la Conférence de Stockholm, récemment publié par le CESI (Centre
d'Information économique et sociale),
qui contient les documents officiels
pertinents, ainsi que les déclarations
rédigées par les ONG à Stockholm
soit envoyé par celles-ci à tous leurs
membres, dans le cadre d'un effort
soutenu pour étendre et approfondir
leur sens de la responsabilité qu'elles
assument dans ce domaine et encourager un engagement similaire auprès
des citoyens de leurs pays respectifs.
Relations avec le secrétariat
et avec d'autres organismes
des Nations Unies
Les ONG intéressées aux questions
d'Environnement, engagées dans ce
domaine et déterminées à appuyer le
fonctionnement d'un Secrétariat efficace pour l'Environnement au sein des
Nations Unies, devraient créer un
Groupe explorateur en vue de rechercher les meilleurs moyens d'assurer
la coopération la plus étroite possible
avec le Secrétariat proposé, une fois
qu'il aura été établi (L'Annexe 1 propose une mesure préliminaire à la
formation de ce groupe). Il serait
chargé de s'occuper des méthodes
permettant l'élargissement de tous les
moyens possibles d'action mutuelle
et d'information dans le domaine de
l'environnement. Par exemple, la re-
connaissance
du
nouveau
système
ayant trait à l'environnement pourrait
être étendu à toutes les organisations
jouissant du statut consultatif auprès
de l'ECOSOC. Des relations spéciales
de travail pourraient être autorisées
entre le Secrétariat chargé de l'Environnement et les organismes intéressés ayant des compétences techniques
ou les actions entreprises par les citoyens et non couvertes par les méthodes actuelles de représentation. (Ce
travail devrait, si possible, renforcer
l'étude portant sur les relations des
ONG déjà en cours auprès de l'ECOSOC). Il ne faudrait pas perdre de vue
les incidences financières de ces propositions, en raison des fonds modestes mis à la disposition du Secrétariat
proposé.
Relations entre les ONG
intéressées
1) Une partie, essentielle du travail du
Groupe
explorateur
consisterait
à
approfondir et à renforcer les relations entre les ONG intéressées. Une
première responsabilité serait de préparer une conférence dans le but d'établir des formes définitives de relations,
dès que le nouveau Secrétariat chargé
de l'Environnement sera au travail et
prêt à prendre part à une consultation
de cette nature.
2} On a également besoin d'un réseau
d'information fonctionnant entre les
ONG. La Conférence accueille chaleureusement l'initiative prise par le
CESI, en publiant un Bulletin sur la
réunion de Stockholm et exprime l'espoir que le Secrétariat pourra poursuivre de façon régulière la publication de ce Bulletin comme moyen de
communication entre les ONG et entre celles-ci et le Secrétariat.
3) La Conférence demande que tout
système international de références
sur les sources ayant trait à l'environnement, mis sur pied au sein du système des Nations Unies, puisse être
utilisé par les ONG dans le cadre d'accords adéquats.
4) La Conférence suggère que le Groupe explorateur devrait encourager les
ONG elles-mêmes à préparer un répertoire « à feuilles détachables » portant sur leurs propres activités dans le
domaine de l'environnement et classées sous les seize groupes principaux
des cent-neuf recommandations du
Plan
d'action
de
Stockholm.
5) Le Groupe devrait prêter une attention toute particulière au maintien
d'une liaison étroite entre les ONG
ayant leur siège à New York et celles
qui
'ont
le
leur
à
Genève.
6) Les incidences financières d'un
Bulletin régulier, de la participation
à un système de référence et de la
préparation du répertoire « à feuilles
détachables » devraient être étudiées
avec soin. La Conférence exprime sa
reconnaissance pour l'offre de la Société pour la Responsabilité sociale
dans le domaine des Sciences de se
charger de la publication et de la distribution du Bulletin proposé jusqu'à
ce que le Secrétariat de l'Environnement puisse assumer cette tâche.
7) Le Groupé devrait insister sur le
fait qu'il est indispensable d'établir
un horaire des réunions internationales
à venir et de le communiquer aux
ONG à-temps pour qu'elles puissent
prendre toutes les dispositions utiles
pour une planification et une participation actives. Cela "permettra aux organisations qui s'intéressent à l'environnement de créer des groupes de
travail ad hoc animés d'un esprit de
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
29
Photo FAO
coopération qui se livreraient à une
étude et une préparation conjointes et
pourraient lancer des campagnes faisant appel au concours des citoyens.
Des groupes ad hoc de cette nature
sont
également
importants
parce
qu'ils peuvent réagir à des crises soudaines et attirer l'attention du public
sur des possibilités ou des dangers qui
peuvent avoir été négligés. Par exemple, il faut commencer sans tarder à
préparer la Conférence sur le fond des
mers et des océans, prévue pour 1973.
Relations avec le public
1) Ces activités — étude et mobilisation
—
constituent
également
le
moyen principal d'éduquer et de stimuler l'opinion publique et d'engager
de plus en plus les citoyens dans la
campagne en faveur de l'environnement.
2) La Conférence désire également
souligner
l'importance
fondamentale
d'inclure les études et les perspectives
relatives à l'environnement dans tous
les degrés de l'éducation officielle.
30
Problèmes spéciaux du monde
en voie de développement
De nombreuses ONG disposent déjà
de réseaux mondiaux; elles ont des
membres dans les pays en voie de développement et prennent très au sérieux la nécessité d'avoir au sein de
leurs conférences une représentation
équilibrée. Mais à la lumière des relations étroitement imbriquées des problèmes du développement et des problèmes de l'environnement, la Conférence désire souligner avec la plus
grande vigueur la nécessité de :
1) communiquer aux pays en voie de
développement une plus vaste connaissance des activités du Secrétariat chargé de l'Environnement et assurer une
plus large participation, en qualité de
membres, des pays en voie de développement et des ressortissants de ces
pays au travail et à la direction des
organisations s'occupant de l'environnement sur le plan officiel et sur le
plan non gouvernemental. •
2) encourager les activités régionales
de toutes sortes — conférences, groupes de travail, recherche — à la fois
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1 9 7 3
au sein du Secrétariat et parmi les
ONG, tout en associant au travail des
experts locaux et en leur assurant
pleinement les moyens de participer
à cette action.
Annexe 1
La réunion de Genève des ONG a
décidé de prier le Dr Budowski,
M. van Putten et M. Beer — respectivement
Président,
Vice-Président et * Convenor - (responsable de ta convocation) de ta Conférence — de former un groupe
de liaison ad hoc. Leur tâche consistera à maintenir des contacts
étroits avec la réunion de New
York et à participer à la création
du Groupe explorateur proposé
par la Conférence. Le Dr. Budowski, M. Beer et M. van Putten ont
accepté cette suggestion, à la condition que soit mis en relief son
caractère entièrement ad hoc et
temporaire et que la plus grande
liberté soit laissée en vue du choix
subséquent des membres du Groupe explorateur.
General « Statement
of Progress » by NGOs
Concerned with
the Environment
General Principles
The ad hoc Conference of NGOs concerned with the human environment,
meeting in New York from October
17th to October 19th, joins with the
earlier Geneva Conference of NGO's
in affirming with the utmost emphasis
its commitment to the principles and
• policies enunciated at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972.
The Conference unanimously endorses the declaration and recommendations adopted by governments at Stockholm and urges that the institutional
and financial arrangements for a
Governing Council, Secretariat and
Fund for the Human Environment
within the United Nations system be
put into effect during the present General Assembly.
The Conference states its belief that the
readiness of governments to follow up
their Stockholm commitments with
concrete action in the General Assembly and the ability of the existing United Nations system to support and work
with the proposed new environmental
institutions are the essential test of the
ability of the United Nations to continue as a credible and functioning
system. If governments and the peoples they represent cannot take action
to safeguard the well being of their
endangered planet....... and to place
at the center of international thought
and action respect and love for the
natural environment of living things
upon which human survival itself
depends, then clearly the credibility
both of the international system and of
the governments that make it up will
be
grievously
undermined.
This belief is also at the basis of the
NGO's own commitment of their time,
their energy and their resources to the
task of making their own environmental action more coherent and effective.
Whether the aim is to strengthen the
United Nations environmental system,
to work more closely and confidently
with other NGOs or to seek, by all
suitable means, to increase citizen
involvement, to . influence governments, to widen national representation and to give special emphasis to
NGO activity in the developing world,
the inspiration behind the effort is the
same - to work, openly and tirelessly,
for the good estate of Planet Earth.
Relations with the
Secretariat and with
Other U.N. Agencies
1. The Conference endorses the proposal put forward at the Geneva Meeting of NGOs that a small ad hoc exploratory group be established to secure
the closest possible contact with the
new U.N. Secretariat, once it is established, and to undertake preliminary
steps for convening at a convenient
and not too distant time at NGO Conference to discuss definitive forms of
relationship between NGOs interested
in the Environment and the U.N.
Secretariat.
2. While the Conference does not feel
the occasion to be ripe for specific
proposals, there is a considerable degree of consensus on a number of
points. Thé procedures adopted for
NGO relationships with such existing
bodies as UNICEF or the UNDP appear workable in the environmental
context. Environment-interested organizations which fulfill the ECOSOC criteria and are not already registered with
ECOSOC should be encouraged to do
so and thus receive the benefits flowing
from affiliation.
At the same time, the Environment
Secretariat would be in no way limited
in its relations with NGOs on the
ECOSOC list. It would be free to seek
out the support and technical competence of bodies not covered by present
methods of representation. In order to
facilitate this wide range of contact
and consultation, it is hoped that the
new Secretariat will give attention, at
a high level in its organization, to relations with the NGOs and, with the
assistance of interested NGOs, prepare
and maintain a list or roster of organizations according to their interest and
competence. (The Conference commends the questionnaire prepared by
the Geneva NGOs as a possible model
of how particular organizations might
relate their activities and their technical skills to various sections of the
Action Plan agreed to at Stockholm.
It also welcomes the action of the
interim
Environment
Secretariat
in
grouping the Stockholm recommendations under related and manageable
headings.)
The Conference also warmly welcomes
the bulletin on Stockholm prepared
by the Center for Economic and Social
Information and suggests that a similar and regular bulletin might be a
suitable means of ensuring close communication between the Secretariat
and interested NGOs. Some work
groups point out that general mailing
of the bulletin to the membership of
all interested NGOs would prove financially impossible, and that in any
case, its style does not yet attract sufficient
citizen
interest.
It could, however, be the task of
headquarters staff to use relevant parts
of the bulletin for their own local information services and relate the subject matter to local interests and styles.
The Conference expresses its belief
that existing relationships between U.N.
agencies and the NGOs are capable
of further creative and dynamic development and that the relations between the Environment Secretariat and
interested NGO's should be seen as part
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
31
of 3 wider effort to strengthen the Interest, support and inputs of nongovernmental bodies at every level —
in policy making at the top, in regional activities and participation in
national and local efforts. The Conference hopes that full support will be
given to the present ECOSOC inquiry
into the need for such developments,
a number of concrete examples of the
kind of cooperation and interaction
that might the possible are contained
in Annexe I.
Relations Between
Interested NGOs
1. The concensus of both Conferences
is that the basis of functioning relations
between the NGOs must be, in the
words of one of the working group reports, « general inter-communication
between NGOs on a completely inclusive basis ». The proposal put forward at the Geneva meeting on the
need for a directory or reference book
of interested NGOs is reaffirmed. The
basic concept is thus one of a network
of information, between NGOs themselves and NGOs and the Secretariat,
which can be produced, maintained
and updated only by sustained cooperation between the interested bodies.
To ensure the closest cooperation between NGOs centered in New York and
in Geneva, the roster or directory should
be maintained at regional offices in
both centers and should there be open
to updating, correction and amplifying.
Centers or collecting points in other
areas, particularly in the developing
world, should also be considered.
