Basic English : Grammar - La Mort Et L

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Basic English : Grammar - La Mort Et L
Bachelier en Informatique
1e année
Cours d'ANGLAIS
Basic English : Grammar
Mise au point grammaticale
Grammaire et vocabulaire de base à maîtriser
M-A : A. Lessinnes
Catégorie économique
Bachelier en Informatique
Cours d'anglais
M-A : A. Lessinnes
e
1 année de baccalauréat en informatique - ANGLAIS - A. Lessinnes
Mise au point grammaticale
Basic English
Ces feuilles comprennent des révisions grammaticales accompagnées d'exercices à
réaliser à domicile. A la fin de ce "syllabus", vous trouverez les corrigés des exercices
ainsi que la traduction des exemples donnés dans la théorie.
Le vocabulaire des exemples et des exercices est du vocabulaire courant, à connaître;
si ce n'est pas le cas, le chercher dans un dictionnaire et l'apprendre.
Il est impératif de connaître cette matière.
Comment procéder ?
- Lire attentivement la théorie et les exemples de chaque point de grammaire abordé; chercher le
vocabulaire inconnu; bien comprendre théorie et exemples, réaliser les exercices; une fois ceux-ci
corrigés, comprendre les erreurs éventuelles; ensuite, assimiler tout de suite !
- Travailler régulièrement, ne pas se laisser déborder, respecter les délais.
Contents
1. Personal et possessive adjectives and pronouns
2. The article
3. The demonstrative
4. The noun
5. Adjective group
6. Possessive case
7. One / ones
8. The adjective
9. The adverb
10. Usual prefixes and suffixes
11. Indefinites and quantifiers
12. Since - for - ago
13. Numbers, fractions, calculations, dates, time and appointments
14. Exclamatory forms
15. Interrogative pronouns and adjectives
16. The Verb
irregular verbs
Present tenses
the question
Past tenses
auxiliaries
causative use of ‘to have’
question tags and short answers
Future tenses
other modes
infinitive
participle
imperative
conditional
subjunctive
17. Infinitive and gerund
la proposition infinitive de but
18. Relative Clause - Relative Pronoun
19. Passive Voice
20. Linking words
Possible sentence structures
exercices sur schémas structuraux
Corrigé des exercices et traduction des exemples :
table des matières
p.1
p.2
p.3
p.3
p.7
p.7
p.8
p.9
p.13
p.15
p.16
p.19
p.19
p.22
p.23
p.24
p.25
p.26
p.31
p.32
p.37
p.41
p.42
p.45
p.48
p.48
p.49
p.50
p.51
p.52
p.55
p.56
p.59
p.61
p.62
p.66
p.69
Bachelier en Informatique
Cours d'anglais
M-A : A. Lessinnes
Basic English : Grammar
1. Personal et possessive adjectives and pronouns
Pronom personnel
sujet
Pronom personnel objet
Adjectif possessif
Pronom
possessif
je, tu, il,...
me, te, lui, ...
mon, ma, mes, ...
le mien, la mienne, les
miens, les miennes, ...
me
you
him
her
it
us
you
them
my
your
his
her
its
our
your
their
mine
yours
his
hers
its
ours
yours
theirs
1ère sg.
2ème sg.
3ème pl.
I
you
he
she
it
we
you
they
Exercise :
a) Fill in ('exercise' est le mot anglais pour "exercice" !)
3ème sg. masc.
3ème sg. fém.
3ème sg. neutre
1ère pl.
2ème pl.
(et étudier la conjugaison du verbe 'to be' = être;+ to belong = appartenir; the motherboard = la carte-mère)
I am a student. ........... name is XXX. This book belongs to ............ . It is ........... .
You are a student. .......... name is XXX. This book belongs to ............. It is ........ .
He is a student. ............ name is XXX. This book belongs to ............ . It is ......... .
She is a student. ............ name is XXX. This book belongs to ............. It is ......... .
Here is a computer. ............ motherboard is new. Here it is : it is ............ .
We are students. ....... group is small. This classroom belongs to ......... . It is ....... .
You are students. .......... group is small. This classroom belongs to ....... . It is ...... .
They are students. ......... group is small. This classroom belongs to ....... . It is ...... .
b) Complete the translations
Mon ordinateur est tombé en panne, peux-tu me prêter le tien ? = .......... computer has
broken down, can you lend .......... .......... ?
Ils n'ont pas vu Marie mais je leur ai dit que sa voiture était là; elle est sur le parking. = ..........
haven't seen Mary but .......... have told .......... that .......... car was there; .......... is on the
parking area.
Où est notre livre d'anglais ?. Tom nous a dit qu'il ne trouvait plus le sien non plus ! = Where
is .......... English book ? Tom has told .......... .......... couldn't find .......... either !
Pronoms réfléchis
moi-même : myself
toi-même : yourself
lui-même : himself
elle-même : herself
lui/elle-même (neutre) : itself
nous-mêmes : ourselves
vous-mêmes : yourselves
eux/elles-mêmes : themselves
A utiliser dès que le pronom et le sujet sont les mêmes :
- je me comprends : I understand myself
- il se parle : he is talking to himself
Attention : les verbes pronominaux en français ne le sont pas nécessairement en anglais ! : s’asseoir
= to sit down, se rappeler = to remember, se raser = to shave …
Exercise
Je ne peux pas me supporter = I cannot bear ........................................ .
L'ordinateur le fait lui-même = The computer does it ........................................ .
Nous pouvons nous blesser (nous-mêmes) = We can hurt ........................................ .
Elle ne se connaît pas ! = She doesn't know ........................................ !
Tu feras ceci toi-même ! = You will do this ........................................ !
Ils devraient se protéger ! = They should protect ........................................ !
La réciprocité
Base 2
Ils travaillent les uns avec les autres : they work with one another.
Nous nous connaissons les uns les autres : we know each other.
Ils se regardaient l’un l’autre : They were looking at each other / at one another.
Exercise
Mes amis ne travaillent jamais les uns avec les autres. : My friends never work
........................................ .
Nous dépendons l'un de l'autre. : We depend ........................................ .
Ils se rendent visite l'un l'autre toutes les semaines. : They visit ............................................. .
Tom, John, Barbara et Mary s'attendent souvent les uns les autres. : Tom, John, Barbara
and Mary often ................................................................... .
2. The article
'the' = article défini invariable - se prononce 'thi' devant une voyelle.
'a' = article indéfini singulier - devient 'an' devant une voye lle.
article défini = le, la, les : the
article indéfini =
un, une : a (an)
des : ///
l’article indéfini pluriel n’existe pas.
Remarque : l’article partitif tombe également en anglais : du vin = wine ; de l’argent =
money ; de la facilité = facility
On peut le remplacer par some (quelque/quelques) – (any en négation)
I would like some wine, please.
I can’t see any money on the table !
Emploi de l'article défini
‘the’ est utilisé devant un nom commun clairement défini :
- lorsque le nom désigne un objet unique en son genre : the sun, the moon, …
- lorsque le nom désigne des choses dont le nombre est exprimé ou connu : the four
seasons, the fine arts, …
- lorsque le nom est suivi d’un complément déterminatif : the colour of a dress, the
Prince of Wales, …
- lorsque le nom est suivi d’une proposition relative ou d’une tournure précisant ce
dont on parle : I have read the book you mentioned last time; the flowchart for this program is
ready; the numbers used in these statistics are wrong !
- lorsque le contexte restreint le sens, c’est-à-dire que l’on peut sous-entendre un
complément déterminatif, une proposition relative, etc. : How did you like the play ? (the
play you saw yesterday); the trees are turning yellow (the trees in our garden), …
‘the’ n’est pas utilisé
- quand un nom commun est employé dans un sens général ou vague :
compare : Books are expensive !
The books in this shop are expensive !
- quand le nom exprime un grand concept, noms abstraits : life is so beautiful !
- devant les noms de repas, de couleurs, matières, aliments, boissons employés en
général : I have breakfast at 8 - Red is my favourite colour ! - Wood is still much used in
buildings – I prefer electricity to gas – Meat brings proteins - He never drinks beer.
- devant les noms de jeux : He plays football ; we love playing cards.
(devant les noms d’instrument, il est employé ! : I play the piano)
- devant les noms exprimant certaines périodes de temps (sens général) :
Winter is a hard season for old people.
- devant les noms de certaines institutions (sens général) : We go to school every day;
she has to go to hospital.
- devant la plupart des noms de pays, comtés, montagnes, lacs, églises, palais, rues,
places, parcs, lieux uniques : England, Belgium, Surrey, Sussex, Mount Everest, Snowdon,
Lake Windermere, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace, Oxford Street,
Trafalgar Square, London Bridge, Parliament, … but : the United Kingdom, the United States
Base 3
- devant les titres suivis d’un nom propre : Queen Elizabeth, …
- devant les noms de nationalités, groupes, langues (sauf si ce sont des adjectifs
substantivés) : Englishmen, rich people, French is a Latin language, (but : The English, the
rich and the poor)
- devant ‘man’ ou ‘woman’ employés dans un sens collectif et semi-abstrait : Man
proposes, God disposes .
- dans certaines locutions : on earth, on foot, from beginning to end, from right to left,…
Exercise
Le professeur : ................ teacher
Les amis : ................ friends
Une colère : ................ anger
Une université : ................ university
un ami : ................ friend
des amis : ................ friends
la vie est belle :
................ life is beautiful
3. The demonstrative
Le démonstratif, qu’il soit pronom ou adjectif est différent au singulier et au pluriel, et
s’il désigne quelque chose de proche (here) ou d’éloigné (there) :
This woman (here).
This is new.
These books (here).
These are not very interesting.
That newspaper (there).
Those words (there).
That is usually unknown.
Those are nasty people.
cet homme-ci = this man
cet homme-là = that man
ces programmes-ci : these programs
ceci : this
cela : that
ceux-ci : these
ceux-là : those
cette jeune dame-ci = this young lady
cette vieille dame-là : that old lady
ces fichiers-là : those files
(attention à la corrélation : celui-là …………., celui-ci …………. (le premier, le dernier en parlant
de deux choses ou personnes dont on vient de parler) : the former ………….., the latter……… )
Exercise
Ces salariés-là sont mieux payés que ces employés-ci.
= ................... employees are better paid than ................... clerks !
Cette voiture-ci est plus belle que celle-là.
= ................... car is more beautiful than ................... one !
Cet étudiant-ci a plus de cours que celui-là = ........ student has more courses than .............. .
Ces exercices -ci sont trop faciles ! = ................... exercises are too easy !
4. The noun
Les noms anglais ont soit une origine anglo-saxonne, soit une origine latine.
Nous rencontrons des "doublets" : mots ayant deux formes : une forme anglosaxonne et une forme latine. Ils sont parfois parfaitement synonymes, ou bien leur
sens diffère légèrement.
the help = the aid
the deed = the action
the trade --- the commerce
Le même est vrai pour les verbes, d'ailleurs : ex. : to deserve = to merit.
Il est cependant à noter que les mots d'origine anglo-saxonne sont les plus utilisés
en langage courant !
Base 4
a) Formation des substantifs (traduisez les noms et les mots de départ !)
- en partant d'un verbe
- nom concret exactement semblable à l'infinitif du verbe et représentant le résultat
de l'action exprimée par le verbe :
to process >> the process
to skip
>> the skip
to space
>> the space
to punch
>> the punch
- nom abstrait exactement semblable au participe présent du verbe et représentant
l'action exprimée par le verbe :
to process >> the processing
- noms avec suffixes
a) noms concrets :
- -ER, -OR : cette terminaison ajoutée à un verbe peut indiquer soit la
machine ou l'outil, soit la personne effectuant l'action exprimée par le
verbe.
to print - a printer : to process - a processor : - -IAN : indique un agent.
the technician
- -FUL : cette terminaison permet d'exprimer le contenu.
a box - a boxful
a hand - a handful
- -LET : sert à former un diminutitif.
a book - a booklet
an eye - an eyelet
b) noms abstraits :
- -NESS : ajouté à un adjectif, il exprime la qualité correspondante.
weak - the weakness
clean - the cleanness
- -SHIP : ajouté à un nom, il exprime l'état ou la qualité correspondante.
the master - the mastership
the friend - the friendship
the leader - the leadership
- -HOOD : ajouté à un nom ou à un adjectif, il exprime un état, une
période, une qualité.
false - the falsehood
child - the childhood
- -DOM : ajouté à un nom ou un adjectif, il exprime une condition ou
un domaine.
free - the freedom
king - the kingdom
- -TION : cf. en français
mais attention aux faux amis : the location = l'adresse, l'emplacement, la localisation
the examination
the attention
the identification
the modulation
the addition
the competition
Base 5
- noms avec préfixes
- MIS - : péjoratif, il exprime une idée d'erreur, de défaut, de quelque
chose de mauvais.
mistake - misunderstanding - misprint
- UN- : négation.
uncertainty - unconsciousness
(remarque : préfixe très employé pour nier un adjectif : unsure, unreal, ... mais
toujours en "concurrence" avec la négation latine : impolite, immature...)
- IN-, IM- : négation.
inaction - inactivity - imperfection
- DIS- : négation ou manque, suppression, rupture.
disagreement - disapproval - disability - discomfort - disconnection
- COM-, CON- : "avec".
confederation
- RE- : répétition.
relocation - resetting
- noms composés
le premier élément est le déterminant, et le dernier élément est le déterminé; le mot
le plus important et qui sera d'abord traduit en français, est le dernier mot, soit le
déterminé; le déterminant jouant un rôle d'adjectif, il reste invariable.
Ce déterminant peut être : - un nom
machine code - source program - company manager
- un adverbe
underscoring - overflow
- un gérondif
processing unit - operating system
- un adjectif
multiprocessing
- un cas possessif
sportsman
Les noms composés sont écrits en plusieurs mots, ou bien les éléments sont reliés
par un trait d'union, ou sont unis. (de nos jours, le trait d’union a une tendance à
disparaître)
Le premier élément, qui qualifie le second, est invariable. (pluriel de ‘the apple-tree’ :
the apple-trees). Le second élément porte la marque du pluriel.
Il existe également des noms composés d'un verbe et d'une particule adverbiale : a
breakdown. (pluriel : breakdowns)
Translate
general purpose systems
terminal output message
multi-user access
papercard reader
core image library
special purpose systems
overflow area
access time
word length
data management
b) Pluriel
Base 6
Le pluriel régulier d’un substantif est d’y ajouter '-s'. (toy / toys; game / games)
'-es' si le substantif se termine par une sifflante. (dress / dresses)
Si le mot se termine par '-fe', le '-f-' est transformé en '-v-' au pluriel. (life / lives)
Si le mot se termine par '-y' après une consonne, il est transformé en 'i' devant -es.
(fly / flies)
Entre un son sifflant et le '-s' du pluriel, le '-e-' se prononce (/i/) : villages; courses, ...
Sinon le '-e-' devant '-s' du pluriel ne se prononce pas : wives.
Il existe bien sûr des irréguliers, tels que les mots dont -oo- se change en -ee-, etc.
Pluriels irréguliers (à traduire !)
man / men; woman / women; child / children; ox / oxen; mouse / mice; goose / geese; foot /
feet; tooth / teeth
invariables : sheep
mots collectifs : fish, fruit, data, information, furniture
Le pluriel d'un nom composé : seul le déterminé se met au pluriel.
sauf exceptions de pluriel double ! (women-candidates)
Exercise : What's the plural of the following words and expressions ?
Attention : l'adjectif est invariable en anglais !
the child
the people
a woman
the noun
a beautiful lady
a moon
the tooth
a wife
a tomato
an inch
the pretty girl
a goose
the ox
the wolf
the knife
the foot
a zero
a big success
this mouse
that penny
this story
that play
the game
the car
c) Le genre des noms
- masculin : hommes ou êtres masculins
- féminin : femmes ou êtres féminins (et bateaux)
formation de noms féminins à partir de noms masculins :
- en - ESS : - the actor >> the actress (prince / princess; manager/ manageress, …)
- nom différent : the man >> the woman (brother / sister; son / daughter, …)
- adjonction : the doctor >> the woman-doctor (boy-friend / girl-friend, he-bear/ she-bear)
En fait, dans ce dernier cas, le féminin peut être le même mot que le masculin, sans
changement, sauf si l'on désire préciser le féminin : the friend, the teacher, the doctor, ...
- neutre : choses, objets inanimés, animaux non familiers, concepts, ...
d) L'emploi des noms
1°) Sujet, complément, ou attribut, le nom s'emploie seul ou avec un ou plusieurs
déterminants :
- un article, un adjectif, un personnel ou démonstratif, un quantitatif ou indéfini (some,
no, much,...), un autre nom, un cas possessif précèdent le nom qu'ils définissent.
- une proposition relative et un complément introduit par une préposition suivent le
nom qu'ils définissent.
2°) La fonction du nom est indiquée par sa place dans la phrase ou par l'emploi d'une
préposition.
Examples
Here is a wonderful man, who is the manager of my previous company.
That lady has given my brother's small children a list of the things to buy.
Base 7
Exercises
Le genre des noms
le nom
the lady
the worker
the animal
the cow
my dog
the computer
the male teacher
the female teacher
the students
le pronom personnel sujet s'y rapportant
L'emploi des noms
Soulignez les noms
The beautiful car over there belongs to our manager; he has been a company
manager for several years and has been at the head of our own company for two
months. His wife is a very pretty woman and she comes every day to have lunch with
her husband.
5. Adjective group
- se place, comme un adjectif épithète, devant le nom;
- pas de pluriel à l'intérieur du groupe adjectif;
- trait d'union entre tous les différents éléments du groupe adjectif.
Examples : A six-year-old girl is a girl that is six years old.
A five-storey building is a building with five storeys.
A thousand-page book is a book made of one thousand pages.
A two-day congress is a congress lasting two days.
Exercise : Re -write
a book containing two thousand pages :
a course lasting three hours :
a holiday of four weeks :
a song of two seconds :
an essay of hundred words :
a pizza with four kinds of cheese :
6. Possessive case
My father’s car = the car of my father.
Le complément du nom se met devant le nom dont il est complément et celui-ci perd
son déterminant (article).
La marque typique du cas possessif est '' 's ''. Telle quelle après tout substantif
singulier (ou pluriel irrégulier ne se terminant pas par '-s'), elle est, par contre, réduite
à l’apostrophe en cas de substantif pluriel régulier en '-s'.
Examples : - my father's book
- my parents'car
- these children's toys
Base 8
Le cas possessif ne s’utilise que lorsque le complément du nom est une personne ,
un pays , ou une expression de temps.
Examples : My brother’s wife has invited my parents’friends.
Britain’s largest city is London.
Tomorrow’s newspaper.
Cependant, si le complément du nom a lui-même des compléments, cette formule
est impossible.
Examples : Here is the glass of the lady that has left so suddenly.
We have found the wallet of the man crossing the street now !
Sinon, pas de cas possessif; mais il arrive que deux mots employés souvent
ensemble s’apposent. Cf. supra : les noms composés.
Examples : The kitchen door.
The interest rates.
Rappel : lorsque deux ou plusieurs substantifs sont apposés, il faut commencer par
le dernier et remonter vers le début pour la compréhension et la traduction.
Remarque : on peut sous-entendre le mot dont le premier est complément :
- the baker’s = the baker’s shop; St Paul’s = St Paul’s Cathedral, ….
- This is not Jenny’s pen, but John’s !
Exercises
Possessive case : yes or no ?
the car of my father :
the newspaper of yesterday :
the toys of my children :
the key of the car :
the song of love :
the door of the kitchen :
the book of this woman :
the house of my parents :
the breakfast of today :
the bag of the woman lying over there
7. One / ones
Si l’on désire ne pas répéter un nom commun qui précède le discours, l’on utilisera
l’article (ou le démonstratif, mais celui-ci peut, lui, éventuellement, rester sous forme
de pronom : ''I want this !'') suivi de ‘one’ au singulier et de ‘ones’ au pluriel.
Nous ne pouvons pas laisser un article + adjectif sans nom ni pronom ‘one’ !
Which is your car ? The red one over there.
Which biscuits do you prefer ? These / these ones.
Which beers do you like ? The ones brewed in Britain, of course.
Let me introduce the other employees : the one eating a sandwich is John Martins.
Exercise : Traduire :
Cette voiture bleue est la tienne; mais la jaune ?
Nous n'aimons pas le chocolat blanc mais seulement le noir !
Tes amis sont grossiers ! (rude) N'en as-tu pas des polis ?
Cette boîte -là est la mienne; et cette bleue-ci ? La tienne est rouge, n'est-ce pas ?
Nous avons beaucoup d'exercices; les plus difficiles sont les plus courts !
Connaissez-vous ces vins ? Ce doux-ci, oui, mais pas le rouge !
Ce verre-ci est le sien (à Margaret) et celui qui se trouve là-bas est celui de John.
8. The Adjective
a) Accord
L’adjectif est invariable en anglais.
Base 9
b) Place
L’épithète (qu'il soit adjectif ou participe) se place toujours devant le nom qu’il
détermine, sauf s’il est accompagné de compléments.
Examples : the red dress
the available goods
the goods available from stock
Si, par contre, il est défini par un adverbe, celui-ci se place devant lui, sans changer
rien à l’ordre des mots.
Examples : the beautifully designed clothing
the rather good weather
Further examples : A wonderful car is parked in front of my new house.
Here is a very good cake for my extremely kind children.
These are the available items I can sell you.
These are the items available from stock.
I have an easy text here.
I have a text easy to translate here.
c) Formation de l'adjectif (traduire les noms et les adjectifs !)
Avec un suffixe :
- -Y : indique la présence du mot auquel il est rajouté.
the rust
>> rusty
the fault
>> faulty
- -OUS : indique la présence aussi.
the danger >> dangerous
the mountain>> mountainous
- -FUL : indique également la présence.
the power
>> powerful
the care
>> careful
the use
>> useful
the help
>> helpful
- -LESS : indique l'absence du mot auquel il est rajo uté.
the power >> powerless
the use
>> useless
the motion >> motionless
the rust
>> rustless
- -ABLE : donne une idée de possibilité.
to think
>> thinkable
to avoid
>> avoidable
- -ISH : - donne un sens péjoratif.
the child
>> childish
the slug
>> sluggish
grey
>> greyish
-ISH termine également certains adjectifs de nationalité.
British
(d'autres adjectifs de nationalité se terminent par :
-IAN : Italian; -ESE : Japanese; -CH : French)
Base 10
D'autres suffixes courants sont : -IAN (Belgian; vegetarian); -IC (dramatic, economic);
-ICAL (historical, economical, logical); -AL (actual, perpetual, lethal); -LY (friendly,
daily); -ern (modern, western); -EN (golden).
Avec préfixe de négation :
- UN- : unusual, unsuitable
- IN- / IM- : inappropriate, impossible
- NON- : nonexistent, nonfactual
Avec autre préfixe :
- A- : asleep, askew, aslant, awake
d) Adjectifs composés (à traduire !)
Le deuxième élément peut être :
- un adjectif : time-dependent, self-sufficient, over-scrupulous
- un participe présent : time-consuming, important-looking
- un participe passé : hand-operated, user-written
- un nom + suffixe -ED : small-sized
- un nom : second-hand
+ cf. supra groupe adjectif !
- une particule adverbiale : well-off
e) Remarque : certains adjectifs peuvent être substantivés :
the rich and the poor; the dead and the injured, ...
f) Comment renforcer un adjectif
1. Mots courants pour renforcer un adjectif
very (très)
quite (tout à fait)
rather (assez, plutôt)
little (peu)
pretty (vachement, drôlement)
etc.
2. Un adverbe peut modifier un attribut
This is always true !
My sister is extremely angry !
You have a very rich neighbour.
This man is quite pleasant !
The soup is rather hot !
He is little polite !
This is pretty interesting !
It is certainly nice !
g) Comparaisons
1. Comparaison d'égalité / inégalité
Max is as kind and polite as his sister, but he isn't as helpful as she is !
You are as stupid as your father; but not so much as your brother !
=>
1. AS + adj.(ou adv.) + AS + 2 e terme de la comparaison.
2. NOT AS + adj. (ou adv.) + AS + 2 e terme de la comparaison.
ou : NOT SO etc.
2. Comparaison d'infériorité
My sister is less clever than her boyfriend; but he is less young, too !
=> LESS + adj. (ou adv.) + THAN + 2 e terme de la comparaison.
3. Comparaison de supériorité
Base 11
This house is nicer, higher, more old-fashioned and more beautifully designed than
mine !
1°) L'adjectif comporte
une syllabe (hot, quick, short, ...)
deux syllabes (pretty,...) se terminant par exemple par '-y'
ou par '-e', (mais ne se terminant pas par : '-ed', '-ing',
'-ous', '-ful' , '-less', '-ect', '-ern', '-er',...)
--> Adjectif + -ER + THAN + deuxième terme de la comparaison.
Ex. : We are quieter than your friends !
Max is taller than his brother.
The weather is nicer than yesterday !
This processor is quicker than yours.
Remarques orthographiques :
- si l'adjectif court se termine par une consonne précédée d'une voyelle courte (et
accentuée), cette consonne finale est doublée devant la terminaison '-er' :
hot => hotter
big => bigger
cheap => cheaper : la voyelle précédente est longue;
short => shorter : la cons. finale est précédée d'une autre consonne et non d'une voyelle.
- si l'adjectif court se termine par un '-e', en général, ce 'e' final tombe devant la
terminaison '-er' :
large => larger
nice => nicer
- si l'adjectif court se termine par '-y' précédé d'une consonne, ce '-y' se transformera
en 'i' devant la terminaison '-er' :
pretty => prettier
friendly => friendlier
heavy => heavier
grey => greyer car le '-y' final est précédé d'une voyelle.
2°) pour les autres adjectifs de deux syllabes, et les adjectifs de plus de deux
syllabes, l'on formera leur comparatif de supériorité comme suit :
MORE + adjectif + THAN + deuxième terme de la comparaison
Ex. : Your car is more beautiful than mine !
The book is more interesting than the film.
The situation is more awful than that !
3°) Il existe des irréguliers :
positif
good
bad
far
old
comparatif de supériorité
better
worse
farther (distance) This is farther than your house !
further (abstrait) Further details, ...
elder (aînesse) / older dans les autres cas
Exercise : What's the comparative form of superiority of ... ?
quick
powerful
speedy
boring
remarkable
handsome
necessary
fat
good
smart
useless
elegant
modern
quiet
small
enormous
famous
noisy
huge
bad
Base 12
4. Remarques sur la comparaison :
1°) Si le deuxième terme de la comparaison est un pronom personnel attribut du
sujet, ce pronom sera sous sa forme objet en langage parlé courant mais, en
langage plus "raffiné" ou écrit, l'on utilisera le pronom personnel sous sa forme sujet
suivi de l'auxiliaire : - parlé courant : He is taller than me.
- écrit ou parlé plus relevé : He is taller than I am.
2°) Si l'on désire modifier un comparatif de supériorité :
a) beaucoup plus, nette ment plus ... :
much better, much more interesting;
far better, far more interesting;
b) un peu plus ... :
a little nicer, a little more beautiful;
a bit farther, a bit more accurate;
b*) un petit peu plus ... :
a little bit higher, a little bit more courageous;
c) plutôt plus ... :
rather quicker, rather more expensive, fairly more difficult;
d) vachement/drôlement plus ... :
pretty easier, pretty more difficult.
e) encore plus ... :
even more useless = still more useless : encore plus inutile
3°)
de plus en plus ... :
nicer and nicer;
more and more interesting;
worse and worse.
de moins en moins ... :
less and less polite.
4°) MORE / LESS sont en fait les comparatifs de supériorité irréguliers des adverbes
MANY/MUCH (beaucoup) / LITTLE (peu).
rem. : le comparatif de supériorité de peu + pluriel = fewer (régulier)
5°) (au) plus ceci ... (au) plus cela ... :
corrélation impliquant en anglais des comparatifs de supériorité précédés chacun de "the" :
Plus tu as, plus tu veux ! : The more you have, the more you want !
Plus les enfants sont vieux, plus les problèmes semblent être grands ! : The older the
children are, the bigger the problems seem to be !
Plus les salaires sont élevés, meilleur est notre niveau de vie ! : The higher the
wages, the better our standard of living ! (=> si le verbe est 'to be' dans les deux parties de la
corrélation, alors, il peut être sous-entendu !)
Plus il est loin, mieux cela est pour chacun ! : The farther he is, the better it is for
everybody !
6. Le superlatif de supériorité : le plus ...
Mêmes différences que pour le comparatif de supériorité, avec les mêmes règles
orthographiques :
1°) l'adjectif "court" (cf. supra) :
the + adjectif + -est
She is the nicest girl here !
This is this year's shortest text !
Base 13
We are the prettiest students, aren't we ?
We have the largest classroom !
2°) l'adjectif de deux (cf. supra) ou plus de syllabes :
the most + adjectif
I think this is the most interesting book I have ever read !
This is the most expensive model on display.
Superlatifs irréguliers :
positif
good
bad
far
old
near
late
superlatif
the best
the worst
the farthest (distance)
the furthest (abstrait)
the eldest (aînesse) / the oldest
the nearest = the closest, the least far;
the next = the one after this
the latest = the newest
the last = the final ...
Remarques :
1) Pour renforcer un superlatif : by far
Il est de loin le meilleur étudiant ! : He is by far the best student !
2) Le plus ..... que j'aie jamais ... :
She is the most beautiful girl I've ever met !
This is the longest book Mary has ever read !
It is the longest vehicle that has ever come here !
3) Pour un superlatif ne concernant que DEUX éléments, l'on peut rencontrer un
comparatif de supériorité, mais cette forme est considérée comme littéraire.
Here are John and Peter; which is the taller ?
7. Le superlatif d’infériorité : le moins ... : the least … : le moins clair : the least clear; le
moins difficile : the least difficult, …
9. The adverb
a) La place de l'adverbe
Selon leur sens et leur fonction, les adverbes peuvent occuper des places
différentes; quelques principes généraux :
- ne pas placer l’adverbe entre le verbe et le complément d’objet :
j’aime beaucoup la programmation = I like programming very much !
- placer les adverbes de manière, lieu, temps après le complément :
I met him at the theatre yesterday.
- placer les adverbes de fréquence ou de temps imprécis (never,
sometimes, often, always, generally, usually, almost, also, just) avant le
verbe si temps simple, après le premier auxiliaire si temps composé :
- I often play video-games; I have never programmed anything !
Base 14
En fait, tout adverbe modifiant toute une phrase se place devant le verbe si celui-ci
est simple, ou après le premier auxiliaire de la forme verbale si celle -ci est
composée.
Examples :
- avec adverbes de fréquence ou temps imprécis :
I usually drink tea in the morning.
I think they always drink tea in the morning.
I have never been beaten at chess.
mais aussi :
He will therefore have left before your arrival.
We carefully explained him the situation last week !
b) Adverbes de fréquence (en réponse à la question : ‘how often ?’) :
always (toujours), almost always (presque toujours), nearly always (presque toujours), generally
(généralement), normally (normalement), regularly (régulièrement), usually (habituellement,
généralement), frequently (fréquemment), often (souvent), sometimes (quelques fois), occasionally
(occasionnellement, à l'occasion), almost never (presque jamais), hardly ever (presque jamais), rarely
(rarement), seldom (rarement), ...
c) Formation de l'adverbe
1°) Il existe une série d’adverbes dérivant d’adjectifs; il suffit d’ajouter '-ly' à l’adjectif,
à l’exception toutefois de 'hard', 'late' et 'fast' :
- hard : dur; durement (hardly = à peine) - late : tardif; tard (lately = récemment) fast : rapide; rapidement
Rem. : avec un adj. en -ic, on ajoutera -ally : basic – basically
Il s’impose de faire attention à l’orthographe lors de la formation de l'adverbe :
- si l’adjectif se termine par '-y', celui-ci se transforme en '-i' devant la terminaison '-ly';
- si l’adjectif se termine par '-ble', '-le' est supprimé devant '-ly' ('-ly' remplace donc '-le')
- si l’adjectif se termine par '-l', il reste devant le '-ly', nous avons donc deux ' l '.
Exercise : Build the adverbs from the following adjectives :
beautiful
quick
horrible
hard
slight
easy
good
nice
awful
slow
terrible
late
heavy
bad
2°) Suffixes : - -LY : correspond à peu de chose près à la terminaison "-ment" du
français, et indique habituellement la manière.
the day
>> daily
free
>> freely
useless
>> uselessly
slight
>> slightly
- -WISE : i ndique également la manière.
the step
>> stepwise
the side
>> sidewise
the length
>> lengthwise
like
>> likewise
- -WARD : indique généralement une direction.
upward
downward
forward
d) La comparaison de l'adverbe
Base 15
1. La comparaison de l'adverbe suit le même principe que celle de l'adjectif.
Ex. : He drives as quickly as you do ! (si 2 e terme = sujet : pronom + auxiliaire)
I can do it as well as she can !
We couldn't paint as beautifully as last time !
Could you drive less quickly, please ?
This should happen more often than last year !
They get up earlier than some years ago !
Si l'adverbe = adjectif + '-ly', alors, le comparatif de supériorité se formera à l'aide de
'more' suivi de l'adverbe.
Ex. : You should drive more slowly than that !
Si le comparatif de supériorité de l'adjectif est irrégulier, alors l'adverbe équivalent
l'est également.
Ex. : You behave worse than before ! Really, you should try to do better !
Can't you work more than that ?
I have to sleep less than ten hours a day !
2. Le superlatif de l'adverbe se comporte identiquement à celui de l'adjectif.
You are playing the worst !
Explain that the most accurately you can, please !
Superlatifs irréguliers d'adverbes : ceux de l'adjectif équivalent + :
much / many
the most
little
the least
Exercise : Translate
moins largement (que) :
aussi vite (que) :
plus clairement (que) :
10. Usual prefixes and suffixes
Lors de la formation des mots, nous avons rencontré des suffixes et des préfixes.
1. Rappelons certains préfixes qui reviennent tant au niveau du nom que du verbe,
de l'adjectif, ou même de l'adverbe !
- UN- / IN- / IM- : indiquent le contraire.
to unhook, the unbeliever, unable, uneasily, the inhumanity, inimitable,
inimitably, the immaturity, impolite, impossibly
- IRR = IN + R
the irregularity, irrational
- DIS- : indique une négation, une suppression, une rupture.
to disregard, to disagree, the disrepair, disrespectful, disreputably,
disconnected, disassembled
- MIS - : indique une erreur, un défaut.
the misuse, the misunderstanding, to misapply, to mismanage,
misplaced, misguided
2. Remarque : grâce aux préfixes et suffixes, nous pouvons créer beaucoup de mots
à partir d'un seul radical !
Example : to use :
the user
the usefulness
the uselessness
used
using
usefully
uselessnesses
unused
useful
useless
uselessly
11. Indefinites and quantifiers
Tableau important à retenir
pas de, aucun :
:
:
:
peu de
:
:
un peu de
:
:
du, de la, des :
:
:
:
assez
:
:
plusieurs
:
beaucoup de :
:
:
:
la moitié
:
:
la plupart
:
:
:
:
:
no
+ sing. ou pluriel
not any+ sing. ou pluriel
none = pronoun
little + singuler
few + pluriel
a little + singulier
a few + pluriel
some + singulier ou pluriel
any + singulier ou pluriel
(en interrogation ou négation)
enough + singulier ou pluriel
several + pluriel
a lot of + sing. ou pluriel
much + singulier
many + pluriel
half
most + pluriel
most of the + singulier
Base 16
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
There is no salt; there are no apples.
There is not any problem, there are
not any people !
None of us has understood anything !
I have little work to do at present.
He has received few visits !
We have a little money here.
Give me a few sheets of paper !
I have some work to do, some letters
to write.
Is there any ink ?
I haven’t got any stamps !
Have you written enough ?
We haven’t seen enough examples !
There are several bugs !
We have a lot of exercises and a lot of
work !
Do you use much ink ?
Are there many ports ?
Half the students have succeeded at
once !
Most students know English very
well !
Most of the village has been
destroyed.
He was sleeping most of the time !