2. Coordination of activity should be
secured, in the view of the large majority, not by setting up structures or
hierarchies, but by ad hoc action of
interested groups, coming together for
specific action on specific issues and
mobilizing an appropriate constituency, either in terms of competence
— for instance, marine biologists, international lawyers, shipping experts
for a Law of the Sea Conference —
or in terms of the scale and extent of
the issue — international pressure
• groups for the oceans, regional bodies
for a river valley scheme, local citizens for the preservation of wetlands or
open space. The success of coordinating action through specific activities
depends upon a number of factors :
(i The existence of the already
mentioned
up-to-date
directory
giving both international and local
bodies and their fieIds of activity;
(ii) available finance : while the ordinary administrative costs of running
environmental NGOs should, in
principle, be covered by membership subscriptions, funds would have
to be sought for special activités and
projects. A directory of possible
sources of environmental funds for
particular purposes could assist the
effectiveness
of
NGO
action.
(Hi) a referral system or road-
32
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1 9 7 3
Photo FAO
map * which could help interested
NGOs to discover relevant environmental information. If such a
system is set up for official UN organizations, NGOs should have access to it and be prepared to cover
user costs.
(iv) a timetable of coming international events to enable NGOs to
participate in advance planning and
preparation. Such timetables would
also be needed at the national level.
(v) The use of the NGO network
by any group to alert other bodies
to the need for speedy action to
counter immediate dangers. For
instance, NGO work should begin
at once to prepare for the Conferences on the seabed and the oceans
set for 1973.
Relations with Governments
and with the Public
1. The United Nations system is a
system of governments. Citizen action
is needed in the first place to keep
environmental issues before national
governments. Until a nation has faced
its own problems, it is unlikely to
respond to the need for international
action. Citizen action is equally needed to give local policies the needed
international dimensions. Just as all
rivers end in the oceans, a very high
proportion of local disruptions of the
environment have international consequences which, on the evidence of
Stockholm, national governments are
likely to evade unless prompted to
responsibility by alert citizen action.
2. The need for environmental education at all levels of formal education
Third World membership and leadership
In
international
NGOs.
(3) Both the Secretariat and the NGOs
are urged to sponsor more meetings
and more research both with greater
local consultation and participation,
in the Third World. They are also
urged to increase understanding in
developed countries of the special
problems of developing areas. To this
end, U.N. bodies, as well as NGOs,
might consider the appointment of
officials from the developing world to
work in positions in developed countries.
Annexe one
should be underlined. One of its particular facets is to train citizens, of all
types of competence, who are capable
of understanding the interconnectedness of planetary issues and to see the
particular aspects of their own competence as vitally linked to the wider continuum of planetary life.
3. The most effective form of citizen
education is active involvement in
environmental affairs — for instance,
by membership fees which ensure the
widest and most independent basis of
financing and, even more, by action
in particular programs of the kind
outlined in Annex I.
4. At the same time, the most certain
method of influencing governments,
reaching out to new constituencies and
recruiting wider membership is accurate, well organized and thoroughly
researched programs of citizen action.
The better the homework of the
NGOs, the more secure their influence.
Special Problems of the
(1) The Conference urges the Environmental Secretariat to establish regional offices, to associate Third World
experts with its work, to attend most
carefully to the insights and particular
needs of developing countries.
(2) Similarly NGOs with international
affiliations are urged to establish effective and active circuits of information
and movement throughout their constituencies, to pay particular attention
to the special problems of members
or affiliated organizations in developing lands and to encourage wider
In the course of the debates, a
number of instances of actual or
possible joint NGO activities were
discussed. Some examples are appended below :
(1) The preparations for the Stockholm
Conference
stimulated
a
wholly new interest in national problems of the environment simply
because the Secretariat, in a series
of regional meetings, encouraged
nations to examine their own record. The effectiveness of this action suggests that national NGOs
might consider organizing public
hearings on particular issues, monitoring the effects of public environmental policies, publishing reports which make use of their highest expertise and possibly produce, as independent citizens, periodic « state of the environment»
reports which exercise pressure on
both governments and citizen bodies by their accuracy and weight.
(ii)
At
the
international
level,
world experts might be invited by
the
NGOs' to present an annual
« state of the planet » message.
(iii) Governments vary greatly in
responsiveness to the need for international
environmental
action.
If, however, a group of governments were to agree to publish
comparable « statement of environmental impact » on their major
projects, conduct public international hearings on disputed environmental issues and submit possible
disputes or damage to impartial
arbitration, they could set new patterns of world behavior. National
groups of NGOs should explore
the possibility of persuading their
own governments to take such exemplary action.
(iv) Another area in which particular governments could give a
lead is that of the human settlements and housing. The fund for
human
settlements
proposed
at
Stockholm has not so far received
the support of any major donor.
Yet urban settlements in the dev-
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
33
eloping world make up by far the
most anti-human of contemporary
environments, A group of resolute
governments could be encouraged
to give their support to such a fund
and to explore together the implications of purposive planning for
future settlements.
(v) Any such action would immediately confront the issue of planning for effective land use. Since
this issue is also involved in almost
every
aspect
of
environmental
action — the preservation of special natural areas, protection of air
and water sheds, the reservation of
land for recreation — NGOs are
urged to bring the need for effective land use policies to the center
of their activity.
(vi) Task forces of the highest
competence and drawn from all
relevant fields are a particular
contribution NGOs can make to
this type of study. They can give
a lead in other critical areas, for
instance: new studies in cost/benefit analysis which modify the
concept of a Gross National Product of goods and services by subtracting the « bads » and disservices; pioneering inquiries into means
of taxation — for instance, of water use or motor transport — which
at once conserve resources, reduce
excessive consumption and . provide funds for environmental im-
porvement : research by NGOs
with medical competence into the
emerging evidence of links between disease and environment, for
instance, the relation between certain types of cancer and particular
geographical areas; assistance to
the study of appropriate non-pollutive technologies which can enable developing countries to modernize their economies and life
quality in terms of knowledge and
amenity while avoiding the horrendus
environmental
mistakes
of primitive industrial man and
preserving that sense of oneness
with nature and respect for the
total environment movingly illustrated at this Conference by Mr.
Thomas Banyacya of the Hopi
Nation.
Annexe two
In view of the immediacy of the
issues posed by the maritime conferences likely to be held in 1973,
a number of specific resolutions
have been put forward by members of the working groups on
science
and
technology
:
Resolution I
We strongly support the 10 year
moratorium on whales called for.
in Stockholm and deplore the actions
taken
by
the
I.W.C.
Authority for all whale species
should be brought under a new
international protective body rep-
resenting the broad world public
interest.
All small whale species should be
brought under the protection of
this body.
A private assesment of whale stocks
should be undertaken by scientists
not involved in the whaling industry.
Resolution 2
All efforts should be made to rescind the new Convention for the
Conservation of Antarctic Seals
and all exploitation of Antarctic
seals prevented until the ecological
effect of such exploitation is determined.
Resolution 3
We recommend to the Law of the
Sea Conference that there be a
cessation of all dumping of wastes
in the ocean.
Resolution 4
We recommend that a new ocean
regime should be instituted with
responsibility for the rational management of the resources of the
sea and sea bed and which will
take into consideration the effect
of these activities on the marine
ecosystem.
Resolution 5
We recommend that further offshore drilling for commercial purpores should be deferred until we
have time to assess the effect of
that already undertaken.
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34
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
Maurice Strong's
remarks to New York NGOs
The spirit of Stockholm is indeed still
very much alive, with the initiative
you have taken to convene this meeting, and the meeting already held in
Geneva. This display of your continuing interest, commitment and enthusiasm will be a source of inspiration,
support and encouragement to all who
now face the task at the General Assembly of translating the Stockholm
recommendations
into
a
durable
framework for the kind of continued
action that Stockholm pointed to and
for which you here are assembled.
« When man rises »
For
Stockholm
demonstrated
the
tremendous energy that can be released by a combination of the governmental approach and the representatives of the same people of the world
— (because, after all, they are all
the same people — the representatives of governments and those who
are represented through other channels are really representing the same
constituency of planet earth) — and
the fusion of these official representatives and the official action we were
taking at Stockholm with the tremendous display of citizen-interest in the
form of the nongovernmental and
citizens' groups gathered at Stockholm
created, I think, one of those rare and
unique occasions when man rises
above his petty divisions and sees the
larger vision of what can indeed be
accomplished and what can be hoped
for when we do consecrate ourselves
around our larger common purposes
and set out in a direction which harnesses our commitment to those common purposes. I want to record here
that the people in this room and the
organizations they represent, made a
contribution that was second to none
at Stockholm. Without your contribution, without the tremendous display
of citizen interest which you demonstrated and you made possible, the
results of Stockholm simply would not
have happened.
36
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
And this applies to the follows-up of
Stockholm, to the long-term task of
transmitting the enthusiasm, the spirit
and the recommendations of Stockholm into the kind of co-operative
framework in which men can work
together to achieve the kind of benefits which our high-technology civilization makes possible and avoiding
the kind of hazards which it also can
lead to.
This is the purpose for which you
are gathered here together today just
preceding the meetings of governments at the official level which will
take place in this house this afternoon
when ECOSOC will first consider this
item and on Thursday when the Second Committee of the General Assembly will begin its consideration
of the report of Stockholm.
Continuity commitment
co-operation
So, my congratulations to you and my
sincere thanks for all you did to make
Stockholm itself a success and for
all you are now doing to demonstrate
the continuity of the spirit of Stockholm, and your continued commitment to work together amongst yourselves and with the representatives of
governments to make the dream of
Stockholm a reality. I think you know
that when I sit in a group like this, I
feel very much among friends, because I have spent a lot longer in the
NGO community than 1 have ever
spent in the governmental community,
so I am always tempted to spend more
time with you, and I have to keep
reminding myself that I am really
no longer entitled to a voice in your
proceedings — 1 come here as a
representative of the United Nations
and if I occasionally feel moved to
speak as one of you and maybe even
put in my two-cents' worth of how I
think you should move, it is a return
to my natural instincts to operate as
one of you, rather than an attempt on
the part of my official self to give you
advice in that capacity. 1 wouldn't
purport to do that; this is your meeting; for me it is an honour and a privilege to have this opportunity of participating in its opening, and, in doing
so, I would like very briefly, Mr.
Chairman, just to five you a report
on where we stand, how I see the
importance of the work for which
you are gathered here.
Identify your resources
Since Stockholm, we have been working with a very much smaller secretariat translating the recommendations of
Stockholm into more detailed programme proposals that the governing body of the new organization,
when it is set up, can deal with. We
have taken the Stockholm recommendations and tried to put them together in 16 logical groupings. In the
report of the Geneva meeting you
have a copy of this. It is useful in
terms of identifying the major areas
into which our activities will divide
as we attempt to translate the specific
recommendations
of
Stockholm
—
(many of them are cast in rather general policy terms) — as we attempt to
translate
them
into
fully-elaborated
action proposals that governments,
international
organizations
and
the
non-governmental
community
can
actually pick up and implement. In
dealing with this, I hope you will find
it useful to identify your own resources and some of your own approaches
with these clusters of recommandations
that we have set out in the paper that
you have.
Committing programmes
to the co-operative
approach
We have had very, very encouraging
evidence since Stockholm of the degree to which the whole United Nations
family of agencies is rallying around,
committing their programmes to the
kind of co-operative approach that
Stockholm envisaged. 1 think some of
you may know that shortly after Stockholm there vvas an extremely important meeting of the specialized agencies of the United Nations with representatives of government in Geneva
— the CPC/ACC meeting, at which
we received the strongest possible endorsement of the Stockholm proposals
as the basis for continuing co-operation within the UN system. So I
am encouraged to feel that just as
Stockholm was the product of a total
UN effort, the programme of work
that will result hopefully from the
action taken by this General Assembly will represent a real example of
what the UN can accomplish on a
continuing basis through the co-operative relationship of all of its component parts.
Permanent machinery
Now, similarly, should the General
Assembly act on the Stockholm recommendations and establish a governing council for environmental programmes, a secretariat to service that
governing council and implement its
decisions, and an environmental fund
and a co-ordinating board within the
ACC structure, we will have the permanent machinery which will enable
us to relate ourselves to the concerns
and activities you will be considering
in your meetings here. Now, I would
like to suggest that while no one can
anticipate what decisions governments
will make, my strong advice to the new .
secretariat would be that, in establishing its staffing, it create at the
Director level an office which will
include as a significant part of its responsibilities the relationship with the
non-governmental
community,
and
that that relationship will indeed extend through all of the programme
areas. Also, that the people responsible for the elaboration and development of the programme, based on the
Stockholm
recommendations,
will
similarly have direct and substantive
links with those members of the nongovernmental community that represent a special interest and a special resource in each of the particular areas
that we will be dealing with in the programme field.
Tap source of
your strength
As you know, there are different types
of relationships that can be envisaged
between the non-governmental community and the new environmental
secretariat and its governing body : a
very, very important one {which we
witnessed at Stockholm) is that the
non-governmental
organizations
represent a significant resource. Mr, Leet,
in his opening remarks, indicated the
tremendous variety of approaches,
kinds of organizations and of resources. Nothing should detract from that
variety which obviously is the source
of your strength, certainly the source
of some of your problems too, but
inherently the source of your strength.
And these resources, in the scientific
community particularly, but also in
those non-governmental organizations
concerned with community action and
with public education, all of these
represent resources at the point at
which new programmes, new activities,
new initiatives are being considered,
and my hope is that the non-governmental community will be so organized
as to be able to become a source of
ideas and initiatives at the stage when
these are being considered for presentation to the governing body, just as
happened in Stockholm itself.
Capability for
implementation
Secondly, the NGO's represent a great
capability for implementation. When
decisions are made to carry out particular programmes, many of them
will depend on complementary or
supporting action on the part of
NGO's. Again, this is particularly true
of certain kinds of NGO's, organizations which represent an important
scientific or technical capability, or
NGO's which represent an educational
capacity — there are a whole variety
of NGO's here and we are very anxious to do an even better job than
we have done of identifying this capability. The more we know about it,
the more we know how to get to it,
the more we can be helped to identify
and to use it, the more likely it is to
form part of the total resource-base
that we are going to need to draw on.
Direct linkage
with citizens
Now, also very, very important is the
direct linkage which you provide with
citizens and with the whole deeper,
longer-term task of creating more public awareness. I think Stockholm
provided dramatic evidence of the
degree to which the non-governmental
community does represent public concern and public awareness, and can
stimulate public concern and public
awareness on a long-term basis. Stockholm showed us new possibilities in the
creation of a dynamic relationship
between the non-governmental organizations on the one hand and the official secretariat and governments on the
other. While we fumbled around to
some extent, that miraculous operation of woman power, and that powerful team of Dr. Mead and Lady Jackson, and all those who rallied around
at Stockholm, created out of chaos
one of the most magnificent examples
I have ever seen of a concerted direction of this fantastic array of energy
and Interest concentrated on the basic
problems of developing a future for
planet earth, a future that invokes the
hopes, the concerns, and the resources of the whole human family. Indeed, it was one of the great thrills of
Stockholm, and how to institutionalize it is one of our great tasks. Let me
say only that it is going to require new
dimensions of co-operation amongst
non-governmental organizations themselves, as well as new dimensions of
co-operation between the non-governmental community and the secretariat
and governments.
Institutionalize imputs
and feedback
We need to develop and to some extent institutionalize — but not overinstitutionalize — this whole cycle of
inputs and feedback systems that have
got to form the basis of our relationship,
Nobody wants to make an input into
the process of elaborating a programme to deal with a particular issue and
then completely lose sight of it. We
have got to have a basis for telling
our constituency what is happening
with their main ideas, what we are doing
about the concerns that they have helped us to register, how effective are
some of the programmes that we are
mounting to address to these concerns,
and 1 believe that we have got to really
apply the ecological approach to management. The environment issue has
disclosed to us the real nature of the
world in which we exist, on which we
have our impact and which, in turn,
determines our future.
The real world is a
complicated system
of cause and effect
The real nature of that world is that
it is a complicated system of cause and
effect relationships and, in our approach to that world, we have got to
develop a means of utilizing all man's
energies and man's institutions as part
of the network of response; a network
that does not have to reduce every organization to a stultifying sameness;
one that utilizes the great variety that
exists of institutions and institutional
approaches, but which links these as
part of a network in which each can
identify the area in which it makes its
special contribution, identify it as part
of the total approach, where its particular expertise can be recognized by
the rest of the community, where
there is no requirement of sameness
but requirement for communication,
a requirement for acknowledgment of
the special role that each can play.
That kind of approach within the nongovernmental
community,
no
less
than within government itself, is the
key to our success in managing the
basic problems that environment concerns us with.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
37
The network approach
to energy, expertise
and insight
I have a deep conviction that governments, in their response, and the United Nations, in its response, must
also develop this network approach
using existing centres of energy and
expertise and insight, not creating new
machinery that is unnecessary — using
the tremendous resources of the United Nations system itself, tying them
into the resources that exist in national
governments, where most of the expertise really lies, linking them together with the networks that you will
be creating in the non-governmental
community as part of a total human
approach, using all the human insights,
all the human institutions, not some
new pie-in-the-sky super organization.
We have got the ingredients for success here, our task is to knit them
together so this common approach
can be given the linkages and given
the framework that permits us to work
together effectively.
Individual resource
centres and instruments
to co-ordination
Here, of course, is the problem always
of the balance between centralization
and decentralization — I am sure you
are going to find that balance in a way
which will help us to relate to you
- more effectively and, at the same
time, help you to preserve the strengths
which are inherent to the diversity
which you represent. We cannot have
exclusive relationships : you wouldn't
want us to have exclusive relationships
— nothing you create should in any
way detract from the direct relationships which we can have with each of
you as individual resource centres —
but surely the creation by the nongovernmental
community
of
some
instruments to further its own co-ordination, to further the co-operation
both in planning and in programming
that you will be considering for yourselves, will also have an important impact on us and make it easier for us
to relate our activities to yours and to
respond to initiatives that may originate in the non-governmental community, and at the same time to perhaps
hope that your response to our needs
will also be a better one.
Avoid any sense
of complacency
Now, I would simply like to terminate
these remarks with a plea that we
avoid any sense of complacency :it is
very, very nice to congratulate ourselves on our achievement at Stockholm — it was an achievement, it was
a thrill, but whether it will be a durable achievement really depends on
38
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
what happens now, on what happens in
this General Assembly in these next
several weeks, on what happens in this
meeting in these next two or three
days : the extent to which you show,
in the decisions which you take here,
that you mean business, that the spirit
of Stockholm was no flash in the pan,
that the momentum of Stockholm is
a growing momentum that is going
to catch up more and more and more
people. Believe me, we have not « got
it made » by any means at all. There
is a tremendous danger still that the
concern many of us feel has not yet
reached into the community, the larger community of people, where it is
still felt only as a very vague and
sometimes amorphous response to a
problem that they have only begun to
perceive, and I think that we really
have to see as one of our principal
tasks not only the organization of our-
selves for a co-opeative action on the
recommendations of Stockholm, but
a concerted attempt to enlarge the constituency of the concerned, a concerted attempt to help support the development
of
more
citizens'
action
groups, to develop exemplary programmes,
community-level
information programmes, helping people to
become more aware of the issues that
they have to confront and deal with in
their own communities.
More centres
of excellence
We have to avoid the risk, as much
as possible, of overlapping, of duplicating, of mis-using the very scarce
resources that are available, because
these activities are coming at a time
when it is not easy to command resources, and where, in order to command
PHOTO UNESCO/David Davies
I am enormously pleased to have this
must
admit
that
recent
years
Bradford Morse's
statement
opportunity to spend a few minutes
with you as you begin what I consider
to be three days of very important
discussion.
I am absolutely convinced that the success of any program for the improvement of the human condition depends
to a critical degree on the involvement of people — the people you represent — and 1 am pleased by the
initiative which you are taking in arranging these meetings to discuss how
non-governmental
organisations
can
contribute to the environmental effort.
The contributions of NGOs to the
work of the United Nations can be
seen in scores of endeavors from providing for the peaceful use of outerspace, to development of the seabeds.
Not only are "NGOs a source of education to the world, but they bring to the
United Nations the views of peoples
and groups throughout the world and
a steady stream of expert advice, information
and
operative
assistance.
And yet, despite the establishment of
a framework for the mutual exchange '
of influence and information between
NGOs and the United Nations family,
and the hard work of NGOs and those
responsible for NGO relations, we
resources, we have to demonstrate
our ability to exercise very highest
levels of stewardship over these resources. And our perspectives must be large, but these perspectives must not
lead us — as institutions, whether we
be governmental or otherwise — into
trying to stake large claims very loosely and superficially over vast amounts of territory and not be able to
work those claims effectively. We
have to realize that out of these larger
perspectives that the environmental
issue gives us, each of us has our very
particular tasks to perform and what
we really need is not just more institutional centres of superficial coverage
of
large,
unworked
territory,
but
• rather, more centres of excellence,
more organizations to the rest, and
can make them centres in this network of institutions that we require.
have
witnessed a weakening of this working
relationship.
Many NGOs, frustrated by many factors, including, upon occasion, an apparent lack of interest, and sometimes
even hosility, toward their participation in the UN system, are questioning whether their efforts are worthwhile. Others, perhaps more affirmatively, are seeking ways to clarify and
codify the rights and responsibilities
of NGOs.
At the same time, some, members
and organs of the United Nations are
questioning the interest and effectiveness of NGOs in furthering the principles and activities of the UN and of
the contributions which NGOs can
make to their particular needs and
interests.
The resurgency of interest in developing NGO-UN relations apparent at
Stockholm, however, for which you
and your colleagues were particularly
responsible, comes at a time when the
UN Secretariat is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of
NGOs and is interested in developing
new and more effective relationships
with them. A number of studies are
being undertaken to review and revitalize
NGO-UN
relations.
Currently,
the ECOSOC secretariat, in conjunction with the United Nations Development Program, is developing a
program to study ways to improve
cooperation between NGOs and resident representatives. This study, together with that being undertaken by
the Economic and Social Council on
the contributions of NGOs to the
Second Development Decade should
lead to concrete recommendations on
improving relations between NGOs
and
the
UN
family.
Additionally,
new channels of communication are
being opened. NGOs located in Geneva and New York have worked closely together in co-ordinating these
meetings, and this communication
and co-operation between the two
groups should be continued and intensified. Greater contact is being made
— Maurice Strong
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
39
between the members of the UN family and members of voluntary organizations. UNDP has held a meeting
with the American Council of Voluntary Agencies to discuss their country
programmes, and a small meeting will
be sponsored by the Centre for Economic and Social Information in December to discuss the role of NGOs in
mobilizing public opinion and political
will.
I have been requested by the Secretary-General to serve as a direct contact with NGOs and to co-ordinate
relations with them. To this end, I
have brought together officials in the
Secretariat who work with NGOs for
a continuing exchange of information
and co-ordination of our various efforts. I also plan to increase the dialogue between NGOs and the Secretariat. I hope that this underlines the
awareness on the 38th floor of the
need to improve relations between
the UN and non-governmental organisations, and a determination to look
for new ways in which these relationships can be made more effective and
viable.
While not in a position to make any
final decisions, I firmly believe that
you can, in these meetings, contribute
substantially to increasing understanding of the essential part which nongovernmental organisations can and
must play in the environmental area
and in delineating the various forms
which this participation might take.
The enthusiasm which has been generated by the plethora of issues concerning the environment provide all
of us with a unique opportunity to
examine closely the complexity of
UN-NGO relations. I hope that your
discussions can raise some concrete
suggestions on what needs to be done
to
effectuate
these
goals.
As you begin your discussion of how
to give vitality to the Stockholm resolutions, how to mobilize public opinion, and how to organize, I would like
to make a few suggestions which you
may
want
to
think
about.
Relationships are valueless, unless
40
their objectives are defined. I strongly urge all of you to first determine
the specific, practical goals your o r ganisations wish to achieve. Some of
the organisations you represent are
highly
technical,
professional
groups,
which can contribute substantively to
the
development
and
implementation
of
environmental
programmes.