Note : some, any, little, few, a little, a few, enough, several, a lot, much, many, …
s’emploient comme adjectifs mais aussi comme pronoms !
a) No - some - any
- ‘no’ seul ou en composé est remplacé par ‘any’ seul ou en composé lorsque
l’expression se situe en négation. (I don't see anybody here ! I never see any
friend.);
- ‘some’ simple ou en composé est remplacé par ‘any’ simple ou en composé lorsque
l’expression se situe en interrogation. (Have you found anything, any clue ?);
- Cependant, si l’on attend une réponse affirmative à la question, on laissera ‘some’.
(Do you want some more coffee ?);
- 'any' peut également remplacer 'a' en interrogation ou en négation (We haven't
found any key ! ; Have they met any dog on the way ?)
- no / none = aucun
some = quelque(s)
any = n’importe quel.
- every = chaque peut aussi être mis en mot composé avec -thing, -body, -one,
-where, ... tout comme any, no et some.
Les pronoms someone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody, anything, no one,
nobody, nothing suivent les mêmes règles que some, any , no.
b) Few - a few - little - a little - many - much
many, a few, few sont utilisés avec des noms dits "countable" (many friends, a few
people, ...)
much, a little, little sont utilisés avec des noms dits "uncountable" (much milk, little
chocolate, ...)
Many / much = a lot of
A few / a little = some
Few / little = not a lot at all : it insists on the small quantity.
Base 17
Translation
:
Synonyms
:
+ uncountable noun :
+ countable noun
:
:
( = in the singular )
:
( = in the plural )
beaucoup
:
a lot of
:
much
:
many
:
plenty of
:
:
========== :=============== :===================== :====================
un peu de / :
:
:
quelque /
:
some
:
a little
:
a few
quelques
:
:
:
========== :=============== :===================== :====================
peu de
:
not a lot at all :
little
:
few
:
a small quantity :
:
:
a small amount :
:
========== :=============== :===================== :====================
Examples : We have many friends because we have much money !
I would like to drink a little wine !
These people have a few children, but I don't remember how many !
We only have little butter left in the fridge; don't forget to buy some !
Only few people enjoyed yesterday's film !
Note : many / much / little / few peuvent être modifiés de façon à exprimer "trop",
"tellement" ("si"), ''beaucoup trop'', ...
Examples : We have too many worries, you know ! (trop de soucis)
He has so little understanding for us !
(tellement peu de compréhension, si peu de)
They really meet too few people ! (trop peu de gens)
They have much too much money and much too little human feeling !
(beaucoup trop d'argent et beaucoup trop peu de sentiment humain)
Mary has no money and her brother has so much ! (tant)
But he has no friends and she has so many ! (tant)
c) Some other quantifiers
none (none of + article et pluriel ou pronom) : aucun
all (all of + article et pluriel ou pronom) : tout/tous (tout = everything)
both (both of + article et pluriel ou pronom) : les deux
each (each of + article et pluriel ou pronom) : chaque/chacun (adj. = every)
most + pluriel (most of + article et singulier) : la plupart
half + singulier (half of + article et pluriel) : la moitié
several : plusieurs
d) Exercises :
Translate into French :
1. Half the text has been read by all the students.
2. Many components are out of stock. Someone has bought most of what we had !
3. Most companies have access to Internet.
4. Here are two programs; both are very complex; could you explain each of them ?
- Oh, no, none of them, sorry !
5. Anybody could answer that kind of question !
6. Much processing has already been done; you still have to wait a few minutes.
7. Little has been done ! You have spent far too much money !
8. Few problems can be solved in this way !
9. Some of you have made a few mistakes, but nobody has written the right text !
10. All of you should do it again. Do not write anything wrong, this time !
Complete :
Base 18
They have made .................................. (= a lot of) mistakes !
I don't have .................................. (= a lot of) money with me !
They have bought .................................. (= a lot of) ham, .................................. (= a lot of)
butter, .................................. (= a lot of) sandwiches and .................................. (= a lot of)
bottles of beer.
Every day, we meet .................................. (= some) people and we waste
.................................. (= some) time on talking with them; but I have .................................. (=
some) pleasure in that, and I can say I have .................................. (= some) friends, now.
I think you only need .................................. (= not a lot at all !) money to go there; and
anyway I only have .................................. (= not a lot at all !) banknotes here; but also, you
really have .................................. (= not a lot at all !) courage to say that you can only work
.................................. (= not a lot at all !) hours a day !
.................................. (la plupart) of my money has been lost and I have only
.................................. (= not a lot at all !) left, only .................................. (= not a lot at all !)
coins : .................................. (aucun) of the banknotes has been found back !
.................................. (Les deux) of us can go there but .................................. (aucun) of us
may remain !
.................................. (la moitié) the students have succeeded, which is not enough !
Some people are there but I cannot see .................................. (aucun) friend.
Further exercises : Complete the translations
Aucun ami n'est venu hier car ils avaient tous plusieurs choses à faire !
...................... friend came yesterday for they ....................... had ....................... things to do !
La plupart des étudiants n'ont pas assez d'argent à dépenser à cela !
....................... students haven't got ....................... money to be spent on that !
Tom et Jerry sont célèbres car ils ont tous deux joué dans des films.
Tom and Jerry are famous for they ....................... have played in films.
A la fois Tom et Jerry ont reçu quelques cadeaux.
....................... Tom and Jerry have received ....................... gifts.
Aucun d'entre nous n'a réussi ! Quelle horreur !
....................... of us has succeeded ! How awful !
Tous les matins je prends le bus. = ....................... morning I catch the bus.
La moitié de la classe est absente ! = ....................... the class is absent !
Ils n'ont pas d'enfants.
= They haven't got ....................... children.
Cela est beaucoup trop cher !
= That is ....................... too expensive !
Replace a lot of, not a lot at all, some in those sentences
He hasn't got ....................... (a lot of) friends and he doesn't earn ....................... (a lot of)
money !
We have prepared ....................... (some) sentences for the English course but we had only
....................... (not a lot at all of) imagination !
We have bought ....................... (a lot of) water and ....................... (some) bottles of wine;
will that be enough ?
....................... (not a lot at all of) people can understand that !
We have ....................... (a lot of) exercises to write for tomorrow and also ....................... (a
lot of) vocabulary to learn !
Here is ....................... (some) bread for you; maybe you would like ....................... (some)
soup as well...; and here are ....................... (some) biscuits.
....................... (a lot of) people have written to me but I cannot answer them all !
I think I need ....................... (some) help !
....................... (not a lot at all of) understanding is needed here but ....................... (a lot of)
practice is necessary.
I would like to earn ....................... (a lot of) money and have ....................... (not a lot at all
of) work to do ! Well, this is impossible !
12. Since - for - ago
‘since’ et ‘for’ sont suivis d’un temps composé et signifient ‘depuis’ :
since : depuis un moment du passé (date ou événement précis) :
Peter has been working since yesterday night.
for : depuis une période de temps (durée écoulée depuis l’action) :
We haven't met her for several months !
Base 19
‘ago’ signifie ‘il y a’ + une période de temps et se retrouve dans des phrases au
Simple Past :
We finished school three years ago.
Exercise : For / since / ago ? :
We have been waiting for Tom ........ more than two hours, now !
They met each other ten years ........ .
We haven't read any book ........ years ! ........ we left school !
They have been working on it ........ last year.
They haven't phoned us ........ Tuesday.
We left school three weeks ........ . And ........ then, we haven't done anything !
I have been investigating ........ a long time !
Remarques : - for avec un temps simple : pendant
He worked for ten days on that !
- since + proposition subordonnée :
- si, dans la principale, le verbe est à un temps composé,
since = depuis que
- si, dans la principale, le verbe est à un temps simple,
since = vu que, puisque, étant donné que
Since I last saw him, I have travelled a lot !
Since you don't understand anything, I will explain it again.
13. Numbers, fractions, calculations, dates, time and appointments
Numbers
Cardinal numbers (0,1,2,3,...)
Ordinal numbers (1er,2e,3e ,...)
nought
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
fifteen
sixteen
seventeen
eighteen
nineteen
twenty
first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh
eighth
ninth
tenth
eleventh
twelfth
thirteenth
fourteenth
fifteenth
sixteenth
seventeenth
eighteenth
nineteenth
twentieth
twenty-one
twenty-two
twenty-three
twenty-four
twenty-five
twenty-six
twenty-seven
twenty-eight
twenty-nine
thirty
thirty-one
thirty-two
...
forty
...
fifty
...
sixty
...
seventy
...
eighty
...
ninety
...
a hundred = one hundred
a hundred and one
a hundred and two
a hundred and three
a hundred and four
a hundred and five
...
a hundred and ten
...
a hundred and twenty
a hundred and twenty-one
...
two hundred
two hundred and one
...
three hundred
...
a thousand = one thousand
a thousand and one
...
two thousand
...
a million = one million
a million and one
...
two million
...
a billion =
U.K. : 1,000,000,000,000
U.S. : 1,000,000,000
twenty-first
Base 20
twenty-second
twenty-third
twenty-fourth
twenty-fifth
twenty-sixth
twenty-seventh
twenty-eightth
twenty-ninth
thirtieth
thirty-first
thirty-second
...
fortieth
...
fiftieth
...
sixtieth
...
seventieth
...
eightieth
...
ninetieth
...
hundredth
hundred and first
hundred and second
hundred and third
hundred and fourth
hundred and fifth
...
hundred and tenth
...
hundred and twentieth
hundred and twenty-first
...
two hundredth
two hundred and first
...
three hundredth
...
thousandth
thousandth and first
...
two thousandth
...
millionth
million and first
...
two millionth
...
(U.K. = United Kingdom >> British English)
(U.S. = United States >> American English)
Les adjectifs numéraux sont invariables : five hundred people.
Employés comme noms et suivis de of, ils prennent la marque du pluriel : Thousands
of people !
Fractions
Base 21
1/2 = a half
1 1/2 = one and a half (+ plural)
1/4 = a quarter
3/4 = three quarters
1/3 = a third
1/5 = a fifth
1/6 = a sixth
2/6 = two sixths
etc.
etc.
Calculations
2+4=6
two and/plus four are/make six
12 - 8 = 4
twelve minus/take away eight equals four
eight from twelve leaves four.
3 x 6 = 18
three times six is eighteen
three sixs are eighteen
30 : 5 = 6
thirty divided by five is/equals six
3² = 9
2³ = 8
three squared is nine
two to the third (two to the power of three) is/equals eight
√16 = 4
the square root of sixteen is four
Dates
What’s the day today ?
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday.
What’s the date today ?
Today is the fifteenth (of) September 2004 = 15th September 2004.
January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October,
November, December.
:
La date s'écrit : ordinal number of the day + month + year.
Si vous écrivez la date dans un texte, vous pouvez ajouter l'article défini ‘the’ avant le
nombre ordinal représentant le jour.
Quand vous dites une date, vous ajoutez 'of' avant le mois, 'of' qui ne s'écrit jamais
mais se prononce toujours ! : the + ordinal number + of + month + year.
ATTENTION
Example of a date :
15th September 2004 = 15th Sept. 2004 = 15 September 2004 = 15 Sept. 2004. =
15.09.04.
Aux U.S.A., vous inversez le jo ur et le mois (et ajoutez une virgule avant l'année,
pour séparer les nombres).
September 15th, 2004.
Attention :
- Pour écrire le nombre ordinal, vous écrivez le nombre suivi des deux dernières
lettres du nombre ordinal : 1st - 2nd - 3rd - 4th - 5th - ... - 10th - 11th - 12th - 13th 14th - ... - 20th - 21st - 22nd - 23rd - 24th - ... - 30th - 31st.
- Les abréviations des noms de mois sont : Jan., Feb., March, Apr., May, June, July,
Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
Time
What time is it ?
It’s five past ten; it’s ten past eleven; it’s a quarter past twelve, ...
It’s half past three; it’s twenty-five to four; it’s a quarter to eight, ...
It’s five o’clock.
It’s five a.m. = It’s five in the morning.
It’s two p.m. = It’s two in the afternoon.
Base 22
Minutes après heure : minutes past heure;
minutes avant heure : minutes to heure;
et demie = half past
¼ h. = a quarter (of an hour)
8 h. 20 = twenty past eight
10 h. 50 = ten to eleven
7 h. 30 = half past seven
8 h. ¼ = a quarter past eight
3 h. ¾ = a quarter to four
a.m. : from midnight to noon (twelve o’clock, midday)
p.m. : from noon to midnight.
5 h. du matin = 5 a.m.
9 h. du soir = 9 p.m.
14 h. = 2 p.m.
Appointments
You give an appointment on a day (day or date), at a certain time, or in the
morning/afternoon/evening.
Ex. : Can I meet you on the 11th September, at half past six in the afternoon ? On
Tuesday, thus.
Remarque : expressions intéressantes.
la semaine dernière : last week
le mois prochain : next month
tous les jours = every day (= chaque jour)
toute la journée : all day long
toute l’année : all the year round
avant-hier : the day before yesterday
hier : yesterday
aujourd’hui : today
demain : tomorrow
après-demain : the day after tomorrow
Exercise : Write the appointment : we'll see :
lundi, à 5 heures du soir;
le 13 août à 4 heures et ½ ;
mardi, à 6 heures moins 10 du matin;
le 21 octobre à midi;
le 5 mai, l'après-midi;
demain à environ 11 heures 20
mercredi, le matin, entre 10 heures et quart et 11 heures;
14. Exclamatory forms
Dans les phrases exclamatives introduites par un pronom exclamatif, le verbe se
trouve à la fin :
What a lovely house you have ! (= You have such a lovely house !)
What splendid flowers you have ! (= You have such splendid flowers !)
What patience it requires ! (= It requires so much patience / such patience !)
How cleverly he plays ! (= He plays so cleverly !)
How clever he looks ! (= He looks so clever !)
How we laughed ! (= We laughed so much !)
Base 23
Remarque : - exclamation :- How deep the river is ! Comme la rivière est profonde !
- interrogation : How deep is the river ? Quelle profondeur a la rivière ?
Exercise :
Comme nous avons ri hier !
Quel dommage !
Quel "bazar" ici !
Quelle blague stupide !
15. Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives
pronom interrogatif sujet (personne) : who ?
pronom interrogatif sujet (choses) : what ?
pronom interrogatif objet (personne) : whom ?
pronom interrogatif objet (choses) : what ?
pronom interrogatif cas possessif (personne) : whose ?
choix : which of … ?
adjectif interrogatif : what … ?
which … ?
Autres pronoms interrogatifs (et expressions) :
where ?
when ?
why ?
how ?
how much ? / how many ?
how old ?
how often ?
how long ?
how far ?
etc.
Exercise :
qui ?
quoi ?
avec qui ?
combien d'argent ?
lequel ?
pourquoi ?
d'où ?
dans quoi ?
combien de temps ?
à quelle fréquence ?
combien d'enfants ?
quand ?
où ?
depuis combien de temps ?
Catégorie économique
Bachelier en Informatique
Cours d'anglais
M-A : A. Lessinnes
16. The Verb
Base 24
Toute phrase comporte un ou plusieurs verbe(s) autour duquel ou desquels
s'organise la phrase; le verbe indique l'action, le temps de l'action, etc.; il est donc le
"moteur" de la phrase, et est à repérer dès que vous lisez une phrase.
Il peut être sous une forme simple ou composée (avec auxiliaire(s)).
Conjugaison
to have (avoir) présent : I / you have; he /she / it has; we / you / they have
passé simple : had à toutes les personnes
participe passé : had
participe présent : having
attention : utiliser l’auxiliaire do pour interrogation et négation du verbe
to have (when do you have breakfast ?) mais non pour l’auxiliaire have
(I haven’t finished; has he finished ?
remarque : l’auxiliaire have aide à former les temps composés !
to be (être)
présent : I am, you are, he / she / it is; we / you / they are
passé simple : I was; you were; he / she / it was; we / you / they were
participe passé : been
participe présent : being
attention en négation et en interrogation la forme reste la même :
I am not; are you ? etc.
remarque : l’auxiliaire be sert à former les temps continus et la voix
passive
verbes réguliers : voir la conjugaison à chaque temps expliqué (ex.: to work : travailler)
verbes irréguliers : une liste des principaux verbes vous est donnée à la page
suivante et est à étudier par coeur !
Remarque concernant les temps : les temps du français et de l’anglais ne
correspondent pas !
exemples : (remarque : ici, "exemples" est écrit en français; en anglais : 'examples')
présent français
anglais
je lis le journal tous les jours
je lis le journal (maintenant)
je lis le journal depuis 10 ans
I read the newspaper every day = present simple
I am reading the newspaper = present continuous
I have read the newspaper for ten years = present
perfect
j’attends depuis plusieurs heures ! I have been waiting for several hours ! = present
perfect continuous
passé composé du français
anglais
J’ai vu ton frère.
J’ai vu ton frère hier.
I have seen your brother = present perfect
Yesterday, I saw your brother = past simple
imparfait du français
anglais
Je travaillais mieux avant !
Il travaillait quand j’ai téléphoné.
Je le connaissais depuis cinq ans.
Je travaillais depuis plus d’une
heure quand il arriva.
I worked better before ! = past simple
He was working when I phoned. = past continuous
I had known him for five years. = past perfect
I had been working for over an hour when he arrived.
= past perfect continuous
Main irregular verbs
Base 25
Cette liste reprend les principaux verbes irréguliers mais n'est pas exhaustive.
Lorsqu'une forme régulière existe, l'infinitif est suivi de la lettre R. Une traduction est donnée pour
chaque verbe à titre indicatif; très souvent, cette traduction n'est pas la seule possible.
Infinitif
to bear
to beat
to become
to begin
to bend
to bet R
to bite
to bleed
to blow
to break
to breed
to bring
to build
to burn
to burst
to buy
to catch
to choose
to come
to cost
to creep
to cut
to deal
to dig
to do
to draw
to dream R
to drink
to drive
to eat
to fall
to feed
to feel
to fight
to find
to flee
to fly
to forbid
to forget
to forgive
to freeze
to get
to give
to go
to hang
to hear
to hide
to hit
to hold
Passé simple
bore
beat
became
began
bent
bet
bit
bled
blew
broke
bred
brought
built
burnt
burst
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
dreamt
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flew
forbade / forbad
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave
went
hung
heard
hid
hit
held
Participe passé
borne
beaten
become
begun
bent
bet
bitten
bled
blown
broken
bred
brought
built
burnt
burst
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
done
drawn
dreamt
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flown
forbidden
forgotten
forgiven
frozen
got / gotten
given
gone
hung
heard
hidden / hid
hit
held
Traduction
porter
battre
devenir
commencer
courber
parier
mordre
saigner
souffler
casser
élever
apporter
construire
brûler
éclater
acheter
attraper
choisir
venir
coûter
ramper
couper
(with) traiter (de)
creuser
faire
tirer
rêver
boire
conduire
manger
tomber
nourrir, alimenter
(res)sentir
combattre
trouver
fuir
voler (dans les airs)
interdire
oublier
pardonner
geler
obtenir
donner
aller
pendre
entendre
cacher
frapper
tenir
Base 25 B
to hurt
to keep
to kneel R
to know
to lay
to lead
to lean R
to leap R
to learn R
to leave
to lend
to let
to lie
to light R
to lose
to make
to mean
to meet
to pay
to put
to read
to ride
to ring
to rise
to run
to say
to see
to seek
to sell
to send
to set
to shake
to shine
to shoot
to show R
to shut
to sing
to sink
to sit
to sleep
to slide
to smell R
to speak
to spell R
to spend
to spill R
to spin
to split
to spoil R
to spread
to spring
to stand
to steal
hurt
kept
knelt
knew
laid
led
leant
leapt
learnt
left
lent
let
lay
lit
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
shook
shone
shot
showed
shut
sang
sank
sat
slept
slid
smelt
spoke
spelt
spent
spilt
span / spun
split
spoilt
spread
sprang
stood
stole
hurt
kept
knelt
known
laid
led
leant
leapt
learnt
left
lent
let
lain
lit
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read
ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
shaken
shone
shot
shown
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slept
slid
smelt
spoken
spelt
spent
spilt
spun
split
spoilt
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
blesser
garder
être à genoux
connaître
poser à plat
mener
incliner
sauter
apprendre
quitter
prêter
laisser
être couché
éclairer
perdre
faire
signifier
rencontrer
payer
mettre
lire
chevaucher
sonner
s'élever
courir
dire
voir
rechercher
vendre
envoyer
placer
secouer
briller
tirer, faire feu
montrer
fermer
chanter
couler, sombrer
être assis
dormir
glisser
sentir
parler
épeler
dépenser
répandre
(faire) tourner
fendre, diviser
gâter
répandre
bondir
être debout
voler (qlch)
Base 25 C
to stick
to strike
to swear
to sweep
to swim
to take
to teach
to tear
to tell
to think
to throw
to understand
to undertake
to upset
to wake R
to wear
to weave
to win
to wind
to wring
to write
stuck
struck
swore
swept
swam
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
understood
undertook
upset
woke
wore
wove
won
wound
wrung
wrote
stuck
struck
sworn
swept
swum
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
understood
undertaken
upset
woken
worn
woven
won
wound
wrung
written
coller
frapper
juger
balayer
nager
prendre
enseigner
déchirer
dire
penser
jeter
comprendre
entreprendre
bouleverser
réveiller
porter (sur soi)
tisser
gagner
tourner, enrouler
tordre
écrire
Ces verbes sont à étudier systématiquement et il faut également savoir les utiliser dans une
phrase personnelle !
Catégorie économique
Bachelier en Informatique
Cours d'anglais
M-A : A. Lessinnes
a) Present tenses (indicative)
Base 26
1. Present Simple
Form
= radical du verbe à toutes les personnes sauf à la troisième personne du singulier,
où il faut rajouter '-s' (ou '-es' après une sifflante; ce 'e' entre deux sifflantes doit se
prononcer /i/).
Règle orthographique : si le radical du verbe se termine par '-y', la terminaison de la
3ème personne du singulier se transforme en '-ies' si ce '-y' est précédé d’une
consonne uniquement : he plays; he tries.
La négation et l’interrogation se forment à l’aide de l’auxiliaire ‘do’ au présent :
I work
he works
I don’t work (= I do not work)
do I work ?
don’t I work ? (do I not work ?)
he doesn’t work (he does not work) does he work ?
doesn’t he work ? (does he not work ?)
Use
Le présent simple est utilisé pour :
- des habitudes dans le présent;
avec : usually (généralement, habituellement), always (toujours), normally
(normalement), often (souvent), ...
We usually have breakfast together.
- des répétitions dans le présent; (every day (tous les jours), ...)
He visits his parents once a week. (une fois par semaine) and his brother every month.
- des généralités dans le présent;
Cats drink milk.
- un compte rendu descriptif d’un événement présent (commentaire de match de
football sur le vif, par exemple); ou d’un événement passé = présent narratif;
- le présent de verbes n’acceptant pas la forme continue : verbes de sentiment ou
d’émotion (to like), de perception (to hear) et compréhension (to understand),
d’opinion (to think) et de connaissance (to know), de volonté (to want),
d’appartenance (to belong).
Note : to think :
- I think he is right. : it is my opinion. (to think : penser)
- I am thinking about a big problem. : it is not an opinion (to think about : réfléchir)
Exercise : write the verb in the present tense.
- When you ....................................... (to turn) on the electricity, the computer
....................................... (to print) the word READY on the television screen.
- A company ....................................... (to make) 28 TV sets every day. How many
sets ..................... it ........................... (to make) in 8 weeks ?
- ....................... you .......................... (to want) the computer to print a number ?
- People often ....................................... (to want) to solve the same problem many
times, but with different numbers. If a thousand people ....................................... (to
work) for you, you ....................................... (not to want) to write a thousand
programs for their monthly pay.
- Inside a computer, there ....................................... (to be) many places for storing
numbers. Each of these places ....................................... (to be) an address.
Base 27
2. Present Continuous.
Form
Tout temps continu est formé à l’aide de l’auxiliaire be suivi du verbe en -ing.
Le présent continu est donc formé de : 'be' conjugué au présent + verbe avec la
terminaison en '-ing'.
La forme négative et la forme interrogative se forment sur base de l’auxiliaire 'be'.
Profitons -en pour revoir la conjugaison de ‘be’ au présent.
Remarque orthographique : une consonne finale de radical après une voyelle brève
et accentuée se voit doublée devant la terminaison rajoutée (ici : -ing ; mais la règle
s’appliquera également avec la terminaison -ed); un -l final l’est dans tous les cas
(sauf en U.S. English).
put >> putting
wait >> waiting
beg >> begging
write >> writing
travel >> travelling / U.S. traveling
listen >> listening
develop >> developing
- I am sleeping
I’m sleeping
- You are sleeping
you’re sleeping
I am not sleeping
I’m not sleeping
you are not sleeping
you aren’t sleeping
- He is sleeping
he’s sleeping
she is not sleeping
she isn’t sleeping
- We are sleeping
we’re sleeping
we are not sleeping
we aren’t sleeping
- You are sleeping
you’re sleeping
you are not sleeping
you aren’t sleeping
- They are sleeping
they’re sleeping
they are not sleeping
they aren’t sleeping
am I sleeping ?
am I not sleeping ?
are you sleeping ?
aren’t you sleeping?
are you not sleeping ?
is it sleeping ?
isn’t he sleeping ?
is she not sleeping ?
are we sleeping ?
aren’t we sleeping ?
are we not sleeping ?
are you sleeping ?
aren’t you sleeping ?
are you not sleeping ?
are they sleeping ?
aren’t they sleeping ?
are they not sleeping ?
Use
Le présent continu, comme tout temps continu, indique une durée de l’action que le
locuteur tient à mettre en évidence.
He is gardening. (jardiner est une activité qui dure !)
- Le présent continu est utilisé pour toute action se déroulant maintenant.
Tom is sleeping, now !
Certains verbes n’acceptent pas la forme continue : verbes de sentiment ou
d’émotion (to like), de perception (to hear) et de compréhension (to understand),
d’opinion (to think) et de connaissance (to know), de volonté (to want),
d’appartenance (to belong).
Remember the note about 'to think' on page 26.
Base 28
- Le présent continu est également utilisé pour exprimer un futur proche a vec les
verbes ‘to go’ et ‘to come’, ainsi qu’avec les autres verbes mais dans des phrases
incluant un complément de temps.
What are you doing tonight ? - I am going to the cinema.
Si ces autres verbes (autres que ‘to go’ et ‘to come’) ne sont pas accompagnés d’un
complément de temps, le futur proche (d’une action déjà décidée préalablement)
sera exprimé à l’aide de ‘be going to’ + infinitif.
What are you going to do ? - I am going to the cinema.
We are going to eat some sandwiches.
- Enfin, le présent continu est également utilisé pour une description présente de
quelque chose de statique.
The fire is burning and the cat is lying in front of it.
Exercise : write the verb in the continuous present tense. (except if not possible !)
- What ....................... you ............................ (to do) here ?
- We have to wait now, the computer ....................................... (to process) the data.
- ....................................... these people ....................................... (to draw) a
flowchart ?
- He ....................................... (not to listen) to his English teacher, because he thinks
he ....................................... (to know) everything ! And he .......................................
(to dream) about his next holidays ...
- I ....................................... (to sit) on a comfortable chair. Can you see me ?
Exercise : Present : Simple or Continuous ?
- Multiprogramming ............................... (to allow) several jobs to be run at the same
time. For instance, Job 2 ............................. (to begin) while Job 1 .............................
(to wait) for the data.
- In the case of interactive processing, the CPU ............................... (to share) its
processing time between the users.
- Don't bother John, he ............................... (to draw) a complex flowchart.
3. Present Perfect
Form
Ce temps est considéré comme le temps composé du présent.
Il va donc se former avec l’auxiliaire 'have' au présent, suivi du participe passé du
verbe.
La forme négative et la forme interrogative sont formées sur base de l’auxiliaire
'have'.
Profitons -en pour revoir la conjugaison de l’auxiliaire 'have' au présent.
Le participe passé d’un verbe régulier est formé en rajoutant '-ed' au radical du
verbe.
Il existe de nombreux verbes irréguliers. Vous devez mémoriser la liste des verbes
irréguliers les plus fréquents. (pages 25 - 25b - 25c)
Règles orthographiques pour les verbes réguliers : rappel :
Base 29
1. devant une terminaison (ici : '-ed'; mais cela vaut également devant la terminaison
'- ing'), une consonne finale précédée d’une voyelle brève et accentuée sera
doublée; un '-l' final sera toujours doublé (sauf en U.S. English)
beg >> begged
wait >> waited
travel >> travelled / U.S. traveled
listen >> listened
develop >> developed
2. le '-y' final est remplacé par '-i-' devant la terminaison '-ed' si ce '-y' est précédé
d’une consonne.
play >> played
try >> tried
Règle de phonétique :
le '-e-' de la terminaison '-ed' ne se prononce (/i/) qu’après une dentale, et donc pour
joindre la dentale ('t' ou 'd') du radical et le '-d' du passé.
- I have worked
I’ve worked
I have not worked
I haven’t worked
- You have worked
you’ve worked
you have not worked
you haven’t worked
- He has worked
he’s worked
he has not worked
he hasn’t worked
- We have worked
we’ve worked
we have not worked
we haven’t worked
have I worked ?
haven’t I worked ?
have I not worked ?
have you worked ?
haven’t you worked ?
have you not worked ?
has he worked ?
hasn’t he worked ?
has he not worked ?
have we worked ?
haven’t we worked ?
have we not worked ?
- You have worked
you’ve worked
you have not worked
you haven’t worked
- They have worked
they’ve worked
they have not worked
they haven’t worked
have you worked ?
haven’t you worked ?
have you not worked ?
have they worked ?
haven’t they worked ?
have they not worked ?
Use
Le Present Perfect est utilisé
- pour une action qui n’est pas terminée au moment où l’on parle (il est donc utilisé
avec for/since (même traduit par un présent en français), not...yet, ...)
We have not finished yet, we have worked for some time, though !
- pour une action qui se termine à ce moment, ou vient de se terminer (avec just;
already)
They have just phoned Tom. (Ils viennent de téléphoner à Tom.)
These data have already been processed.
- pour une action qui a eu lieu dans une période de temps non encore terminée
It’s 11 o’clock a.m.; I have received a lot of telephone calls this morning !
- pour une action passée qui a eu lieu à un moment indéterminé du passé.
We have prepared everything.
Have you ever seen that film ?
Base 30
4. Present Perfect Continuous
Form
'be' conjugué au Present Perfect + le verbe en '-ing' :
I have been doing something.
He has been worrying a lot.
Use
La forme continue permet d’insister sur la durée d’une action, tout en respectant
l'emploi du present Perfect :
I have been sleeping until now and for more than twelve hours !
Exercise : Write the verb in the present perfect tense, continuous or not.
- Once you ....................................... (to write) all the necessary steps, you
....................................... (to write) a program.
- Why ......................... you ......................................... (not to turn) off the computer ?
- It ....................................... (to check) everything.
- ........................... it ............................ (to print) the results ?
- Oh, yes, it ....................................... (to print) them for several hours !
- My friends ....................................... (to sleep) since the beginning of the course.
Exercises : Present : Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous ?
1. Some people ....................................... (to need) to 'talk with' the computer.
2. In a flowchart, each program-step ....................................... (to use) a box of a
special shape.
3. This screen ....................................... (not to belong) to us .
4. We ........................................... (to read) since your departure without any
interruption ! And our eyes ..................................... (to get) tired !
5. He‘s a good friend, I ........................................ (to know) him for years !
6. Where is Alan ? - He .................................. (to type) a long letter.
7. It never ....................................... (to rain) in August, or seldom !
8. What ................................ he .......................................... (to do) ? I can’t see him !
9. I normally ............................................ (to go) to work at this time.
10. Please, make the tea; the water......................................... (to boil).
11. What ....................... you ........................................... (to do) the whole morning ?
It is already half past eleven and you ..................................... (not to finish) anything !
12. In a few minutes, I ........................................... (to listen) to some English.
13. This is a nice match; we ............................... (to see) the ball; it .........................
(to pass) from one hand to another very quickly; now, Johnson .............................. (to
jump) to fetch it and Nicholas.......................... (to fall) down ! In the meantime,
Johnson ........................................... (to shoot) ... and ... goal !
14. This is a nice painting : a woman ...................................... (to sit) on a chair; the
man .................................. (to stand) behind her and their children .............................
(to play) in the background.
15. Cats ......................... (to hate) dogs; moreover, they ...................... (to drink) milk.
16. With the invention of chips, computer manufacture ............................... (to
become) much simpler.
17. Each machine language ............................... (to specify) behaviour inside a
particular CPU. ........................ you finally ............................. (to understand) it now ?
18. Wait a minute and don't be so impatient ! They ............................... (to connect)
the peripherals and only ............................... (to need) a few minutes for that !
19. Your program .............................. now ................................ (to run).
20. Output from a computer ............................... (to consist) of electrical pulses.
b) The Question
Base 31
Avant de continuer avec les temps, rappelons-nous la forme de la question en anglais.
What are you doing tonight ?
Do you like chocolate ?
Why do you often refuse his invitations ?
Are you sleeping ?
Doesn’t he prefer cakes ?
Schéma normal
Pronom
interrogatif
+ auxiliaire
+ sujet
+ reste de la forme + reste des
verbale.
compléments
+?
---
Auxiliaire
+ sujet
+ reste de la forme + reste des
verbale.
compléments
+?
Par auxiliaire, on entend l’auxiliaire de la forme verbale concernée; s’il s’agit d’un temps
simple, l’on doit suppléer l’auxiliaire ‘do’. (‘do/does’ au présent simple; ‘did’ au passé simple).
Do you like eggs ? Has he been listening to you ? Did you see Tom yesterday ? Will he
come here ?
Si le pronom interrogatif est le sujet de la question :
Pronom interrogatif sujet
+ forme verbale
+ reste des compléments + ?
Who has done this ? Who likes that ? >>> pas d'ajoute d'auxiliaire s'il n'y en a pas dans la forme
verbale !
Enfin, si le pronom interrogatif est introduit par une préposition, celle-ci se retrouve en fin de
question :
Pronom + auxiliaire + sujet + reste de la forme + reste des
+ prép.+ (compl.circ.) + ?
interrogatif
verbale
compl.(COI/COD)
What are you waiting for ? Who(m) are you going there with ? What was he listening to ?
What are you looking for ? (to look for : chercher) What does he usually eat his sandwiches
with ? Whom has he worked with ?
Exercise : ask the question so that the underlined element will become the answer. Respect
the tenses !
1. Mary is going to buy a new car.
2. We have already finished our work.
3. She is watching television.
4. I am thirty-two years old.
5. Very well, thank you.
6. I play football twice a week.
7. They are travelling with my best friends.
8. They have been playing cards for four hours !
9. Margaret listens to classical music most of the time.
10. Margaret listens to classical music most of the time.
11. We are going to school.
12. He goes to school every day !
13. She lives twenty kilometers from here.
14. We have interesting books.
15. They are listening to music.
16. They are listening to classical music.
17. John saw your brother last Sunday.
18. The course will last two hours.
19. The children are playing in the garden.
20. The teacher is talking.
21. The teacher is here to listen to our problems. 22. The teacher is talking.
23. She is twenty years old.
24. Fine, thanks !
25. This boy is seven ft tall.
26. That building is five hundred m high !
27. Mary likes reading.
28. Mary likes playing the piano.
c) Past Tenses (indicative)
Base 32
1. Past : Simple
Form
Le passé régulier des verbes : radical + -ed
Règle de phonétique : le ‘’e’’ du ‘’ed’’ ne se prononce qu’après 'd' ou 't'
Rappel de régles orthographiques : pour un verbe dont le radical se termine par '-y' :
si celui-ci est précédé d’une vo yelle, construction normale; s’il est précédé d’une
consonne, la terminaison ne sera pas '-yed' mais '-ied'. (He tried the toy and I played
with it.); un radical se terminant par une consonne voit celle-ci doublée devant la
terminaison si elle est précédée d’une voyelle brève et accentuée (We begged for
money but we never listened to what people said !).