Others
are in the unique position of being able
. to stimulate the necessary public opinion in both developed and developing
countries
through
which
environmental programmes can be adopted and
carried out. You have before you
some
109
recommendations
adopted
at Stockholm, which, I understand,
have been organized under 16 specific categories. What concrete results
do you wish to achieve in each area ?
Only when you clearly define our objectives can you logically determine
the best means by which they can be
accomplished. Only then can you determine the best possible internal and
external relationships to achieve these
goals. Needless to say, these relationships must be reciprocal, and you
should take into account not only the
objectives of your own organisations,
but also those of the United Nations
system.
Many
environmental
programs
will
have to be carried out on a regional
and local basis, and it is essential,
therefore, that there be full participation by those directly affected. In
addition, it is often your national organisations that can be most constructive in encouraging the adoption and
implementation of programmes and
initiatives.
Difficulty
has sometimes
arisen in ensuring that the national
affiliates of international non-governmental organisations are kept informed
on the ways in which they can be most
effective in relation to UN programmes, and in keeping the UN advised
of national and local activities of
NGOs. Consideration must be given
to how closer relations among international NGOs, national NGOs and
the
UN
can
be
established.
Many of you are national organisat-
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES. 1973
ions, but you have counterparts in
many countries throughout the world
— other national organisations which
perform the same functions in Japan,
Sweden and the like. There is no
reason why on a formal or informal
basis you cannot communicate with
other national groups involved in conservation,
oceanography
or
whathave-you, in order to advise them of
your activities and to encourage them
to influence their governments in
certain directions. There is no excuse
for people in the United States or the
United Kingdom not to know what
is being done in the environmental
area in Japan or France, or vise versa.
There is no reason why national environmental groups should not communicate
in
each
other.
The concerns we share cover a broad
range of subjects from marine pollution to Earthwatch to human settlements, and they involve a vast number
of NGOs of varying interests and capabilities. What can be done within the
UN and what can be done by and
between NGOs to coordinate activities at all levels, to ensure continued
co-operation between your organisations and between your organisations
and the UN, and to maintain a constant flow of information in all directions ? Co-ordination and co-operation
is vital to the achievement of an effective
and
efficient
programme.
What can you do now ? Many areas
for action already exist. 1974 has been
designated
World
Population
Year
and a World Population Conference
is planned. Next year there will be a
Conference on the Law of the Seas,
which includes very real and important
environmental questions. In Geneva
an Ad Hoc Committee was established
to consider what actions might be taken
by NGOs in relation to the Law of
the Seas Conference. Perhaps a similar group might be set up here to
co-ordinate with the Geneva group.
Similar consideration should be given
to what might be done in the population area. There is, however, no reason
to wait until the proposed Environmental Secretariat is approved by the Geneneral Assembly. Instead, you should
begin work now on matters which are
already being considered by the United Nations, for it is imperative that
your involvement in UN activities
be constant, well-informed and constructive.
These are but a few points, but I hope
they might be of use. In closing t
would reiterate the importance of the
challenge and the opportunities which
lie before us. Now is the time, with a
new organisation in the making, a new
dynamic
personality
in
Maurice
Strong, and a new interest in existing
United
Nations
departments
and
agencies to develop a more valuable
set of relations which can contribute
mightily to the improvement of the
quality of life.
Here it is.
The fourteenth
edition of the
Yearbook
of
International
Associations.
The Yearbook is the only complete reference booK
on international organization available. It gives
the vital statistics — name, address, principal
The
Yearbook
is
printed
in
English,
but
users'
guides
in
French,
English,
Spanish,
German,
Russian,
Arabic
and
Chinese
make it accessible to readers of all nations.
Use is further facilitated by French title and keyword indexes. (Other indexes are arranged by name
of the organization, classified interest, geogra-
For further information, contact the Union of International Associations, 1, rue aux Laines, 1000 Brussels,
Belgium,
officers, aims, and more — of over 4000 international organizations. It's the only reference book
on international associations officially endorsed
by the United Nations; a book that is the principal
reference source to obtain more international congresses for the USA, according to Richard Henry
of the United States Travel Office.
phical location, keyword or acronym and subject/
keyword.)
So if you've been looking for a
guide that gives
the address of the International Midwives Union
— here it is.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
Price 32 dollars.
41
The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm
recently was most assuredly run by the participating governments. But while
governments alone had the right to vote in the Conference, they did not conduct
their deliberations in splendid isolation. The corridors and galleries of the three
buildings in which the Conference was held were filled with NGO representatives.
In fact, no previous Unitad Nations conference had ever attracted so many NGO
representatives.
The NGO community had more than large numbers to give it strength. The NGO
community had already done much to awaken the world to the environmental crisis
confronting it, and probably deserved much of the credit for the fact that there
was a Stockholm Conference in the first place. Moreover, the NGO Community
possessed a large body of scientific information documenting the nature and the
magnitude of the environmental problems included on the agenda of the Conference.
Unfettered by the same political restraints under which the governmental delegations
necessarily had to operate, the NGO representatives would seem to have been in
an excellent position to have made far-reaching proposals for the solution of the
environmental problems under consideration and to have played a leading role in
the Conference proceedings generally.
What did the NGO's do in Stockholm ? A major part of the activities in which the
NGO's engaged themselves took place apart from the official Conference proceedings. Convinced that no amount of persuasion or pressure could be expected
to induce the United Nations Conference to take the far-reaching steps required
to solve the world's environmental problems, some NGO's organized alternative
conferences (sometimes referred to as counter conferences) of their own. These
alternative conferences were intended to provide a forum where issues too sensitive
to have been placed on the United Nations agenda could be thoroughly discussed,
bold solutions proposed to the various environmental problems considered, and
ideas exchanged as to how NGO's could help to bring about the fundamental socioeconomic changes they believed necessary to implement those solutions. .
Since the alternative conferences organized by the NGO's were not intended to
have any impact on the United Nations Conference itself, it is rather difficult to
judge how successful they were. There is no question that a number of controversial
topics excluded from the agenda of the official Conference did come under critical
scrutiny in the alternative conferences. Given the ideological ferver with which
some of the participants approached these topics, however, there is some question
as to how seriously some of the possible solutions to these environmental problems
were considered. It is impossible to determine at this early date whether the alternative conferences had any effect on the subsequent actions of the participating
NGO's. But if the performance of the NGO's involved in the alternative confer-
42
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
« The problem with
any government conference
is that it is run by
the governments »
Lady Barbara Ward Jackson
ences in Stockholm was indicative of their future behavior, the prospects for
these NGO's working together cooperatively can only be described as bleak.
Panel discussions among representatives of different NGO's were not only heated,
but occasionally resulted in mini coups d'etat where changes in size and composition of the panel were forced by members of the audience. In the pages of
the Stockholm Conference Eco, a special paper jointly produced during the two
weeks of the United Nations Conference by The Ecologist and the Friends of the
Earth, one culd read a daily account of the disagreements and dispues then
aaging among the NGO's along with the paper's own acerbic comments on the
failings
of
the
different
alternative
conferences
and
their
participants.
While the Stockholm Conference Eco may not have been a model of accurate,
dispassionate journalism, it was undoubtedly the single most widely read newspaper
among those people who were in Stockholm for the Conference. This lively paper
was deposited (free of charge) in the mail boxes of every government delegate and
every NGO representative early each morning of the Conference. As the Eco was
the only generally available source of information about what was happening in each
of the six committees and the plenary sessions of the United Nations Conference
as well as the behind-the-scenes politics associated with them and the activities taking
place in the various alternative conferences, it obviously served a useful function.
The publication of the Eco may well have been the single most effective thing any
any of the NGO's did in Stockholm to reach the Conference delegates with their
ecological views. The Eco probably could have capitalized on its strategic role as
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
43
the central purveyer of information to influence the thinking and actions of the
governmental delegations even more effectively if it had not interlaced its reporting
with such blatant bias and if it had not striven for quite so much sensationalism.
It is difficult to avoid concluding that many delegates came to disregard the Eco
precisely because of the paper's heavy-handed attempt to use its news reporting as
a means of influencing the readers' views and of participating in the internecine
conflicts raging among the NGO's.
Of all the activities in which the NGO representatives were engaged in Stockholm,
the one which probably occupied most of their time and attention was the passive
observation of the Conference proceedings. The United Nations Conference Secretariat arranged to have a briefing session for the NGO's at 9 : 00 a.m. daily, These
briefing sessions were indeed informative and they attracted an extraordinarily large
attendance. In fact, as the daily activities of the NGO representatives settled into a
regular pattern, these briefing sessions came to be used by the NGO's as the occasion
for making all announcements of general interest to the NGO community. For
many of the NGO representatives the rest of the day following the morning briefing
session was devoted entirely to attending one or more of the committee or plenary
sessions of the UN Conference.
Obviously those NGO representatives who contented themselves with attending the
Secretariat briefings and observing the formal Conference proceedings were not
striving to have any direct impact on the decisions' reached in Stockholm. Yet the
Stockholm Conference did offer the NGO's a unique opportunity to present their
views to the governments attending (114 governments sent delegations to the Conference), and this opportunity was not entirely unused. A number of NGO's individually and collectively did speak before the plenary sessions of the Conference.
Margaret Mead delivered a statement of the NGO's to the plenary session which
went beyond merely pledging support for any decisions the Conference might reach
and made concrete proposals for action. Unfortunately, her statement could not be
presented as reflecting the official views of the NGO's represented in Stockholm and
with few exceptions was signed by the NGO representatives only as individuals. The
fact is that the NGO representatives were no better off than the members of the
governmental delegations with respect to their freedom to make any kind of a commitment or decisions which had not been authorized beforehand by their governing
bodies.
The limited freedom of maneuver which most NGO representatives were allowed
also hampered their attempts to draft joint declarations and petitions in Stockholm.
For example, an Environmental Manifesto setting forth « eleven points for survival »
was signed by a large number of NGO representatives and presented to the UN
44
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
Environmental Conference by Barbara Ward, but the NGO representatives who
signed the Manifesto did so in their individual capacities only. The care which was
taken in presenting the Environmental Manifesto to the UN Conference to make
clear that the organizational affiliations of the signers were listed « for identification
only > could not help but have weakened the impact of the document.
In order to facilitate more effective NGO participation in the future work of the
proposed UN Environmental Secretariat the NGO representatives attending the
Stockholm Conference began meeting among themselves to discuss how they might
increase their cooperation and effectiveness. By and large these NGO meetings
were exercises in futility. Representatives of scientific and professional NGO's tended
to see things differently from those of long-standing conservation oriented NGO's,
while the representatives of citizen action type NGO's tended to see things still
another way. Disagreements arising from these differences among the NGO's were
compounded by such things as the industrial or non-industrial status of the NGO
representatives' home countries and the languages used by the participants in the
NGO meetings (simultaneous translation services were not available in the NGO
meetings). When it came time to consider the establishment of some sort of NGO
liaison committee for environmental affairs it became evident that few were willing
to provide much financial support for this, and fewer still were willing to grant
any such coordinating organization the right to speak or act in.the name of all
NGO's without the unanimous approval of the member NGO's beforehand. As few
if any of the NGO representatives attending these meetings were authorized to
commit their organizations to the establishment of any kind of coordinating machinery anyway, the matter was deferred for further consideration to a future NGO conference.
The Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment was an ambitious first
attempt to come to grips with environmental problems on a global level. It is not
surprising therefore that the results achieved by both the governments and the NGO's
in Stockholm were less dramatic and concrete than had been hoped by many. The
level of disappointment felt by people concerned with the state of the global environment may have been greater for the results achieved by the NGO's than those
achieved by the governments because of the many advantages NGO representatives
would seem to have over instructed governmental delegates. It is difficult to avoid
profound discouragement when those people in world society who should be in the
best position to criticize governments for their inaction and to spur them on toward efforts at problem-solving seem themselves to suffer from the same syndrome
of petty jealousies and vested interests which has traditionally afflicted the intergovernmental sector of world society.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS. 1 9 7 3
45
a statement of the
Union of International Associations
to the Preparatory Committee
for the United Nations Conference
on the Human Environment,
Stockholm, 1972.
1. New threats to the human environment will be identified each
year as the global civilization becomes increasingly more complex.
2. It is characteristic of multi-disciplinary human environment
problems that it is difficult to predict what domain such new
threats will arise in, and therefore to decide in advance which
agency should be responsible for any action. Problems are turned
Into crises if adequate responses cannot be rapidly organized.
« What finally makes all of our crises still more dangerous is that
they are now coming on top of each other. Most administrations
are not prepared to deal with multiple crises, a crisis of crises,
at one time. Every problem may escalate because those involved
no
longer
have
time
to
think
straight.
»
(John R. Platt. « What we must do ». Science, November, 1969)
3. In order to equip itself to respond to complex unpredictable
crises, society needs to make full use of all the organizational
resources at its disposal and willing to contribute in some way.
4. Specific recognition therefore needs to be given to the function
of national and international non-governmental bodies and pressures groups as » look-out > institutions which, through their
specialized interest and sensitivity :
— identify new threats to the human environment at an early
stage;
— mobilize support to draw public attention to the nature of
each new threat;
— encourage governments to take legislative action to counteract the threats to the environment;
— help to generate the political will without which governments
cannot act;
— support government agencies by providing a pool of experts
to monitor the problems and steps toward its solution, and to
advise on legislation;
— supply a non-political forum in which the problem can be
discussed before it is handled between governments in a political
setting,
5. These are all aspects of the democratic process which are
relevant to the rapid solution of human environment problems.
The speed and effectiveness with which society can respond to
crises is highly dependent on the effectiveness of the information
system. An exclusive information system restricted or oriented
toward the current responsibilities and interests of a limited sector
of society, even if highly significant, as in the case of inter-
46
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
governmental social and political communication mechanisme
to restructure itself to carry out the functions identified in point
4 above, with respect to new problems.
— does not facilitate the ability of government to interact with
the non-governmental sector to obtain advice on and support for
action in response to human environment problems.
— encourages non-governmental groups to set up their own
independent communications networks and information centers,
leading naturally to a dissipation of effort and competition for
limited resources, lack of coordination and reduction of overall
effectiveness.
6. A further aspect of the human environment problem is the
increasing alienation of the individual in the urban environment,
who is faced with the maze of « faceless » organizations perceived
as
increasingly
invading
his
privacy.
The creation of exclusive governmental information systems
which ignore the need of the individual and his groups to be able
to use an information system to make and maintain contacts to
further his interests, serves in many ways clearly to :
— aggravate the problem of alienation
— increase the problem of the governments to create the « political will to change >;
— increase the « credibility gap » and suspicion inherent in individual perception of distant government programmes.
7. To prepare for unpredictable problems, the United Nations
Conference on the Human Environment in considering the communications and information processing system which would
be most appropriate for the coming decade, should study :
a. Means of guaranteeing the interaction between governmental
and non-governmental users through the system — even when
a given problem recognized by a non-governmental body is not
currently recognized by a government or governmental agency.
b. Means of guaranteeing the interaction between non-governmental users through the system (independently of a governmental agency's current judgement of the value of a particular interaction) in order that non-government bodies should be able to
initiate rapidly new links and patterns of interaction themselves
in response to any new problem, or in response to a call for
support by a governmental agency.
c. Means of guaranteeing the interaction between individuals
through the system so that active individuals or bodies, anxious
to contribute significantly, can detect (a)bodies or programmes
(governmental) or non-governmental) in which they can participate. (b) problem areas (or which individuals or bodies with
matching interests could group together and create some new
body to further their interest, (c) individuals interested in working
together on a particular problem area.
d. Means of guaranteeing that when the connection between
apparently unrelated problem areas is discovered, this link is
incorporated into the information system, so that users interested in one problem area will be automatically exposed to the
complete list of problems known to be related to the one which
primarily interests them.
e. Means of decentralizing the information system to provide
a network of input and output centers at regional, national, and
city level to insure that funds for the system can be sought at
the level at which they will be most frequently spent, whilst at
the same time guaranteeing the circulation of information vertically to the regional and international level, and horizontally
to other bodies in other areas.
8. The increasing multidisciplinary interest in the human environment counterbalances many of the excesses of economic
development — which was narrowly conceived as the major
key to world problems. The Human Environment Conference
will be counterproductive to the extent that human environment
programmes are, in their turn, narrowly conceived as the panacea, which, it is hoped, would give a new lease on life to economic development programmes. The as — yet ill defined social
organizational and problem context of governmental human
environment concerns could, if ignored, undermine effective
response on environmental issues — as happened with respect
to development issues.
Human environment problems need to be seen as intimately
related to social development, which itself needs to be reconceptualized as distinct from its current definition as the development of human resources for the benefit of economic development.
9. In order to improve communication and action throughout
the network of governmental and non-governmental agencies
with respect to multidisciplinary human environment problems,
the Conference could consider the feasibility of creating the
Office of « Human Environment Ombudsman ». This Office
would act as an independent international clearing house for
comments from all sources on human environment problems
(or administrative circumstances preventing their rapid solution), particulary those arising from the uncoordinated interaction of different agency programmes. Such an Office would
be responsible for informing agencies and governments of
aspects of agency programme content or procedures likely to
have unwelcome side-effects which could neither be detected
by the disciplines represented within the agency nor be considered relevant in terms of the agency's mandate.
The existence of such an Office could guarantee that :
a. there would be an open line of communication to all bodies
likely to encounter or identify new human environment problems
(The Office could function as "a focal point within the international organizational network with which the many young
environment activist groups could interact and to which they
could feed information);
b. emerging and previously identified problems are rapidly registered and drawn to the attention of the most relevant agencies;
c. pollution and conservation issues do not pre-empt attention
from the broader human environment issues. The perspective
required should retrieve social development from its current
obfuscation
by
economic
development
priorities.
The precise limits of the responsibility of the Human Environment Ombudsman would need to be defined to fill any gap
between conservation agencies, human rights commissions, and
development-oriented agencies. The Office could in fact act
as a referral centre for queries outside its mandate, particulary
if its existance was widely known as a result of adequate public
information programmes.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
47
I°
Repartition Géographique des
congrès organisés en 1971, par
les organisations internationales.
Geographical
distribution
of
congresses organized in 1 9 71 ,
by
international
organizations.
AFRICA
ALGERIA
Algiers
BURUNDI
Bujumbura
CAMEROON
Yaounde
CANARIES (ISLAND)
Puerto de la Cruz
C AFRICAN REP
Bangui
CONGO (Rep.)
Brazzaville
CONGO (Dem. Rep.)
Kinshasa
DAHOMEY
ETHIOPIA
Addis-Ababa
GABON
Libreville
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
8
1
GAMBIA
Bathurst
GHANA
Accra
IVORY COAST
Abidjan
KENYA
Nairobi
MADAGASCAR
Tananarive
MALAWI
Blantyre
MOROCCO
Rabat
Casablanca
BAHAMAS
Nassau
BRAZIL
Rio de Janeiro
Sao Paulo
CANADA
Banff
Calgary
Edmonton
Halifax
Hamilton
Montreal
Ottawa
7
SOMALIA
Mogadishu
SOUTH AFRICA
Cape Town
Pretoria
4
SUDAN
7
Khartoum
TANZANIA
Dar-es-Salaam
Moshi
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
TUNISIA
1
2
3
1
NIGERIA
Lagos
SENEGAL
2
Dakar
1
ARGENTINA
Buenos Aires
Cordoba
Jose C Paz
Mar del Plata
Mendoza
Rosario
Sierra de la Ventana
1
Tunis
UGANDA
Kampala
5
1
5
UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC
Cairo
Town not fixed
6
1
AMERICA
9
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
6
4
1
1
1
1
1
9
8
Quebec
1
Toronto
Vancouver
CHILE
Santiago
COLOMBIA
Bogota
5
1
Cali
COSTA RICA
San Jose
CUBA
Havana
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Santo Domingo
ECUADOR
Quito
JAMAICA
Kingston
MEXICO
Cuernavaca
3
1
6
2
2
1
2
5
1
Mexico City
NICARAGUA
Managua
PANAMA
Panama City
PERU
Lima
PUERTO RICO
San Juan
USA
Albany
Anaheim
Ann Arbor
Argonne
Aspen (Col)
Atlanta (Ga)
Atlantic City (NJ)
Berkeley
Boston (Mass)
Chicago (Illinois)
Columbus (Ohio)
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
14
2
3
6
3
1
3
1
6
6
1
49
Detroit (Mich)
1
Fort Colllns (Col)
Fresno (Cal)
Gainesvilie (Fla)
Honolulu (Hawaii)
Houston (Texas)
Ithaca
Kansas City
Knoxville (Tenn)
Lafayette (Ind)
Las Vegas (Nev)
Little Rock
1
1
1
1
2
1 .
1
1
1
2
1
Louisiana (La)
1
Madison (Wis)
Miami Beach (Fla)
Mont Claire (NJ)
New Orleans (La)
New York (NY)
Orano
Philadelphia (Pa)
Portland (Oregon)
Princeton
Richland
Rochester
1
7
6
3
23
1
2
1
1
1
2
St Louis (Mo)
San Diego
San Francisco (Cal)
Seattle (Wash)
Tucson
Washington (DC)
URUGUAY
Montevideo
VENEZUELA
2
1
6
2
1
39
Caracas
Maracaibo
9
1
2
ASIA
BURMA
Rangoon
CEYLON
Colombo
HONG KONG
Hong Kong
INDIA
Bombay
New Delhi
Poona
INDONESIA
Djakarta
IRAN
Ispahan
Teheran
1
1
3
3
5
7
2
2
1
5
ISRAEL
Haifa
Jerusalem
Rehovot
Technion
Tel Aviv
JAPAN
Kyoto
Marioka
Nagoya
Sapporo
Tokyo
1
3
3
1
7
5
1
1
1
14
JORDAN
Amman
KUWAIT
AUSTRALASIA
1
1
1973 Congress
Department, Union
of International
EUROPE
Canberra
Melbourne
Sydney
NEW ZEALAND
Auckland
Wellington
NEW CALEDONIA
Noumea
BULGARIA
Karlovo
Sofia
4
10
3
CZECHOSLOVAKIA
3
2
1
AUSTRIA
Baden
Hinterbruhl
Krens
Iglis
Portschach
Salzburg
Schlob Laudon
Vienna
Worthersee
BELGIUM
Antwerp
Bruges
Brussels
Gembloux
Liège
Louvain
Mons
Ostende
Spa
1
4
2
Varna
2
1 .
1
1
1
10
1
36
1
Bratislava
Brno
Karlovy Vary
Liblice
Prague
Parianske
Smolenice
DENMARK
Aalborg
Arhus
Copenhagen
Elsinore
Kolding
Nyborg
'
PHILIPPINES
Banguio
Manila
SINGAPORE
Singapore
TAIWAN
2
2
1
1
9
3
Taipei
1
THAILAND
Bangkok
1
EAST GERMANY
Associations,
Brussels.
AUSTRALIA
LEBANON
Beirut
MALAYSIA
Kuala Lumpur
PAKISTAN
1
1
2
2
19
1
1
2
1
25
5
1
1
Berlin
Leipzig
FINLAND
Abo
Helsinki
Herrasmanni
Rovaniemi
FRANCE
Aussois
Biarritz
Bordeaux
Caen
Cannes
Calais
Deauville
Dijon
Evreux
Fontainebleau
Grenoble
Lille
Lyon
Marseilles
Montpellier
Nice
Nancy
Odeillo
Paris
Port-Cross (île)
Rennes
Rouen
Sèvres
Strasbourg
Toulouse
Tours
Versailles
3
1
1
12
1
1
1
2
2
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
5
1
6
1
1
58
1
1
1
4
32
2
1
12
1
2
53
1
20
3
1
3
2
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
51
Vincennes
Yvetot
GERMANY (Fed. Rep.)