Si ce n’est déjà fait, étudiez vos verbes irréguliers à fond !
La négation et l’interrogation se forment à l’aide de l’auxiliaire do au Simple Past,
c’est-à-dire : did.
Affirmative form :
- I worked
Negative form :
I did not work
I didn’t work
- you worked
you did not work
you didn’t work
- he/she/it worked
he did not work
he didn’t work
- we worked
we did not work
we didn’t work
- you worked
you did not work
you didn’t work
- they worked
they did not work
they didn’t work
Interrogative form (also neg.) :
did I work ?
didn’t I work ?
did I not work ?
did you work ?
didn’t you work ?
did you not work ?
did he work ?
didn’t he work ?
did he not work ?
did we work ?
didn’t we work ?
did we not work ?
did you work ?
didn’t you work ?
did you not work ?
did they work ?
didn’t they work ?
did they not work ?
Use
Le temps simple du passé anglais est utilisé :
- pour une action passée qui a eu lieu à un moment précis du passé (qu’il soit
exprimé ou sous -entendu)
Ex. : When I was young, I ate many sandwiches.
Yesterday, Tom phoned me.
Last year, he met my sister.
It’s 3 p.m.; this morning, I saw your brother. (nous sommes dans l'après-midi; la
matinée est donc terminée; cela est par conséquent une période du passé)
Ten years ago, the dollar dropped quite suddenly.
Base 33
Attention : dans une subordonnée de temps introduite par since, depuis que :
vu que ‘since’ introduit un moment précis du passé, le verbe de la subordonnée est bien sûr
au Past Simple; tandis que le verbe de la principale se mettra au Present Perfect puisqu’en
présence de ‘since’.
Décomposons pour mieux comprendre :
Since 1982, we haven’t seen our family anymore.
What happened in 1982 ? - We moved abroad.
Nous remplaçons donc ‘’1982’’ par ‘’we moved abroad’’ :
Since we moved abroad, we haven’t seen our family anymore.
- pour une question où l’on demande à quel moment du passé quelque chose a eu
lieu.
Ex. : When did you experience that ? What time did you get up ?
See the difference :
Have you seen that film ?
>> dans l'absolu, donc moment indéterminé
Yes, I have already seen it.
>> moment indéterminé
When did you see it ?
>> demande de précision sur le temps du passé
I saw it the day before yesterday. >> temps du passé défini, précisé
- pour une habitude dans le passé : (autre possibilité : auxiliaire 'used to' + Inf.)
Ex. : I always drank tea in the morning. (but now, not anymore)
= I used to drink tea in the morning.
When I was your age, I went to school by bicycle.
= I used to go by bicycle when I was your age !
2. Past : Continuous
Form
Auxiliaire 'be' au passé simple + verbe e n -ing
I was dreaming - you were dreaming - he was dreaming - we were dreaming - you
were dreaming - they were dreaming.
Négation et interrogation : I was not dreaming.
Were you dreaming ?
Use
Comme tous les temps continus, le Past Continuous ajoute une idée de durée au
Past Simple; de plus, il est également employé pour des descriptions dans le passé.
Ex. : Yesterday when I came in, he was deeply sleeping.
I was gardening while my husband was thoroughly washing his car.
The building was burning.
The cat was lying in front of the fire and the dog was running in the garden.
Exercises : Past Simple or Continuous ?
1. He .............................. (to sleep) when I .............................. (to call) for him.
2. When I .............................. (to arrive), the building .............................. (to burn).
3. I .............................. (to enter) the room and what ................... I ............................
(to see) ? ! They .................................... (to sleep) on the floor !
4. The children .............................. (to watch) television while their parents ............
quite fiercely .............................. (to discuss) about them.
5. When the phone .............................. (to ring), I .............................. (to work).
Base 34
6. I ............................... (to meet) your brother at John's party; he ...............................
(to talk) to a young lady when I ................................ (to arrive).
7. When ........................... you ........................... (to buy) this desktop computer ?
8. When Richard .......................................(to phone), we ...................................... (to
listen) to the radio in our bedroom and we ........................................... (not to hear)
the telephone ringing.
9. We ............................... (not to agree) with them on what they .............................
(to do) at that time and we ............................... (to tell) them about it, but they
............................... (not to stop).
10. When the printer ............................... (to break down), it ...............................
(to print) a very long text ! This ............................... (to be) a real catastrophe !
11. The earliest operating systems ............................... (to allow) only one job to be
run at a time.
12. He always ............................... (to use) the same programming language before !
13. People ............................... (to talk) around Peter while he ............................... (to
program) and he ............................... (to make) several mistakes !
14. I am sure that last week, they ............................... (not to overcome) that problem
alone !
15. When I ....................... (to get) there, they ........................ desperately .................
(to try) to convince Peter not to use so many loops !
3. Past : Perfect
Form
auxiliaire 'have' au passé, soit : had, suivi du part. passé du verbe.
I had worked
I had not worked.
Had I worked ?
I hadn’t worked
Had I not worked ?
Hadn’t I worked ?
et ainsi de suite à toutes les personnes.
Use
Ce temps est utilisé pour toute action passée antérieure à une autre action passée
ou à un moment du passé.
Il est donc utilisé dans un contexte passé pour remplacer tout Past Simple ou
Present Perfect.
(et donc aussi avec since et for dans un contexte passé).
Ex. : We had met your teacher several days before you did !
In 1985, my parents had already left Belgium.
We arrived too late at the station and the train had just left !
I was glad to meet her last week, as I hadn’t seen her for several months !
Il remplace les Past Simple et Present Perfect dans un discours indirect avec un
contexte passé (introduit par un verbe passé) :
Ex. : He told me : ‘’I went there yesterday.’’
===> He told me he had gone there the day before.
He told me : ‘’ I have finished that very quickly.’’
===> He told me he had finished that very quickly.
Base 35
4. Past : Perfect Continuous
Form
L’auxiliaire 'be' conjugué au temps voulu, c’est-à-dire au Past Perfect : had been,
suivi du du verbe en -ing.
I had been waiting
I had not been waiting
I hadn’t been waiting
Had I been waiting ?
Hadn’t I been waiting ?
Had I not been waiting ?
Use
La forme continue insiste sur la durée de l’action.
Ex. : - They had forgotten the time of their appointment and when they arrived, the
others had been waiting for them for one and a half hour !
- When Mary finally got up, she noticed that she had been sleeping since the
preceding morning !
Exercises : Past Perfect or Past Perfect continuous ?
1. Before you finally arrived, they ................................................ (to phone) me to ask me
where you were, for they ............................................. (to wait) for you for hours !
2. We ................................................ (to decide) to come here long before you did !
3. He .............................................. (to watch) films the whole day when we saw him !
4. In 1986, we ................................................ already ................................................ (to lose)
much money !
5. When you got here, I was told you ................................................ (to program) for years !
6. When the printer broke down, it ................................................ (not to finish) the printing.
7. The police inspector ................................................ (to look) for clues since the murder
and ................................................ (to find) nothing when the second lady was killed.
8. We ................................................ just ................................................ (to leave) the party
when you arrived.
9. We ................................................ (to leave) the building when they arrived : they
................................................ (to look) for the place the whole evening !
10. She ................................................ (to play) games on the computer during several hours
and she ................................... just ....................................... (to stop) when the boss arrived !
Further Exercises : Past : Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous ?
1. I ................................................ (not to finish) my work when James ......................... (to
arrive), although I ................................................ (to work) for a long time !
2. She ................................................ already ................................................ (to get up) and
was downstairs when we ................................................ (to phone) her in order to wake her.
3. They ......................................................................... (to have) breakfast when we
................................................ (to come) downstairs to join them.
4. We ........................................... (not to finish) yet when he .................................. (to leave).
5. The secretary ................................................ (not to type) the letter when the boss
................................................ (to ask) for it ! She ................................................ (to dream)
before beginning to work !
6. I .............................. (to see) you yesterday and you ............................................ (to talk) to
a young lady.
7. When ..................................... you ............................................ (to arrive) here ?
8. She ............................................ (to wait) for her boyfriend when we
............................................ (to meet) her; she ............................................ (to wait) for him
for more than an hour !
9. In 1998 I ............................................ (to begin) to work in this company.
Base 36
10. When you ............................................ (to phone), I ............................................ (to
sleep); that's why I ............................................ (cannot) answer you !
11. Mary ............................................ (to wash) the dishes while her husband
............................................ (to garden); when I ............................................( to arrive), it
............................................ (to disturb) them although I ............................................ (to
phone) them ten minutes before to warn them of my arrival ! I ............................ (to be)
shocked and ............................................ (to leave) immediately !
5. Past Simple or Present Perfect ?
1. Si le moment est déterminé dans le passé : Past Simple; sinon, Present Perfect.
Ex. I have already met that man.
I met him last week.
2. Si l’action n’est pas termi née, ou se termine, ou vient de se terminer au moment
où l’on parle, ou qu’elle a eu lieu dans une période de temps non encore terminée au
moment où l’on parle, alors : Present Perfect.
Ex.
We have been waiting for her for two hours, now; and she hasn’t arrived yet !
Wait a second, we have finished our exercises.
We have just been listening to my favourite song.
He is still living : He has done a lot of things in his life !
He is dead : He did a lot of things in his life !
3. N’oubliez pas que le Past Simple est également utilisé lorsque l’on demande à
quel moment a eu lieu une action passée, ainsi que pour exprimer une habitude dans
le passé !
Exercises : Simple Past or Present Perfect ? (continuous or not) :
1. He ........................................ (not to watch) television yesterday evening.
2. We ........................................ (not to see) her since her birthday.
3. They ........................................ just ........................................ (to leave).
4. .................................... you already ...................................... (to type) his mail ?
5. She ........................................ (not to finish) it yet.
6. We ........................................ (not to like) your party last week !
7. It’s three o’clock p.m.; he ...................................... (to phone) five times this afternoon, and
he ...................................... (to ring) at the door twice in the morning !
8. He always ........................................ (to eat) bread with an egg for breakfast when he was
young.
9. You are lucky to find us here : we .............................. just .................................. (to arrive).
10. ........................................ you ........................................ (to enjoy) the party last night ?
11. Where .............................. you .............................. (to be) ? I ............................... (to look)
for you everywhere for hours !
Further exercise : Mixture of all past tenses + present perfect (continuous or not) :
1. Yesterday, when the rain ...................................... (to begin), I ............................... (to play)
tennis and I ........................ already ................................... (to beat) your brother twice !
2. Come in! they .............................................. (just to explain) me the strange adventure
they ....................................... (to experience) last week, and the other events that
.......................... (already to happen) several weeks before ! Quite interesting !
3. Since she ............................... (to answer) so badly, she ............................. (to learn) a lot !
4. Why ................................. you ...................................... (to lie) to your teacher yesterday ?
5. We ...................................... (never to meet) your brother before coming here last month.
6. He ...................................... (already to wait) for her for more than two hours when you
...................................... (to see) him yesterday.
7. My house ...................................... (to burn) for several hours now; the fire
........................... (to begin) yesterday in the kitchen.
d) Auxiliaries
Base 37
Les auxiliaires peuvent :
- aider à la formation de temps :
have : temps composés;
be : temps continus;
will (shall) : temps futurs;
would (should) : temps du conditionnel
- aider à la formation de formes verbales :
be : voix passive;
do : négation et interrogation des temps simples.
D’autres auxiliaires sont appelés auxiliaires de mode et apportent une nuance au verbe.
Tous les auxiliaires ont la particularité de former la négation en ajoutant ‘not’ et l’interrogation
en opérant une inversion sujet/verbe.
Auxiliaires de mode :
must : obligation
(nég. : mustn’t = must not)
can : possibilité; capacité
(nég. : can’t = cannot)
(passé et conditionnel : could)
may : permission; éventualité
(nég. : may not)
(conditionnel : might)
should : obligation morale.
(nég. : shouldn’t = should not)
You must do that !
It can be done. (possibilité)
I cannot open the door. (capacité)
We could help him !
You may go out tonight. (permission)
He may arrive later. (éventualité : "Il se peut
qu'il arrive plus tard.")
My children may not play in the street ! (pas
de permission)
You might be right ! ("Il se pourrait que tu aies
raison.")
You should work more if you want to be
successful ! ("tu devrais")
We shouldn't criticize her so much !
Ces auxiliaires ont une forme invariable et sont suivis d’un infinitif sans ‘to’.
Ces verbes dits défectifs n’existent qu’au présent (sauf exceptions entre parenthèses
ci-dessus), ne prennent pas de –s à la 3 e personne du singulier du présent, ne se
conjuguent pas avec do pour la négation et l’interrogation. (ceci est vrai aussi pour
shall, will, would)
- Deux auxiliaires se retrouvent en forme interrogative et négative, suivis de l’infinitif sans ‘to’
et n’existent qu’au présent :
need : avoir besoin;
We needn’t work to be successful !
dare : oser.
Dare you go there alone ?
Ces deux mots existent aussi comme verbes et sont alors construits comme des verbes à
part entière (nég. et interrog. avec do; 3ème pers. du sing. :'-s') et sont suivis de ‘to’ avec
infinitif. (They don't need to be there on time. We didn't need to hurry so much ! Does he
dare to say so ? We didn't dare to go with him.) Cependant, au présent, préférence pour
l'auxiliaire.
- Rem. : Une tournure spéciale se comporte comme un auxiliaire, c'est-à-dire suivie de
l'infinitif sans le 'to' : 'had better' : I had better go alone ! Cette expression sert à donner un
conseil : il vaut mieux que j'aille seul !
- Sont suivis de ‘to’ avant l’infinitif : used to : habitude dans le passé (n’existe qu’au passé) :
When I was young, I used to go to school by bicycle.
As a child, my brother used to drink milk in the morning.
ought to : obligation morale (= should) (nég. oughtn't)
We ought to listen to her !
Remarques :
Base 38
1. L’infinitif peut être
- présent :
You must go out.
They may answer that.
- passé :
I may have been wrong.
He must have denied everything.
2. - L’absence d’obligation :
- si autorité externe impliquée : don’t have to
You don’t have to do this homework.
The boss can understand your reason and you don’t have
to be there at 8 tomorrow.
- sinon : needn’t
We needn’t go there.
The party begins at 8 o’clock; I needn’t be there until 9 !
- L’interdiction :
mustn’t : You mustn’t go in there = you are forbidden to go in
there.
(un manque de permission : may not : You may not go out).
Formes de substitution :
Puisque ces auxiliaires n’existent qu’au présent, il faut les remplacer par une "forme
de substitution" dès que l'on désire les employer à un autre temps !
1. must
Cette forme n’existe qu’au présent de l’indicatif; si l’on désire indiquer une obligation
à un autre temps, il faudra utiliser (et conjuguer comme un verbe) : have to + Inf. :
We must work harder.
- Last week, we had to work harder.
- Next time, we will have to work !
- Last year, the students didn’t have to
do anything of that kind !
Il est à remarquer que les deux formes existent en parallèle au présent, mais avec
une nuance différente :
- si l’obligation vient de l’extérieur : have to
My train is leaving in a few minutes, I have to leave !
(élément extérieur contraignant : l'heure du train)
- si elle est ressentie comme venant du locuteur : must
I must go, now ! (I feel it like that, maybe I am tired, or I don’t want to go back home
too late, ...) (l'obligation vient de moi-même, locuteur)
2. can
Cette forme n’existe qu’au présent de l’indicatif; au prétérit de l’indicatif (Past Simple)
ainsi qu’au conditionnel, la forme devient : 'could'; mais à tous les autres temps, une
forme de substitution devra être employée :
- capacité : to be able to + infinitive
- Will you be able to open the door ?
- possibilité : to be possible
- Will it be possible to bring the lorry
back ?
Note :
- conditionnel présent : You could injure somebody ! (Tu pourrais blesser quelqu'un)
- conditionnel passé : He could have killed his children ! (Il aurait pu tuer ses enfants !)
3. may
Base 39
Cette forme n’existe qu’au présent de l’indicatif; au conditionnel et dans la nuance
d’éventualité, la forme se transforme en : 'might'; mais à tous les autres temps, une
forme de substitution devra être employée :
- permission : to be allowed to + infinitive
- Jonathan may go out because last
week he was not allowed to.
- Will you be allowed to go with us ?
- éventualité : pas d’autre forme; le temps se décide au niveau de l’infinitif :
- They may arrive later.
- They may have arrived later.
- He might agree on that.
- She might have said yes.
Une éventualité dans le passé peut être exprimée également, quoique plus rarement,
par : must + infinitif passé : He must have missed his train.
4. should / ought to
L’obligation morale est exprimée par une de ces deux formes suivie de l’infinitif
présent si obligation morale présente ou future, ou de l’infinitif passé si obligation
morale passée :
- You should listen to your parents.
- In the future, Tim should obey more.
- You should have answered more
politely the other day !
Exercises : Translate
1. You can change the numbers as often as you like.
2. You may want a little money when the bank is shut. You can go to the money machine
outside the bank and push your plastic card in.
3. You may want the computer to solve a problem, and then use the answer in different
problems. For problems like this, computers need to 'remember'.
4. If you want the computer to remember a number, it must send that number to an address.
And you must give that address a name - usually just a letter. Then the computer can find it
again later.
5. If you want to use two different numbers, you don't need to write the whole program again.
6. This had to be done last week ! Weren't you able to do it ?
7. May I use your telephone, please ?
8. She couldn't use the keyboard properly !
9. We were allowed to use our own floppy disks.
10. You should be careful ! There could be a danger !
Complete the translation with the correct auxiliary (or replacing form)
1. We ............................... obey our parents ! (devrions)
2. They ............................... stand their neighbours ! (ne savent pas)
3. Oh, it's late, now ! We ............................... go (devons) !
4. They ............................... (devront) get accustomed to it !
5. She ............................... (il se pourrait qu'elle) arrive later.
6. They ............................... (n'osent pas) ask you !
7. Madam, ............................... I go out, please ?
8. I ............................... believe that ! (ne pourrais pas)
9. ............................... you (as-tu pu) understand what she said yesterday ?
10. Last week, we ............................... (avons dû) leave earlier and next time, we
............................... (ne pourrons pas) enter the room !
11. Our friends ............................... (n'ont pas besoin) ask for anything, they
............................... (savent) have everything they want to !
12. You ............................... (dois) absolutely tell him the truth !
Complete with the right auxiliary
Base 40
1. ......................... I go out, please ?
2. You ......................... learn more if you want to succeed !
3. ......................... she open that door ? She seems to be so weak !
4. They ......................... (doivent) be there before their friends !
5. My brother ......................... (il se peut que mon frère) arrive later.
6. When I was young, I ......................... to go to school by bicycle.
7 .You ......................... (n'as pas besoin) worry; I ......................... manage alone !
8. I .........................not do that, it is too difficult !
9. Stop, you ......................... not smoke here !
10. It ......................... be so, but I doubt it !
Translate
1. Tu dois partir maintenant !
2. II se pourrait qu'elle te dise tout !
3. Sais-tu (peux-tu) m'aider ? Cela est si difficile !
4. II devrait m'écouter !
5. Elle n'ose pas venir seule !
6. Je ne peux pas sortir ce soir, mes parents ne sont pas d'accord !
7. Puis-je avoir la voiture, STP ?
8. II se peut que Jane roule vite.
9. Mais cela peut être dangereux !
10. Ces gens doivent payer, maintenant !
What are the forms in other tenses ?
1. I ......................... (may - future) to go with you but I ......................... (must - future) to leave
earlier.
2. These people ......................... (cannot - simple past) answer the questions.
3. They ......................... (can - future) to help you, wait for them !
4. They ......................... (can - conditional) do that alone but they don't want to !
5. ......................... it ......................... (can - future) for you to come ?
6. We ......................... never ......................... (may - present perfect) to go there. We
....................................... always ..................... (must - present perfect) to ask somebody else.
7. Why ............................................... you ......................... (cannot - past perfect) to do that
before that time ?
8. You ......................... never ......................... (may - future) to help her and she
......................... never ......................... (can - future) to succeed ! What a pity !
9. You ......................... (must - future) to obey her.
10. They ......................... (may - conditional) be happy like that.
Do / have : auxiliaries or verbs ?
Un auxiliaire n’a pas besoin d’autre élément pour être nié ou mis en interrogation.
Un verbe doit suppléer l’auxiliaire do (did) pour être nié ou mis en interrogation à un
temps simple. (Present : do/does; Past : did)
‘Have’ et ‘do’ existent comme auxiliaires (un auxiliaire n’a pas d’infinitif), mais
également comme verbes à part entière : ‘to have’ / ‘to do’. Dans ce dernier cas, ils
se comportent comme d’autres verbes.
Ce n’est par contre pas le cas de ‘to be’, qui, lui, ne se différencie pas de l’auxiliaire
‘be’.
Meanings of the verbs 'to do' and 'to have' :
to do : faire
What do you do ?
I am a student, I don’t do anything else, it is enough !
What did you do yesterday night ? I didn’t do anything special : I did some shopping before
going back home and sleeping.
to have :
- avoir (= ‘ve got)
Base 41
I have a lot of money. And you, what do you have ? (J'ai beaucoup d'argent. Et toi, qu'as-tu ?)
We don’t have anything to say. (Nous n'avons rien à dire.)
- avoir, prendre
We have breakfast at 8 in the morning. (Nous prenons le petit déjeuner à 8 heures du matin.)
We don’t have any bath until late in the evening. (Nous ne prenons pas de bain avant le soir.)
When do they have holidays ? (Quand prennent -ils (ont-ils) leurs vacances ?)
- devoir (to have to) (= ‘ve got to)
You don’t have to hurry up, he is not there yet.
(Tu n'as pas besoin de (n'as pas à) te dépêcher, il n'est pas encore là)
Do I have to get up early tomorrow ? (Dois-je me lever tôt demain ?)
- faire faire quelque chose = the causative use of to have.
Mary didn’t have her gate painted. (Marie n'a pas fait repeindre sa barrière.)
When does he usually have his gardener cut the trees ?
(Quand fait-il généralement couper les arbres par son jardinier ?)
Do / to do / have / to have : verbs or auxiliaries? Exercises
A. Niez :
1. They have finished their homework.
2. We do this every morning.
3. We like coffee.
4. They did their best !
5. We had understood Peter.
6. We have to obey her.
7. They have Tom drive their daughter to school every morning.
8. He has the right to answer !
B. Posez la question :
1. You like chocolate.
2. You did a lot of work last weekend.
3. My parents had no friends when they lived in Belgium.
4. He has his parents wash his car !
5. You have time.
6. We really have to leave.
7. She doesn’t care for her children, does she ?
8. We have done nothing yet.
Causative use of to have
1. Vous indiquez la personne qui va réellement faire l’action :
sujet (celui qui donne les ordres, qui se fait servir) + to have conjugué au temps
voulu + l’agent réel + verbe de l’action concernée à l’infinitif + compléments.
My boss always has everybody work later in the evening.
2. Vous n’indiquez pas l’agent réel, soit parce qu’il n'est pas connu, soit parce qu’il
importe peu :
sujet (celui qui donne les instructions, ...) + to have conjugué au temps voulu + l’objet
de l’action + participe passé du verbe de l’action concernée + compléments.
(le participe passé est le résidu d’un infinitif à la voix passive : be + part. passé)
My boss always has all the work finished at the end of the day, even if there is too much of it.
Compare
- This system makes the user write everything more quickly.
- It makes us wonder why !
Exercises : Translate into French :
1. I have Peter paint my gate.
2. We have our car washed.
3. They had Mary answer the phone.
Base 42
4. We will have the roof repaired.
5. They have had John and Peter carry those heavy boxes.
6. He is having Mary write the letter.
7. I am going to have my hair cut.
8. He should have the lorry driven back to the garage, as it cannot stay there.
9. Wouldn’t you have your parents answer that ?
10. Mary and Peter never had their children helped for their homework.
Translate into English :
1. Chaque jour, je fais nettoyer les moteurs par mon fils.
2. Je fais toujours charger les ordinateurs avec la dernière version de ce logiciel.
3. Nous faisons souvent traduire des textes par cet homme.
4. Il a fait écrire un programme par ses étudiants.
5. Hier, mes parents ont fait garder la maison par le chien des voisins.
6. Feras-tu ouvrir l'école plus tôt ?
7. Nous allons faire lancer ce nouveau produit par cette célèbre firme publicitaire.
8. Je dois faire dactylographier et envoyer quelques lettres.
9.
a) Ferais-tu ré-écrire cela clairement ?
b) Ferais-tu ré-écrire cela clairement par ta secrétaire ?
10. Nous faisons enregistrer notre conversation, ne nous dérange pas !
Rewrite these sentences using the causative form of 'to have'
1. I cannot do that myself; Tom will do it for me.
2. We haven't written that text ourselves; our friends have written it.
3. My friend doesn't buy the presents himself; I do it for him.
4. I never make coffee myself; my mother always does it for me.
5. This writer hasn't printed his book, of course; it has been printed by someone else for him !
6. We don't write our homework ourselves. The best pupil does it for us !
7. Mary will not answer the letter herself. Somebody will do it for her.
8. My father has not given my friend flowers. I have given her the flowers.
9. We don't repair the roof ourselves. Somebody can do it for us.
Question Tags and Short Answers
Ces deux types de formules typiquement anglaises sont à traiter ensemble et une fois le
problème des auxiliaires bien assimilé, car elles consistent en un jeu avec ceux-ci.
Question tags : terminent des phrases.
Short answers : brèves réponses par une autre personne que le premier interlocuteur.
Dans tous les cas : bien respecter l’auxiliaire, le temps et la conjugaison ! Si le temps
est le présent simple, l’auxiliaire sera 'do'; si le temps est le passé simple, il sera 'did'.
- Question tags
1. "N’est- ce pas ?"
- Si la phrase est affirmative, le question tag sera nié (avec contraction)
Si la phrase est négative, le question tag sera affirmatif.
- Le question tag consiste en : auxiliaire + sujet repris sous forme de pronom
personnel sujet + point d’interrogation.
Ex. : Mary is friendly, isn’t she ?
Peter and his parents will arrive late, won’t they ?
Your brother can’t understand that, can he ?
Intonation montante.
2. Demander confirmation de ce que l’on dit : "c’est bien cela ?"
Base 43
- Auxiliaire (nié si nié dans la phrase, sinon, affirmatif) suivi du sujet (pronom
personnel) + point d’interrogation.
Ex. : Your brother left yesterday, did he ?
Their parents have never taken care of them, haven’t they ?
Intonation descendante.
3. Pour une suggestion ou une proposition : "d'accord ?"
- shall I ? / shall we ? / will you ? ... donc : auxiliaire du futur + sujet (pronom
personnel)
+ point d’interrogation.
Ex. : Well, I’ll help you, shall I ?
Let’s go together, shall we ?
You will tell him the truth, will you ?
Intonation montante.
- Short answers
1. 'Yes' / 'no'
La réponse est plus complète si elle est accompagnée du sujet sous forme de
pronom personnel sujet suivi de l’auxiliaire. En cas de négation, l’auxiliaire est nié
avec contraction.
Ex. : Do you like chocolate ?
- Yes, I do.
Can Peter open the door ?
- No, he can’t.
2. En réponse à ‘who’?
La réponse sera constituée du sujet complet et de l’auxiliaire approprié.
Ex. : Who wrote this ?
- My best friend did.
Who has brought such a thing ?
Who will go there ?
- Tom has.
- Maybe we will.
3. ... "aussi" ; ... "non plus"
a) ... "aussi" : en réponse à une phrase affirmative
So + auxiliaire affirmatif + la personne dont c’est aussi le cas.
Ex. : We have a lot of trouble.
- So does Mary.
Mary and Tom worked very late yesterday.
They have understood everything.
- So did I.
- So has my sister.
b) ... "non plus" : en réponse à une phrase négative
Neither + auxiliaire affirmatif + la personne dont ce n’est pas non plus le cas.
Neither peut être remplacé par ‘nor’.
Ex. : My parents don’t live in Belgium.
- Nor do mine.
They hadn’t seen me for a long time.
She may not go out.
- Neither had Tom.
- Neither may I.
4. "Vraiment ?" - "Ah, oui / ah non, vraiment ?"
- Simple étonnement
auxiliaire + pronom personnel sujet + point d’interrogation. Si l’auxiliaire est nié, il le
reste.
Ex. : I bought a new car.
- Oh, did you ?
Mary and Peter will buy a house.
My friend and I haven’t seen you.
- Will they ?
- Haven’t you ?
- Renforcement de l’étonnement
pronom personnel sujet + auxiliaire + virgule + auxiliaire + pronom personnel + point
d’interrogation. Si l’auxiliaire est nié, il le reste.
Ex. : We would like to meet this man.
- You would, would you ?
You haven’t done it properly !
- I haven’t, haven’t I ?
Base 44
Exercises : Complete
"n’est-ce pas ?" :
1. You had Peter help your son, ....................... ?
2. They would never accept that, ................... ?
3. Oswald is a very friendly man, ..................... ?
4. We haven’t got a lot of time, ...................... ?
5. You can fill in this form, .............................. ?
6. He wouldn't go alone, ............................... ?
7. They have a lot of money, ............................... ?
8. She has understood the explanations, ............................... ?
9. I can do that alone, ............................... ?
10. You will help your brother, ............................... ?
11. Our teacher didn't answer that question, ............................... ?
12. Your brother always has his friends do his exercises, ............................... ?
13. Your neighbours like your dog, ............................... ?
"c’est bien cela ?" :
1. They will not answer our letter, .......................
2. They don’t care about their parents, ...........
3. He likes tea and not coffee, ...........................
4. James hasn’t heard of that, ........................
5. You cannot speak French, ..............................
- "d’accord ?" :
1. I’ll do that for you, ..............................
2. Let’s think together about this, ...................
The teacher and we will discuss it, ......................
4. Your parents will phone me, .......................
5. You will open the door as soon as I arrive, ...............................
- Short answers :
1. Would you go there alone ?
-Yes, ..............................
2. Who will answer this ?
- Mary ..............................
3. Can Barbara speak German ?
- No, .........................., but Peter .....................
4. Who likes mathematics ?
- Nobody here ..........................
5. Have you read this book ?
- Yes, of course ........................
- "... aussi" ; "... non plus" :
1. Peter didn’t like your speech yesterday.
- (Mary) ..............................
2. When you were young, you often drank too much.
- (John) ..............................
3. We haven’t got much money.
- (Sam) ..............................
4. I can lift a heavy bag.
- (John) ..............................
5. We had finished everything much before !
- (I) ..............................
6. She is a pretty girl !
- (her sister) ..............................
7. We have several good friends.
- (Tom) ..............................
8. They had calculated everything !
- (I) ..............................
9. Mary will come alone.
- (my friend) ..............................
10. They wouldn't believe you.
- (our teacher) ..............................
11. I may go out tonight !
- (I) ..............................
12. I don't like English.
- (most of them) .............................
13. My parents told us everything.
- (ours) ..............................
- "Vraiment ?" :
1. They have bought a very nice house !
- ..............................
2. We didn’t like the film yesterday.
- ..............................
- "Ah, oui, vraiment", ..... ? :
1. Mary has to translate many sentences.
- ..............................
2. I don’t want to go to that party.
- ..............................
e) Future tenses
Base 45
Beaucoup de formes sont utilisées pour exprimer une idée future !
Même un Simple Present peut être utilisé avec une idée de futur, dans le cas de
quelque chose de bien organisé et planifié, comme un voyage !
Ex. : On Monday, we leave at 9 in the morning; we catch the 10 o'clock plane and
arrive in Paris at 11.30; then, we go to the hotel; we can meet you there at 1.
Near future
Trois formes peuvent exprimer un futur proche :
- be going to + Inf. : We are going to meet Tom.
deux conditions à cet emploi :
1. le verbe n'est pas : to go / to come;
2. l'action est déjà décidée et prévue.
- Present Continuous : They are meeting me at 3.30.
trois conditions à cet emploi :
1. le verbe est : to go / to come;
2. avec tout autre verbe, une expression de temps doit être présente !
3. l'action est déjà décidée et prévue.
- Simple Future : Shall I open the door for you ?
une condition à cet emploi dans le cadre d'un futur proche :
L'action se décide juste au moment où l'on s'exprime !
Différence :
- I have decided what to teach you; we are going to learn the future tenses.
- You are talking too much ! I shall give you a test right now to get you quieter !
Ceci implique que le Simple Future sera utilisé dès que
- vous proposez à quelqu'un de faire quelque chose :
Shall I help you ?
- vous demandez à quelqu'un de faire quelque chose :
Will you carry this for me, please ?
- vous promettez ou refusez de faire quelque chose :
No, I will not follow you !
I'll do it right now, I promise you !
Remarques
- ‘to be going to’ et le Simple Future sont utilisés pour exprimer ce que le locuteur
pense qu'il va arriver :
I think it's going to rain !
I think he will come !
- pour quelque chose de bien organisé et planifié, comme un voyage, la tendance
sera d'employer un Simple Present.
We arrive at the airport at ten and leave the country at 10.30.
- il est évident qu'il est plus poli, dans certains cas, d'utiliser un conditionnel :
Would you help me, please ?
- dans certains cas, l'expression "to be going to" signifie "to be about to" : "être sur le
point de" et peut être utilisée à d'autres temps !
Base 46
Ex. : I was going to leave when Tom arrived. (J'allais partir quand Tom arriva.)
I am sure I will be going to eat when Tom arrives; it is always like that !
(Je suis sûr que je serai sur le point de manger quand Tom arrivera, c'est toujours comme
cela !)
Exercises :
Re-write :
I am about to draw a flowchart.
Harry was about to tell me how to run the program.
If you arrive so late, I will be about to leave !
Complete :
1. We ............................................... (to meet) the boss.
2. Sam ............................................... (to talk) to his wife tomorrow, be patient !
3. Where ....................... you ............................................... (to go) to tonight ?
4. ............................ you .............................. (to help) me, please and open the door ?
5. ............................ she ............................................... (to listen) to me, please ?
6. Good morning! Well, today we ............................................... (to do) the test,
as agreed.
7. ....................................... you ...................................... (to tell) me the truth, now ?
8. We ............................................... (to eat) at two o'clock, don't forget it !
9. They ............................................... (can) do that alone now !
10. ............................................... you keep quiet, please?
How would you translate ?
He was about to leave when I arrived !
I am about to explain everybody why you will not go there.
Simple Future
will (shall aux 1ères pers. surtout en interrogation) + infinitif sans "to".
En plus de ce qui est déjà mentionné ci-dessus, ce temps est utilisé pour :
- des déclarations ou annonces officielles :
The Prime Minister says : "The government will resign."
- lorsqu'un événement est inévitable (unavoidable) :
We shall all die.
Spring will come again.
- lorsque vous êtes sûr de quelque chose :
He will certainly be angry !
I am sure they will never understand such a thing !
- lorsqu'il y a une forte probabilité à ce que quelque chose arrive :
You will probably refuse my invitation !
We all expect the winter will be hard. ( = We all expect the winter to be hard. )
- mettre un verbe d'émotion (feeling), de possession, de sens, de pensée ou
compréhension, ... au futur :
I shall love that child !
This will belong to you later.
We will see nothing from here !
They will think you are crazy !
- le futur des exp ressions remplaçant les auxiliaires de mode (be able, have to, be
allowed...)
They will be allowed to go out if they are friendly.
I will have to tell him the truth !
I am sure she will be able to open this.
Base 47
Future Continuous
will be + verbe en -ing
Ajoute l'idée de durée au futur simple.
You will certainly be sleeping at that time of the night !
They will be waiting for you until you arrive.
Future Perfect
will have + part. passé du verbe
Indique l'antériorité d'un événement futur par rapport à un autre moment futur ou à
une action future :
In June, I will already have finished my training period !
Harry will be here at 7. Will you have finished your installation by that time ?
Future Perfect Continuous
will have + been + verbe en -ing
Ajoute l'idée de durée au futur antérieur.
I will already have been waiting for several hours if he comes so late !
Attention : propositions subordonnées de temps et de condition au futur
Présent - simple, continuous ou perfect (si antériorité) - dans la subordonnée, futur
dans la principale.