Baden Baden
Bad Homburg
Bamberg
Berlin (West)
Bonn
Cologne
Dortmund
Dusseldorf
Erlangen
Frankfurt/Main
Gummersbach
Hamburg
Hannover
Heidelberg
Holzhausen
llmenau
Julien
Kiel
Krefeld
Leuna
Lindau
Mainz
Marburg
Munich
Nuremberg
Regensburg
Rinteln
Saarbrucken
Stuttgart
Wiesbaden
GREECE
Athens
Rhodes
Salonique
HUNGARY
Budapest
Gyor
Gyula
Keszthely
Szekesfehervar
ICELAND
Reykjavik
IRELAND
Dublin
ITALY
1
1
2
1
1
12
1
3
1
3
2
8
1
5
3
3
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
19
2
1
1
1
3
.4
8
1
1
13
1
1
1
1
1
15
Bellagio
Bologna
Crotone
Ferrara
Florence
1
2
1
1
7
Forli
Genoa
Lake Garda
Milan
Padova
Palermo
Pisa
Rimini
Rome
Santa Marguerita
San Remo
Stresa
Trieste
Turin
Venice
LUXEMBOURG G.D.
Luxembourg
1
5
1
9
1
52
1
1
1
30
1
1
2
1
4
3
7
MALTA
G'mandia
MONACO
Monte Carlo
NETHERLANDS
Aalsmeer
Amersloort
Amsterdam
Arnniem
Haarlem
The Hague
Leiden .
Lunteren
Naaldijk
Noordwijck
Nijmegen
Ommen
Rotterdam
Scheveningen
Utrecht
Wageningen
NORWAY
Oslo
Trondheim
POLAND
Torun
Warsaw
Zakopane
PORTUGAL
Estoril
Lisbon
2
6
1
1
23
1
1
18
1
1
1
2
3
1
2
4
2
4
6
1
2
10
1
3
4
RUMANIA
Bucharest
SPAIN
8
Barcelona
Canaries (Island) Ténérife
Cordoba
Granada
Ibiza
Madrid
Marbella
Salamanque
Santa Cruz de Teneriffe
Torremolinos
Valencia
Zaragoza
12
2
1
1
1
8
1
1
1
2
1
1
SWEDEN
Goteborg
Halsingborg
Kiruna
Lund
Malmo
Norrkoping
Ronneby
Stockholm
Umea
Uppsala
Vasteras
4
1
1
4
3
1
1
8
1
1
1
SWITZERLAND
Adelboden
Basle
Berne
Davos
Fribourg
Geneva
Lausanne
Locarno
Lucerne
Lugano
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
2
3
11
1
5
84
9
1
1
1
Montreux
St Gallen
Territet
Zurich
TURKEY
Istanbul
UNITED KINGDOM
Abingdon
Alloa
Ashïord
Ayr
Birmingham
Blackpool
Brighton
Cambridge
Canterbury
Cranfield
Durham
East Mailing
Edinburgh
Exeter
Glasgow
Harrogate
Harwell
Lancaster
Liverpool
Jersey (C I) St Helier
London
Loughborough
Manchester
Newcastle-on-Tyne
Nottingham
Oxford
Reading
Southampton
Stoke Mandeville
Taunton
Teddington
Torquay
Wastings
Warwick
USSR
Baku
Dubna
Kiev
Leningrad
Moscow
Novosibirsk
Tbilisi
Yerevan
YUGOSLAVIA
Becici Budva
Belgrade
Bled
Dubrovnik
Herceg-Novi
- Ljubljana
Maribor
Opatija
Piran
Ragusa
Roving
Split
Zagreb
5
1
1
11
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
2
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
3
62
5
24
New International Meetings Announced
Information listed in this section
supplements details in the Annual
international
Congress
Calendar
published in January 1973.
Les informations faisant l'objet de
cette rubrique constituent les suppléments au Calendrier Annuel des
Congrès Internationaux publié en
janvier 1973.
1973 Jan 2-4
London (UK)
Council for Education in World Citizenship. 13th annual Christmas conference : Europe 1973.
93 Albert Embankment, London SEI 7TZ, UK.
1973 Jan 2-5
Bradford (UK)
Symposium on correlation and spectral techniques in measurement and process identification.
The Secretary, Inst of Measurement and Control, 20 Peel
Street, London WS, UK.
1973 Jan 4-5
Canterbury (UK)
2nd int symposium on road vehicle aerodynamics.
Mr H Stephens, British Hydromechanics Research Ass.,
Fluid Engineering, Cranfietd, Bedf., UK.
1973 Jan 15-19
Munich (Germany, Fed Rep)
Int congress and exhibition for education and training technolo-
gy.
Exhibition Consultants, Ltd, 11 Manchester Square, London
WIM 5AB, UK.
1973 Jan 15-20
European Parliament. Session. (YBn°667)
Strasbourg
(France)
Centre Européen, Plateau du Kirchberg, Luxembourg, G D
Luxemburg.
1973 Jan 16-20
Jesenik Spa (Czechoslovakia)
Conference on pharmacology : Longterm psychotropic drugs
therapy maintenance.
Czechoslovak Society of Psychiatry, Chairman, O Vinai, MD,
C So, Research institute of Psychiatry, Praha 8-Bohnice.
Yugoslavia.
1973 Jan 16-24
Manila (Philippines)
World Health Organization. Regional seminar on role of health
education in family planning.
(YB n°3548)
WHO, Regional Office for Western Pacific, United Nations
Avenue, P O Box 2932, 12115 Manila, Philippines.
1973 Jan 17
Brussels (Belgium)
EEC Savings Bank Group. Assemblée générale extraordinaire et
25e réunion du conseil de gestion. . (YB N°511)
Dr K Meyer-Horn, square Plasky 92-94, 1050 Brussels,
Belgium.
1973 Jan 17-24
Ibadan (Nigeria)
World Psychiatric Association. 3rd seminar : Workshop on psychiatry and mental health care in general health services.
(YB n°3577)
Dr M O Otatawura, University of Ibadan, Dept of Psychiatry,
University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.
1973 Jan 18-20
Geneva (Switzerland)
Inter-Parliamentary Union. 3rd int symposium. P:120(YB n°2832)
Mr Pierre Cornillon, Sec Général adjoint, Place du PetitSaconnex, 1211 Geneva 28, Switzerland,
54
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
1973 Jan 23-25
Philadelphia (Pen, USA)
American Society for Quality Control, Electronics Division,
Reliability Division/Reliability Group ASME, AIlE, SAE, AOA,
ASTM, SSS. Annual reliability and maintainaility symposium.
Lee R Webster, Radiation, Inc. Systems Division, P O
Box 37, Melbourne, Florida 32907, USA.
1973 Jan 25
London (UK)
The Royal Society. Symposium on planetary science.
6 Carlton House Terrace, London SWIY 5AG. UK.
1973 Jan 29-30
Los Angeles (California)
American Society for Quality Control/ACS, AlChE, ASCE,
ASME, ASA, HPS, IEC. Symposium on the application of statistical techniques to the analysis of environmental problems.
Edna M Riedinger, c / o Capital Research and Management
Group, 611 West Sixth Street, Los Angeles, California 90017,
USA.
1972 Feb 5-8
Colombo (Ceylon)
Asian Productivity Organization. 13th workshop meeting of the
heads of the national productivity organizations. (YB n° 90)
APO, Aoyama Daiichi Mansions, 4-14, Akasaka 8-chome,
Minato-ku, Tokyo 107, Japan.
1973 Feb 5-8
Paris (France)
Int Council on Social Welfare, Regional Office for Europe, the
Middle East and Mediterranean Area. European Seminars :
1) Interdisciplinary and inter-professional cooperation in the
social field; 2) Training of social and social welfare personnel
in periods of social change in the context of development; 3}
Harmonisation of social legislation on the European level, particularly concerning migrants and their families (YB n° 1771)
9 rue Chardin, 75016 Paris, France
1973 Feb 10-15
Igbo-Ora (Nigeria)
Int Medical Students' Organization on Population. All African
medical students' conference on population problems.
Mr 0 A Oni, Int Medical Students' Organization on Population, c / o Alexander Brown Hall, University Hospital,
Ibadan, Nigeria.
1973 Feb 12-Mar 2
Geneva (Switzerland)
Int Labour Organization. Governing Body. 18th session.
(YB n°2183)
ILO, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland.
1973 Feb 21-23
Williamsburg (Va, USA)
American Society for Quality Control, Textile and Needle Trades division. 23rd annual technical conference of textile and
needle trades division.
S B Driggers 11, The Hame Company, Knitware Division,
box 3019, Winston-Salem, North California 27102, USA
1973 Feb 25-28
Nes Orleans (La, USA)
Atomic Industrial Forum, Conference on nuclear public information.
Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc, 475 Park Avenue, South,
New York. NY 10016, USA.
1973 Feb 25-Mar 1
Geneva (Switzerland)
Int meeting on sterilization.
Int Project, Association for Voluntary Sterilization,
708 Third Avenue, New York NY 10017. USA.
Inc.,
1973 Feb 25-Mar 3
Guatemala (Guatemala)
Dental Federation of C America, Panama and GuatemalaMeeting.
D r J . F Cabarrus Poitevin, 6a Calle 1-41, Zona 1, Guatemala,
C.A.
1973 Feb 26-Apr 6
Geneva (Switzerland)
United Nations. Commission on Human Rights. (YB n° 3375)
Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland.
1973 Feb 26-Mar 1
Cali (Colombia)
Int Center for Tropical Agriculture. Seminar on improvement
of field beans and other food legumes in Latin America.
CIAT, Mr David Evans, Associate Administrator Conferences
and Symposia, Apartado Aereo 67-13, Cali, Colombia.
1973 Feb 27-28
Berlin (West)
Int Tourism-Exchange (ITS). Congress. Ex : 7th.
Company for Exhibitions, Fairs and Congresses, Ltd, Messedamm 22, D 1000 Berlin 19.
1973 Feb
Detroit (Michigan)
American Society for Quality Control, Automotive Division,
16th annual automotive division conference.
Environmental Activities Staff, General Motors Corporation,
General Motors Technical Center, 12 Mile and Mound Roads,
Warren, Michigan 48090, USA.
1973 Mar 1-2
Huntsvîlle (Alabama, USA)
American Society for Quality Control, Huntsville Section and
Northeast Alabama Section. 1973 Southeastern regional con- '
ference.
Al Steinberg, Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, Mail Code
IEQ, Hunstville, Alabama, USA.
1973 Mar 5-8
Tale (Nizke Tatry) (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Anatomy/institute of Experimental
Biology of the Slovak Academy of Science in Kosice. Symposium on ultrastructure and experimental neuromorphology :
Problems of the experimental and structural neuromorphology.
Genera/ Secretary, J Marlala, MD, Ass Prof, C Sc, Medical
Faculty of PJ Safarik University, Kosice, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Mar 6-8
Berlin (West)
Int Federation of Commercial, Clerical and Technical Employees, Executive Committee. Meeting.
(YB n°1892)
75 avenue de Balexert, 1211 Geneva-Chatelaine, Switzerland.
1973 Mar 7-8
-
Louvain (Belgium)
Int colloquy : La integracion de America Latina.
Centre d'Etudes Européennes, Université Catholique de Louvain, 24 Muntstraat, 3000 Louvain, Belgium.
1973 Mar 12-15
Tutzing (Germany, Fed Rep)
Symposium uber grenzflachenphänomene zwischen zwei fluiden
phasen.
Dechema, Postfach 970146, 6 Frankfurt/M, Germany, Fed
Rep.
1973 Mar 12-16
Geneva (Switzerland)
United Nations, Int Narcotics Control Board.
(YB n° 3375)
Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
55
1973 Apr 2-5
Colchester (UK)
Institute of Electrical Engineers. Conference on software engineering for telecommunication switching systems.
IEE, Savoy Place, London WC2R OBL, UK.
1975 Apr 9-12
Southampton (UK)
!nt Road Federation. Symposium int sur les transports et l'environnement; ligne de conduite, projets et pratique.
Administrative Secretary, Symposium on Transportation
Environment, Dept of Civil Engineering, University of Southampton, Southampton, 509 5NH, UK.
1973 Apr 9-13
Geneva (Switzerland)
European Physical Society. 4th int conference on solid compounds of transition elements.
E Parthé, Laboratoire de Cristallographie aux Rayons X,
Université de Genève, 32 Bd d'Yvoy, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
1973 Jan 22-Feb 9
Geneva
United Nations. Commission on Narcotic Drugs.
(Switzerland)
Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland.
1973 Jan 22-Feb 9
United Nations Development
meeting.
Programme.
New York (USA)
Governing Council
UNDP, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA.
1973 Mar 12-17
Strasbourg (France)
European Parliament. Session.
(YB n° 667)
Centre Européen, Plateau du Krichberg, Luxembourg.
1973 Mar 13-15
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Symposium on clinical trials of new drugs (for the participants
therapy and social psychiatry; psychiatry in special medical
fields.
Czechoslovak Society of Psychiatry, M Hausner, M D, General Secretary, Psychiatric Department, Sadska u Poděbrad,
Prague, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Mar 21-23
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Symposium on clinical trials of new drugs (for the participants
from the socialist countries only) : Requirements on clinical
trials of new drugs in the socialist countries.
Czechoslovak Society of Pharmacology, Commission for
Clinical Pharmacology, J Elis, M D, Ass Prof, C Sc, Institute
for Pharmacology, Faculty of General Medicine of the Charles University, Albertov 4, Prague 2, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Mar 23-25
Karlovy Vary (Czechoslovakia)
Symposium on progress in gastroenterology : Diseases of the
digestive tube; hepatobilliary system and pancreas; new research
methods.
General Secretary, P Frio, MD, Ass Prof, CsC, 2nd Research
Division of Gastroenterology, Charles University, Kartovo
nam 32, Prague 2, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Mar 28-31
20th int scientific congress on electronics.
Rassegna Int Elettronica Nuclear
Crescenzio 9, 00193 Rome, Italy.
Rome (Italy)
e
Aerospaziale,
Via
1973 Mar 31-Apr 12
Washington (USA)
Int congress on combustion engines : Diesel and gas engine
power conference and exhibition/Gas turbine conference and
products show.
Mr A B Conlin, Jr., American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
57
1973 Apr 11-12
Melbourne (Australia)
Int Cargo Handling Co-ordination Association. Conference :
Trade and Transport in South East Asia. (YB n° 1444)
ICHCA Secretary, 94 ERROL Street, North Melbourne, Vic
3057, Australia.
1973 Apr 24-28
Vancouver (Canada)
Rehabilitation Int/Workmen's Compensation Board. Symposium,
on rehabilitation of the Industrially injured.
(YB n° 2501)
Workmen's Compensation Board, 5255 Heather Street, Vancouver 13, British Colombia, Canada.
1973 Apr 26-27
Budapest (Hungary)
Int Society of Aerosology/Hungarian Aerosology Section. Congress : Practical aerosology in medical diagnostics.
Hungarian Aerosology Section, Dr Ferenc Vali, Secretary
General, Diosarok 1, Budapest 12, Hungary.
1973 Apr 27-29
Keszthely Heviz (Hungary)
Hungarian League Against Rheumatism. Int itinerary congress :
Co-ordination of medical balneophysical and surgical treatment
in rheumatics.
Hungarian League Against Rheumatism, Dr André Ritcher,
Secretary General, Frankel Leo u 25, Budapest It, Hungary.
1973 Apr
London (UK)
Voluntary Overseas Service Association. Conference : « Et maintenant », discussion sur l'action dans les professions par les
anciens volontaires.
VCOAD, 69 Victoria Street, London SWI, UK.
1973 Apr
Versailles (France)
European Physical Society. Conference : Atomic and molecular
physics of ionized gases. (YB n° 834)
Dr C Manus, Service de Physique Atomique, CEN Sac/ay,
B P No 2, 91 Gif-sur Yvette, France.
1973 May 7-12
Strasbourg (France)
European Parliament, Session.
(YB n° 667)
Centre Européen, Plateau du Kirchberg, Luxembourg,
Do
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
1973 May 9 -12
Budapest (Hungary)
6th int congress for emergency and ambulance medicine : Reanimation, anaesthesiology and shock-treatment on the spot;
the self contained nature of oxyology and its relation to intensive
care; up-to-date devices and techniques in rescue.
National Emergency and Ambulance Service, Dr Béla Bencze,
Director-General, Marko u 22, Budapest V, Hungary.
1973 May 9-12
Paradfurdo (Hungary)
Hungarian Society of Gastroenterology. Int congress : Non-specific chronic inflammations of the intestinal tract; oesophagus
carcinoma; forum on research work; free communications.
Dr Istvan Wittman, Secretary-General, Diosarok 1, Budapest 12, Hungary.
1973 May 16-23
Customs Co-operation Council. Meeting. (YB n° 462)
Kyoto (Japan)
Japanese Finance Ministry, 3-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo, Japan.
1973 May 21-23
Cleveland (Ohio, USA)
American Society for Quality Control. 26th annual technical
conference : Integrity through quality- people, services, products.
Robert W Shearman, Executive Director, ASQC, 161 West
Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53203, USA.
1973 May 24
Budapest (Hungary)
Scientific meeting of internal medicine : Isotope diagnostics of
the linear function.
Hungarian Society of Internal Medicine, Dr Dezso Lehoczky,
Secretary-General, Koranyi Sandor u 2/a, Budapest VIII,
Hungary.
1973 May 27-29
Berlin (West)
European Clothing Manufacturers Association. General Assembly.
P : 100-120.
(YB
n°623)
Bundesverband Bekleidungsindustrie e.V; Plittersdorter
Strasse 93, 53 Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany, Fed Rep.
FRANCE
l'ensoleillée
1973 May 29-Jun 1
Karlovy Vary (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. Symposium on nuclear medicine. New methods in scintigraphy; radiopharmaceuticals, diagnostic tests in vitro.
General Secretary, Prof V Slouka, MD; CSc, Institute of
Hygiene and Epidemiology, Srobarova 48, Prague 10,
Czechoslovakia.
1973 May 30-Jun 3
Tokyo (Japan)
Int Prevention of Road Accidents. General meeting. P : 200. C :
30. (YB n°2377)
Japan Traffic Safety Association, 2-9, Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
1973 Jun 2-10
Nicosia/Famagusta (Cyprus)
Int Ski Federation. 29th congress. P : 300.
(YB n° 2465)
Sigge Bergman, Ankdammsgatan 35, 17143 Solna (Stockholm), Sweden.
1973 Jun 7-8
Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Int Pulse Trade and Industry Confederation. General assembly.
(YB n° 2389)
Room 258, Bourse de Commerce, 75040 Paris, France.
1973 Jun 7-8
Tokyo (Japan)
4th int symposium on electroslag remelting. P : 200. C : 20.
The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Keidanren Bidg, 1-9-4
Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
— Salle de Congrès de 1200 places, plus 2 salles de commissions indépendantes de 120 et
80 places
— Traduction simultanée en 6 langues
— Cabine de projection
— Salon - Bar
Cet ensemble est situé dans le complexe du
Palais des Sports avec 2 piscines, patinoire
olympique, piste de curling, courts de tennis,
terrains de jeux... megéve c'est tout dire :
en hiver, tout le ski depuis le débutant jusqu'à la célèbre piste internationale
de descente E. ALLAIS, le soleil
qui brille sur les pistes de jour et
dans les nights clubs la nuit, le
patinage, les piscines tropicales au
milieu des neiges, les promenades
romantiques
en
traîneaux,
la
gastronomie de ses restaurants,
l'hospitalité de son hôtellerie, son
casino, ses cinémas et la paix merveilleuse d'une montagne aimable.
et en été, tous les sports et la détente à la
montagne, promenades, escalade,
golf 18 trous, equitation, Ball Trap,
pêche, excursions...
OFFICE DU TOURISME
MEGEVE 74 (France)
Tél. (50)21.27.28
Télex. 34188
ouvert toute l'année.
1973 Jun 13-15
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
European League Against Rheumatism/Czechoslovak Society
of Rheumatology. 1st Prague rheumatological symposium : Diagnostical and therapeutical intervention into the joint space.
(YB n° 795)
General Secretary, O Vojtisek, MD, CSc, Research Institute
for Rheumatic Diseases, Na Slupi 4, Prague 2, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Jun 19-21
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Otolaryngology. Congress : Inflammatory diseases of palatine tonsils oropharyngeal tumours.
Chairman, Prof K Sedlacej, MD, U nemocnice 2, Prague 2,
Czechoslovakia.
1973 Jun 19-23
Eastbourne (UK)
Oil and Colour Chemists' Association (Great Britain and Commonwealth). Conference.
(YB n° 3017)
Wax Chandlers' Hall, Gresham Street, London EC2V 7AB, UK.
1973 Jun 27-29
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Social Medicine/Czechoslovak Society
of Pharmacology/Czechoslovak Society of Chemistry/Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences/lnt Society of Quantum Biology. .
Conference on chemical structure and biological efficacy of
substance : Quantitative relations between chemical structure
of substances and their biological effectGenera/ Secretary, M Ticky, Ph D, Institute of Hygiene
and Epidemiology, Srobarova 48, Prague 10, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Jun
Varna (Bulgaria)
League of Red Cross Societies. Réunion des rédacteurs en chef
de la Croix-Rouge de l'Europe de l'Est. (YB n° 2907)
17 Chemin des Crêts, Petit-Saconnex, 1211 Geneva 10,
Switzerland.
1973 Jul 2
London (UK)
The Institution'of Mining and Metallurgy. Meeting : Sampling in
the mineral and metallurgical processing industries.
44 Portland Place, London WIN 4BR, UK.
1973 Jul 2-5
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Physiology /Institute of Physiology.
Symposium neuroontogeneticum secundum-Pragae 73.
Genera/ Secretary, J Mourek, MD, Ass Prof, C Sc, Institute
of Physiology, Faculty of General Medicine. Charles University. Albertov 5, Prague 2, Czechoslovakia.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
59
Chronique du Palais des Congrès de Liège
M. André SCHREURS, directeur du Palais des Congrès de
Liège, M. Joseph Viliher, chargé des Relations extérieures
du Palais et M. Roland Lauvrey, directeur de l'hôtel Holiday inn de Liège.
60
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
Etre disponible, soit être prêt à satisfaire n'importe quel organisatuer, en toutes circonstances, a toujours été la hantise des promoteurs des centres de congrès. Il n'y a plus de saisons précises
pour les réunions humaines. Il y a peu, parler d'organiser un
congrès pendant les vacances provoquait des sourires ironiques.
Maintenant, cela n'est plus vrai, l'organisateur cherche et trouve
le lieu qui lui convient le mieux, selon la date qui correspond
au cadre des activités concernées.
Liège a compris cette évolution depuis très longtemps, son Palais
des Congrès est ouvert douze mois sur douze et l'on constate que
de grands congrès sont organisés dans la plus mauvaise saison(!!)
comme le Congrès international de Psychologie appliquée (1971)
qui a été un congrès de juillet réunissant à Liège près de 3.000
participants et accompagnants. Ce fut un grand congrès de
vacances.
Dans un proche avenir, ce phénomène sera d'autant plus perceptible que Liège a réussi à marquer des points dans un domaine
directement
concerné
:
l'hôtellerie
moderne.
Près d'un millier de lits supplémentaires seront disponibles à
Liège dès 1973. Déjà en janvier un hôtel de la chaîne Holiday
Inns — chaîne américaine mondialement connue — d'une capacité de 300 chambres, sera opérationnel, à côté du Palais des
Congrès auquel il sera relié par une galerie vitrée.
Ramada Inn ouvrara, également en 1973, en plein centre des
affaires de Liège, une unité de 100 chambres de très grand luxe.
Travelodge et G.B. Motor Hotels construisent, dans un rayon de
10 kilomètres, deux unités situées sur les grands axes reliant
Liège aux autres grandes villes d'Europe.
L'implantation du Holiday Inn à Liège ouvre des perspectives
précises aux autorités liégeoises en matière promotionnelle car
Liège devient extrêmement compétitive sur le marché des congrès.