Traduire :
When you come back, will you call for me ?
They will be sleeping, if you arrive so late !
We will not have finished that game until you get here ! (attention à "not until")
The boss will congratulate you as soon as you have found out what the problem is !
If it is nice tomorrow, we will go for a walk.
Will you have typed all the letters when I come back ?
Tom will agree with you if you tell him everything.
If you are sleeping, shall I wake you up ?
Exercice com plémentaire : expliquez la forme verbale employée :
1. Hello, John ! What will you do this afternoon ?
2. Now, I am going to check the last records.
3. We will certainly have finished that on time !
4. This new software company will open its doors on the 10th December.
5. They will probably find out the bugs, if they work in that way.
Complétez avec le temps voulu (dans le futur)
1. When Tom ............................................ (to arrive), I ............................................... (to eat
already) and I ............................................... (to sleep certainly already) !
2. William ............................................... (to tell) you everything, don't worry !
3. They ............................................... (to play) tennis by that time! Can't you come earlier ?
4. Jenny ............................... certainly ............................................... (to succeed) !
5. He ......................... probably ............................................... (to come) alone and
you ............................................... (can talk) with him.
6. I am sure you .................................... (to arrive) too late; but if it .............................. (to be)
the case, we ......................................................... (to leave already) without you and you
.................................. (to be) alone !
7. ............... she ............................... (to phone) me when her husband
Base 48
............................................... (to come back )? I ............................................... (not to sleep).
8. When you .......................................... (to have finished), you ................................... (to go)
to Mary's parents and they ............................................... (to explain) you everything.
9. What a strange idea ! If you ............................................. (to go) so late, everybody
........................................................................... (to wait) for you for several hours!
10. Oh, dear, I ............................................... (to finish) far before that!
11. When Tom ...................................... (to arrive), we ............................................... (must
stop) talking about that !
12. He ......................................... (to be) late; when he ............................................... (to
arrive), people ............................................... (to eat already) and
............................................... (to dance); but we ............................................... (to keep)
something for him to eat !
f) Tenses : other modes
Infinitive - Participle - Imperative - Conditional - Subjunctive
Infinitive
present : to wait, to get, to arrive, ...
past : to have + past participle : to have finished, to have arrived , ...
L'infinitif est utilisé
- après des verbes, des adjectifs, too + adj., enough + adj., des noms,
- comme sujet,
- pour exprimer un but,
- pour remplacer une proposition relative après the first, the second, the last,
the only one, ...,
- pour expliquer l'usage d'un objet, ...
Traduire :
I want you to do this.
They would like you to keep silent !
We are ready to go.
We are pleased to meet you !
They are too rich to understand what a lack of money can mean !
You are not clever enough to understand this !
This is a good opportunity to visit her house ! To smoke so much is bad, you know !
I am here to listen to you.
They have come here for you to explain them everything.
You are the first child to ask me that !
He was the last boy to arrive !
This is a big knife to cut meat.
Participle
present : waiting
(cf. forme gérondive)
past : arrived, added, studied, finished, ... + the irregular forms !
Ces participes sont utilisés dans la formation de temps.
Ex. : People are waiting for the bus.
We have worked on this.
Base 49
Le gérondif (verbe en -ing) est utilisé
- comme sujet (avec l'idée d'une expérience déjà
vécue par le locuteur ou avec une idée d'habitude) ,
- après des prépositions,
- après certains verbes et expressions.
Traduire / Translate :
Reading French gives me problems !
Smoking the whole time is very bad !
On learning this, you should avoid translating the examples into French !
It's no use coming so late !
Compléter avec un participe / fill in :
- We have .................... (to name) all the pupils.
- Are they ....................... (to come) with us tonight ?
- Mary had ............................ (to explain) everything before your arrival !
- Tom was ............................ (to wait) for you when I saw you !
- We will certainly have ..................... (to finish) that before you.
- You should be ....................... (to sleep), now, you know !
- They didn't say anything about you ............................... (to come) later !
- Before ............................. (to leave), will you be kind enough to close the door ?
- They are looking forward to .......................... (to meet) your parents.
- I haven't ..................................... (to finish) my work; are you ..................................... (to
wait) for it ?
- We would have ....................................... (to move) earlier if we had .....................................
(to know) that !
- ..................................... (to see) that, she didn't react anymore !
- Here is a well-..................................... (to think) package for those consumer goods.
- ..................................... (to speak) German is difficult.
- What is he ............................... (to do) ? – Well ... .................... (to listen) to that, I suppose !
Imperative
- 2e pers. (sing. ou pl.) : Do that !
neg. : don't + radical : Don’t worry !
- 1e pers. pl. : Let's (=let us) do that !
neg. : let's not + radical : Let’s not answer him !
- 3e pers. : sg. : Let him/her/it go !
pl. : Let them do what they want !
==> radical seul
==> radical précédé par let's
==> radical précédé par let +
pron. personnel de la 3 e pers.
forme ‘objet’ et non ‘sujet’
neg. ajouter 'not' avant le radical : Let him not go alone !
Translate :
- Viens seul !
- Soyez là à l'heure !
- Allons ensemble !
- Ne parlez pas tous ensemble !
- Qu'il travaille ou qu'il parte !
- Qu'ils viennent plus tard !
- N'allons pas là !
- Ne l'écoute pas !
Complete the sentences :
- ................................. (viens) here, Tom ! And you, the girls, .......................... (restez) there !
- ..................................... (dansons) together, shall we ?
- .................................... (qu'il vienne) alone ! ..................................... (dis) him, please !
- ..................................... (ne répondons pas) him; ..................................... (qu'il n'écrive pas)
us further letters !
- ..................................... (ne croyez pas) him, he is a liar !
Conditional
present : 'would' + infinitif sans 'to'
past : 'would' + infinitif passé ('would have' + part. passé)
Base 50
I would like
I would have learned
Reminder : conditional form of the auxiliary ‘can’ = could
conditional form of the auxiliary ‘may’ = might
You could do this, you know ! / He could have written us earlier !
He might come here. / They might have done it.
Le conditionnel :
- correspond au conditionnel du français :
You could go alone, couldn't you ?
- est employé dans la principale dont dépend une phrase conditionnelle (très
fréquent dans des irréalités)
- If you ran quickly, you would arrive on time ! (condition improbable : car on ne
s'attend pas à ce que l'action ait lieu)
- If the weather were better in the summer, we could spend our nights in the
garden. (condition improbable : la supposition est contraire aux faits connus)
- If I were a man, I would help my wife !
(but I am a woman)
(condition impossible : irréalité présente)
- If he had known that, he would have waited for you !
(condition impossible : irréalité passée).
- équivaut au futur dans un contexte passé dans un discours indirect :
- 'I will come alone !'
He said that he would come alone.
- 'I will have finished before your phone call !'
He said he would have finished
before your phone call.
- est employé dans des formules polies :
- Would you help me, please ?
- Could you send me samples ?
- If you would kindly wait a moment ...
- I would like to say this :
- sert à exprimer un regret :
- If only I would have listened to your advice !
- sert à exprimer un souhait désespéré avec 'if only'.
- If only that rain would stop !
Exercises : Complete with a conditional tense :
1. If only Tom ....................... (to get) here before my father tonight !
2. ................... you .................... (to like) to come with us ?
3. If I were rich, I .............................. (to buy) a nice house !
4. If he had learned everything, he .......................................... (to succeed) !
5. .................. he ................... (can open) this without tools ?
6. My sister said yesterday that she ........................................ (to work) longer today.
7. If everybody had come on time, we ........................ (to begin) at half past three as agreed !
8. If only you .......................... (to tell) the police the truth last week ! I .....................................
(not to get) so much trouble yesterday ! ........................ you ...................... (not to go) and tell
them everything ?
9. If his car has problems, he .................................. (may arrive) too late once again !
10. This is impossible ! He .............................................. (cannot carry) that alone !
11. We ..................................... (to like) to see you as soon as possible !
12. He said we ..................... (to have) to leave tomorrow. ................. it ...... (to be) possible ?
13. They ..................................... (not to come) alone yesterday, Mary says !
14. If I had known that, I ..................................... (to refuse) that invitation.
15. ..................................... (can) you help me, please ?
16. ........................... you ..................................... (to show) me the way, Sir ?
17. If I had been there, I ..................................... (to like) that reply !
18. If only it ..................................... (not to be) so loud !
Base 51
Subjunctive
present : même forme que l'infinitif sans 'to' à toutes les personnes !
past : même forme que l'indicatif passé (to be = were à toutes les personnes).
past perfect : même forme que l'indicatif plus-que-parfait.
Ex. : - God save the Queen !
- If he told us everything, ... !
- If I were you, ...
- Had you been there, ... !
Use : 1. Present :
- exclamations de désir ou d'espoir (impliquant souvent des puissances naturelles) !
- Goodbye ! = God be with you ! - God bless you ! - Long live the king !
- en poésie, pour exprimer un souhait, une condition, une concession ...
- Byron : 'Though the heart be still as loving ...' Shakespeare : 'If this be error...'
- remplace SHOULD + Inf. après des verbes tels que to suggest, to recommend, ...
- He suggested that the petition be drawn up. (= should be drawn up)
- I recommended that each competitor receive £10. (should receive)
Exercise :
- Long .......... (to live) your parents !
- God ............ (to bless) these people !
- They will suggest you ................. (to do) that and would recommend Peter ..............
(to go) on with that !
2. Past and Past Perfect :
Past dans un contexte présent.
Past Perfect dans un contexte passé.
S'emploient dans les cas suivants :
- improbabilité ou irréalité :
- If I were you, I ...
- If I had been there, I ...
Remarques : - subjonctif dans la subordonnée et conditionnel dans la principale.
- If she were here, she would know what to do !
- If I had been with you, I would have helped you !
- le "if" peut être supprimé si l'on a un auxiliaire d'irréalité; celui-ci va
venir se mettre en début de proposition.
- Had he been there on time, we could have begun earlier !
- avec "as if" / "as though" (comme si);
le verbe introductif peut être au présent ou au passé, cela ne changera rien au
subjonctif employé : past si simultanéité, past perfect si antériorité.
- He behaves as if he owned the place.
- He behaved as if he owned the place.
- un regret (avec "to wish") :
past si la chose regrettée est simultanée au moment du regret;
past perfect si elle est antérieure au moment du regret.
- I wish he came !
- I wish he were not playing football now !
- I wished he had warned me !
- I wish he hadn't said so !
- I wished he kept silent ! I wished he were keeping silent !
- I wished he had come before !
- avec "it's time" et l'idée qu'il est déjà trop tard !
- It's time you understood that ! (you should have understood that already before !)
See the difference : It's time for us to go ! (= the proper time)
It's time you went ! (= it's already too late for your train !)
Exercises : fill in
Base 52
- I wish you .................... (to be) kinder, please !
- He wishes I ........................... (not to see) him with that woman yesterday !
- Tom, it's time you .......................... (to behave) like an adult ! You are 32 years old !
- If he ...................................... (to understand) it when he had to learn it, he would do his
exercises properly !
- Mary did as if she .................................... (not to hear) me and I was shouting !
- I wish you ..................................... (to come) here alone !
- I wish he ..................................... (to do) that yesterday !
- If we ..................................... (to be) on holidays now, we would be in Italy for sure !
- If he ..................................... (to know) the truth, he would have answered differently !
- He behaved as if he ..................................... (to know) nothing !
- She always does as if she ..................................... (not to be warned) days before !
- They behave as if they ........................................... (to know) you !
- You ......................................... (to be) right !
Further exercise : irrealities
1. Si notre informaticien était là, il règlerait le problème !
2. Si Michael avait tout compris, il ne serait pas ici maintenant !
3. Il est grand-temps que tu apprennes l'anglais !
4. Pourquoi n'aurais-tu pas fait cela ?
5. Si tu te comportais mieux, cela serait mieux pour tout le monde !
6. Si John avait vu cette erreur (de programmation), il te l'aurait dit !
7. Si cette base de données était mieux gérée, tu ne perdrais pas de fichiers !
8. Si j'étais riche, je n'irais pas là !
9. S'il avait plus d'argent, il ne travaillerait pas !
10. Si tu avais vu cela, tu comprendrais !
11. Si tu perdais tout, tu serais triste !
12. Si j'avais compris les exercices, je n'aurais pas raté !
13. Nous viendrions toujours pour t'aider si tu nous le demandais.
14. Pourquoi aurions-nous fait cela si tu ne nous l'avais pas demandé ?
15. Si tu voulais être là pour qu'elle te dise la vérité, tu aurais dû venir plus tôt !
16. Aurais-tu écrit cette lettre si je t'avais tout dit ?
17. Serais-tu venu si je te l'avais demandé ?
18. Aurais-tu de l'argent si tu ne travaillais pas ?
19. Si je voulais que tu me téléphones, je te le demanderais.
17. Infinitive and gerund
- Quand le verbe est sujet, nous avons déjà vu (voir "autres modes que l'indicatif")
que l'infinitif pouvait être utilisé, ou le gérondif, si l'on veut exprimer une expérience
personnelle ou généraliser, exprimer une habitude.
- Il existe de nombreux verbes (expressions et adjectifs) suivis obligatoirement d'un
verbe à l'infinitif ou suivis obligatoirement d'un verbe au gérondif, ou d'autres
changeant de sens selon sa construction.
De plus,
- un verbe introduit par une préposition se met sous sa forme gérondive;
- une proposition de but est formée à l'aide de l'infinitif;
- pour remplacer une relative subordonnée après the last, the first, the only
one, un superlatif, etc., nous emploierons également un infinitif;
- pour expliquer à quoi sert un objet, infinitif;
- la séquence too + adj./adv., adj./adv. + enough, so + adj./adv. as, est suivie
d’un infinitif.
Base 53
Si le sujet de la proposition infinitive est différent de celui de la principale, il sera
placé devant le 'to'; s'il est sous forme de pronom, ce sera sous la forme de pronom
personnel objet. (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them)
Si la proposition infinitive est niée, le 'not' se place devant le 'to'.
Ex.
I want to be free.
I want him to do that for me.
I have asked her not to come.
= Je veux être libre
= Je veux qu’il fasse cela pour moi.
= Je lui ai demandé de ne pas venir.
Si le sujet de la proposition gérondive est différent de celui de la principale, il sera
placé devant le gérondif; s'il est sous forme de pronom, ce sera sous la forme de
pronom personnel objet (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them), ou sous la forme de
l'adjectif possessif (my, your, his, her, our, your, their).
Si la proposition gérondive est niée, le 'not' se place devant le gérondif.
Ex.
I shall avoid meeting the boss !
You should avoid her coming here today !
He could have avoided not telling all that !
= J’éviterai de rencontrer le patron !
= Tu devrais éviter qu’elle vienne ici
aujourd’hui !
= Il aurait pu éviter de ne pas dire cela ! (il
aurait pu éviter de se taire)
Quels verbes sont suivis d'un infinitif ou d'un gérondif ? Voici des listes non exhaustives.
Quelques verbes suivis d’un gérondif :
to appreciate ; to enjoy; to detest; to dislike; to delay; to postpone; to put off; to forgive; to
pardon; to excuse; to go on; to keep (on); to finish; to give up; to stop; to leave off; to avoid;
to mention; to practise; to suggest; to risk. AND SO ON !
Deux verbes utilisés sous forme interrogative ou négative : to fancy (imaginer) et to mind (être
dérangé) sont suivis d’un gérondif.
Expressions verbales suivies du gérondif :
can’t resist ; can’t stand = can’t bear ; can’t help ; it’s no use = it’s no good
Quatre verbes/expressions suivis de to + gérondif :
to look forward to ; to take to; to be used to = to be accustomed to
Gérondif remplaçant un infinitif passif après les verbes suivants :
to need = to want (dans ce contexte-ci) ; to deserve = to merit; to be worth
Ex. : My car wants washing = my car needs washing = ma voiture a besoin d'être lavée.
London is worth visiting = Londres vaut la peine d'être visitée.
Exercise
- He enjoys ..................... (to dance) with her.
- He really dislikes ..................... (to visit).
- I don’t mind ........................ (to go) alone.
- Would you stop .................... (to talk) ?
- I look forward to ..................... (to visit) London !
- She couldn’t help .................... (to cry) when she heard the bad news !
- He will certainly avoid ....................... (to meet) you during a few weeks !
- I detest ....................... (he comes here) !
- We have delayed ...................... (she leaves) abroad.
- They can forgive ..................... (I don’t understand) that !
Quelques verbes suivis de l’infinitif :
to promise; to swear; to refuse; to consent; to decide; to propose; to continue; to fail; to hope;
to hesitate; to prepare; to seem; to manage; to arrange; to undertake; to neglect;
to want; to wish; to ask; to help; to expect; to beg
(Ces verbes voient parfois leur complément devenir sujet de l’infinitive)
+ Verbes d’’’instruction’’ (to tell, to show how, to learn, to teach, to invite, to compel; to oblige,
to forbid, to warn, ..........)
Base 54
+ Verbes de connaissance et de pensée ( to be sure, to think, to believe, to know, to feel, to
understand, ..........)
Verbes suivis soit du gérondif soit de l’infinitif :
Différence essentielle : le gérondif est utilisé dans un sens général et l’infinitif dans une occasion (ou
série d’occasions) spécifique, dans des cas particuliers, avec un sujet plus ou moins impliqué.
- quoique souvent suivis de l’infinitif : to advise, to agree, to attempt, to cease, to dread, to intend,
to start, to begin, ...
- avec différence de signification : to like, to love, to hate, to remember, to forget, to
regret, to allow, to permit, to mean, to try.
to like, to love, to hate : + gérondif si c’est en général / + infinitif si c’est à une occasion.
I like to go to the restaurant = I want to go, I prefer to go
I don’t like to stay here tonight = I am unwilling to stay here tonight.
I like playing football = I am fond of playing football.
I don’t like travelling = I dislike travelling.
to remember, to forget, to regret : + gérondif si mémoire ou regret d’une action passée;
+ infinitif si mémoire ou regret d’une action future !
Action dépendant de ces verbes est antérieure :
I remember meeting that man some years ago !
She has forgotten seeing that film !
I regret his dying so young !
Action dépendant de ces verbes est postérieure :
I hope I will remember to write the letter !
Don’t forget to buy milk !
I regret to tell you this :
to allow, to permit : + gérondif si tout le monde est concerné, + infinitif si quelqu’un de précis est
concerné :
I never allow smoking here !
I shall permit going out for a while later.
I have allowed Mary to sit down.
She will certainly permit Tom to go out.
to mean
+ gérondif = to signify
Going there will mean dying !
+ infinitif = to intend
I didn’t mean to hurt you !
to try
+ gérondif = to test
Try (to start the car) pushing it downwards !
+ infinitif = to attempt, to endeavour
Try to do this !
Further exercises : choose the right form ! Infinitive or gerund ?
- He enjoys ..................... (to dance) with her. But this time, she has refused
..................... (to dance) !
- He really dislikes ..................... (to visit). But you should explain him that this city is
really worth ..................... (to be visited) !
- I don’t mind ........................ (to go) alone.
- Would you stop .................... (to talk), please ?
- They want to show us how ..................... (to use) that device.
- I look forward to ..................... (to visit) London !
- We regret ..................... (to dismiss) you but we've got no choice !
- She couldn’t help .................... (to cry) when she heard the bad news !
- We would like ..................... (to go) with you !
- He will certainly avoid ....................... (to meet) you during a few weeks !
- I don't remember ..................... (to see) you last week !
- I detest ....................... (he comes) here !
- I never allow ..................... (to smoke) !
- We have delayed ...................... (she leaves) abroad.
- He had sworn ..................... (to design) a new device but then, he has decided
..................... (not to do) it !
- They can forgive ..................... (I don’t understand) that !
- You should manage ..................... (to find) the bugs !
- He couldn't resist ..................... (to shout) ! Unbelievable !
- We have proposed ..................... (to help) but they have refused !
- Tom always expects ..................... (his friends / to be) better !
- Sorry, I didn't mean ..................... (to do) anything wrong ! It's no use ..................... (to cry) !
- That house deserves ..................... (to be repaired) !
Base 55
- Don't forget ..................... (to buy) the newspaper !
- I don't mind ..................... (to explain) you that if you promise ..................... (to keep)
silent about that !
- Sorry, we've been obliged ..................... (to speak) against you !
- I can't help ..................... (to be) sad !
- This lady can't stand ..................... (people / to shout) in the street.
- We were the first girls ..................... (to arrive) and we didn't know what
..................... (to do) !
- You should stop ..................... (to do) anything and try ..................... (to be) quieter !
- Maybe you could have the machine work by ....................... (to switch) this button on !
- We look forward to ..................... (to hear) from you soon !
- On ..................... (to open) the packet, I saw it was not what I wanted !
- You should avoid ..................... (to speak) without ...................... (to think) a little bit before !
- I've got money enough ..................... (to buy) that house but I really hesitate .....................
(to do) so and I want ..................... (to postpone) ..................... (to decide) it !
- Such a statement means ..................... (you / to retire) a bit earlier than expected !
- I would advise ..................... (you / to apologize) !
- They certainly intend ..................... (to release) an update !
- We sincerely regret ..................... (to lose) your data and we apologize !
Remarque : La proposition infinitive de but.
La proposition de but en anglais est exprimée à l'aide d'une proposition infinitive.
to + infinitif
Ex. :
ou
in order to + infinitif
We are here to listen to you.
They've come here in order to meet the boss.
- Si la proposition est niée, le "not" se met devant le "to".
Ex. :
I shall phone him not to be obliged to go tonight !
You should avoid that kind of language in order not to be punished !
- Si le sujet de la principale est également celui de l'infinitive, il ne sera pas répété.
Ex. :
We are writing this in order to be listened to !
They have come here to have a drink.
- Si le sujet de la principale et celui de l'infinitive sont différents, celui de l'infinitive
sera introduit par "for", et se trouvera devant le "to" / "not to".
Ex. :
We have come here in order for you to see our baby !
They have brought us cards for us to write the invitations to the party !
We will phone our new president for John not to get into trouble !
They have done everything possible in order for me not to attend the lecture !
Exercise : Translate :
1. J'ai écrit ce programme pour que cette application tourne plus vite.
2. Cet ordinateur a été acheté pour utiliser ces logiciels.
3. Ils ont créé ce procédé pour que les instructions soient encodées plus rapidement.
4. Notre service de maintenance est disponible pour remédier à toute panne !
5. Tu devrais utiliser cette instruction pour que ce texte ne soit pas affiché à l'écran.
6. Tu devrais écrire moins d'instructions afin que ton programme ne soit pas trop lourd !
7. Fais ce qu'il faut pour ne pas perdre tes données !
8. Nous avons fait réparer notre ordinateur pour travailler plus vite.
9. Le patron a fait cela pour que nous ne travaillions pas plus tard.
10. Ils ont acheté une nouvelle maison pour ne pas habiter trop loin du bureau.
18. Relative Clause - Relative Pronoun
Base 56
Comme dans toutes les langues, le choix du pronom relatif va dépendre de :
1. son antécédent;
2. sa fonction grammaticale (fonction dans la proposition relative, bien entendu !)
Mais, en anglais, il dépend également du type de proposition relative; en effet, il
existe deux types de proposition relative :
1. Defining Relative
L’on parle de ce type de relative lorsque la proposition est indispensable à la compréhension
de la phrase :
«L’homme est beau.» L’interlocuteur ne comprend pas de quel homme il s’agit ! «Quel
homme ?» La phrase n’était donc pas complète; il peut s’agir de cet homme-là, de l’homme
près de la fenêtre, de l’homme qui parle avec Marie, etc., etc. ...
Voici la phrase compléte : «L’homme qui est venu nous voir hier est beau.»
Cette phrase, complète grâce à la relative, ne provoque pas de question de la part de
l’interlocuteur ! La proposition relative était donc absolument nécessaire à la bonne
compréhension de la phrase. C'est ce qu'on appelle en anglais une "defining relative".
Pas de virgule(s) séparant la proposition relative de la proposition principale.
2. Non-Defining Relative
L’on parle de ce type de relative lorsque la proposition n’apporte qu’un complément
d’information sans lequel la phrase était compréhensible.
«Mon père est malade depuis ce matin.» Pas de problème pour comprendre de qui il s’agit !
«Mon père, que tu as vu encore en bonne santé hier, est malade depuis ce matin.»
Je n’ai fait qu’ajouter une information.
Ce type de proposition relative est moins fréquent et se rencontre surtout en langage écrit.
En effet, oralement, l’on préférera souvent deux propositions principales juxtaposées : «Tu
as vu mon père hier en bonne santé; il est malade depuis ce matin.»
ou : «Mon père est malade depuis ce matin; tu l’as vu hier en bonne santé.»
Ce type de proposition relative ne fait qu'ajouter un élément mais n'est pas indispensable à
la bonne compréhenion de la phrase; il s'agit ici de la "non-defining relative", plus utilisée par
écrit.
Cette proposition relative est séparée de la principale par des virgules.
Pour le pronom relatif en anglais, nous devons donc tenir compte de trois éléments :
1. type de relative : ‘defining’ ou ‘non-defining’ ?
2. antécédent : une personne ou non ?
3. fonction dans la relative : sujet, COD, complément d’une préposition, compl.
déterminatif du nom ?
a) Defining Relative :
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est sujet :
I don’t know the girl who is talking to my brother !
but : It’s the only boy that has answered; the others were girls !
We would like to meet the most beautiful girl that has ever come here !
Any man that wants to take part in this competition has to fill in a form !
Conclusion : who ; except if the antecedent is accompanied with ‘the only’, ‘the first’,
‘the second’, ... ‘the last’, a superlative, ‘it is’, ‘any’, ‘all’ ; in those cases : that.
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est sujet :
Put it on the chair that is near the window !
>> that
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est COD :
The man you can see over there is my music teacher.
I have spoken to a lady nobody knows !
You may not invite people I don’t like !
Base 57
>> no pronoun ! (it would have been ‘that’)
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est COD :
The chair you have repaired is broken again !
I can’t see any object you could use for this.
>> no pronoun ! (it would have been ‘that’)
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est complément d’une préposition :
Who are the friends you are coming with ?
I don’t know the boy Mary is waiting for !
>> no pronoun ! (it would have been ‘whom’)
The preposition introducing the relative pronoun is at the end of the relative clause !
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est complément d’une préposition :
We don’t know any animal Tom could be fond of !
Here is the seat the murderer has certainly been sitting on !
>> no pronoun ! (it would have been ‘which’)
The preposition introducing the relative pronoun is at the end of the relative clause !
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est compl. déterminatif du nom :
I don’t know the man whose name has been mentioned.
Rem. : Le nom dont le relatif est complément se place juste après whose et sans article ou
déterminant ! (même phénomène que pour le cas possessif).
This is the lady whose dog you can see over there.
L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est complément déterminatif du nom :
Here is the car of which you have found the keys. (the car the keys of which you have found)
That's the kitchen the door of which is broken !
Exercise : Translate :
1. Here is the keyboard I use every day.
2. Why wo uldn't you show us the computer we will have to work with ?
3. I don't know the programmer whose flowchart lies here !
4. We have brought the data you want to feed in.
5. This is not the memory that interests me !
Conclusion
Si nous avons une defining relative, le pronom relatif sera, selon les cas : who, that,
whose, rien, ou of which.
2. Non-Defining Relative :
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est sujet :
I don’t know your best friend, who is certainly somebody very interesting !
I like listening to this singer, who makes me dream !
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est sujet :
Put it on the black table, which is the one I work on.
I can’t find my new book, which tells about that specific issue !
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est COD :
I have spoken to Mary, whom you despise so much !
You may not invite these horrible people, whom I really don’t want to see here !
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est COD :
I haven’t seen his last film, which so many people seem to like so much !
We have written this text, which you can read now if you have time !
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est complément d’une préposition :
Here is your father, to whom I want to speak !
My cousins, with whom I am going out tonight, have just arrived.
Rem. : La place normale de la préposition dont dépend le pronom est devant celui-ci, mais il
arrive qu’elle soit rejetée à la fin de la relative, comme dans la ‘defining relative’.
Here is my mother, for whom I’ve been waiting.
= Here is my mother, whom I’ve been waiting for.
Base 58
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est complément d’une préposition :
We don’t know your new house, of which you have spoken so much !
My favourite CD, to which I was listening when you arrived, has been recorded in Japan.
Rem. : Pour la préposition, même remarque que ci-dessus.
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est complément déterminatif du nom :
You don’t know my husband, whose angers are terrible !
Rem. : Le nom dont le relatif est complément se place juste après whose et sans article ni
déterminant ! (même phénomène que pour le cas possessif).
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est complément déterminatif du nom :
Here is my new car, an advertisement of which you can see on TV every day !
Exercise : Translate :
1. Here is a book about computer science, which you like so much !
2. Where is your best friend, whose new computer is said to be so wonderful ?
3. I cannot understand your examples, which are too complex !
4. We have met our new department head, who is a woman.
5. - They don't care about those skilled workers, whom you can now understand !
- They don't care about those skilled workers, whose reaction you can now understand !
Conclusion
Si nous avons une non-defining relative, le pronom relatif sera, selon les cas : who,
whom, whose, which, ou of which.
Apprenez à utiliser le bon pronom relatif !
Exercise : Fill in with the right pronoun (if no pronoun is required, I write a / )
1. The woman ……………… you can see over there is my mother.
2. Who is the teacher ……………… you are talking about ?
3. We don't know the girl ……………… is speaking to John.
4. Where is the program ……………… can help us manage that ?
5. Which is the computer ……………… I have to repair ?
6. The bus ……………… we are waiting for is too late !
7. The person ……………… dog is walking there must call it back !
8. The students ……………… are drinking during the course will have to go out !
9. The student ……………… car is there has to take it away !
10. The student ……………… you see over there is a very good one !
11. We didn't understand the language ……………… he was using !
12. I have just bought the new software ……………… Tom had told us about.
13. I have brought the books ……………… I cannot read.
14. I don't know the man ……………… keys are there.
15. Here is the computer ……………… is so performing and powerful !
16. We don't know your best friend, ……………… you should introduce to us !
17. I have just bought this new software about chess playing, ……………… you should try !
18. I can't see our English teacher, for ……………… we are waiting !
19. We have finished our exercises, ……………… were rather difficult.
20. Tom has helped his brother, ……………… couldn't understand his mathematics course !
21. We haven't opened our new book, ……………… we have to read for next week !
22. They haven't met the new computer teacher, …………… course is so important !
23. We have to prepare our speech, ……………… shouldn't be too long !
24. I must really meet that journalist, ……………… I don't know very well.
25. Can you show me your new keyboard, with ……………… you type so easily ?
Further exercise
Fill in with the right relative pronoun, when necessary ! (if no pronoun is required, I write a
Base 58 b
/)
1. The students ………… progam is so detailed should also be able to explain
everything !
2. A keyboard ………… would certainly suit me is that one !
3. We don't understand the language ………… we have to use.
4. They know the person ………… you are talking about but I don't.
5. Here is a book ………… needs reading by the end of the year.
6. The people ………… can't understand that should abandon that project !
7. I like the country ………… he describing now !
8. They have just typed the text ………… you can see on the monitor.
9. They have warned the people ………… car is over there.
10. They never see the people ………… enter the building !
11. We have prepared the speech ………… you must hold tomorrow.
12. They haven't understood the lesson ………… they must learn !
13. We have finished the exercises ………… are to be done for tomorrow.
14. We cannot open the door the key ………… is still on it !
15. We have seen the clerk ………… did that mistake.
16. We have written a whole page ………… you should now read for us.
17. Have you ever met the teacher ………… lessons are so bori ng ?
18. George has told the lady ………… daughter is dead that he was sorry for her.
19. They haven't answered the question ………… you have asking over and over
again !
20. Here is the visitor ………… you are waiting for.
21. Here are the friends ………… I'm going to work with.
22. We haven't seen the film ………… everybody is takling about !
23. I don't like the keyboard ………… I have to type on !
24. They've broken the monitor ………… those nasty stupidities were displayed on !
25. We haven't found the CD ………… you want to listen to.
26. John, ………… came yesterday, can't understand your opinion, about …………
we have to discuss, by the way !
27. They have thrown away my work, ………… was not so bad ! Why ?
28. They refuse to write those sentences, …………are very strange indeed !
29. They have given all students some advice, ……… was indeed quite necessary !
30. They like my mother, ………… they want to see every week at least !
31. You will tell my sister, for ………… you are waiting, that I refuse to read her new
book, ………… is so insulting !
32. Here are my keys, for ………… I have been looking so long !
33. They have written me a letter, ………… is very kind !
34. We will read your thesis, ………… we will translate if you want so !
35. They have bought the new software, ………… is not reliable yet !
36. They have phoned my mother, ………… car has just been stolen.
37. We don't know your English teacher, about ………… you must tell us !
38. We have met the new boss, ………… we find very friendly !
39. They have just received their new car, ………… they bought two months ago and
for ………… they had already paid !
40. I cannot found my homework, ………… is very annoying !
19. Passive Voice
Base 59
La voix passive en anglais est extrêmement importante car fort utilisée :
la voix passive anglaise sert à exprimer toute tournure impersonnelle : lorsque l’agent
est inconnu, qu’il n’est pas important, ou que l’on ne désire pas l’exprimer.
Si l’on désire toutefois exprimer cet agent, il sera introduit pas la préposition ‘by’.
Translate
1. I have been told you were ill.
2. This man will certainly be arrested by the police.
3. I was given many books yesterday !
4. It had been listened to before our arrival.
Transform the sentences above into active sentences !
Conclusion
Nous constatons que :
1. la voix passive est formée à l’aide de l’auxiliaire ‘be’ conjugué au temps voulu (is /
was / has been / had been / will be / is going to be / will have been / would be / would have been /
must be / can be / may be / could be / might be / used to be / should be / ought to be / were / to be /
being ...) suivi du participe passé du verbe concerné.
2. si complément d’agent il y a, il est introduit par la préposition by.
3. le sujet est
1°) ce qui aurait été le COI de la voix active;
2°) si pas de COI, alors, ce qui aurait été le COD de la voix
active;
3°) sinon, le complément d’une préposition, celle-ci se retrouvant
après le verbe.
Exercise : transform :
1. People told me everything about Mary !
2. Somebody writes new texts every day !
3. People are waiting for the bus.
Remarque : Avec des verbes déclaratifs (sans COI) et de supposition ou
d’expectative, une tournure passive intéressante est à observer :
People say that John is a very good player. = John is said to be a very good player.
Le sujet de la subordonnée devient donc sujet principal, le verbe d’introduction est
passif et la subordonnée devient une infinitive; infinitif présent si simultanéité; infinitif
passé si antériorité de l’action par rapport au verbe introductif.
He is expected to become a great man !
I have been said to be the best !
She was supposed to have killed her father !
Exercises : Translate
1. The text has been translated by the computer.
2. The programming team has been ordered to change everything !
3. This program is said to be very good.
4. The matter will be looked into quite seriously !
5. It cannot be given any name !
What is the passive voice ?
1. People have given me those instructions.
2. They should listen to our students !
3. People are waiting for the bus.
4. They will invite Harry.
5. Somebody calls my mother every day ! But who ?
Translate
1. They would be rejected !
2. The doors have been closed early !
3. Yesterday, I was told how to use the new software.
4. You will be explained everything later !
5. The various parts are going to be destroyed !
Transform the sentences into passive ones
1. People have told you nothing !
2. Somebody will give her a computer.
3. People are still looking for your keys !
4. People have written a long article.
5. Somebody has to answer tha t !
6. Nobody will look at that painting !
7. Someone has explained her the truth.
8. Somebody says she is successful.
9. Somebody should repair that car !
10. Newspapers report the new president has already resigned !
11. People will look into the matter for sure !
12. They were listening to nice music.
13. People should explain her everything !
14. Why would they build a new bridge ? Will they destroy this one ?
15. Somebody has slept in that room !
16. People cannot open that door.
17. You may tell him about that problem.
18. Nobody has understood the teacher !
19. We suppose that student is ill.
20. They have reported that companies had bought such devices.
21. People expect you will become the boss.
22. People say Tom has broken his company's PCs !
23. People think that kind of computer is already obsolete !
24. They report the concert has pleased a lot of people !
25. Where should we put the new peripherals ?
26. The teacher has marked the homework !
27. My boyfriend kept me waiting for half an hour !
28. They must pay for the course !
29. Why didn't they tell you about the changes ?
30. They assumed you were working with us.
31. They assumed you had done the job with us.
32. Why wouldn't anybody tell them what happened ?
33. They think this model is better.
34. They have found this screen was not good enough.
35. My colleagues expect that program will facilitate our work.
Base 60
Passive Voice : further exercises : what's the corresponding passive voice ?