Le Palais des Congrès ajoute à son image de marque actuelle
(celle d'être un des Palais des Congrès les mieux équipés et les
mieux situés d'Europe) le fait de pouvoir « loger » tout un congrès pratiquement dans sa propre enceinte, c'est-à-dire offrir à
la fois les avantages d'un congrès organisé dans un hôtel et les
garanties de réussite que cristalisent les références d'un Palais des
Congrès tant sur le plan scientifique et technique que sur celui
de l'organisation.
Pour Le Palais des Congrès de Liège, ce grand bateau amarré
au bord de la Meuse, dans un cadre de grands arbres et de fleurs,
l'avenir est tout tracé. Ce sera celui d'être un des lieux privilégiés où les hommes vont et viennent, pour échanger des idées
et se rencontrer pacifiquement.
1973 Jul 2-7
European Physical Society,
ionic crystals.
Ile de Bandor (Var, France)
Conference : Lattice defects in
(YB n°
834)*
M Chemia, Laboratoire d'Electrochimie, Université de
Paris IV, 9 Quai St Bernard, 75 Paris 5e, France.
1973 Jul 3-6
Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Surgery. Congress of surgery : Surgical
interventions into pancreas, vascular surgery, polytraumatism.
General Secretary, Prof I Kostolny, MD, C Sc, // Clinic of
Surgery, Medical Faculty of the Comenius University,
Partizanska 2, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Jul 9-13
Meudon (France)
European Physical Society/Association EURATOM-CEA. Conference: Spectral line broadening and related topics (YB n°834)
Dr D Voslamber, S T G I, Association EURATOM-CEA, BP
No 6, 93 Fontenay-aux -Roses, France.
1973 Jul 15-20
Toronto (Canada)
American Powder Metallurgy Institute/Metal Powder industries
Federation. 4th int powder metallurgy conference.
Metal Powder Industries Federation, 201 East 42nd Street,
New York, NY 10017, USA.
1973 Jul 17-20
London (UK)
Int audio visual aids conference. Ex.
National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education, 33
Queen Anne Street, London WIM OAL, UK.
1973 Jul 18-25
Kampala (Uganda)
Confederation Latinoamericana de Asociaciones Cristianas de
Jovenes, World congress.
Casilla 172, Co/on/a 1884 P.3, Montevideo, Uruguay.
1973 Jul 22-29
Jerusalem (Israel)
Int Federation of Youth and Music. 27th congress. P : 1000.
(YB n°
2047)
Mr Hadelin Donnet, 10 rue Royale, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.
1973 Jul 23-26
Englefield Green (UK)
European Physical Society. Conference : Impact ionization,
(YB n° 834)
Prof M R C McDowell, Royal Holloway College, Englefield
Green, Surrey, UK.
1973 Jul 25-29
Dusseldorf (Germany, Fed Rep)
Int Wachtturm Kongreb.
Wachtturn-Bibel-und Traktat-gesellschaft Deutscher Zwrig
'•
e.V., 62 Wiesbaden-detzheim, Greifstr 5, Germany, Fed. Rep.
1973 Jul 30-Aug 3
Moscow (USSR)
European Physical Society. 6th European conference on controlled plasma physics. (YB n° 834)
M Rabinovich, P N' Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky
Prospekt 53, Moscow, USSR.
1973 Jul 30-Aug 5
Toronto (Canada)
Nationless Worldwide Association. Congress.
(YB n° 2970)
Esperanto, P O Box 246, Station F, Toronto, Canada.
1973 Ju!
Nassau (Bahamas)
World Psychiatric Association. 9th biennial Carribean conference for mental health.
(YB n°3577)
Mr Arnott Joseph, P 0 Box 1322, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
1973 Jul-Aug (3 weeks)
Kandersteg (Switzerland)
Boy Scouts World Bureau. Jamboree « Jubika 73 ». (YB n° 194)
CP 78, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
1973 Aug 4-9
San Antonio (Tex, USA)
Int Association of Convention Bureaus, Annual convention.
Charles Gillett, Executive President, N Y Convention and
Visitors Bureau Inc. 90 East 42nd Street, New York, NY
10017, USA.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
61
1973 Aug 6-14
Tokyo (Japan)
World Education Fellowship and Japanese Section. Int conference : Education lor the new-ear, What can teachers do ?
(YB n°3507)
W E F, 55 Upper Stone Street, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, UK.
1973 Aug 8-11
Reykjavik (Iceland)
World Psychiatric Association. 17th Scandinavian congress of
psychiatry. (YB n°3577)
c /o W PS, The Maudsley Hospital, Denmark Hill, London
SES BAZ, UK.
1973 Aug 22-24
Newark (NJ, USA)
American Society for Quality Control, New Jersey Section / ASSE.
Elll, Newark College of Engineering/AIPE, ANSI, SAME, ASME,
SAM, DRI, ATLS, ADTS, AIA, GAMA, AHMA, MSMA, NAII, STI.
4th Annual product liability prevention conference.
PLP-73 Chairman, Newark College of Engineering, 323 High
Street, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA.
1973 Aug 26-30
Abidjan (Ivory Coast)
World Association of Judges. 4th congress : 1) Organization of
the administration of justice. 2) selection and appointement of
judges, 3) general principles of justice, 4) human rights in the
administration of justice. P : 300. (YB n° 3470)
Dr J Toth, Tribunal administratif, 3 rue des Chaudronniers,
1200 Geneva, Switzerland.
1973 Aug 28-Sep 1
Cracow (Poland)
European Physical Society. 1st specialized ampere colloquium NMR in solids : Pulse methods, high resolution, spin dynamics
and related phenomena. (YB n° 834)
J W Hennel, Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej, ul Radzikowskiego
152, Cracow 23, Poland.
1973 Aug 29-Sep 1
Pecs (Hungary)
Hungarian Society for Endocrinology and Metabolism. General
assembly with int participation. Present problems in endocrinology.
Prof Dr Laszlo Lajos, University Medical School, Pecs,
Edesanyak utja 17, Hungary.
1973 Aug 30-Sep I
Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Internal Medicine. Congress of internal
medicine : Clinical genetics in internal medicine.
General Secretary, V Izakovic, MD, Ass Prof, C Sc, Deter
Hospital, Medical Faculty, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Sep (beginning)
Uppsala (Sweden)
European Physical Society. Int conference on hyperfine interactions in excited nuclei. (YB n° 834)
E Karisson, Institute of Physics, University of Uppsala,
Box 530, 751 21 Uppsala 1, Sweden.
1973 Sep 4-6
Smolenice (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Microbiology and Epidemiology.
Symposium on leptospirosis : Aetiology, classification, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of leptospirosis.
General Secretary, P Bakoa, MD, Ass Prof, Medical faculty
of the Comenius University, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Sep 5-7
Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Paediatrics. Congress of paediatrics :
Immunology in childhood, new trends in diagnostics and therapy.
Genera/ Secretary, M Rusnak, MD, llnd Dept for Paediatrics,
Bezrucova 3, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Sep 6-7
Budapest (Hungary)
Szeged University Clinic for Gynaecology. Symposium : Physiology and pathology of the sexual maturity period.
University Medical School Szeged, Clinic for Gyneacology,
Prof Dr Mihaly Sass, Beloiannisz tér 10, Szeged, Hungary.
1973 Sep 10
Barcelona
Int Bureau for Epilepsy, meeting : Mobility and epilepsy.
3-6 Alfred Place. London WC1E 7ED. UK.
PUBLICITÉ DELAGE
62
ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES, 1973
(Spain)
(YB n°1413)
1973 Sep 10-12
Congrès Européen de l'imprégnation du bois.
Liège
(Belgium)
Mr Jacques Oury, Société Orban-Bois, S A, Ile Monsln,
4000 Liège, Belgium.
1973 Sep 10-13
Plzen (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Epidemiology and Microbiology/District Centre for Hygiene in Plzen/Central Research Institute in
Moscow/Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine in Moscow, Conference on disinfection and disinsection :
Symposium on phenitrotione, symposium on preacetic acid.
Chairman, M Privora, MD. C Sc, Institute of Hygiene and
Epidemiology, Srobarova 48, Prague 10, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Sep 10-13
Strbske Pleso (Czechoslovakia)
Int Society of Nephrology/Czechoslovak Society of Nephrology.
European conference on paediatric nephrology : Roentgenological diagnostics in paediatric nephrology, haematological problems of the chronic renal insufficiency, urinary tract infections. (YB n° 2559)
Chairman, Prof F Démant, MD, Clinic of Paediatrics of the
Faculty Hospital, Kosice, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Sep 10-14
Edingburg (UK)
European Physical Society. 3rd int meeting on ferroelectricity.
(YB n° 834)
M Cochran, University of Edinburgh, Dept of Physics, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, UK.
1973 Sep 12-14
Janske Lazne (Czechoslovakia)
World Federation of Neurology, Research Group on Neuromuscular Diseases/Czechoslovak Societies of Neurology, Paediatrics, Orthopaedics, Rehabilitation and Pathological Physiology.
Symposium on neuromuscular diseases.
General Secretary, Z Nesvadba, MD, Czechoslovak State
Spa, Janske Lazne, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Sep 12-14
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society for Pharmacy/Faculty of Pharmacy of the
Charles University. Conference on problems of organization and
management in pharmacy : Scientific approach to management
and organization, education of pharmacists, automation and
mechanization in pharmaceutical enterprize.
General Secretary, A Kocik, Ph D B pharm, Lékarna u
Zvonu, Plzenska 17, Prague 5, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Sep 13-15
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Surgery/Charles University, Section
for the Plastic Surgery and Medical Faculty. Symposium on
treatment of burns.
Le Grand Hôtel
Blonville s /Mer
3 km de Deauville (14),
43 chambres et suites de
très grand confort, un
Restaurant panoramique
et gastronomique,
« la Reine Mathilde »,
de pure tradition
normande, un Restaurant
campagnard,
« la Brocherie »
(spécialités régionales),
ouvert de 11 à 23 h.,
une Piscine chauffée,
une salle de Gymnastique,
Sauna, Massage, un accès
direct à la mer et à la
plage donnent à cet
Ensemble un caractère
unique.
Chairman, Prof H Peskova, MD, D Sc, Clinic for Plastic
Surgery, Srobarova 50, Prague 10, Czechoslovakia.
1973 Sep 17-19
Brussels (Belgium)
European Society of Corporate and Strategic Planners. 3rd int
conference on corporate planning.
(YB n°3891)
rue de la Loi 71, 1040 Brussels, Belgium.
1973 Sep 17-21
Combustion, Institute. European symposium.
Sheffield (UK)
Dr A R Jones, Dept of Chemical Engineering and Chemical
Technology, Imperial College, London SW7, UK.
1973 Sep 20-23
Siofok (Hungary)
Congress of otolaryngology : Oto-rhyno-laryngology and bronchooesophagology of infants and children; therapy of malign tumours
in oto-rhyno-laryngology.
Hungarian Society of Otolaryngologists, Dr Otto Ribari,
Secretary-General, Szigony u 36, Budapest VIII, Hungary.
1973 Sep 26-28
Brno (Czechoslovakia)
Czechoslovak Society of Orthopaedy/Czechoslovak Society of
Rheumatology. Congress of orthopaedics (with the symposium
on scanning-electron microscopy in medicine).
General Secretary, 2 Bozdech, MD, Ass Prof, C Sc, Clinic
for Orthopaedy, Medical Faculty of the J E Purkyne University, Pekarska 53, Brno, Czechoslovakia.
Ouverture le 1er Juillet
1972, tel. (31)87.90.54.
Salle de conférences pour
Séminaires.
Direction :
Jean Bouvachon
(même direction,
Hôtel les Airelles,
Courchevel (73)
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, 1973
63
Copyright 1973 UAI
Views expressed In the articles, whether signed or not, do not
necessarily reflect those of the UAI.
Copyright 1973 UAI
Les opinions exprimées dans les articles, signés ou non, no reflétent
pas nécessairement les vues de l´UAI.
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