1. They have given the computer strange information.
2. People will give you the necessary data later.
3. You should draw up a flowchart !
Base 60 b
4. Somebody told us the whole story yesterday.
5. People would certainly ask you for further information !
6. Someone says those students have failed.
7. Someone send me a postcard every week !
8. Will they replace the old keyboard soon ?
9. Has anybody allowed you to do so ?
10. Someone has claimed our offices were too badly decorated !
11. They expect your boss will hire these candidates.
12. People say John has illegally sold those machines. Can they prove that ?
13. Someone will have to look into that matter quickly !
14. They never ask for help !
15. The newspapers have reported our company is doing badly.
16. They want people to look for their keys.
17. Nobody will wait for your arrival.
18. Someone answer that question !
19. I wish someone had listened to my speech !
20. The students always suppose that test is an easy one; they don't believe it is so difficult !
20. Linking words
Base 61
Quelques prépositions parmi les plus fréquentes
about : au sujet de
around : autour
at : à
before : avant
besides : en outre de
despite = in spite of : malgré
for : pour
further to : suite à (relation)
into : dans + idée de direction
like : comme (ressemblance)
of : de
on : sur
owing to : en raison de
to : idée de direction
until (= till) : jusque
without : sans
according to : selon
after : après
as : comme, en tant que
because of : à cause de
beside : à côté
by : par
due to : suite à (cause), en raison de
from : idée d'origine
in : dans
in view of : en vue de
near : près de
off : idée de détachement
onto : sur + idée de direction
thanks to : grâce à
under : sous
with : avec
apart from : à part
etc. ...
Quelques conjonctions de subordination parmi les plus fréquentes
after : après que
as : vu que; au fur et à mesure que
as soon as : dès que
because : parce que
for : car
once : une fois que
so that : de sorte que
till : jusqu'à ce que
until : jusqu'à ce que
when : quand
whereas : tandis que
although : bien que, quoique
as if - as though : comme si
before : avant que
if : si
since : depuis que; vu que, puisque
though : bien que, quoique
unless : à moins que
provided : pourvu que, à condition que
while : pendant que
whether : si (oui ou non) ; que ce subjonctif
etc. ...
Quelques adverbes de liaison
accordingly : en conséquence
consequently : par conséquent
indeed : en effet
nevertheless : néanmoins
still : toutefois
although = though : cependant
however : cependant
moreover : en outre, de plus
= furthermore, besides
therefore : c'est pourquoi
yet (en début de proposition) : toutefois
etc. ...
Translate
1. He gave them a wrong information so that they finally made an error.
2. After you have used the command OFF, it will display the two final messages.
3. I can help you provided you are ready to work !
4. Yet, it cannot solve all the problems !
5. As the line is displayed on the screen, it can be modified thanks to this device.
6. Once it has properly been programmed (= once properly programmed), it can indeed
perform those tasks.
7. In spite of that difficulty, they carried out the scheduled project.
Possible sentence structures
Base 62
copied (except from a few sentences given in the strutures, the examples at the beginning and the
exercises) from : L'anglais pour informaticien, Liliane Gallet, Cedic 1981
Les tableaux proposés ci-dessous visent à préciser la construction de la phrase que le verbe
introduit.
Il est à remarquer que certaines constructions possibles en français ne le sont pas en
anglais et vice-versa. ( cf. la voix passive !!!)
Ex.
- I want to meet Mr Smith tomorrow = je veux rencontrer Monsieur Smith demain.
'to meet' car le verbe to want exige une construction infinitive
- I avoid working too late = j'évite de travailler trop tard.
'working' car le verbe to avoid exige une construction gérondive
- I want to meet him tomorrow = je veux le rencontrer demain.
la place du pronom personnel (him) est la même que le complément qu'il remplace,
ce qui n'est pas le cas en français
- I've told him a long story = je lui ai raconté une longue histoire.
en anglais, le COI se trouve avant le COD mais après le verbe
- He has been told something wrong !
toute tournure impersonnelle peut être rendue grâce à une voix passive en anglais;
dans ce cas, n'importe quel complément de la voix active peut devenir sujet de la VP
- There are chips in the cars we drive.
le pronom relatif tombe dans certains cas en anglais
- They say you are a good programmer.
le 'que' complétif peut être traduit par 'that' mais il tombe souvent
etc., etc.
Dans son livre, Liliane Gallet propose de ne retenir que les structures les plus simples et les
plus fréquemment rencontrées.
Vocabulary
the release : la version
to debug : déboguer, enlever les erreurs de programmation
the schedule : le calendrier, le plan
the reel : la bobine
the datamation : le traitement de l'information
the progression : la progression, la suite, la série
the diskpack : le chargeur multidisque, le discpac
Schémas structuraux
1
________________________________________________________________________________________________
sujet
Mr B
He
He
We
adverbe
often
always
generally
usually
verbe
has
buys
informs
have
compl. direct
a meeting
his newspaper
the operator
lunch
compl. circonst.
on Tuesdays.
in the morning.
at half past eight.
at 12.30.
Base 63
2
_______________________________________________________________________________
sujet
I
They
verbe forme progr.
am going
are going
compl. lieu
home
to the USA
adv. ou compl. temps
now.
for a few days.
3
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
sujet
She
They
verbe futur imm.
is going to read
are going to read
article
the
a
adjectif.
last
long
compl. direct
release.
report.
4
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet
I
He
We
verbe au futur
shall correct
will update
shall examine
compl. direct
this error
the file
this question
adv. ou compl. temps
tomorrow.
every week.
next week.
5
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet verbe au passé s.
compl. direct
compl. indir.
adv. ou compl. temps
(cette structure convient quand le COI est plus long que le COD; sinon il est placé avant celui-ci)
He
You
He
gave
sent
sent
orders
a message
a letter
to the operator
to the computer
to the user
this morning.
5 minutes ago.
last week.
6
_______________________________________________________________________________
Sujet
The firm
They
verbe au present perfect
has bought
have written
compl. direct
a new terminal.
a few programs.
7
_______________________________________________________________________________
Sujet
The firm
The manager
They
verbe au passé immédiat
has just bought
has just met
have just written
compl. direct
a new terminal.
some customers.
a few programs.
8
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet
Floppy disks
This machine
This problem
The results
verbe voix passive
are used
was made
has been analysed
were waited for
compl. d'agent
by a lot of companies.
by an English firm.
by a competent team.
by the whole team.
9
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet
I
She
I
verbe
want
would prefer
intend
infinitif complet
to meet
to stay
to do
compl. direct adv. ou compl. temps
Mr B.
tomorrow.
a little longer.
this task
today.
Base 64
10
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet
I
She
I
verbe
want
would prefer
intend
"accusatif"
you
him
you
inf. complet
to debug
to stay
to make
compl. direct adv. ou compl. temps
this program immediately.
a little longer.
the schedule very soon.
11
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet verbe
I
want
They intend
"accusatif"
this work
that screen
infinitif passif
to be done
to be replaced
adv. ou compl. temps
tomorrow.
in the near future.
12
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet
She
I
We
verbe
saw
found
heard
(pro)nom compl.
John
the operator
them
part. présent
writing
working
talking
compl. circonstanciel
in his office.
at the console.
in the room next door.
13
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet verbe (pro)nom compl.
I
saw
her
She watched
him
inf. sans TO compl. direct
select
the cards
change
the reel
adv. de manière
rapidly.
quickly.
14
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet
They
He
She
My work
He
verbe
started
went on
stopped
prevents me from
is busy
forme en -ING
talking
adding
typing
going
debugging
compl.
loudly.
numbers.
the letter.
on holiday.
a program.
15
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Place des adverbes de fréquence et des adverbes de temps précis. Comparez :
(les adverbs de fréquence se placent devant le verbe si le verbe est simple, après le premier auxiliaire si le verbe est composé;
les adverbes de temps précis en fin de phrase comme un compl. de temps)
I
I
I
I
I have
sometimes
never
often
never
debugged
debugged
debug
debug
debugged
programs.
programs
programs
programs.
programs.
yesterday.
on Mondays.
16
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Auxiliaire
Do
Does
Did
Shall
Would
sujet
you
he
he
we
you
verbe
read
attend
check
finish
say
compl. direct
'Datamation'
lectures
the results
it
that
compl. ou adv. de temps
every month
every Monday
yesterday
by tomorrow
now
?
?
?
?
?
?
Base 65
17
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Pron. interrog. sujet verbe
Who
typed
What
happened
compl. direct
this letter
compl. circonst.
yesterday
last year
?
?
?
18
________________________________________________________________________________________________
Pron. interrog. compl.
Who(m)
What
auxiliaire
did
does
sujet
he
she
verbe compl. circonst.
talk to at the meeting
do
every morning
?
?
?
19
________________________________________________________________________________________________
Pron. interrog. compl.
Who(m)
Who(m)
What
What
What
verbe et sujet
were you talking
are they waiting
is she looking
are you talking
are you thinking
préposition rejetée
to
for
at
about
of
?
?
?
?
?
?
20
________________________________________________________________________________________________
Adv. interrog.
How
How often
When
Where
Why
auxiliaire
do
do
did
did
did
sujet
you
you
you
you
they
verbe
delete
update
arrive
put
buy
complément
data
this file
the diskpack
a minicomputer
?
?
?
?
?
?
21
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet
Jimmy
They
He
She
verbe
told
warned
informed
reminded
pronom compl.
him
us
me
me
subord. complétive (avec ou sans that)
(that) he knew 4 languages.
(that) they would dismiss us.
(that) he had to stop the machine.
(that) I had an appointment.
22
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Prop. principale
Show me the note
It's something
There's the man
pron. relatif qui disparaît
(that)
(that)
(that)
prop. relative
you were speaking of.
I have never heard of.
I work with.
23
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Prop. principale au futur
I'll speak to him
I'll check the results
I'll let you know
conj. circonst. de temps
when
while
as soon as
prop. subord. au présent
he comes back from the USA.
you punch more cards.
I hear from him.
Base 66
24
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Prop. principale
I'm going to the USA
I'm going to the USA
I'd go to the USA
conjonct. de but / cause / condition
in order to
because
if
prop. subordonnée
visit a customer.
I must visit a customer.
I had to visit a customer.
25
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Prop. principale
conjonct. de concession (2)/ cause /
You must continue
although
You mustn't use this method unless
I'll do it alone
since
prop. subordonnée
it is difficult.
it is specified.
you won't help me.
26
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Verbe + complément
Tell me
Show me
Let's talk about
adverbe relatif
the reason why
the place where
the day when
prop. subordonnée
you were dismissed.
I should put the disks.
you arrived.
27
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet + verbe
He has
I have
I know
complément
no project
no pen
no one
infinitif
to work
to write
to speak
préposition
upon.
with.
to.
28
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Sujet + verbe nom ou pron.
I don't know
I taught
him
I'll find out
how
how
how
how
to + infinitif
to use
to write
to modify
compl. direct compl. circ.
this machine.
the address in a progression.
this program quickly.
Translations : Traduire ces phrases selon les schémas structuraux (de 1 à 28)
1. Le programmeur mange souvent un sandwich vers 1 heure et demi.
2. Nous allons à la foire commerciale maintenant.
3. Le patron va lire le rapport mis à jour.
4. Je vérifierai tes fichiers la semaine prochaine.
5. La semaine dernière, l'entreprise a envoyé ce message à tous ses clients.
6. Nous avons encodé toutes les données.
7. Le voisin vient de vendre sa maison.
8. Mon texte a été affiché par mes amis.
9. Les travailleurs veulent gagner plus d'argent.
10. Ils veulent que le syndicat les défende tout de suite.
11. Mon patron veut que cette tâche soit réalisée pour la fin de la semaine.
12. J'ai entendu les programmeurs discuter de ce problème.
13. Nous l'avons vue vite prendre son portable.
14. Elle arrêta de travailler avec cette équipe. (arrêter = abandonner une tâche : to give up)
15. Elle n'a jamais rien corrigé !
16. Pourrais-tu écrire ce texte ce soir ?
17. Qui a cassé cette imprimante hier ?
18. Qu'as-tu expliqué au congrès d'hier ?
19. Qu'attendez-vous ?
20. Quand a-t-il encodé ces données ?
21. Ils m'ont prévenu que l'ordinateur de bureau était tombé en panne.
22. Quel est cet événement dont Tom parle ?
23. Je lui ferai savoir quand j'arrive.
24.
- Je te dis cela pour t'aider.
- Nous t'expliquons cela parce que tu dois le savoir !
- Nous serions là-bas si nous devions l'être !
25. Il ne change pas d'avis bien que son patron soit fâché.
26. Montre-moi l'endroit où tu aimes rêver.
27. Je n'ai pas aucun rêve sur lequel discuter.
28. Tu peux me montrer comment exécuter cette commande sans retard !
Base 67
Exercices sur les schémas structuraux
Vocabulary :
to solve : résoudre
to type : taper à la machine, dactylographier
the neighbour : le voisin
to punch : perforer
the invoicing : la facturation
to break down : tomber en panne
to remind : rappeler (à quelqu'un)
the hint : l'indice
1. Schémas 1 à 10 : à quel schéma correspond quelle phrase ?
1. We will improve that program on Monday.
2. She gave an answer to the boss a few minutes ago.
3. We have just finished our work.
4. This processor often runs programs at night.
5. It is flying to the U.S.A. in a few minutes.
6. He would like to feed in all the data this afternoon.
7. This software is going to solve those difficult matters.
8. Our accounts department has computerised the invoicing.
9. The department head wants the employees to finish the work promptly.
10. This solution has been found by our new assistant.
2. Schémas 11 à 20 : à quel schéma correspond quelle phrase ?
1. What are you looking at ?
2. I sometimes write letters on Mondays.
3. Why did they buy that computer ?
4. Who(m) are they waiting for ?
5. Would you write the letter now ?
6. It goes on running alone.
7. My boss would like these letters to be typed by the end of the week.
8. He found his wife waiting in front of the building.
9. When exactly did you arrive last week ?
10. They helped me do the work promptly.
11. Who came last night ?
12. Whom did you see at the airport ?
3. Schémas 21 à 28 : à quel schéma correspond quelle phrase ?
1. Explain the reason why it has broken down.
2. He told me he had to stop the machine.
3. You should do it this way unless the engine is warm.
4. Here's the neighbour you don't know.
5. We'll pay as soon as delivery has been made.
6. This man knows no one to discuss with.
7. We have to go now, because we still have a long way back home.
8. I'll show you how to punch cards more quickly !
9. She reminded me I had an appointment.
10. Describe me the place where you found that hint.
Base 68
Further exercises
Put these sentence parts into the right order
1. the teacher / the students / already / explained / everything / has
2. we / in the morning / often / with our parents / breakfast / have
3. the programmer / the bug / not / find out / immediately / could
4. came back / he / after a few years / home
5. just / fed in / the data / has / been
6. by the IT manager / have been / for / you / waited
7. would / he / to / prefer / certainly / alone / go
8. wants / the employees / the boss / to be / not / too curious
9. would like / the whole task / he / to be / at once / performed
10. he / he / because / debugs / can't / programs / never
11. problems / can / without / sleep / you / any / ?
12. to settle / we / of course / prepared / are / the problem
13. we / to wait / are going / you / us / tell / until / the truth
14. how much / you / every month / pay / do / ?
15. to / where / are / going / you / tonight / ?
16. this / income tax / based / on / two people / is / working
17. last time / did / do / you / what / ?
18. who(m) / talking / are / at the moment / to / you / ?
19. all / people / for / are / those / waiting / what / ?
20. people / are listening / a lot / this / of / to
21. do / live / far / you / how / ?
22. often / do / their / people / these / files / update / how / ?
23. his / reminded / yesterday / him / secretary / today / had / he / an appointment
24. is / the / student / you / 've told / where / me / about / ?
25. you have / some programs / to work / here are / on
26. the monitor / what / on / the computer / information / is / displays
27. let / you / when / I'll / I'm / to go / ready / know
28. something / that's / I've / heard / of / never
29. you / be / here / in order / on time / must / with us / leave / to
30. here / you / stay / alone / will / otherwise
31. absolutely / we / to go on / even / have / if / seems / too / this task / to be / difficult
32. you / have / any project / do / on / to / work / ?
33. why / was / couldn't / I / the reason / come / none of your business !
34. she / be / to / the day / would / willing / tell / when / she / arrives / us / there / ?
35. to write / complicated / a / statement / how / do / know / such / you / ?
36. in / I / advertisements / not / interested / receiving / all / am / those
37. you / show / the computer / you / him / should / 've / from / bought / just / the new shop !
38. do / not / you / invite / the friend / about / why / you / talk / always / ?
39. the / the / faster / that / happier / you / do / will be / she
40. the / the / more / your / will / run / program / be paid / it / for / you / more / efficiently / will
Catégorie économique
Bachelier en Informatique
Cours d'anglais
M-A : A. Lessinnes
Base 69
Catégorie économique
Bachelier en Informatique
Cours d'anglais
M-A : A. Lessinnes
Les exemples donnés dans la théorie, quand ils n'ont pas été traduits dans ces feuilles, le
sont dans les feuilles suivantes.
Vous y trouverez également le corrigé des exercices.
L'ordre des feuilles de théorie est respecté.
Cependant, voici la table de matière des feuilles numérotées à l'aide de Corr. suivi d'un
chiffre.
Corrigé des exercices et traduction des exemples - Table des matières
1. Personal et possessive adjectives and pronouns
2. The article
3. The demonstrative
4. The noun
5. Adjective group
6. Possessive case
7. One / ones
8. The adjective
9. The adverb
10. Usual prefixes and suffixes
11. Indefinites and quantifiers
12. Since - for - ago
13. Numbers, fractions, calculations, dates, time and appointments
14. Exclamatory forms
15. Interrogative pronouns and adjectives
16. The Verb
Present tenses
the question
Past tenses
auxiliaries
causative use of ‘to have’
question tags and short answers
Future tenses
other modes
infinitive
participle
imperative
conditional
subjunctive
irrealities
17. Infinitive and gerund
further exercises – inf. or ger. ?
la proposition infinitive de but
18. Relative Clause - Relative Pronoun
19. Passive Voice
20. Linking words
Possible sentence structures
Corr.1
Corr.1
Corr.1
Corr.1
Corr.3
Corr.3
Corr.4
Corr.4
Corr.6
Corr.7
Corr.7
Corr.9
Corr.9
Corr.9
Corr.9
Corr.10
Corr.10
Corr.11
Corr.12
Corr.16
Corr.19
Corr.20
Corr.21
Corr.24
Corr.25
Corr.25
Corr.26
Corr.27
Corr.28
Corr.28
Corr.30
Corr.31
Corr.31
Corr.35
Corr.37
Corr.37
Catégorie économique
Bachelier en Informatique
Cours d'anglais
M-A : A. Lessinnes
Traduction des exemples et corrigé des exercices
1. Personal et possessive adjectives and pronouns
a) I am a student. My name is XXX. This book belongs to me . It is mine.
You are a student. Your name is XXX. This book belongs to you. It is yours.
He is a student. His name is XXX. This book belongs to him. It is his.
She is a student. Her name is XXX. This book belongs to her. It is hers.
Here is a computer. Its motherboard is new. Here it is : it is its.
We are students. Our group is small. This classroom belongs to us. It is ours.
You are students. Your group is small. This classroom belongs to you. It is yours.
They are students. Their group is small. This classroom belongs to them. It is theirs.
b) Mon ordinateur est tombé en panne, peux-tu me prêter le tien ? = My computer has
broken down, can you lend me yours ?
Ils n'ont pas vu Marie mais je leur ai dit que sa voiture était là; elle est sur le parking. = They
haven't seen Mary but I have told them that her car was there; it is on the parking area.
Où est notre livre d'anglais ?. Tom nous a dit qu'il ne trouvait plus le sien non plus ! = Where
is our English book ? Tom has told us he couldn't find his either !
Pronoms réfléchis
Je ne peux pas me supporter = I cannot bear myself.
L'ordinateur le fait lui-même = The computer does it itself.
Nous pouvons nous blesser (nous-mêmes) = We can hurt ourselves.
Elle ne se connaît pas ! = She doesn't know herself !
Tu feras ceci toi-même ! = You will do this yourself !
Ils devraient se protéger ! = They should protect themselves !
La réciprocité
Mes amis ne travaillent jamais les uns avec les autres.: My friends never work with one another .
Nous dépendons l'un de l'autre. : We depend on one another.(/ on each other.)
Ils s e rendent visite l'un l'autre toutes les semaines . : They visit each other (/ one another) every
week.
Tom, John, Barbara et Mary s'attendent souvent les uns les autres. : Tom, John, Barbara and Mary
often wait for each other (/ for one another).
2. L'article
le professeur : the teacher
un ami : a friend
les amis : the friends
des amis : friends
une colère : an anger
la vie est belle : life is beautiful
une université : a university
3. Les démonstratifs
Ces salariés-là sont mieux payés que ces employés-ci.
= Those employees are better paid than these clerks !
Cette voiture-ci est plus belle que celle-là.
= This car is more beautiful than that one !
Cet étudiant-ci a plus de cours que celui-là = This student has more courses than that (one).
Ces exercices -ci sont trop faciles ! = These exercises are too easy !
4. The noun Examples :
to process : traiter, transformer
to skip : sautiller
to space : espacer, échelonner
to punch : perforer
(to punch : donner un coup de poing
to process : traiter, transformer
to print : imprimer
>> the process : le processus, le procédé
>> the skip : le petit saut, le petit bond
>> the space : l'espace
>> the punch : la perforation, la perforatrice
>> the punch : le coup de poing)
>> the processing : le traitement
>> a printer :
- un imprimeur
to process : traiter, transformer
>> a processor :
- une imprimante
Corr. 2
- le processeur (la personne)
- le processeur (la machine)
the technician : le technicien
a box : la boîte
- a boxful : l'équivalent du contenu d'une boîte, une pleine
boîte
a hand : la main
- a handful : la poignée (quantité)
a book : un livre
- a booklet : un livret
an eye : un oeil
- an eyelet : un oeillet (petit trou)
weak : faible
- the weakness : la faiblesse
clean : propre
- the cleanness : la propreté
the master : le maître
- the mastership : le fait d'être maître ou capitaine, la maîtrise;
les qualités requises pour être maître, ...
the friend : l'ami
- the friendship : l'amitié
the leader : le meneur
- the leadership : la direction, la tête; les qualités de dirigeant;
les dirigeants
false : faux
- the falsehood : la fausseté
the child : l'enfant
- the childhood : l'enfance
free : libre
- the freedom : la liberté
the king : le roi
- the kingdom : le royaume
the examination : l'examen ; the identification : l'identification ; the addition : l'addition; the attention :
l'attention ; the modulation : la modulation ; the competition : la concurrence
the mistake : la faute, l'erreur ; the misunderstanding : le malentendu, la mauvaise compréhension ;
the misprint : l'erreur d'impression, faute typographique
the uncertainty : l'incertitude; the unconsciousness : l'inconscience
the inaction : l'inaction ; the inactivity : l'inactivité ; the imperfection : l'imperfection; the disagreement :
le désaccord ; the disapproval : la désapprobation ; the disability : l'invalidité, l'infirmité ; the discomfort
: le malaise ; the disconnection : la déconnexion, l'interruption
the confederation : la confédération
the reloc ation : le déménagement, la translation, le décalage
the resetting : la restauration, la remise à zéro
the machine code : le code machine ; the source program : le programme source ; the company
manager : le directeur (gérant) de compagnie, de société ; the underscoring :
le soulignement, la mise en évidence ; the overflow : (l'innondation), le débordement ; the processing
unit : l'unité de traitement ; the operating system : le système d'exploitation ; the multiprocessing : le
multitraitement ; the sportsman : le sportif ; the breakdown : la panne, l'incident, l'avarie (a nervous
breakdown = une dépression nerveuse)
Exercise :
general purpose systems : systèmes à objectif universel
terminal output message : message de sortie du terminal
multi-user access : accès multi-utilisateurs
papercard reader : lecteur de carte
core image library : la bibliothèque d'images mémoire (core : circuit magnétique, tore; noyau)
special purpose systems : systèmes à objectif spécifique
overflow area : zone de dépassement
access time : temps d'accès
word length : longueur de mot
data management : gestion des données
Pluriel :
The plural of the following words and expressions :
Attention : l'adjectif est invariable en anglais; l'article défini 'the' au pluriel = 'the'; l'article
indéfini 'a' ('an') tombe au pluriel; 'this' devient 'these' et 'that' devient 'those'.
the child : the children
a woman : women
a beautiful lady : beautiful ladies
the tooth : the teeth
a tomato : tomatoes
the pretty girl : the pretty girls
the ox : the oxen
the people (le peuple) : the peoples (les peuples)
the people = les gens (= déjà un pluriel !)
the noun : the nouns
a moon : moons
a wife : wives
an inch : inches
a goose : geese
the wolf : the wolves
the knife : the knives
the foot : the feet
a zero : zeroes / zeros
a big success : big successes
this mouse : these mice
that penny : those pence
this story : these stories
that play : those plays
the game : the games
the car : the cars
Examples to translate :
Here is a wonderful man, who is the manager of my previous company.
Voici un homme merveilleux qui est le directeur de ma société précédente.
That lady has given my brother's small children a list of the things to buy.
Cette dame a donné une liste des choses à acheter aux petits enfants de mon frère.
Exercises
Le genre des noms :
le nom :
the lady
the worker
the animal
the cow
my dog
the computer
the male teacher
the female teacher
the students
L'emploi des noms :
Soulignez les noms :
Corr. 3
le pronom personnel sujet s'y rapportant :
she
he or she
it
it
he
it
he
she
they
The beautiful car over there belongs to our manager; he has been a company manager for several
years and has been at the head of our own company for two months. His wife is a very pretty woman
and she comes every day to have lunch with her husband.
5. Adjective group
Examples :
A six-year-old girl is a girl that is six years old. = une fille de six ans
A five -storey building is a building with five storeys. = un bâtiment de cinq étages
A thousand-page book is a book made of one thousand pages. = un livre de mille
pages
A two-day congress is a congress lasting two days. = un congrès de deux jours
Exercise : Re-write :
a book containing two thousand pages : a two-thousand-page book
a course lasting three hours : a three-hour course
a holiday of four weeks : a four-week holiday
a song of two seconds : a two-second song
an essay of hundred words : a one-hundred-word essay
a pizza with four kinds of cheese : a four-cheese pizza
6. Possessive case
Examples :
Examples :
Examples :
Examples :
- my father's book : le livre de mon père
- my parent s'car : la voiture de mes parents
- these children's toys : les jouets de ces enfants
My brother’s wife has invited my parents’friends. : La femme de mon frère a invité les
amis de mes parents.
Britain’s largest city is London. : La plus grande ville de Grande-Bretagne est Londres.
Tomorrow’s newspaper. : Le journal de demain.
Here is the glass of the lady that has left so suddenly. :
Voici le verre de la dame qui est partie si soudainement.
We have found the wallet of the man crossing the street now ! : Nous avons trouvé le
portefeuille de l'homme qui traverse la rue maintenant !
The kitchen door. : La porte de la cuisine.
The interest rates. : Les taux d'intérêt.
Exercises : Possessive case : yes or no ?
the car of my father : yes : my father's car
the newspaper of yesterday : yes : yesterday's newspaper
the door of the kitchen : no
the book of this woman :
yes : this woman's book
Corr. 4
the toys of my children : yes : my children's toys
the key of the car : no
the song of love : no
the house of my parents :
yes : my parents'house
the breakfast of today : yes
today's breakfast
the bag of the woman lying
over there : no
7. One / ones
Which is your car ? The red one over there. Laquelle est votre voiture ? La rouge là-bas.
Which biscuits do you prefer ? These / these ones. Quels biscuits préférez -vous ? Ceux-ci.
Which beers do you like ? The ones brewed in Britain, of course. Quelles bières aimes-tu ? Celles
brassées en G-B, bien sûr.
Let me introduce the other employees : the one eating a sandwich is John Martins. Laissez-moi
présenter les autres salariés : celui qui mange un sandwich est J.M.
Exercise : Translate
Cette voiture bleue est la tienne; mais la jaune ?
This blue car is yours; but the yellow one ?
Nous n'aimons pas le chocolat blanc mais seulement le noir !
We don't like the white chocolate but only the black one.
Tes amis sont grossiers ! (rude) N'en as-tu pas des polis ?
Your friends are rude ! Don't you have polite ones ?
Cette boîte-là est la mienne; et cette bleue-ci ? La tienne est rouge, n'est-ce pas ?
That box is mine; and this blue one ? Yours is red, isn't it ?
Nous avons beaucoup d'exercices; les plus difficiles sont les plus courts !
We have many exercises; the most difficult ones are the shortest ones !
Connaissez-vous ces vins ? Ce doux-ci, oui, mais pas le rouge !
Do you know these wines ? This sweet one, yes, but not the red one !
Ce verre-ci est le sien (à Margaret) et celui qui se trouve là-bas est celui de John.
This glass is hers and the one over there is John's one.
8. The adjective
Examples :
the red dress : la robe rouge
the available goods : les marchandises disponibles
the goods available from stock : les marchandises disponibles de stock
"de stock" dépend de l'adjectif "disponible", c'est pourquoi, 'available' ayant un complément se trouve
après le nom qu'il définit ('goods').
Examples :
the beautifully designed clothing : les vêtements joliment conçus
the rather good weather : l'assez bon temps
Further examples :
A wonderful car is parked in front of my new house.
Une voiture magnifique est garée en face de ma nouvelle maison.
Here is a very good cake for my extremely kind children.
Voici un très bon gâteau pour mes enfants extrêmement gentils.
These are the available items I can sell you.
Ceux -ci sont les articles disponibles que je peux vous vendre.
These are the items available from stock.
Ceux -ci sont les articles disponibles de stock.
"de stock" dépend de l'adjectif "disponible", c'est pourquoi, 'available' ayant un complément se trouve
après le nom qu'il définit ('goods').
Formation de l'adjectif :
the rust : la rouille
the fault : le défaut
the danger : le danger
the mountain : la montagne
the power : la puissance, le pouvoir
the care : le soin
the use : l'utilisation
the help : l'aide
the power : la puissance, le pouvoir
>> rusty : rouillé
>> faulty : défectueux
>> dangerous : dangereux
>> mountainous : montagneux
>> powerful : puissant
>> careful : soigneux, prudent
>> useful : utile
>> helpful : serviable
>> powerless : sans pouvoir, impuissant
the use : l'utilisation
>> useless : inutile
Corr. 5
the motion : le mouvement
>> motionless : immobile
the rust : la rouille
>> rustless : sans rouille
to think : penser
>> thinkable : pensable, imaginable
to avoid : éviter
>> avoidable : évitable
the child : l'enfant
>> childish : enfantin
the slug : la limace
>> sluggish : mou, mollasson
grey : gris
>> greyish : grisâtre
Belgian : belge ; vegetarian : végétarien ; dramatic : spectaculaire ; economic : économique
(en relation avec l'économie) ; historical : historique ; economical : économique, économe ;
logical : logique ; actual : réel ; perpetual : perpétuel ; lethal : mortel ; friendly : amical ; daily :
quotidien ; modern : moderne ; western : occidental ; golden : en or.
unusual : inhabituel ; unsuitable : qui ne convient pas, inadéquat
inappropriate : inapproprié ; impossible : impossible
nonexistent : qui n'existe pas ; nonfactual : qui n'est pas basé sur les faits
asleep : endormi ; askew : de travers, oblique ; aslant : de travers ; en biais ; awake : éveillé
time-dependent : dépendant du temps, de l'heure self-sufficient : auto-suffisant
over-scrupulous : trop scrupuleux
time-consuming : qui prend du temps
important-looking : à l'air important
hand-operated : manuel
user-written : écrit par l'utilisateur
small-sized : de petite taille
second-hand : d'occasion, de seconde main
well-off : aisé (fiancièrement)
Comment renforcer un adjectif
1. Mots courants pour renforcer un adjectif :
You have a very rich neighbour. : Tu as un voisin très riche.
This man is quite pleasant ! : Cet homme est tout à fait plaisant !
The soup is rather hot ! : La soupe est plutôt / assez chaude !
He is little polite ! : Il est peu poli !
This is pretty interesting ! : Ceci est drôlement intéressant !
2. Un adverbe peut modifier un attribut :
This is always true ! : Ceci est toujours vrai !
It is certainly nice ! : C'est certainement beau / bien !
My sister is extremely angry ! : Ma soeur est extrêmement fâchée !
Comparaisons
1. Comparaison d'égalité / inégalité
Max is as kind and polite as his sister, but he isn't as helpful as she is !
Max est aussi gentil et poli que sa soeur, mais il n'est pas aussi serviable qu'elle !
You are as stupid as your father; but not so much as your brother !
Tu es aussi stupide que ton père, mais pas autant que ton frère !
2. Comparaison d'infériorité
My sister is less clever than her boyfriend; but he is less young, too !
Ma soeur est moins intelligente que son petit ami, mais il est moins jeune, aussi !
3. Comparaison de supériorité
This house is nicer, higher, more old-fashioned and more beautifully designed than mine !
Cette maison est plus belle, plus haute, plus démodée et plus joliment conçue que la mienne !
We are quieter than your friends ! : Nous sommes plus calmes que tes amis !
The weather is nicer than yesterday ! : Le temps est plus beau qu'hier ! (= Il fait meilleur .....)
Max is taller than his brother. : Max est plus grand que son frère.
This processor is quicker than yours. : Ce processeur est plus rapide que le vôtre.
Your car is more beautiful than mine ! : Ta voiture est plus belle que la mienne !
The book is more interesting than the film. : Le livre est plus intéressant que le film.
The situation is more awful than that ! : La situation est plus horrible que cela !
Exercise : What's the comparative form of superiority of ... ?
quick : quicker
powerful : more powerful
speedy : speedier
boring : more boring
remarkable : more remarkable
handsome : more handsome
necessary : more necessary
fat : fatter
Corr. 6
good : better
smart : smarter
useless : more useless
elegant : more elegant
modern : more modern
famous : more famous
quiet : quieter
noisy : noisier
small : smaller
huge : huger
enormous : more enormous
bad : worse
4. Le superlatif
She is the nicest girl here ! : Elle est la plus belle fille ici ! (la plus chouette, la plus gentille)
We are the prettiest students, aren't we ? : Nous sommes les plus jolies étudiantes, n'est-ce pas?
This is this year's shortest text ! : Ceci est le texte le plus court de l'année !
We have the largest classroom ! : Nous avons la plus grande classe !
I think this is the most interesting book I have ever read ! : Je pense que ceci est le livre le plus
intéressant que j'aie jamais lu !
This is the most expensive model on display. : Ceci est le modèle le plus cher exposé.
He is by far the best student ! : Il est de loin le meilleur étudiant !
She is the most beautiful girl I've ever met ! Elle est la plus belle fille que j'aie jamais rencontrée!
This is the longest book Mary has ever read ! : Ceci est le livre le plus long que Marie ait jamais
lu !
It is the longest vehicle that has ever come here ! :C'est le véhicule le plus long qui soit jamais venu
ici !
Here are John and Peter; which is the taller ? : Voici John et Peter, lequel est le plus grand ?
9. L'adverbe
I usually drink tea in the morning. : D'habitude, je bois du thé le matin.
I think they always drink tea in the morning. : Je pense qu'ils boivent touijours du thé le matin.
I have never been beaten at chess. : Je n'ai jamais été battu aux échecs.
He will therefore have left before your arrival. : C'est pourquoi il sera parti avant votre arrivée.
We carefully explained him the situation last week ! : La semaine dernière, nous lui avons
soigneusement expliqué la situation !
Exercise : Build the adverbs from the following adjectives :
beautiful : beautifully
nice : nicely
quick : quickly
awful : awfully
horrible : horribly
slow : slowly
hard : hard
terrible : terribly
slight : slightly
late : late
easy : easily
heavy : heavily
good : well
bad : badly
Some vocabulary :
the day : le jour
free : libre
useless : inutile
slight : léger
the step : le pas
the side: le côté
the length : la longueur
like : comme
upward : vers le haut
>> daily : quotidiennement
>> freely : librement
>> uselessly : inutilement
>> slightly : légèrement
>> stepwise : pas par pas, pas à pas
>> sidewise : de côté, de manière latérale
>> lengthwise : dans le sens de la longueur
>> likewise : de la même manière
downward : vers le bas
forward : vers l'avant
La comparaison de l'adverbe
1. La comparaison de l'adverbe suit le même principe que celle de l'adjectif.
He drives as quickly as you do ! = Il conduit ausi vite que toi !
I can do it as well as she can ! = Je peux le faire aussi bien qu'elle !
We couldn't paint as beautifully as last time ! = Nous ne pourrions pas peindre aussi joliment
que la fois dernière !
Could you drive less quickly, please ? = Pourriez-vous conduire moins vite, s'il vous plaît ?
This should happen more often than last year ! = Ceci devrait se passer plus souvent que
l'année dernière !
Corr. 7
They get up earlier than some years ago ! = Ils se lèvent plus tôt qu'il y a quelques années.
Si l'adverbe = adjectif + '-ly', alors, le comparatif de supériorité se formera à l'aide de 'more' suivi de l'adverbe.
You should drive more slowly than that ! = Tu devrais conduire plus lentement que cela !
Si le comparatif de supériorité de l'adjectif est irrégulier, alors l'adverbe équivalent l'est également.
You behave worse than before ! Really, you should try to do better !
= Tu te comportes plus mal qu'avant ! Vraiment, tu devrais essayer de faire mieux !
Can't you work more than that ? = Ne peux-tu travailler plus que cela ?
I have to sleep less than ten hours a day ! = Je dois dormir moins que dix heures par jour !
2. Le superlatif de l'adverbe se comporte identiquement à celui de l'adjectif.
You are playing the worst ! = C'est toi qui joues le plus mal !
Explain that the most accurately you can, please ! = Explique cela le plus précisément
possible, s'il te plaît !
Exercise : Translate
moins largement (que) : less widely (than)
plus clairement (que) : more clearly (than)
aussi vite (que) : as quickly (as)
10. Usual prefixes and suffixes
to unhook : décrocher; the unbeliever : l'incroyant, l'incrédule, le non-croyant; unable :
incapable; uneasily : de manière malaisée, avec gêne; the inhumanity : l'inhumanité,
inhumanisme; inimitable : inimitable; inimitably : de manière inimitable; the immaturity :
l'immaturité; impolite : impoli, non poli; impossibly : de manière impossible
the irregularity : l'irrégularité; irrational : irrationnel
to disregard : ne pas considérer; to disagree : ne pas être d'accord; the disrepair : le mauvais
été, le délabrement; disrespectful : irrespectueux, irrévérencieux; disreputably : d'une
manière peu honorable, honteuse, minablement; disconnected : décousu, sans suite;
débranché; disassembled : démonté, désassemblé
the misuse : l'usage impropre, l'abus; the misunderstanding : le malentendu; to misapply :
mal appliquer; to mismanage : mal gérer, gérer en dépit du bon sens; misplaced : déplacé,
hors de propos; misguided : mal avisé
to use (utiliser)
the user : l'utilisateur
using : utilisant
useful : utile
the usefulness : l'utilité
usefully : utilement
useless : inutile
the uselessness : l'inutilité
uselessnesses : inutilités
uselessly : inutilement
used : utilisé
unused : inutilisé
11. Indefinites and quantifiers
We have many friends because we have much money ! : Nous avons beaucoup d'amis
parce que nous avons beaucoup d'argent !
I would like to drink a little wine ! : J'aimerais boire un peu de vin !
These people have a few children, but I don't remember how many ! : Ces gens ont
quelques enfants, mais je ne me souviens pas de combien !
We only have little butter left in the fridge; don't forget to buy some ! : Il ne nous reste que
peu de beurre dans le frigo; n'oublie pas d'en acheter !
Only few people enjoyed yesterday's film ! : Seulement peu de gens ont apprécié le film d'hier !
We have too many worries, you know ! : Nous avons trop de soucis, vous savez !
He has so little understanding for us ! : Il a si peu de compréhension pour nous !
They really meet too few people ! : Ils rencontrent trop peu de gens !
They have much too much money and much too little human feeling ! : Ils ont beaucoup
trop d'argent et beaucoup trop peu de sentiment humain !
Mary has no money and her brother has so much ! : Marie n'a pas d'argent et son frère en a
tant ! But he has no friends and she has so many ! : Mais il n'a pas d'amis et elle en a tant !
Exercises : Translate into French :
1. Half the text has been read by all the students.
Corr. 8
La moitié du texte a été lu par tous les étudiants.
2. Many components are out of stock. Someone has bought most of what we had !
Beaucoup de composants sont épuisés. Quelqu'un en a acheté la plupart de ce que nous avions !
3. Most companies have access to Internet.
La plupart des compagnies ont accès à Internet.
4. Here are two programs; both are very complex; could you explain each of them ?
- Oh, no, none of them, sorry !
Voici deux programmes; les deux sont très complexes; pourrais-tu expliquer chacun d'entre eux ? –
Oh, non, aucun d'entre eux, désolé !
5. Anybody could answer that kind of question !
N'importe qui pourrait répondre à ce genre de question !
6. Much processing has already been done; you still have to wait a few minutes.
(Beaucoup) Une grande partie du traitement a déjà été faite; tu as encore à attendre quelques
minutes.
7. Little has been done ! You have spent far too much money !
Peu a été fait ! Tu as dépensé de loin trop d'argent !
8. Few problems can be solved in this way !
Peu de problèmes peuvent être résolus de cette manière !
9. Some of you have made a few mistakes, but nobody has written the right text !
Quelques -uns d'entre vous ont fait quelques fautes, mais personne n'a écrit le bon texte !
10. All of you should do it again. Do not write anything wrong, this time !
Vous tous devriez le refaire. N'écrivez rien de mauvais, cette fois !
Complete :
They have made many mistakes !
I don't have much money with me !
They have bought much ham, much butter, many sandwiches and many bottles of beer.
Every day, we meet a few people and we waste a little time on talking with them; but I have a little
pleasure in that, and I can say I have a few friends, now.
I think you only need little money to go there; and anyway I only have few banknotes here; but also,
you really have little courage to say that you can only work few hours a day !
Most of my money has been lost and I have only little left, only few coins : none of the banknotes
has been found back !
Both of us can go there but none of us may remain !
Half the students have succeeded, which is not enough !
Some people are there but I cannot see any friend.
Further exercises :
Complete the translations
Aucun ami n'est venu hier car ils avaient tous plusieurs choses à faire !
No friend came yesterday for they all had several things to do !
La plupart des étudiants n'ont pas assez d'argent à dépenser à cela !
Most students haven't got enough money to be spent on that !
Tom et Jerry sont célèbres car ils ont tous deux joué dans des films.
Tom and Jerry are famous for they both have played in films.
A la fois Tom et Jerry ont reçu quelques cadeaux.
Both Tom and Jerry have received some (a few) gifts.
Aucun d'entre nous n'a réussi ! Quelle horreur !
None of us has succeeded ! How awful !
Tous les matins je prends le bus.
= Every morning I catch the bus.
La moitié de la classe est absente !
= Half the class is absent !
Ils n'ont pas d'enfants.
= They haven't got any children.
Cela est beaucoup trop cher ! = That is much (far) too expensive !
Replace a lot of, not a lot at all, some in those sentences
He hasn't got many friends and he doesn't earn much money !
We have prepared a few sentences for the English course but we had only little imagination!
We have bought much water and a few bottles of wine; will that be enough ?
Few people can understand that !
We have many exercises to write for tomorrow and also much vocabulary to learn !
Corr. 9
Here is a little bread for you; maybe you would like a little soup as well...; and here are a few biscuits.
Many people have written to me but I cannot answer them all !
I think I need a little help !
Little understanding is needed here but much practice is necessary.
I would like to earn much money and have little work to do ! Well, this is impossible !
12. Since - for - ago
Peter has been working since yesterday night. = Peter travaille depuis hier soir.
We haven't met her for several months ! = Nous ne l'avons pas rencontrée depuis plusieurs mois !
We finished school three years ago. = Nous avons fini l'école il y a trois ans.
Exercise : For / since / ago ? :
We have been waiting for Tom for more than two hours, now !
They met each other ten years ago .
We haven't read any book for years ! Since we left school !
They have been working on it since last year.
They haven't phoned us since Tuesday.
We left school three weeks ago . And since then, we haven't done anything !
I have been investigating for a long time !
Rem. : He worked for ten days on that ! = Il a travaillé pendant dix jours à cela !
Since I last saw him, I have travelled a lot ! = Depuis la dernière fois que je l'ai
vu; j'ai beaucoup voyagé !
Since you don't understand anything, I will explain it again.
= Vu que tu ne comprends rien, je vais le réexpliquer.
13. Numbers, fractions, calculations, dates, time and appointments
Appointments : You give an appointment on a day (day or date), at a certain time, or in the morning / in
the afternoon / in the evening. : Tu donnes un rendez-vous un jour, à une certaine heure, ou le matin /
l'après-midi / le soir.
Ex. : Can I meet you on the 11th September, at half past six in the afternoon ? On Tuesday,
thus. : Puis-je te rencontre le 11 septembre, à six et ½ de l'après-midi ? Mardi, donc.
Exercise : Write the appointment : we'll see :
lundi, à 5 heures du soir : on Monday, at 5 p.m. (5 in the afternoon)
le 13 août à 4 heures et ½ : on the 13th August at half past four
mardi, à 6 heures moins 10 du matin : on Tuesday, at 10 to 6 in the morning (10 to 6 a.m.)
le 21 octobre à midi : on the 21st October at noon
le 5 mai, l'après-midi : on the 5th May, in the afternoon
demain à environ 11 heures 20 : tomorrow, at about 20 past 11
mercredi, le matin, entre 10 heures et quart et 11 heures : on Wednesday, in the morning,
between a quarter past 10 and 11 (o'clock)
14. Exclamatory forms
Comme nous avons ri hier !
Quel "bazar" ici !
Quel dommage !
Quelle blague stupide !
How we laughed yesterday !
What a mess here !
What a pity !
What a stupid joke !
15. Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives
qui ? who ?
dans quoi ? what in ?
quoi ? what ?
combien de temps ? how long ?
avec qui ?
whom with ?
à quelle fréquence ? how often ?
combien d'argent ? how much money ? combien d'enfants ? how many children ?
lequel ?
which one ?
quand ?
when ?
pourquoi ?
why ?
où ? where ?
d'où ?
where from ?
depuis combien de temps ? how long ? + un
temps composé
16. The Verb
Present Simple
Corr. 10
We usually have breakfast together. Nous prenons habituellement notre petit déjeuner ensemble.(=
une habitude)
He visits his parents once a week and his brother every month.. ll rend visite à ses parents une fois
par semaine et à son frère une fois par mois. (= une répétition)
Cats drink milk. Les chats boivent du lait. (= une généralité)
Exercise : write the verb in the present tense
- When you turn on the electricity, the computer prints the word READY on the television
screen.
- A company makes 28 TV sets every day. How many sets does it make in 8 weeks ?
- Do you want the computer to print a number ?
- People often want to solve the same problem many times, but with different numbers. If a
thousand people work for you, you don't want to write a thousand programs for their
monthly pay.
- Inside a computer, there are many places for storing numbers. Each of these places is an
address.
Present Continuous
He is gardening. Il jardine. (il est en train de jardiner !)
Tom is s leeping, now ! Tom dort maintenant. (il est en train de dormir !)
What are you doing tonight ? - I am going to the cinema. (= futur proche)
Que fais-tu de soir ? – Je vais au cinéma.
What are you going to do ? - I am going to the cinema.
Que vas-tu faire ? – Je vais au cinéma. (= futur proche)
We are going to eat some sandwiches. Nous allons manger quelques sandwiches. (= futur
proche)
The fire is burning and the cat is lying in front of it. Le feu brûle et le chat est couché en face
de lui. (= description présente)
Exercise : write the verb in the continuous present tense. (except if not possible !)
- What are you doing here ?
- We have to wait now, the computer is processing the data.
- Are these people drawing a flowchart ?
- He is not listening to his English teacher, because he thinks he knows everything ! And
he is dreaming about his next holidays ...
- I am sitting on a comfortable chair. Can you see me ?
Exercise : Present : Simple or Continuous ?
- Multiprogramming allows several jobs to be run at the same time. For instance, Job 2
begins while Job 1 is waiting for the data.
- In the case of interactive processing, the CPU shares its processing time between the
users.
- Don't bother John, he is drawing a complex flowchart.
Present Perfect
We have not finished yet, we have worked for some time, though !: Nous n'avons pas encore fini, nous
travaillons depuis un certain temps pourtant ! (action qui n’est pas terminée au moment où l’on parle)
They have just phoned Tom. Ils viennent de téléphoner à Tom. (action qui vient de se terminer)
These data have already been processed. : Ces données ont déjà été traitées. (action qui a eu lieu
récemment)
It’s 11 o’clock a.m.; I have received a lot of telephone calls this morning ! : Il est 11 heures du matin;
j'ai reçu beaucoup de coups de téléphone ce matin ! (action qui a eu lieu dans une période de temps
non encore terminée : la matinée n'est pas encore terminée puisqu'il est 11 heures du matin !)
We have prepared everything. : Nous avons tout préparé. (action passée qui a eu lieu à un moment
indéterminé du passé)
Have you ever seen that film ? : As-tu jamais vu ce film ? (action passée qui a eu lieu à un moment
indéterminé du passé; je ne demande pas quand tu l'as vu mais si tu l'as vu !)
Present Perfect Continuous
Corr. 11
I have been doing something. : J'ai fait quelque chose. (et cela a duré)
He has been worrying a lot. : Il s'en est beaucoup fait. (et cela a duré)
I have been sleeping until now and for more than twelve hours ! : J'ai dormi jusqu'à présent
et depuis plus de douze heures ! (sommeil qui dure !)
Exercise : Write the verb in the present perfect tense, continuous or not
- Once you have written all the necessary steps, you have been writing a program.
- Why haven't you turned off the computer ? (Why have you not turned off the computer ?)
- It has checked everything. or It has been checking everything. (s'il y avait beaucoup à vérifier)
- Has it printed the results ? (pas de continu car ce que l'on veut savoir est juste si les résultats ont
été imprimés, pas si cela a duré longtemps !)
- Oh, yes, it has been printing them for several hours ! (on insiste sur la longue durée de
l'impression)
- My friends have been sleeping since the beginning of the course. (on insiste sur le fait qu'ils
dorment depuis le début du course et non qu'ils viennent de s'endormir !)
Exercises : Present : Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous ?
1. Some people need to 'talk with' the computer. (présent + verbe qui ne se met pas au continu)
2. In a flowchart, each program-step uses a box of a special shape. (généralité)
3. This screen does not belong (doesn't belong) to us. (présent + verbe qui ne se met pas au continu)
4. We have been reading since your departure without any interruption ! (on insiste sur la durée de la
lecture). And our eyes are getting tired ! (et maintenant, en voici le résultat mais les yeux ne se
fatiguent pas d'un seul coup, il y a une progression ! )
5. He‘s a good friend, I have known him for years ! ('depuis' réclame un perfect; et 'to know' ne se met
pas au continu)
6. Where is Alan ? - He is typing a long letter. (présent car cela se passe au moment où on le
cherche; continu car la lettre est longue et il est en train de la taper)
7. It never rains in August, or seldom ! (généralité)
8. What is he doing ? I can’t see him ! (que fait-il pour le moment ?)
9. I normally go to work at this time. (habitude)
10. Please, make the tea; the water i s boiling. (l'eau est en train de bouillir, c'est donc le moment de
faire le thé)
11. What have you been doing the whole morning ? It is already half past eleven and you haven't
finished anything ! (la matinée n'est pas terminée; mais presque; la période de temps pendant
laquelle tu as fait autre chose ou rien du tout est longue ! par contre, 'terminer' est ponctuel)
12. In a few minutes, I am listening to some English. (futur proche)
13. This is a nice match; we see the ball; it passes from one hand to another very quickly; now,
Johnson jumps to fetch it and Nicholas falls down ! In the meantime, Johnson shoots ... and ... goal !
(rapport d'un événement sur le vif; attention à la troisième pers. du singulier)
14. This is a nice painting : a woman is sitting on a chair; the man is standing behind her and their
children are playing in the background. (description de quelque chose de statique)
15. Cats hate dogs; moreover, they drink milk. (généralité)
16. With the invention of chips, computer manufacture has become much simpler. (constatation d'un
fait qui vient de se produire – pas de moment passé déterminé)
17. Each machine language specifies behaviour inside a particular CPU. (généralité) Do you finally
understand it now ? (to understand ne se met pas au continu; mais plus joli serait : Can you
understand ......)
18. Wait a minute and don't be so impatient ! They are connecting the peripherals (ce qui se passe
maintenant) and only need a few minutes for that ! (présent + verbe qui ne se met pas au continu)
19. Your program i s now running.
20. Output from a computer consists of electrical pulses.
La question
What are you doing tonight ? : Que fais-tu ce soir ?
Are you sleeping ? : Dors-tu ?
Do you like chocolate ? : Aimes-tu le chocolat ?
Doesn’t he prefer cakes ? : Ne préfère-t-il pas les gâteaux ?
Why do you often refuse his invitations ? : Pourquoi refuses-tu souvent ses invitations ?
Do you like eggs ? : Aimes-tu les oeufs ?
Has he been listening to you ? T'a-t -il écouté?
Did you see Tom yesterday ? : As-tu vu Tom hier ?
Will he come here ? : Viendra-t-il ici ?
Corr. 12
Who has done this ? : Qui a fait ceci ?
Who likes that ? : Qui aime cela ?
What are you waiting for ? : Qu' attends -tu ?
Who(m) are you going there with ?: Avec qui vas-tu là ?
What was he listening to ? : Qu'écoutait-il ?
What are you looking for ? Que cherches-tu ?
What does he usually eat his sandwiches with ? : Avec quoi mange-t-il habituellement ses
sandwiches ?
Whom has he worked with ? : Avec qui a-t -il travaillé ?
Exercise :
1. Mary is going to buy a new car. = Who is going to buy a new car ?
2. We have already finished our work. = What have we already finished ?
3. She is watching television. = What is she doing ?
4. I am thirty-two years old. = How old are you ?
5. Very well, thank you. = How are you ?
6. I play football twice a week. = How often do you play football ?
7. They are travelling with my best friends. = Whom are they travelling with ?
8. They have been playing cards for four hours ! How long have they been playing cards ?
9. Margaret listens to classical music most of the time.= What does M. listen to most of the time ?
10. Margaret listens to classical music most of the time. = What kind of music does M. listen to most
of the time ?
11. We are going to school. = Where are you going to ?
12. He goes to school every day ! = How often does he go to school ?
13. She lives twenty kilometers from here. = How far does she live ?
14. We have interesting books. = What do you have ?
15. They are listening to music. = What are they listening to ?
16. They are listening to classical music. = What kind of music are they listening to ?
17. John saw your brother last Sunday. = When did John see your brother ?
18. The course will last two hours. = How long will the course last ?
19. The children are playing in the garden. = Where are the children playing ?
20. The teacher is talking. = Who is talking ?
21. The teacher is here to listen to our problems. =
Why is the teacher here ?
What is the teacher here for ?
22. The teacher is talking. = What is the teacher doing ?
23. She is twenty years old. = How old is she ?
24. Fine, thanks ! = How are you ?
25. This boy is seven ft tall. = How tall is this boy ?
26. That building is five hundred m high ! = How high is that building ?
27. Mary likes reading. = Who likes reading ?
28. Mary likes playing the piano. = What does Mary like ?
Past Tenses (indicative)
1. Past : Simple
Ex. :
When I was young, I ate many sandwiches. = Quand j'étais jeune, je mangeais beaucoup de
sandwiches.
Yesterday, Tom phoned me. = Hier, Tom m'a téléphoné.
Last year, he met my sister. = L'année passée, il rencontra ma soeur;
It’s 3 p.m.; this morning, I saw your brother. = Il est 3 heures de l'après-midi; ce matin, j'ai vu
ton frère. (nous sommes dans l'après -midi; la matinée est donc terminée; cela est par conséquent une période
du passé)
Ten years ago, the dollar dropped quite suddenly. = Il y a dix ans, le dollar a chuté tout à fait
soudainement.
Since 1982, we haven’t seen our family anymore. = Depuis 1982, nous n'avons plus vu notre
famille.
What happened in 1982 ? = Que s'est-il passé en 1982 ?
We moved abroad. = Nous avons déménagé à l'étranger.
Since we moved abroad, we haven’t seen our family anymore. = Depuis que nous avons
déménagé à l'étranger, nous n'avons plus vu notre famille.
When did you experience that ? = Quand as-tu vécu cela ?
Corr. 13
What time did you get up ? = A quelle heure t'es-tu levé ?
Have you seen that film ? = = As-tu vu ce film ? (dans l'absolu, donc moment indéterminé)
Yes, I have already seen it. = Oui, je l'ai déjà vu. (moment indéterminé)
When did you see it ? = Quand l'as-tu vu ? (demande de précision sur le temps du passé)
I saw it the day before yesterday. = Je l'ai vu avant-hier. (temps du passé défini, précisé)
I always drank tea in the morning. = Je buvais toujours du thé le matin. (but now, not anymore =
mais plus maintenant) = I used to drink tea in the morning.
When I was your age, I went to school by bicycle. = Quand j'avais ton âge, j'allais à l'école à
vélo. = I used to go by bicycle when I was your age !
2. Past : Continuous
Ex. : Yesterday when I came in, he was deeply sleeping.
= Hier, quand j'entrai, il dormait profondément.
I was gardening while my husband was thoroughly washing his car.
= Je jardinais pendant que mon mari lavait sa voiture à fond.
The building was burning. = Le bâtiment brûlait.
The cat was lying in front of the fire and the dog was running in the garden.
= Le chat était couché en face du feu et le chien courait dans le jardin.
Exercises : Past Simple or Continuous ?
1. He was sleeping when I called for him.
2. When I arrived, the building was burning.
3. I entered the room and what did I see? ! They were sleeping on the floor !
4. The children were watching television while their parents were quite fiercely discussing
about them.
5. When the phone rang, I was working.
6. I met your brother at John's party; he was talking to a young lady when I arrived.
7. When did you buy this desktop computer ?
8. When Richard phoned, we were listening to the radio in our bedroom and we didn't
hear the telephone ringing.
9. We didn't agree with them on what they were doing at that time and we didn't tell them
about it, but they didn't stop.
10. When the printer broke down, it was printing a very long text ! This was a real
catastrophe !
11. The earliest operating systems allowed only one job to be run at a time.
12. He always used the same programming language before !
13. People were talking around Peter while he was programming and he made several
mistakes !
14. I am sure that last week, they didn't overcome that problem alone !
15. When I got there, they were desperately trying to convince Peter not to use so many
loops !
Past : Perfect
Ex. : We had met your teacher several days before you did !
= Nous avions rencontré votre professeur plusieurs jours avant vous !
In 1985, my parents had already left Belgium.
= En 1985, mes parents avaient déjà quitté la Belgique.
We arrived too late at the station and the train had just left !
= Nous sommes arrivés trop tard à la gare et le train venait de partir !
I was glad to meet her last week, as I hadn’t seen her for several months !
= J'ai été content de la rencontrer la semaine dernière, vu que je ne l'avais pas vue
depuis plusieurs mois !
Ex. :
- He told me : ‘’I went there yesterday.’’
===> He told me he had gone there the day before.
= Il m'a dit : "Je suis allé là hier."
===> Il m'a dit qu'il était allé là le jour d'avant."
- He told me : ‘’ I have finished that very quickly.’’
===> He told me he had finished that very quickly.
= Il m'a dit : "J' ai fini cela très vite."
===> Il m'a dit qu'il avait fini cela très vite."
Corr. 14
Past Perfect Continuous
Ex. : - They had forgotten the time of their appointment and when they arrived, the
others had been waiting for them for one and a half hour !
= Ils avaient oublié l'heure de leur rendez-vous et quand ils arrivèrent, les autres les
attendaient depuis une heure et ½.
- When Mary finally got up, she noticed that she had been sleeping since the
preceding morning !
= Quand Marie se leva enfin, elle remarqua qu'elle avait dormi depuis le matin
précédent !
Exercises : Past Perfect or Past Perfect continuous ?
1. Before you finally arrived, they had phoned me to ask me where you were, for they had
been waiting for you for hours !
2. We had decided to come here long before you did !
3. He had been watching films the whole day when we saw him !
4. In 1986, we had already lost much money !
5. When you got here, I was told you had been programming for years !
6. When the printer broke down, it hadn't finished the printing.
7. The police inspector had been looking for clues since the murder and had found nothing
when the second lady was killed.
8. We had just left the party when you arrived.
9. We had left the building when they arrived : they had been looking for the place the
whole evening !
10. She had been playing games on the computer during several hours and she had just
stopped when the boss arrived !
Further Exercises : Past : Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous ?
1. I hadn't finished my work when James arrived, although I had been working for a long
time !
2. She had already got up and was downstairs when we phoned her in order to wake her.
3.
They were having breakfast when we came downstairs to join them. >> ils prenaient
leur petit déjeuner ...
They had had breakfast when we came downstairs to join them. >> ils avaient déjà
pris leur petit déjeuner ...
They had been having breakfast when we came downstairs to join them. >> ils
avaient déjà pris leur petit déjeuner ... et cela avait duré un certain temps !
4. We hadn't finished yet when he left.
5. The secretary had not typed the letter when the boss asked for it !
She had been dreaming before beginning to work !
6. I saw you yesterday and you were talking to a young lady.
7. When did you arrive here ?
8. She was waiting for her boyfriend when we met her; she had been waiting for him for
more than an hour !
9. In 1998 I began to work in this company.
10. When you phoned, I was sleeping; that's why I couldn't answer you !
11. Mary was washing the dishes while her husband was gardening; when I arrived, it
disturbed them although I had phoned them ten minutes before to warn them of my arrival !
I was shocked and left immediately !
Past Simple or Present Perfect ?
Corr. 15
Ex. I have already met that man. = J'ai déjà rencontré cet homme – peu importe (ou
je ne sais plus) quand !
>> Present perfect
I met him last week. = Je l'ai rencontré la semaine dernière – je précise quand je l'ai
rencontré
>> Past simple
Ex.
We have been waiting for her for two hours, now; and she hasn’t arrived yet !
= Nous l'attendons depuis deux heures maintenant, et elle n'est pas encore
arrivée !
>> l’action n’est pas terminée
Wait a second, we have finished our exercises. = Attends une seconde, nous
avons fini nos exercices. >> l’action se termine
We have just been listening to my favourite song. = Nous venons d'écouter
ma chanson préférée.
>> l’action vient de se terminer
He is still living : He has done a lot of things in his life ! = Il vit encore : Il a fait
beaucoup de choses dans sa vie !
>> l’action a eu lieu dans une période
de temps non encore terminée puisqu'il vit encore !
He is dead : He did a lot of things in his life ! = Il est mort : Il a fait beaucoup de
choses dans sa vie !
>> par contre, ici, l'action a eu lieu dans une
période de temps terminée puisqu'il est mort !
Exercises : Simple Past or Present Perfect ? (continuous or not) :
1. He didn't watch television yesterday evening. (moment déterminé dans le passé)
2. We haven't seen her since her birthday. (since !)
3. They have just left. (cela vient de se passer – avec "just")
4. Have you already typed his mail ? ("already" – on demande si cela a été fait et non quand)
5. She not finished it yet. (avec "not yet" : action non terminée)
6. We didn't like your party last week ! (moment déterminé du passé)
7. It’s three o’clock p.m.; he has rung five times this afternoon (période de temps non
terminée) / he has been ringing five times this afternoon (période de temps non terminée +
impatience et exaspération !), and he rang at the door twice in the morning ! (période
terminée >> moment déterminé du passé)
8. He always ate bread with an egg for breakfast when he was young. (habitude dans le
passé; on pourrait aussi dire : he used to eat ... )
9. You are lucky to find us here : we have just arrived. (cela vient de se passer – avec "just")
10. Did you enjoy the party last night ? (moment déterminé dans le passé)
11. Where have you been ? I have been looking for you everywhere for hours !
(période qui vient de se terminer)
Further exercise : Mixture of all past tenses + Present Perfect (continuous or not) :
1. Yesterday, when the rain began, I was playing tennis and I had already beaten your
brother twice !
2. Come in ! they are just explaining (just = justement >> ils sont justement en train
d'expliquer) me the strange adventure they experienced last week, and the other events that
had already happened several weeks before ! Quite interesting !
3. Since she answered so badly, she has learned a lot ! (since : depuis que : present
perfect dans la principale, past simple dans la subordonnée)
4. Why did you lie to your teacher yesterday ? (moment déterminé)
5. We had never met your brother before coming here last month.
6. He had already been waiting for her for more than two hours when you saw him
yesterday.
7. My house has been burning for several hours now; the fire began yesterday in the
kitchen.
Etudier les verbes irréguliers !
Corr. 16
Auxiliaires de mode
must : obligation (nég. : mustn’t = must not)
can : possibilité; capacité
(nég. : can’t = cannot)
(passé et conditionnel : could)
You must do that ! Tu dois faire cela !
It can be done. Cela peut être fait !
I cannot open the door. Je ne sais pas ouvrir la porte.
We could help him ! = Nous pourrions l'aider / Nous pouvions
l'aider.
may : permission; éventualité
You may go out tonight. Tu peux sortir ce soir.
He may arrive later.Il se peut qu'il arrive plus tard.
(nég. : may not)
My children may not play in the street ! Mes enfants ne
peuvent pas jouer dans la rue !
(conditionnel : might)
You might be right ! Il se pourrait que tu aies raison.
should : obligation morale.
You should work more if you want to be
successful ! Tu devrais travailler plus si tu veux réussir !
(nég. : shouldn’t = should not)
We shouldn't criticize her so much ! Tu ne devrais pas la
critiquer autant !
Ces auxiliaires ont une forme invariable et sont suivis d’un infinitif sans ‘to’.
Deux auxiliaires / verbes spéciaux :
We needn’t work to be successful ! Tu n'as pas besoin d'avoir du succéès !!
Dare you go there alone ? Oses-tu aller là seul ?
Sont suivis de ‘to’ avant l’infinitif :
When I was young, I used to go to school by bicycle. Quand j'étais jeune, j'allais à l'école à vélo.
As a child, my brother used to drink milk in the morning. Comme enfant (quand il était enfant), mon
frère buvait du lait le matin.
We ought to listen to her ! Tu devrais l'écouter !
Remarques :
You must go out. Tu dois sortir.
They may answer that. Ils peuvent répondre cela.
I may have been wrong. Il se peut que j'aie eu raison.
He must have denied everything. Il doit tout avoir tout nié.
You don’t have to do this homework. Tu ne dois pas faire ce travail.= tu n'es pas obligé de faire ...
The boss can understand your reason and you don’t have to be there at 8 tomorrow. Le patron peut
comprendre ta raison et tu ne dois pas être là à 8 heures demain = tu n'as pas besoin d'être là ...
We needn’t go there. Nous n'avons pas besoin d'aller là.
The party begins at 8 o’clock; I needn’t be there until 9 ! La soirée commence à 8 heures ; je n'ai pas
besoin d'être là avant 9 heures !
You mustn’t go in there = you are forbidden to go in there. Tu ne peux pas rentrer là !
Formes de substitution :
We must work harder. Nous devons travailler plus dur.
Last week, we had to work harder. La semaine dernière, nous devions travailler plus dur.
Next time, we will have to work ! La fois prochaine, nous devrons travailler !
Last year, the students didn’t have to do anything of that kind ! L'année dernière, les étudiants ne
devaient rien faire de ce genre !
My train is leaving in a few minutes, I have to leave ! Mon train part dans quelques minutes, je dois partir !
I must go, now ! Je dois aller, maintenant !
Will you be able to open the door ? Sauras -tu ouvrir la porte ?
Will it be possible to bring the lorry back ? Sera-t -il possible de ramener le camion ?
You could injure somebody ! Tu pourrais blesser quelqu'un.
He could have killed his children ! Il aurait pu tuer ses enfants !
Jonathan may go out because last week he was not allowed to. Jonathan peut sortir parce que la
semaine dernière, il n'en a pas eu l'autorisation (= il ne pouvait pas).
Will you be allowed to go with us ? Pourras-tu aller avec noous ?
They may arrive later. Il se peut qu'ils arrivent plus tard.
They may have arrived later.Il se peut qu'ils soient arrivés plus tard.
He might agree on that. Il se pourrait qu'il soit d'accord là-dessus.
She might have said yes. Il se pourrait qu'elle ait dit oui.
He must have missed his train. Il doit avoir raté son train.
You should listen to your parents. Tu devrais écouter tes parents.
In the future, Tim should obey more. A l'avenir, Tim devrait obéir plus.
You should have answered more politely the other day ! Tu aurais dû répondre plus poliment l'autre jour !
Exercises : Translate
Corr. 17
1. You can change the numbers as often as you like.
Tu peux changer les nombres aussi souvent que tu l'aimes.
2. You may want a little money when the bank is shut. You can go to the money machine outside the
bank and push your plastic card in.
Tu peux vouloir un peu d'argent (il se peut que tu veuilles un peu ...) quand la banque est fermée. Tu
peux aller au distributeur d'argent à l'extérieur de la banque et y rentrer ta carte de plastique.
3. You may want the computer to solve a problem, and then use the answer in different problems. For
problems like this, computers need to 'remember'.
Tu peux vouloir que l'ordinateur résolve un problème et puis utiliser la réponse dans différents
problèmes. Pour des problèmes comme ceci, les ordinateurs ont besoin de "se souvenir"
4. If you want the computer to remember a number, it must send that number to an address. And you
must give that address a name - usually just a letter. Then the computer can find it again later.
Si tu veux que l'ordinateur se souvienne d'un nombre, il doit envoyer ce nombre à une adresse. Et tu
dois donner un nom à cette adresse – d'habitude juste une lettre. Puis, l'ordinateur peut le retrouver
plus tard.
5. If you want to use two different numbers, you don't need to write the whole program again.
Si tu veux utiliser deux nombres différents, tu n'as pas besoin de ré-écrire tout le programme.
6. This had to be done last week ! Weren't you able to do it ?
Ceci devait être fait la semaine passée ! Tu n'as pas su le faire ?
7. May I use your telephone, please ?
Puis-je utiliser votre téléphone, S.V.P. ?
8. She couldn't use the keyboard properly !
Elle ne savait pas utiliser le clavier correctement !
9. We were allowed to use our own floppy disks.
Nous n'avons pas eu l'autorisation d'utiliser nos propres disquettes.
10. You should be careful ! There could be a danger !
Tu devrais faire attention ! Il pourrait y avoir un danger !
Complete the translation with the correct auxiliary (or replacing form)
1. We should obey our parents !
2. They cannot stand their neighbours !
3. Oh, it's late, now ! We have to (must) go !
4. They will have to get accustomed to it !
5. She might arrive later.
6. They daren't ask you !
7. Madam, may I go out, please ?
8. I couldn't believe that !
9. Could you you understand what she said yesterday ?
10. Last week, we had to leave earlier and next time, we will not be able to enter the room !
11. Our friends needn't ask for anything, they can have everything they want to !
12. You must absolutely tell him the truth !
Complete with the right auxiliary
1. May I go out, please ?
2. You should learn more if you want to succeed !
3. Can she open that door ? She seems to be so weak !
4. They must be there before their friends !
5. My brother may arrive later.
6. When I was young, I used to go to school by bicycle.
7 .You needn't worry; I can manage alone !
8. I cannot do that, it is too difficult !
9. Stop, you may not smoke here !
10. It may be so, but I doubt it !
Translate
1. Tu dois partir maintenant ! You have to leave now !
2. II se pourrait qu'elle te dise tout ! She might tell you everything !
3. Sais-tu (peux-tu) m'aider ? Cela est si difficile ! Can you help me ? That is so difficult !
4. II devrait m'écouter ! He should listen to me !
5. Elle n'ose pas venir seule ! She daren't come alone !
6. Je ne peux pas sortir ce soir, mes parents ne sont pas d'accord !
I may not go out tonight, my parents don't agree !
7. Puis-je avoir la voiture, STP ? May I have the car, please ?
8. II se peut que Jane roule vite. Jane may drive quickly.
9. Mais cela peut être dangereux ! But that can be dangerous !
10. Ces gens doivent payer, maintenant ! These people must pay, now !
Corr. 18
What are the forms in other tenses ?
1. I will be allowed to go with you but I will have to leave earlier.
2. These people couldn't answer the questions.
3. They will be able to help you, wait for them !
4. They could do that alone but they don't want to !
5. Will it possible for you to come ?
6. We have never been allowed to go there. We have always had to ask somebody else.
7. Why hadn't you been able to do that before that time ?
8. You will never be allowed to help her and she will never be able to succeed !
What a pity !
9. You will have to obey her.
10. They might be happy like that.
Do / have : auxiliaries or verbs ?
Meanings of the verbs 'to do' and 'to have' :
to do : faire
What do you do ? Que fais-tu ?
I am a student, I don’t do anything else, it is enough ! Je suis étudiant, je ne fais rien d'autre, cela est
assez !
What did you do yesterday night ? Qu'as-tu fait hier soir ?
I didn’t do anything special : I did some shopping before going back home and sleeping.
Je n'ai rien fait de spécial : J'ai fait quelques courses avant de rentrer à la maison et dormir.
to have :
- avoir (= ‘ve got)
I have a lot of money. And you, what do you have ? J'ai beaucoup d'argent. Et toi, qu'as-tu ?
We don’t have anything to say. Nous n'avons rien à dire.
- avoir, prendre
We have breakfast at 8 in the morning. Nous prenons le petit déjeuner à 8 heures du matin.
We don’t have any bath until late in the evening. Nous ne prenons pas de bain avant le soir.
When do they have holidays ? Quand prennent-ils (ont-ils) leurs vacances ?
- devoir (to have to) (= ‘ve got to)
You don’t have to hurry up, he is not there yet. Tu ne dois pas te dépêcher, il n'est pas encore là.
Do I have to get up early tomorrow ? Dois-je me lever tôt demain ?
- faire faire quelque chose = the causative use of to have.
Mary didn’t have her gate painted. Marie n'a pas fait repeindre sa barrière.
When does he usually have his gardener cut the trees ? Quand fait-il généralement couper les arbres
par son jardinier ?
Do / to do / have / to have : Exercise
A. Niez :
1. They have finished their homework.
They haven't finished their homework.
2. We do this every morning.
We don't do this every morning.
3. We like coffee.
We don't like coffee.
4. They did their best !
They didn't do their best !
5. We had understood Peter.
We hadn't understood Peter.
6. We have to obey her.
We don't have to obey her.
7. They have Tom drive their daughter to school every morning.
They don't have Tom drive their daughter to school every morning.
8. He has the right to answer !
He doesn't have the right to answer !
B. Posez la question :
1. You like chocolate.
Do you like chocolate ?
2. You did a lot of work last weekend.
Did you do a lot of work last weekend ?
3. My parents had no friends when they lived in Belgium.
Did my parents have any friends when they lived in Belgium ?
4. He has his parents wash his car !
Does he have his parents wash his car ?
5. You have time.
Do you have time ?
6. We really have to leave.
Do we really have to leave ?
7. She doesn’t care for her children, does she ? Doesn't she care for her children ?
8. We have done nothing yet.
Have we done anything yet ?
Corr. 19
Causative use of to have
My boss always has everybody work later in the evening. Mon patron fait toujours travailler tout le
monde plus tard.
My boss always has all the work finished at the end of the day, even if there is too much of it.
Mon patron fait toujours terminer le travail à la fin de la journée, même s'il y en a trop.
Compare
It makes us wonder why ! Cela nous fait nous demander pourquoi !
This system makes the user write everything more quickly. Ce système fait que l'utilisateur écrit tout
plus vite.
Exercises : Translate into French
1. I have Peter paint my gate.
Je fais peindre ma barrière par Pierre.
2. We have our car washed.
Nous faisons laver notre voiture.
3. They had Mary answer the phone.
Ils ont fait répondre au téléphone par Marie.
4. We will have the roof repaired.
Nous ferons réparer le toit.
5. They have had John and Peter carry those heavy boxes. Ils ont fait porter ces lourdes caisses
par J. et P. .
6. He is having Mary write the letter.
Il fait écrire la lettre par Marie.
7. I am going to have my hair cut.
Je vais me faire couper les cheveux.
8. He should have the lorry driven back to the garage, as it cannot stay there. Il devrait faire
reconduire le camion au garage, vu qu'il ne peut pas rester là.
9. Wouldn’t you have your parents answer that ? Tu ne ferais pas répondre tes parents à cela ?
10. Mary and Peter never had their children helped for their homework. M. et P. n'avaient jamais fait
aider leurs enfants pour leurs devoirs.
Translate into English
1. Chaque jour, je fais nettoyer les moteurs par mon fils.
Every day I have my son clean the engines.
2. Je fais toujours charger les ordinateurs avec la dernière version de ce logiciel.
I always have the computers loaded with the latest release of this software.
3. Nous faisons souvent traduire des textes par cet homme.
We often have this man translate texts.
4. Il a fait écrire un programme par ses étudiants.
He has had his students write a program.
5. Hier, mes parents ont fait garder la maison par le chien des voisins.
Yesterday, my parents had the neighbours'dog keep the house.
6. Feras-tu ouvrir l'école plus tôt ?
Will you have the school opened earlier ?
7. Nous allons faire lancer ce nouveau produit par cette célèbre firme publicitaire.
We're going to have that famous advertising company launch this new product.
8. Je dois faire dactylographier et envoyer quelques lettres.
I have to have some letters typed and sent.
9.
a) Ferais-tu ré-écrire cela clairement ?
Would you have that clearly rewritten ?
b) Ferais-tu ré-écrire cela clairement par ta secrétaire ?
Would you have your secretary clearly rewrite that ?
10. Nous faisons enregistrer notre conversation, ne nous dérange pas !
We are having our talk recorded, don't bother us !
Rewrite these sentences using the causative form of 'to have'
1. I cannot do that myself; Tom will do it for me.
I will have Tom do that.
2. We haven't written that text ourselves; our friends have written it.
We have had our friends write that text.
3. My friend doesn't buy the presents himself; I do it for him.
My friend has me buy the presents.
4. I never make coffee myself; my mother always does it for me.
I always have my mother make coffee.
5. This writer hasn't printed his book, of course; it has been printed by someone else for him ! Corr. 20
This writer has had his book printed.
6. We don't write our homework ourselves. The best pupil does it for us !
We have the best pupil write our homework.
7. Mary will not answer the letter herself. Somebody will do it for her.
Mary will have the letter answered.
8. My father has not given my friend flowers. I have given her the flowers.
My father has had me give my friend the flowers.
9. We don't repair the roof ourselves. Somebody can do it for us.
We have the roof repaired.
Question Tags and Short Answers
- Question tags
1. N'est-ce pas ? (Intonation montante)
Mary is friendly, isn’t she ? Marie est sympathique, n'est-ce pas ?
Peter and his parents will arrive late, won’t they ? P. et ses parents arriveront tard, n'est-ce pas ?
Your brother can’t understand that, can he ? Ton frère ne peut pas comprendre cela, n'est-ce pas ?
2. Demander confirmation de ce que l’on dit : "c’est bien cela ?" : (Intonation descendante)
Your brother left yesterday, did he ? Ton frère est parti hier, c’est bien cela ?
Their parents have never taken care of them, haven’t they ? Leurs parents ne se sont jamais occupés
d'eux , c’est bien cela ?
3. Pour une suggestion ou une proposition : "d'accord ?" : (Intonation montante)
Well, I’ll help you, shall I ? Bien, je vais t'aider, d'accord ?
Let’s go together, shall we ? Allons ensemble, d'accord ?
You will tell him the truth, will you ? Tu lui diras la vérité, d'accord ?
- Short answers
1. 'Yes' / 'no' :
Do you like chocolate ? Aimes-tu le chocolat ?
Can Peter open the door ? P. sait-il ouvrir la porte ?
- Yes, I do. Oui.
- No, he can’t. Non.
2. En réponse à ‘who’?
Who wrote this ? Qui a écrit ceci ?
- My best friend did. Mon meilleur ami.
Who has brought such a thing ? Qui a amené une telle chose ? - Tom has. Tom.
Who will go there ? Qui ira là-bas ?
- Maybe we will. Peut-être nous.
3. ... "aussi" ; ... "non plus".
We have a lot of trouble. Nous avons beaucoup d'ennuis.
- So does Mary. Marie aussi.
Mary and Tom worked very late yesterday. M.et T.ont travaillé tard hier. - So did I. Moi aussi.
They have understood everything. Ils ont tout compris.
- So has my sister. Ma soeur aussi.
My parents don’t live in Belgium. Mes parents n'habitent pas en Belgique.
- Nor do mine. Les miens non plus.
They hadn’t seen me for a long time. Ils ne m'avaient pas vu depuis longtemps.
- Neither had Tom. Tom non plus.
She may not go out. Elle ne peut pas sortir.
- Neither may I. Moi non plus.
c) "Vraiment ?" - "Ah, oui / ah non, vraiment ?" :
I bought a new car. J'ai acheté une nouvelle voiture.
- Oh, did you ? Vraiment ?
Mary and Peter will buy a house. M.et P.vont acheter une maison. - Will they ? Vraiment ?
My friend and I haven’t seen you. Mon ami et moi ne t'avons pas vu.
- Haven’t you ? Vraiment ?
We would like to meet this man. Nous aimerions rencontrer cet homme.
- You would, would you ? Ah, oui, vraiment ?
You haven’t done it properly ! Tu ne l'as pas fait correctement !
- I haven’t, haven’t I ? Ah, non, vraiment ?
Exercises : Complete :
- "n’est-ce pas ?" :
1. You had Peter help your son, didn't you ?
2. They would never accept that, would they ?
3. Oswald is a very friendly man, isn't he ?
4. We haven’t got a lot of time, have we ?
5. You can fill in this form, can't you ?
6. He wouldn't go alone, would he ?
7. They have a lot of money, don't they ?
8. She has understood the explanations, hasn't she ?
9. I can do that alone, can't I ?
10. You will help your brother, won't you ?
11. Our teacher didn't answer that question, did he ? (did she ?)
12. Your brother always has his friends do his exercises, doesn't he ?
13. Your neighbours like your dog, don't they ?
- "c’est bien cela ?" :
Corr. 21
1. They will not answer our letter, won't they.
2. They don’t care about their parents, don't they.
3. He likes tea and not coffee, does he ?
4. James hasn’t heard of that, hasn't he.
5. You cannot speak French, can't you.
- "d’accord ?" :
1. I’ll do that for you, shall I ?
2. Let’s think together about this, shall we ?
3. The teacher and we will discuss it, shall we ?
4. Your parents will phone me, will they ?
5. You will open the door as soon as I arrive, will you ?
- Short answers :
1. Would you go there alone ?
-Yes, I would.
2. Who will answer this ?
- Mary will .
3. Can Barbara speak German ?
- No, she can't, but Peter can.
4. Who likes mathematics ?
- Nobody here does.
5. Have you read this book ?
- Yes, of course we have. (I have)
- "... aussi" ; "... non plus" :
1. Peter didn’t like your speech yesterday.
- Nor did Mary. (Neither did M.)
2. When you were young, you often drank too much. - So did John.
3. We haven’t got much money.
- Nor has Sam. (Neither has Sam)
4. I can lift a heavy bag.
- So can John.
5. We had finished everything much before !
- So had I.
6. She is a pretty girl !
- So is her sister.
7. We have several good friends.
- So does Tom.
8. They had calculated everything !
- So had I.
9. Mary will come alone.
- So will my friend.
10. They wouldn't believe you.
- Nor would our teacher. (Neither would our teacher)
11. I may go out tonight !
- So may I.
12. I don't like English.
- Nor do most of them. (Neither do most of them)
13. My parents told us everything.
- So did ours.
- "Vraiment ?" :
1. They have bought a very nice house !
- Have they ?
2. We didn’t like the film yesterday.
- Didn't you ?
- "Ah, oui, vraiment", ..... ? :
1. Mary has to translate many sentences.
- She does, does she ?
2. I don’t want to go to that party.
- You don't, don't you ?
Future tenses
Attention : Beaucoup de formes sont utilisées pour exprimer une idée future !
Ex. : On Monday, we leave at 9 in the morning; we catch the 10 o'clock plane and arrive in
Paris at 11.30; then, we go to the hotel; we can meet you there at 1.
Lundi, nous partons à 9 heures du matin; nous prenons l'avion de 10 heures et arrivons à
Paris à 11 heures 30; puis, nous allons à l'hôtel; nous pouvons vous rencontrer là à 1 heure.
>>> = voyage bien planifié !
Near future
Trois formes peuvent exprimer un futur proche : les conditions requises se trouvent à la page
36 de votre grammaire !
- be going to + Inf. : We are going to meet Tom. Nous allons rencontrer Tom.
- Present Cont. : They are meeting me at 3.30. Ils vont me rencontrer à 3 h. 30.
- Simple Future : Shall I open the door for you ? Je t'ouvre la porte ?
Différence
- I have decided what to teach you; we are going to learn the future tenses.
J'ai décidé ce que j'allais vous enseigner; nous allons apprendre les temps du futur.
- You are talking too much ! I shall give you a test right now to get you quieter !
Vous parlez trop ! Je vais vous donner un contrôle tout de suite pour vous calmer !
- vous proposez à quelqu'un de faire quelque chose : Shall I help you ? Je vous aide ?
- vous demandez à quelqu'un de faire quelque chose : Will you carry this for me, please ?
Tu portes ceci pour moi, STP ?
- vous promettez ou refusez de faire quelque chose : No, I will not follow you !
Non, je ne te suivrai pas !
I'll do it right now, I promise you !
Je vais le faire tout de suite, je te le
promets !
Remarques
Corr. 22
1)
I think it's going to rain !
Je pense qu'il va pleuvoir !
I think he will come !
Je pense qu'il va venir !
2)
We arrive at the airport at ten and leave the country at 10.30.
Nous arriv(er)ons à l'aéroport à 10 heures et quitt(er)ons le pays à 10 h. 30.
3)
Would you help me, please ? Tu m'aiderais, s'il te plaît ?
4)
I was going to leave when Tom arrived. J'allais partir quand Tom arriva.
I am sure I will be going to eat when Tom arrives; it is always like that !
Je suis sûr que je serai sur le point de manger quand Tom arrivera, c'est toujours
comme cela !
Exercises
Re-write
I am about to draw a flowchart.
I am going to draw a flowchart.
Harry was about to tell me how to run the program.
H. was going to tell me ...
If you arrive so late, I will be about to leave !
If you arrive so late, I will be going to
leave !
Complete
1. We are going to meet the boss.
2. Sam is talking (is going to talk) to his wife tomorrow, be patient !
3. Where are you going to tonight ?
4. Will you help me, please and open the door ?
5. Will she listen to me, please ?
6. Good morning ! Well, today we are going to do (we are doing) the test, as agreed.
7. Will you tell me the truth, now ?
8. We are eating (are going to eat) at two o'clock, don't forget it !
9. They 'll be able to do that alone now !
10. Will you keep quiet, please?
How would you translate ?
He was about to leave when I arrived !
Il allait partir (il était sur le point de partir) quand je suis arrivé.
I am about to explain everybody why you will not go there.
Je suis sur le point d'expliquer à tout le monde pourquoi tu n'iras pas là.
Simple Future
will (shall aux 1ères pers. surtout en interrogation) + infinitif sans "to".
- des délarations ou annonces officielles :
The Prime Minister says : "The government will resign."
Le premier ministre dit : "Le gouvernement va démissionner"
- lorsqu'un événement est inévitable (unavoidable) :
We shall all die.
Spring will come again.
Nous mourrons tous.
Le printemps reviendra.
- lorsque vous êtes sûr de quelque chose :
He will certainly be angry ! Il sera certainement fâché !
I am sure they will never understand such a thing !
Je suis sûr qu'ils ne comprendront jamais une telle chose !
- lorsqu'il y a une forte probabilité à ce quelque chose arrive :
You will probably refuse my invitation ! Vous refuserez probablement mon invitration !
We all expect the winter will be hard. ( = We all expect the weather to be hard. )
Nous nous attendons tous à ce que l'hiver soit rude !
- mettre un verbe d'émotion, de possession, de sens, de pensée ou compréhension, ... au futur :
I shall love that child !
This will belong to you later.
We will see nothing from here !
They will think you are crazy !
J'aimerai cet enfant / je vais aimer cet enfant !
Ceci t'appartiendra plus tard !
Nous ne verrons rien d'ici !
Ils vont penser (ils penseront) que tu es fou !
- le futur des expressions remplaçant les auxiliaires de mode (be able, have to, be allowed...)
They will be allowed to go out if they are friendly. Ils pourront sortir s'ils sont sympathiques.
I will have to tell him the truth !
Je devrai lui dire la vérité ! Corr. 23
I am sure she will be able to open this.
Je suis sûr qu'elle saura ouvrir ceci.
Future Continuous
will be + verbe en -ing
Ajoute l'idée de durée au futur simple.
You will certainly be sleeping at that time of the night !
Tu dormiras certainement à ce moment de la nuit ! (tu seras en train de dormir)
They will be waiting for you until you arrive.
Ils t'attendront jusqu'à ce que tu arrives. (ils attendront longtemps s'il le faut)
Future Perfect
will have + part. passé du verbe
Indique l'antériorité d'un événement futur par rapport à un autre moment futur ou à une action future.
In June, I will already have finished my training period !
En juin, j'aurai déjà fini mon stage !
Harry will be here at 7. Will you have finished your installation by that time ?
Harry sera ici à 7 h. . Auras-tu fini ton installation à ce moment ?
Future Perfect Continuous
will have + been + verbe en -ing
Ajoute l'idée de durée au futur antérieur.
I will already have been waiting for several hours if he comes so late !
J'attendrai déjà depuis plusieurs heures s'il arrive si tard !
(j'aurai attendu longtemps déjà !)
Attention : propositions subordonnées de temps et de condition au futur
Présent / simple, continuous ou perfect (si antériorité) / dans la subordonnée, futur dans la principale.
Exercices : Traduire
When you come back, will you call for me ? Quand tu reviendras, tu me téléphoneras ?
They will be sleeping, if you arrive so late ! Ils dormiront si tu arrives si tard !
We will not have finished that game until you get here !
Nous n'aurons pas fini ce jeu avant que tu n'arrives ici !
The boss will congratulate you as soon as you have found out what the problem is !
Le patron te félicitera dès que tu auras découvert ce qu'est le problème !
If it is nice tomorrow, we will go for a walk.
S'il fait beau demain, nous irons faire une promenade.
Will you have typed all the letters when I come back ?
Auras-tu tapé toutes ces lettres quand je reviendrai ?
Tom will agree with you if you tell him everything.
Tom sera d'accord avec toi si tu lui dis tout.
If you are sleeping, shall I wake you up ?
Si tu dors, je te réveille ? (situation future)
Exercice complémentaire : expliquez la forme verbale employée :
1. Hello, John ! What will you do this afternoon ?
will do : futur simple : je lui demande de me répondre sur le vif ce qu'il va faire dans
un futur proche; rien n'est encore décidé
2. Now, I am going to check the last records.
be going to : futur proche : j'ai déjà décidé de ce que j'allais faire dans un proche futur
3. We will certainly have finished that on time !
will have finished : certitude future + action antérieure à un moment futur
4. This new software company will open its doors on the 10th December.
will open : futur simple : certitude future
5. They will probably find out the bugs, if they work in that way.
will find out : futur simple : forte probabilité future; work : présent : futur dans une
conditionnelle
Complétez avec le temps voulu (dans le futur)
Corr. 24
1. When Tom arrives, I will already have eaten and I will certainly already be sleeping !
2. William will tell you everything, don't worry !
3. They will be playing tennis by that time! Can't you come earlier ?
4. Jenny will certainly succeed !
5. He will probably come alone and you will be able to talk with him.
6. I am sure you will arrive too late; but if it is the case, we will already have left without
you and you will be alone !
7. Will she phone me when her husband comes back ? I will not be sleeping.
8. When you have finished, you will go to Mary's parents and they will explain you
everything.
9. What a strange idea ! If you go so late, everybody will have been waiting for you for
several hours!
10. Oh, dear, I will have finished far before that!
11. When Tom arrives, we will have to stop talking about that !
12. He will be late; when he arrives, people will already have eaten and will be dancing;
but we will have kept something for him to eat !
Tenses : other modes
Remarque :
L'infinitif est à maîtriser, ainsi que la proposition infinitive de but !
Les participes : à savoir reconnaître, conjuguer et utiliser dans les formes verbales voulues, à bien
traduire dans les deux sens (angl. → franç; et franç. → angl.), savoir compléter le type d'exercices du
syllabus.
L'impératif : à savoir reconnaître, à conjuguer correctement, à bien traduire dans les deux sens (angl.
→ franç; et franç. → angl.).
Le conditionnel : à savoir reconnaître, à conjuguer correctement au présent ainsi qu'au passé, à
savoir utiliser dans des phrases, à savoir traduire dans les deux sens (angl. → franç; et franç. →
angl.), savoir compléter le type d'exercices du syllabus !
Le subjonctif : a) présent : à savoir reconnaître, à savoir traduire dans les deux sens (angl. → franç;
et franç. → angl.)
b) passé et plus-que-parfait : à savoir reconnaître, à conjuguer correctement, à savoir
utiliser dans des phrases, à savoir traduire dans les deux sens (angl. → franç; et
franç. → angl.), savoir compléter le type d'exercices du syllabus!
Maîtriser les irréalités.
Infinitif et gérondif : à savoir reconnaître et traduire; retenir les constructions les plus fréquentes.
Infinitive
Traduire
I want you to do this.
Je veux que tu fasses ceci.
They would like you to keep silent !
Ils aimeraient que tu te taises !
We are ready to go.
Nous sommes prêts à aller.
We are pleased to meet you !
Nous sommes heureux de vous rencontrer.
They are too rich to understand what a lack of money can mean !
Ils sont trop riches pour comprendre ce qu'un manque d'argent peut signifier !
You are not clever enough to understand this !
Tu n'es pas assez intelligent pour comprendre ceci !
This is a good opportunity to visit her house !
Ceci est une bonne occasion de visiter sa maison !
To smoke so much is bad, you know ! Fumer autant est mauvais, tu sais !
I am here to listen to you.
Je suis ici pour t'écouter.
They have come here for you to explain them everything.
Ils sont venus ici pour que tu leur expliques tout.
You are the first child to ask me that ! Tu es le premier enfant à me demander cela !
He was the last boy to arrive !
Il fut le dernier garçon à arriver !
This is a big knife to cut meat.
Ceci est un grand couteau pour couper la viande.
Participle
present : waiting : attendant
past : arrived, added, studied, finished, ... : arrivé, ajouté, étudié, fini
Ex. : People are waiting for the bus. : Les gens attendent le bus.
We have worked on this. : Nous avons travaillé sur ceci.
Corr. 25
Traduire / Translate :
Reading French gives me problems ! Lire le français me pose des problèmes !
Smoking the whole time is very bad ! Fumer tout le temps est très mauvais !
On learning this, you should avoid translating the examples into French ! En apprenant ceci,
tu devrais éviter de traduire les exemples en français !
It's no use coming so late ! Ca ne sert à rien d'arriver si tard !
Compléter avec un participe / fill in :
- We have named all the pupils.
- Are they coming with us tonight ?
- Mary had explained everything before your arrival !
- Tom was waiting for you when I saw you !
- We will certainly have finished that before you.
- You should be sleeping, now, you know !
- They didn't say anything about you coming later !
- Before leaving, will you be kind enough to close the door ?
- They are looking forward to meeting your parents.
- I haven't finished my work; are you waiting for it ?
- We would have moved earlier if we had known that !
- Seeing that, she didn't react anymore !
- Here is a well-thought package for those consumer goods.
- Speaking German is difficult.
- What is he doing ? – Well ... listening to that, I suppose !
Imperative
- 2e pers. (sing. ou pl.) : Do that !
: Fais cela !
neg. : don't + radical : Don’t worry ! : Ne t'en fais pas !
- 1e pers. pl. : Let's (=let us) do that !: Faisons cela !
neg. : let's not + radical : Let’s not answer him ! : Ne lui répondons pas !
- 3e pers. :
sg. : Let him/her/it go !
: Qu'il (elle) vienne !
pl. : Let them do what they want ! : Qu'ils fassent ce qu'ils veulent !
neg. ajouter 'not' : Let him not go alone !
: Qu'il ne vienne pas seul !
Translate :
Viens seul !
Come alone !
Soyez là à l'heure !
Be there on time !
Allons ensemble !
Let's go together !
Ne parlez pas tous ensemble !
Don't speak all together !
Qu'il travaille ou qu'il parte !
Let him work or let him leave !
Qu'ils viennent plus tard !
Let them come later !
N'allons pas là !
Let's not go there !
Ne l'écoute pas !
Don't listen to him !
Come here, Tom ! And you, the girls, stay there !
Let's dance together, shall we ?
Let him come alone ! Tell him, please !
Let's not answer him; let him not write us further letters !
Don't believe him, he is a liar !
Conditional
present : 'would' + infinitif sans 'to' I would like : J'aimerais.
past : 'would' + infinitif passé
I would have learned : J'aurais appris.
Corr. 26
Reminder :
You could do this, you know !
He could have written us earlier !
He might come here.
They might have done it.
Tu pourrais faire ceci, tu sais !
Il aurait pu nous écrire plus tôt !
Il se pourrait qu'il vienne ici.
Il se pourrait qu'ils l'aient fait.
Examples :
You could go alone, couldn't you ? Tu pourrais venir seul, n'est-ce pas ?
- If you ran quickly, you would arrive on time ! Si tu courais vite, tu arriverais à temps !
- If the weather were better in the summer, we could spend our nights in the garden.
Si le temps était meilleur en été, nous pourrions passer nos nuits dans le jardin.
- If I were a man, I would help my wife ! Si j'étais un homme, j'aiderais ma femme !
(but I am a woman) (mais je suis une femme)
- If he had known that, he would have waited for you ! S'il avait su cela, il t'aurait attendu !
- 'I will come alone !'
He said that he would come alone.
"Je viendrai seul !"
Il a dit qu'il viendrait seul.
- 'I will have finished that before your phone call !' "J'aurai fini cela avant ton coup de téléphone !
He said he would have finished before your phone call.
Il a dit qu'il aurait fini avant ton coup de téléphone.
- Would you help me, please ?
M'aiderais-tu, S.T.P.?
- Could you send me samples ?
Pourrais-tu m'envoyer des échantillons ?
- If you would kindly wait a moment ...
Si tu avais l'amabilité d'attendre un moment...
- I would like to say this :
J'aimerais dire ceci :
- If only I would have listened to your advice ! Si seulement j'avais écouté tes conseils !
- If only that rain would stop !
Si seulement cette pluie s'arrêtait !
Exercises : Complete with a conditional tense :
Attention : cond. présent et passé sont mélangés dans cet exercice !
1. If only Tom would get here before my father tonight !
2. Would you like to come with us ?
3. If I were rich, I would buy a nice house !
4. If he had learned everything, he would have succeeded !
5. Could he open this without tools ?
6. My sister said yesterday that she would work longer today.
7. If everybody had come on time, we would have begun at half past three as agreed !
8. If only you would have told the police the truth last week ! I would not have got so much
trouble yesterday ! Wouldn't you go and tell them everything ?
9. If his car has problems, he might arrive too late once again !
10. This is impossible ! He couldn't carry that alone !
11. We would like to see you as soon as possible !
12. He said we would have to leave tomorrow. Would it be possible ?
13. They wouldn't have come alone yesterday, Mary says !
14. If I had known that, I would have refused that invitation.
15. Could you help me, please ?
16. Would you show me the way, Sir ?
17. If I had been there, I would have liked that reply !
18. If only it wouldn't be so loud !
Subjunctive
Corr. 27
present : même forme que l'infinitif sans 'to' à toutes les personnes !
past : même forme que l'indicatif passé (to be = were à toutes les personnes).
past perfect : même forme que l'indicatif plus -que-parfait.
Ex. :
- God save the Queen !
Que Dieu sauve la reine !
- If he told us everything, ... !
S'il nous disait tout, ... !
- If I were you, ...
Si j'étais toi, ...
- Had you been there, ... !
Si tu avais été là, ...
Use : 1. Present :
- Goodbye ! = God be with you !
Que Dieu soit avec toi !
- God bless you !
Que Dieu te bénisse !
- Long live the king !
Vive le roi !
- Byron : 'Though the heart be still as loving ... 'Bien que le coeur soit encore aussi aimant...
- Shakespeare : 'If this be error...'
Si ceci est une erreur ...
- He suggested that the petition be drawn up. Il suggéra qu'une pétition soit dressée.
- I recommended that each com petitor receive £10. J'ai recommandé que chaque concurrent reçoive £10.
Exercise :
- Long live your parents !
- God bless these people !
- They will suggest you do that and would recommend Peter go on with that !
2. Past and Past Perfect :
Past dans un contexte présent.
Past Perfect dans un contexte passé.
- If I were you, I ...
Si j'étais toi, je ...
- If I had been there, I ...
Si j'avais été là, je ...
- If she were here, she would know what to do !
Si elle était ici, elle saurait que faire (ce qu'il faut faire) !
- If I had been with you, I would have helped you ! Si j'avais été avec toi, je t'aurais aidé !
Le "if" peut être supprimé si l'on a un auxiliaire d'irréalité; celui-ci va venir se mettre en début de proposition.
- Had he been there on time, we could have begun earlier !
S'il avait été là à temps, nous aurions pu commencer plus tôt !
- He behaves as if he owned the place. Il se comporte comme s'il possédait l'endroit !
- He behaved as if he owned the place. Il se comportait comme s'il possédait l'endroit !
- I wish he came ! Je souhaiterais qu'il vienne !
- I wish he were not playing football now !
Je souhaiterais qu'il ne joue pas au football maintenant !
- I wished he had warned me ! J'aurais souhaité qu'il m'ait prévenu !
- I wish he hadn't said so ! Je souhaiterais qu'il n'ait dit cela !
- I wished he kept silent ! I wished he were keeping silent ! J'aurais souhaité qu'il se taise !
- I wished he had come before ! J'aurais souhaité qu'il soit venu avant !
- It's time you understood that ! (you should have understood that already before !)
Il est grand temps que tu comprennes cela ! (tu devrais déjà avoir compris cela avant !)
It's time for us to go ! (= the proper time)
Il est temps que nous y allions ! (= le moment correct)
It's time you went ! (= it's already too late for your train !)
Il est grand temps que tu y ailles ! (= il est déjà trop tard pour ton train !)
Exercises :
- I wish you were kinder, please !
- He wishes I hadn't seen him with that woman yesterday !
- Tom, it's time you behaved like an adult ! You are 32 years old !
- If he had understood it when he had to learn it, he would have done his exercises
properly !
- Mary did as if she couldn't hear me and I was shouting !
- I wish you came here alone !
- I wish he had done that yesterday !
- If we were on holidays now, we would be in Italy for sure !
- If he had known the truth, he would have answered differently !
- He behaved as if he knew nothing !
- She always does as if she hadn't been warned days before !
- They behave as if they knew you !
- You be right ! (pourvu que tu aies raison !)
Further exercise : Irrealities : translate
Corr. 28
1. Si notre informaticien était là, il règlerait le problème !
If our computer scientist were there, he would settle the problem !
2. Si Michael avait tout compris, il ne serait pas ici maintenant !
If Michael had understood everything, he wouldn't be here now !
3. Il est grand-temps que tu apprennes l'anglais !
It is time you learned English !
4. Pourquoi n'aurais-tu pas fait cela ?
Why wouldn't you have done that ?
5. Si tu te comportais mieux, cela serait mieux pour tout le monde !
If you behaved better, that would be better for everybody !
6. Si John avait vu cette erreur (de programmation), il te l'aurait dit !
If John had seen that bug, he would have told you !
7. Si cette base de données était mieux gérée, tu ne perdrais pas de fichiers !
If that database were better managed, you wouldn't lose files !
8. Si j'étais riche, je n'irais pas là !
If I were rich, I wouldn't go there !
9. S'il avait plus d'argent, il ne travaillerait pas !
If he had more money, he wouldn't work !
10. Si tu avais vu cela, tu comprendrais !
If you had seen that, you would understand !
11. Si tu perdais tout, tu serais triste !
If you lost everything, you would be sad !
12. Si j'avais compris les exercices, je n'aurais pas raté !
If I had understood the exercises, I wouldn't have failed !
13. Nous viendrions toujours pour t'aider si tu nous le demandais.
We would always come to help you if you asked to.
14. Pourquoi aurions -nous fait cela si tu ne nous l'avais pas demandé ?
Why would we have done that if you hadn't asked us to ?
15. Si tu voulais être là pour qu'elle te dise la vérité, tu aurais dû venir plus tôt !
If you wanted to be there for her to tell you the truth, you should have come earlier !
16. Aurais-tu écrit cette lettre si je t'avais tout dit ?
Would you have written that letter if I had told you everything ?
17. Serais-tu venu si je te l'avais demandé ?
Would you have come if I had asked you to ?
18. Aurais-tu de l'argent si tu ne travaillais pas ?
Would you have money if you didn't work ?
19. Si je voulais que tu me téléphones, je te le demanderais.
If I wanted you to phone me, I would ask you to.
Infinitive and gerund
Examples :
I want to be free.
I want him to do that for me.
I have asked her not to come.
I shall avoid meeting the boss now !
You should avoid her coming here today !
He could have avoided not telling all that !
Je veux être libre.
Je veux qu'il fasse cela pour moi.
Je lui ai demandé de ne pas venir.
J'éviterai de rencontrer le patron maintenant !
Tu devrais éviter qu'elle vienne ici aujourd'hui !
Il aurait pu éviter de ne pas tout dire !
Quelques verbes suivis d’un gérondif :
to appreciate : apprécier ; to enjoy : apprécier; to detest : détester; to dislike : ne pas aimer;
to delay : retarder; to postpone : remettre à plus tard, ajourner; to put off : remettre à plus
tard, ajourner; to forgive : pardonner; to pardon : pardonner; to excuse : excuser; to go on :
continuer; to keep (on) : continuer; to finish : finir; to give up : arrêter, abandonner;
to stop : arrêter; to leave off : cesser, arrêter; to avoid : éviter; to mention :
Corr. 29
mentionner; to practise : pratiquer, s'exercer; to suggest : suggérer; to risk : risquer.
Deux verbes utilisés sous forme interrogative ou négative : to fancy (imaginer) et to mind (être
dérangé) sont suivis d’un gérondif.
Expressions verbales suivies du gérondif :
can’t resist : ne pas savoir résister; can’t stand = can’t bear : ne pas savoir supporter ; can’t
help : ne pas savoir s'empêcher de; it’s no use = it’s no good : ça ne sert à rien
Quatre verbes/expressions suivis de to + gérondif :
to look forward to : attendre (avec plaisir et impatience) ; to take to : se mettre à; to be used
to = to be accustomed to : être habitué à
Gérondif remplaçant un infinitif passif après les verbes suivants :
to need = to want (dans ce contexte-ci) avoir besoin de; to deserve = to merit mériter; to be
worth valoir la peine
Exercises :
- He enjoys dancing with her.
- He really dislikes visiting.
- I don’t mind going alone.
- Would you stop talking ?
- I look forward to visiting London !
- She couldn’t help crying when she heard the bad news !
- He will certainly avoid meeting you during a few weeks !
- I detest his (him) coming here !
- We have delayed her leaving abroad.
- They can forgive me (my) understanding that !
Quelques verbes suivis de l’infinitif :
to promise : promettre; to swear: jurer; to refuse : refuser; to consent : consentir; to decide : décider; to
propose : proposer; to continue : continuer; to fail : rater, échouer; to hope : espérer; to hesitate :
hésiter; to prepare : préparer; to seem : sembler; to manage : se débrouiller; to arrange : arranger,
s'arranger, prendre des dispositions; to undertake : entreprendre; to neglect : négliger;
to want : vouloir; to wish : souhaiter; to ask : demander; to help : aider; to expect : s'attendre
à; to beg : mendier, demander avec insistance
+ Verbes d’’’instruction’’ (to tell : dire, to show how : montrer comment, to learn : apprendre, to teach :
enseigner, to invite : inviter, to compel : forcer, obliger; to oblige : obliger, to forbid : interdire, to warn :
prévenir, ..........)
+ Verbes de connaissance et de pensée ( to be sure : être sûr, to think : penser, to believe :croire, to
know : savoir, to feel : sentir, ressentir, to understand : comprendre, ..........)
Verbes suivis soit du gérondif soit de l’infinitif :
Différence essentielle : le gérondif est utilisé dans un sens général et l’infinitif dans une occasion (ou
série d’occasions) spécifique, dans des cas particuliers, avec un sujet plus ou moins impliqué.
- quoique souvent suivis de l’infinitif : to advise : conseiller, to agree : être d'accord, to
attempt : tenter, essayer, to cease : cesser, to dread : avoir peur, to intend : avoir l'intention,
to start : commencer, to begin : comencer, ...
- avec différence de signification : to like : aimer (bien aimer), to love : aimer (d'amour) , to
hate : haïr, to remember : se souvenir, to forget : oublier, to regret : regretter, to allow :
permettre, to permit : permettre, to mean : signifier, vouloir dire, to try : esayer.
to like, to love, to hate : + gérondif si c’est en général / + infinitif si c’est à une occasion.
I like to go to the restaurant = I want to go, I prefer to go
J'ai envie d'aller au restaurant.
I don’t like to stay here tonight = I am unwilling to stay here tonight.
Je n'ai pas envie de rester ici ce soir.
I like playing football = I am fond of playing football.
J'aime jouer au football.
I don’t like travelling = I dislike travelling.
Je n'aime pas voyager.
to remember, to forget, to regret : + gérondif si mémoire ou regret d’une action passée;
+ infinitif si mémoire ou regret d’une action future !
Action dépendant de ces verbes est antérieure :
I remember meeting that man some years ago !
Je me souviens d'avoir rencontré cet homme il y a quelques années !
She has forgotten seeing that film !
Elle a oublié avoir vu ce film !
I regret his dying so young !
Je regrette qu'il soit mort si jeune !
Action dépendant de ces verbes est postérieure :
Corr. 30
I hope I will remember to write the letter !
J'espère que je me souviendrai d'écrire cette lettre !
Don’t forget to buy milk !
N'oublie pas d'acheter du lait !
I regret to tell you this :
Je regrette de devoir te dire ceci :
to allow, to permit : + gérondif si tout le monde est concerné,
+ infinitif si quelqu’un de précis est concerné :
I never allow smoking here !
I shall permit going out for a while later.
I have allowed Mary to sit down.
She will certainly permit Tom to go out.
to mean :
Je ne permets jamais que l'on fume ici !
Je permettrai plus tard que l'on sorte un
petit moment.
J'ai permis à Marie de s'asseoir.
Elle permettra certainement à Tom de
sortir.
+ gérondif = to signify
Going there will mean dying ! :
Aller là signifiera mourir !
+ infinitif = to intend
I didn’t mean to hurt you ! :
to try :
Je n'avais pas l'intention de te blesser.
+ gérondif = to test
Try (to start the car) pushing it downwards ! :
Essaie ( de faire démarrer la voiture) en la poussant vers le bas !
+ infinitif = to attempt, to endeavour
Try to do this !
Essaie de faire ceci !
Further exercises : choose the right form ! Infinitive or gerund ?
- He enjoys dancing with her. But this time, she has refused to dance !
- He really dislikes visiting. But you should explain him that this city is
really worth visiting !
- I don’t mind going alone.
- Would you stop talking, please ?
- They want to show us how to use that device.
- I look forward to visiting London !
- We regret to dismiss you but we've got no choice !
- She couldn’t help crying when she heard the bad news !
- We would like to go with you !
- He will certainly avoid meeting you during a few weeks !
- I don't remember seeing you last week !
- I detest his coming (him coming) here !
- I never allow smoking !
- We have delayed her leaving abroad.
- He had sworn to design a new device but then, he has decided not to do it !
- They can forgive me not understanding (my not understanding) that !
- You should manage to find the bugs !
- He couldn't resist shouting ! Unbelievable !
- We have proposed to help but they have refused !
- Tom always expects his friends to be better !
- Sorry, I didn't mean to do anything wrong ! It's no use crying !
- That house deserves repairing !
- Don't forget to buy the newspaper !
- I don't mind explaining you that if you promise to keep silent about that !
- Sorry, we've been obliged to speak against you !
- I can't help being sad !
- This lady can't stand people shouting in the street.
- We were the first girls to arrive and we didn't know what to do !
- You should stop doing anything and try to be quieter !
- Maybe you could have the machine work by switching this button on !
- We look forward to hearing from you soon !
- On opening the packet, I saw it was not what I wanted !
- You should avoid speaking without thinking a little bit before !
- I've got money enough to buy that house but I really hesitate to do so and
I want to postpone deciding it !
- Such a statement means you retiring (your retiring) a bit earlier than expected !
- I would advise you to apologize !
- They certainly intend to release an update !
- We sincerely regret losing your data and we apologize !
Corr. 31
La proposition infinitive de but
We are here to listen to you.
Nous sommes ici pour t'écouter.
They've come here in order to meet the boss.
Ils sont venus ici afin de rencontrer le patron.
I shall phone him not to be obliged to go tonight ! Je lui téléphonerai pour ne pas être obligé
d'aller ce soir.
You should avoid that kind of language in order not to be punished !
Tu devrais éviter ce genre de langage afin de ne pas être puni !
We are writing this in order to be listened to !
Nous écrivons ceci afin d'être écoutés !
They have come here to have a drink.
Ils sont venus ici pour prendre un verre.
We have come here in order for you to see our baby !
Nous sommes venus ici afin que tu voies notre bébé !
They have brought us cards for us to write the invitations to the party !
Ils nous apporté des cartes pour que nous écrivions les invitations à la soirée !
We will phone our new president for John not to get into trouble !
Nous téléphonerons à notre nouveau président pour que John n'ait pas de problèmes !
They have done everything possible in order for me not to attend the lecture !
Ils ont fait tout leur possible afin que je n'assiste pas à la conférence !
Exercises : Translate
1. J'ai écrit ce programme pour que cette application tourne plus vite.
I have written this program for that application to run faster.
2. Cet ordinateur a été acheté pour utiliser ces logiciels.
That computer has been bought to use this software.
3. Ils ont créé ce procédé pour que les instructions soient encodées plus rapidement.
They have created this process for the instructions to be fed in more quickly.
4. Notre service de maintenance est disponible pour remédier à toute panne !
Our support department is available to remedy any breakdown !
5. Tu devrais utiliser cette instruction pour que ce texte ne soit pas affiché à l'écran.
You should use this instruction for that text not to be displayed on the screen.
6. Tu devrais écrire moins d'instructions afin que ton programme ne soit pas trop lourd !
You should write less instructions for your program not to be too heavy !
7. Fais ce qu'il faut pour ne pas perdre tes données !
Do what is needed not to lose your data !
8. Nous avons fait réparer notre ordinateur pour travailler plus vite.
We have had our computer repaired in order to work faster.
9. Le patron a fait cela pour que nous ne travaillions pas plus tard.
The boss has done that for us not to work later.
10. Ils ont acheté une nouvelle maison pour ne pas habiter trop loin du bureau.
They have bought a new house not to live too far away from the office.
Relative Clause - Relative Pronoun
Pour le pronom relatif en anglais, nous devons tenir compte de trois éléments :
1. type de relative : ‘defining’ ou ‘non-defining’ ?
2. antécédent : une personne ou non ?
3. fonction dans la relative (sujet, COD, complément d’une préposition, complément déterminatif du nom) ?
a) Defining Relative (who, that, "rien", whose)
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est sujet :
I don’t know the girl who is talking to my brother !
Je ne connais pas la fille qui parle à mon frère !
but : It’s the only boy that has answered; the others were girls !
C'est le seul garçon qui ait répondu; les autres étaient des filles !
We would like to meet the most beautiful girl that has ever come here !
Nous aimerions rencontrer la plus jolie fille qui soit jamais venue ici !
Any man that wants to take part in this competition has to fill in a form !
Tout homme qui veut participer à cette compétition doit remplir un formulaire !
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est sujet :
Corr. 32
Put it on the chair that is near the window !
Mets-le sur la chaise qui est près de la fenêtre !
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est COD :
The man you can see over there is my music teacher.
L'homme que tu peux voir là-bas est mon professeur de musique.
I have spoken to a lady nobody knows !
J'ai parlé à une dame que personne ne connaît !
You may not invite people I don’t like !
Tu ne peux pas inviter des gens que je n'aime pas !
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est COD :
The chair you have repaired is broken again !
La chaise que tu as réparée est à nouveau cassée !
I can’t see any object you could use for this.
Je ne peux voir aucun objet que tu "pourrais" (puisses !) utiliser pour ceci !
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est complément d’une préposition :
Who are the friends you are coming with ?
Qui sont les amis avec lesquels tu viens ? (les amis avec qui tu viens )
I don’t know the boy Mary is waiting for !
Je ne connais pas le garçon que Marie attend. (to wait for somebody !)
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est complément d’une préposition :
We don’t know any animal Tom could be fond of !
Nous ne connaissons aucun animal dont Tom puisse raffoler ! (to be fond of ...)
Here is the seat the murderer has certainly been sitting on !
Voici le siège sur lequel le meurtrier a certainement été assis !
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est compl. déterminatif du nom :
I don’t know the man whose name has been mentioned.
Je ne connais pas l'homme dont le nom a été mentionné.
This is the lady whose dog you can see over there. Ceci est la dame dont tu peux voir le chien là-bas.
L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est complément déterminatif du nom :
Here is the car of which you have found the keys. ( the car the keys of which you have found)
Voici la voiture dont tu as trouvé les clés.
That's the kitchen the door of which is broken ! C'est la cuisine dont la porte est cassée !
Exercises : Translate
1. Here is the keyboard I use every day.
Ceci est le clavier que j'utilise tous les jours.
2. Why wouldn't you show us the computer we will have to work with ?
Pourquoi ne nous montrerais-tu pas l'ordinateur avec lequel tu devras travailler ?
3. I don't know the programmer whose flowchart lies here !
Je ne connais pas le programmeur dont l'ordinogramme se trouve ici !
4. We have brought the data you want to feed in.
Nous avons amené les données que tu veux encoder.
5. This is not the memory that interests me !
Ce n'est pas la mémoire qui m'intéresse !
2. Non-Defining Relative (who, whom, whose, which, of which)
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est sujet :
I don’t know your best friend, who is certainly somebody very interesting !
Je ne connais pas ton meilleur ami, qui est certainement quelqu'un de très intéressant !
I like listening to this singer, who makes me dream !
J'aime écouter ce chanteur, qui me fait rêver !
- L’antéc édent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est sujet :
Put it on the black table, which is the one I work on.
Mets-le sur la table noire, qui est celle sur laquelle je travaille.
I can’t find my new book, which tells about that specific issue !
Je ne peux trouver mon nouveau livre, qui parle de cette question spécifique !
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est COD :
I have spoken to Mary, whom you despise so much ! J'ai parlé à Mary, que tu méprises tant !
You may not invite these horrible people, whom I really don’t want to see here !
Yu ne peux pas inviter ces horiibles gens, que je ne veux vraiment pas voir ici !
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est COD :
Corr. 33
I haven’t seen his last film, which so many people seem to like so much !
Je n'ai pas vu son dernier film, que tant de gens semblent tellement aimer !
We have written this text, which you can read now if you have time !
Nous avons écrit ce texte, que tu peux lire maintenant si tu as le temps !
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est complément d’une préposition :
Here is your father, to whom I want to speak !
Voici ton père, à qui je veux parler !
My cousins, with whom I am going out tonight, have just arrived.
Mes cousins, avec lesquels je sors ce soir, viennent d'arriver.
Here is my mother, for whom I’ve been waiting. (= Here is my mother, whom I’ve been waiting for.)
Voici ma mère, que j'ai attendue.
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est complément d’une préposition :
We don’t know your new house, of which you have spoken so much !
Nous ne connaissons pas ta nouvelle maison, dont tu as tellement parlé !
My favourite CD, to which I was listening when you arrived, has been recorded in Japan.
Mon CD préféré,que j'écoutais quand tu es arrivé, a été enregistré au Japon.
- L’antécédent est une personne, le pronom relatif est complément déterminatif du nom :
You don’t know my husband, whose angers are terrible !
Tu ne connais pas mon mari, dont les colères sont terribles !
- L’antécédent est une ‘chose’, le pronom relatif est complément déterminatif du nom :
Here is my new car, an advertisement of which you can see on TV every day !
Voici ma nouvelle voiture, dont tu peux voir tous les jours une publicité à la TV. !
Exercises : Translate :
1. Here is a book about computer science, which you like so much !
Voici un livre sur l'informatique, que tu aimes tant !
2. Where is your best friend, whose new computer is said to be so wonderful ?
Où est ton meilleur ami, dont on dit que le nouvel ordinateur est si magnifique ? (littéralement :
= dont le nouvel ordinateur "est dit" être si magnifique)
3. I cannot understand your examples, which are too complex !
Je ne peux pas comprendre tes exemples, qui sont trop complexes !
4. We have met our new department head, who is a woman.
Nous avons rencontré notre nouveau chef de service, qui est une femme.
5. They don't care about those skilled workers, whom you can now understand !
Ils se moquent pas mal de ces travailleurs spécialisés, que tu peux comprendre, maintenant !
They don't care about those skilled workers, whose reaction you can now understand !
Ils se moquent pas mal de ces travailleurs spécialisés, dont tu peux comprendre la réaction,
maintenant !
Exercise : Fill in with the right pronoun (if no pronoun is required, I write a / )
1. The woman / you can see over there is my mother.
2. Who is the teacher / you are talking about ?
3. We don't know the girl who is speaking to John.
4. Where is the program that can help us manage that ?
5. Which is the computer / I have to repair ?
6. The bus / we are waiting for is too late !
7. The person whose dog is walking there must call it back !
8. The students who are drinking during the course will have to go out !
9. The student whose car is there has to take it away !
10. The student / you see over there is a very good one !
11. We didn't understand the language / he was using !
12. I have just bought the new software / Tom had told us about.
13. I have brought the books / I cannot read.
14. I don't know the man whose keys are there.
15. Here is the computer that is so performing and powerful !
16. We don't know your best friend, whom you should introduce to us !
17. I have just bought this new software about chess playing, which you should try !
18. I can't see our English teacher, for whom we are waiting !
19. We have finished our exercises, which were rather difficult.
20. Tom has helped his brother, who couldn't understand his mathematics course !
21. We haven't opened our new book, which we have to read for next week !
22. They haven't met the new computer teacher, whose course is so important !
23. We have to prepare our speech, which shouldn't be too long !
24. I must really meet that journalist, whom I don't know very well.
25. Can you show me your new keyboard, with which you type so easily ?
Corr. 34
Further exercise
/)
1. The students whose progam is so detailed should also be able to explain everything !
2. A keyboard that would certainly suit me is that one !
3. We don't understand the language / we have to use.
4. They know the person / you are talking about but I don't.
5. Here is a book that needs reading by the end of the year.
6. The people who can't understand that should abandon that project !
7. I like the country / he describing now !
8. They have just typed the text / you can see on the monitor.
9. They have warned the people whose car is over there.
10. They never see the people who enter the building !
11. We have prepared the speech / you must hold tomorrow.
12. They haven't understood the lesson / they must learn !
13. We have finished the exercises that are to be done for tomorrow.
14. We cannot open the door the key of which is still on it !
15. We have seen the clerk who did that mistake.
16. We have written a whole page / you should now read for us.
17. Have you ever met the teacher whose lessons are so boring ?
18. George has told the lady whose daughter is dead that he was sorry for her.
19. They haven't answered the question / you have asking over and over again !
20. Here is the visitor / you are waiting for.
21. Here are the friends / I'm going to work with.
22. We haven't seen the film / everybody is takling about !
23. I don't like the keyboard / I have to type on !
24. They've broken the monitor / those nasty stupidities were displayed on !
25. We haven't found the CD / you want to listen to.
Fill in with the right relative pronoun, when necessary ! (if no pronoun is required, I write a
26. John, who came yesterday, can't understand your opinion, about which we have to
discuss, by the way !
27. They have thrown away my work, which was not so bad ! Why ?
28. They refuse to write those sentences, which are very strange indeed !
29. They have given all students some advice, which was indeed quite necessary !
(= ce qui …)
30. They like my mother, whom they want to see every week at least !
31. You will tell my sister, for whom you are waiting, that I refuse to read her new book,
which is so insulting !
32. Here are my keys, for which I have been looking so long !
33. They have written me a letter, which is very kind ! (= ce qui …)
34. We will read your thesis, which we will translate if you want so !
35. They have bought the new software, which is not reliable yet !
36. They have phoned my mother, whose car has just been stolen.
37. We don't know your English teacher, about whom you must tell us !
38. We have met the new boss, whom we find very friendly !
39. They have just received their new car, which they bought two months ago and for which
they had already paid !
40. I cannot found my homework, which is very annoying ! (= ce qui …)
Passive Voice
Corr.35
Translate
1. I have been told you were ill.
On m'a dit que tu étais malade.
2. This man will certainly be arrested by the police. Cet homme sera certainement arrêté par la
police.
3. I was given many books yesterday !
On m'a donné beaucoup de livres hier !
4. It had been listened to before our arrival.
Cela avait été écouté avant notre arrivée !
Transform the sentences above into active sentences.
Somebody has told me you were ill.
The police will certainly arrest this man.
People gave me many books !
Somebody had listened to it before our arrival.
Exercise : transform :
1. People told me everything about Mary ! I was told everything about Mary !
2. Somebody writes new texts every day ! New texts are written every day !
3. People are waiting for the bus.
The bus is being waited for.
Remarque : avec des verbes déclaratifs et de supposition ou d’expectative :
People say that John is a very good player. = John is said to be a very good player. :
On dit que John est un très bon joueur.
He is expected to become a great man !
On s'attend à ce qu'il devienne un grand homme !
I have been said to be the best !
On a dit que j'étais le meilleur !
She was supposed to have killed her father ! On supposa qu'elle avait tué son père !
Exercises :
Translate
1. The text has been translated by the computer.
Le texte a été traduit par ordinateur.
2. The programming team has been ordered to change everything !
On a ordonné à l'équipe de programmation de tout changer !
= L'équipe de programmation a reçu les ordres de tout changer !
3. This program is said to be very good.
On dit que ce programme est très bon.
4. The matter will be looked into quite seriously !
On examinera l'affaire tout à fait sérieusement !
5. It cannot be given any name !
On ne peut pas y donner de nom !
What is the passive voice ?
1. People have given me those instructions.
I have been given those instructions.
2. They should listen to our students !
Our students should be listened to !
3. People are waiting for Peter.
Peter is being waited for.
4. They will invite Harry.
Harry will be invited.
5. Somebody calls my mother every day ! But who ?
My mother is called every day. But whom by ?
Translate
1. They would be rejected !
Ils seraient rejetés !
2. The doors have been closed early !
Les portes ont été fermées tôt !
3. Yesterday, I was told how to use the new software.
Hier, on m'a dit comment utiliser le nouveau logiciel.
4. You will be explained everything later !
On t'expliquera tout plus tard !
5. The various parts are going to be destroyed !
Les différentes pièces vont être détruites !
Transform the sentences into passive ones
1. People have told you nothing !
2. Somebody will give her a computer.
3. People are still looking for your keys !
4. People have written a long article.
5. Somebody has to answer that !
6. Nobody will look at that painting !
7. Someone has explained her the truth.
8. Somebody says she is successful.
9. Somebody should repair that car !
You have been told nothing !
She will be given a computer.
Your keys are still being looked for.
A long article has been written.
That has to be answered !
That painting will not be looked at !
She has been explained the truth.
She is said to be successful.
That car should be repaired !
10. Newspapers report the new president has already resigned !
Corr.36
The new president is reported to have already resigned !
11. People will look into the matter for sure !
The matter will be looked into for sure !
12. They were listening to nice music.
Nice music was being listened to.
13. People should explain her everything !
She should be explained everything !
14. Why would they build a new bridge ? Will they destroy this one ?
Why would a new bridge be built ? Will this one be destroyed ?
15. Somebody has slept in that room !
That room has been slept in !
16. People cannot open that door.
That door cannot be opened.
17. You may tell him about that problem.
He may be told about that problem.
18. Nobody has understood the teacher !
The teacher hasn't been understood !
19. We suppose that student is ill.
That student is supposed to be ill.
20. They have reported that companies had bought such devices.
Companies have been re ported to have bought such devices.
21. People expect you will become the boss.
You are expected to become the boss.
22. People say Tom has broken his company's PCs !
Tom is said to have broken his company's PCs !
23. People think that kind of computer is already obsolete !
That kind of computer is thought to be already obsolete !
24. They report the concert has pleased a lot of people !
The concert is reported to have pleased a lot of people !
25. Where should we put the new peripherals ?
Where should the new peripherals be put ?
26. The teacher has marked the homework !
The homework has been marked.
27. My boyfriend kept me waiting for half an hour !
I have been kept waiting for half an hour (by my boyfriend) !
28. They must pay for the course !
The course must be paid for !
29. Why didn't they tell you about the changes ?
Why weren't you told about the changes ?
30. They assumed you were working with us.
You were assumed to be working with us.
31. They assumed you had done the job with us.
You were assumed to have done the job with us.
32. Why wouldn't anybody tell them what happened ?
Why wouldn't they be told what happened ?
33. They think this model is better.
This model is said to be better.
34. They have found this screen was not good enough.
This screen has been found not to be good enough.
35. My colleagues expect that program will facilitate our work.
That program is expected to facilitate our work.
Passive Voice : further exercises : what's the corresponding passive voice ?
1. The computer has been given strange information.
2. You will be given the necessary data later.
3. A flowchart should be drawn up !
4. We were told the whole story yesterday.
5. You would certainly be asked for further information !
6. Those students are said to have failed.
7. I am sent a postcard every week !
8. Will the old keyboard soon be replaced ?
9. Have you been allowed to do so ?
10. Our offices have been claimed to be too badly decorated !
11. Your boss is expected to hire these candidates.
12. John is said to have illegally sold those machines. Can that be proved ?
13. That matter will have to be looked into quickly !
14. Help is never asked for !
15. Our company is reported to be doing badly.
16. They want their keys to be looked for.
17. Your arrival will not be waited for.
Corr.37
18. That question be answered ! (Remarquez le subjonctif présent ! Pourvu que l'on réponde
à cette question !)
19. I wish my speech had been listened to !
20. That test is always supposed to be an easy one ! It isn't believed to be so difficult !
Linking words. Translate
1. He gave them a wrong information so that they finally made an error.
Il leur a donné de fausses informations de sorte qu'ils ont finalement fait une erreur.
2. After you have used the command OFF, it will display the two final messages.
Après que vous ayez utilisé la commande OFF, il affichera les deux messages finaux.
3. I can help you provided you are ready to work !
Je peux t'aider à condition que tu sois prêt à travailler !
4. Yet, it cannot solve all the problems !
Pourtant, cela ne peut pas résoudre tous les problèmes !
5. As the line is displayed on the screen, it can be modified thanks to this device.
Au fur et à mesure que la ligne est affichée à l'écran, elle peut être modifiée grâce à ce "truc".
6. Once it has properly been programmed, it can indeed perform those tasks.
Une fois correctement programmé, il peut en effet exécuter ces tâches.
7. In spite of that difficulty, they carried out the scheduled project.
Malgré cette difficulté, ils exécutèrent le projet planifié.0
Schémas structuraux : Traduction des exemples :
Schéma 1 :
Schéma 2 :
Schéma 3 :
Schéma 4 :
Schéma 5 :
Schéma 6 :
Schéma 7 :
Schéma 8 :
Schéma 9 :
Schéma 10 :
Schéma 11 :
Schéma 12 :
Schéma 13 :
Schéma 14 :
Schéma 15 :
Schéma 16 :
Schéma 17 :
Schéma 18 :
Schéma 19 :
Schéma 20 :
Mr. B. a souvent une réunion le mardi. – Il achète toujours son journal le matin.
Il informe généralement l'opérateur à 8 h.½. – Nous prenons habituellement notre
dîner à 12 h.30.
Je vais maintenant à la maison. – Ils vont aux Etats-Unis pour quelques jours.
Elle va lire la dernière version. – Ils vont lire un long rapport.
Je corrigerai cette erreur demain. – Il remettra le fichier à jour chaque semaine.
Nous examinerons cette question la semaine prochaine.
Il a donné des ordres à l'opérateur ce matin. – Tu as envoyé un message à l'ordinateur il y a
cinq minutes.
Vous avez envoyé une lettre à l'utilisateur la semaine dernière.
La firme a acheté un nouveau terminal. – Ils ont écrit quelques programmes.
La firme vient d'acheter un nouveau terminal. – Le directeur vient de rencontrer quelques
clients. – Ils viennent d'écrire quelques programmes.
Des disquettes sont utilisées par beaucoup de sociétés. – Cette machinea été fabriquée par
une firme anglaise. – Ce problème a été analysé par une équipe compétente. – Les résultats
étaient attendus par toute l'équipe.
Je veux rencontrer Mr. B. demain. – Elle préfèrerait rester un peu plus longtemps.
J'ai l'intention de faire cette tâche aujourd'hui.
Je veux que tu retires les erreurs de programmation de ce programme immédiatement.
Elle préfèrerait qu'il reste un peu plus longtemps. - J'ai l'intention que tu fasses le planning très
bientôt.
Je veux que ce travail soit fait demain.
Elle a vu John écrire (en train d'écrire) dans son bureau. – J'ai trouvé l'opérateur
en train de travailler à la console. – Nous avons entendu qu'ils parlaient dans la pièce d'à côté.
J'ai vu qu'elle sélectionnait les cartes rapidement. – Elle l'a regardé changer la bobine
rapidement.
Ils ont commencé à parler fort. – Il continuait à additionner des nombres.
Elle a arrêté de dactylographier la lettre. – Mon travail m'empêche de partir en vacances.
Il est occupé à retirer les erreurs de programmation d'un programme.
Parfois, je retirais les erreurs de programmation de programmes. – J'ai retiré les erreurs de
programmation de programmes hier. – Je ne retire jamais les erreurs de programmation de
programmes le lundi. – Je retire souvent les erreurs de programmation de programmes. – Je
n'ai jamais retiré d'erreurs de programmation de programmes.
Lis -tu "Datamaton" chaque mois ? – Assiste-t-il à des conférences chaque lundi ? – A-t-il vérifié
les résultats hier ? – Le finirons -nous pour demain ? – Dirais -tu cela maintenant ?
Qui a dactylographié cette lettre hier ? – Que s'est-il passé l'année dernière ?
A qui a-t-il parlé à la réunion ? – Que fait-elle tous les matins ?
A qui parlais -tu ? – Qui attendaient-ils ? – Que regarde-t-elle ? – De quoi parles -tu ? – A quoi
penses -tu ?
Comment effaces -tu les données ? – A quelle fréquence remets-tu ce fichier à jour ?
Quand es -tu arrivé ? – Où as-tu mis le chargeur multidisque ? – Pourquoi ont-ils acheté un
miniordinateur ?
Schéma 21 :
Schéma 22 :
Schéma 23 :
Schéma 24 :
Schéma 25 :
Schéma 26 :
Schéma 27 :
Schéma 28 :
Corr.38
Jimmy lui a dit qu'il connaissait 4 langues. – Ils nous ont prévenus qu'ils nous mettraient à la
porte. – Il m'a informé qu'il devait arrêter la machine. – Elle m'a rappelé que j'avais un rendezvous.
Montre-moi la note dont tu parlais. – C'est quelque chose dont je n'ai jamais entendu parler.
Voilà l'homme avec qui je travaille.
Je lui parlerai quand il reviendra des Etats-Unis. – Je vérifierai les résultats pendant que tu
perforeras plus de cartes. – Je te ferai savoir dès que j'aurai de ses nouvelles.
Je vais aux Etats-Unis afin de rendre visite à un client. – Je vais aux Etats-Unis parce que je
dois rendre visite à un client. – J'irais aux Etats-Unis si je devais rendre visite à un client.
Tu dois continuer bien que ce soit difficile. – Tu ne dois pas utiliser cette méthode à moins que
ce ne soit spécifié. – Je le ferai seul vu que tu ne m'aideras pas.
Dis -moi la raison pour laquelle tu as été mis à la porte. – Montre-moi l'endroit où je devrais
mettre les disques. – Parlons du jour où tu es arrivé.
Il n'a aucun projet sur lequel travailler. – Je n'ai aucun bic avec lequel écrire. – Je ne connais
personne à qui parler.
Je ne sais pas comment utiliser cete machine. – Je lui ai appris comment écrire l'adresse dans
une suite. – Je découvrirai comment modifier ce programme rapidement.
Translations from French into English
1. The programmer often eats a sandwich at about half past one.
2. We are going to the trade fair now.
3. The boss is going to read the updated report.
4. I will check your files next week.
5. The firm (company) sent this message to all its customers last week.
6. We have fed in all the data.
7. The neighbour has just sold his house.
8. My text has been displayed by my friends.
9. The workers want to earn more money.
10. They want the tradeunion to defend them at once.
11. My boss wants this task to be carried out by the end of the week.
12. I have heard the programmers discussing that problem.
13. We have seen her quickly take her portable.
14. She gave up working with that team.
15. She has never corrected anything !
16. Could you write that text tonight ?
17. Who broke that printer yesterday ?
18. What did you explain at yesterday's congress ?
19. What are you waiting for ?
20. When did he feed in these data ?
21. They warned me that the desktop computer had broken down.
22. What is the event Tom is speaking about ?
23. I shall (I will) let him know when I am coming.
24. I tell you that to help you. – We explain that to you because you must know it ! – We
would be over there if we had to ! (if we had to be there)
25. He doesn't change his mind though his boss is angry.
26. Show me the place where you like dreaming.
27. I have no dream to discuss about.
28. You can show me how to carry out that order without delay !
Schémas 1 à 10 :
1. n° 4
2. n° 5
3. n° 7
4. n° 1
5. n° 2
Schémas 11 à 20 :
1. n° 19
2. n° 15
3. n° 20
6. n° 9
7. n° 3
8. n° 6
9. n° 10
10. n° 8
7. n° 11
8. n° 12
9. n° 20
4. n° 19
10. n° 13
5. n° 16
6. n° 14
Schémas 21 à 28 :
1. n° 26
2. n° 21 (sans le that)
3. n° 25
4. n° 22 (sans le that)
5. n° 23
11. n°17
12. n° 18
Corr.39
6. n° 27
7. n° 24
8. n° 28
9. n° 21 (sans le that)
10. n° 26
Further exercises
Put these sentence parts into the right order
1. the teacher / the students / already / explained / everything / has
1. The teacher has already explained the students everything.
2. we / in the morning / often / with our parents / breakfast / have
2. In the morning we often have breakfast with our parents. / We often have breakfast
with our parents in the morning.
3. the programmer / the bug / not / find out / immediately / could
3. The programmer could not immediately find out the bug.
4. came back / he / after a few years / home
4. After a few years, he came back home. / He came back home after a few years.
5. just / fed in / the data / has / been
5. The data has just been fed in.
6. by the IT manager / have been / for / you / waited
6. You have been waited for by the IT manager.
7. would / he / to / prefer / certainly / alone / go
7. He would certainly prefer to go alone.
8. wants / the employees / the boss / to be / not / too curious
8. The boss wants the employees not to be too curious.
9. would like / the whole task / he / to be / at once / performed
9. He would like the whole task to be performed at once.
10. he / he / because / debugs / can't / programs / never
10. He never debugs programs because he can't.
11. problems / can / without / sleep / you / any / ?
11. Can you sleep without any problems ?
12. to settle / we / of course / prepared / are / the problem
12. Of course, we are prepared to settle the problem. / We are of course prepared to
settle the problem. / We are prepared to settle the problem, of course.
13. we / to wait / are going / you / us / tell / until / the truth
13. We are going to wait until you tell us the truth.
14. how much / you / every month / pay / do / ?
14. How much do you pay every month ?
15. to / where / are / going / you / tonight / ?
15. Where are you going to tonight ?
16. this / income tax / based / on / two people / is / working
16. This income tax is based on two people working.
17. last time / did / do / you / what / ?
17. What did you do last time ?
18. who(m) / talking / are / at the moment / to / you / ?
18. Who(m) are you talking to at the moment ?
19. all / people / for / are / those / waiting / what / ?
19. What are all those people waiting for ?
20. people / are listening / a lot / this / of / to
20. A lot of people are listening to this.
21. do / live / far / you / how / ?
21. How far do you live ?
22. often / do / their / people / these / files / update / how / ?
Corr.40
22. How often do these people update their files ?
23. his / reminded / yesterday / him / secretary / today / had / he / an appointment
23. Yesterday, his secretary reminded him he had an appointment today. / His
secretary reminded him yesterday he had an appointment today.
24. is / the / student / you / 've told / where / me / about / ?
24. Where is the student you've told me about ?
25. you have / some programs / to work / here are / on
25. Here are some programs you have to work on.
26. the monitor / what / on / the computer / information / is / displays
26. The monitor is what the computer displays information on.
27. let / you / when / I'll / I'm / to go / ready / know
27. I'll let you know when I'm ready to go.
28. something / that's / I've / heard / of / never
28. That's something I've never heard of.
29. you / be / here / in order / on time / must / with us / leave / to
29. You must be here on time in order to leave with us.
30. here / you / stay / alone / will / otherwise
30. Otherwise, you will stay here alone.
31. absolutely / we / to go on / even / have / if / seems / too / this task / to be / difficult
31. We absolutely have to go on even if this task seems to be too difficult.
32. you / have / any project / do / on / to / work / ?
32. Do you have any project to work on ?
33. why / was / couldn't / I / the reason / come / none of your business !
33. The reason why I couldn't come was none of your business !
34. she / be / to / the day / would / willing / tell / when / she / arrives / us / there / ?
34. Would she be willing to tell us the day when she arrives there ?
35. to write / complicated / a / statement / how / do / know / such / you / ?
35. Do you know how to write such a complicated statement ?
36. in / I / advertisements / not / interested / receiving / all / am / those
36. I am not interested in receiving all those advertisements.
37. you / show / the computer / you / him / should / 've / from / bought / just / the new shop !
37. You should show him the computer you've just bought from the new shop !
38. do / not / you / invite / the friend / about / why / you / talk / always / ?
38. Why do you not (don't you) invite the friend you always talk about ?
39. the / the / faster / that / happier / you / do / will be / she
39. The faster you do that, the happier she will be.
40. the / the / more / your / will / run / program / be paid / it / for / you / more / efficiently / will
40. The more efficiently your program will run, the more you will be paid for it.
Catégorie économique
Bachelier en Informatique
Cours d'anglais
M-A : A. Lessinnes

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