a shrine to love and sorrow - Quintes

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a shrine to love and sorrow - Quintes
FRÈRE JACQUES: A SHRINE TO LOVE AND SORROW.
Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen (1880-1923).
Fourth, revised edition
Will H.L. Ogrinc
In memoriam Heini J.A. Ogrinc (1946-1951)
Some historians feel defeated when forced to silence by a paucity of source material. Others,
perhaps with fewer scruples, look upon such lacunae as an opportunity to give free rein to their
imagination. The conflict between these two approaches is mainly methodological, although we
might observe that lack of evidence deters the scientific investigator, whereas perhaps inspiring the
literary scholar.
As a medievalist, I find that a lack of sources typifies the period, and one simply has to make the
best of what is available. However, as a historian I find it painful when primary source material
exists but is inaccessible because of legal restrictions. But my admiration grows for the "literati,"
who, faced with fragments, are inspired to piece words together, as an archaeologist assembles
potsherds.1
What we know about the French poet and novelist, Baron Jacques d'Adelswärd2 consists very
much of pieced together shards, some dubious, others probably assembled in the wrong positions,
and many more simply missing. The image which emerges is thus full of guesswork, and will
probably remain so.
The first fragments I discovered were in Les Amitiés particulières (1943/1944), Les Amours
singulières (1949), Du Vésuve à l’Etna (1952) and Notre amour (1967) by the French writer Roger
Peyrefitte (1907-2000). It was only in 1977 that I was able to examine a copy of his L'Exilé de
Capri which had appeared in 1959. In reading that novel I became convinced that Jacques
d'Adelswärd was, rather than a character in fiction, a real historical person. My curiosity was
aroused. I decided to start a close examination of this writer who, following the publication of
Peyrefitte's novel, had acquired a reputation as a pitiful poseur whose life had been one great
melodrama.
Having decided to study d'Adelswärd, I began to accumulate more fragments, mostly from
secondary sources. During the 1980s my curiosity was further aroused by acquaintance with
d'Adelswärd's own work which, because of the small editions in which it appeared, is difficult to
locate. In the Royal Library in The Hague I found one volume of poetry, two novellas, and a
virtually complete set of the magazine, Akademos, which d'Adelswärd had edited in 1909. I was
also able to examine a selection of d'Adelswärd's poetry which a Belgian collector had copied and
donated to the Dr. Edward Brongersma Foundation.3 Confrontation with this authentic material
came as something of a shock: it revealed d'Adelswärd as a far more energetic, sincere, and much
less frivolous person than the character portrayed in Peyrefitte's novel4 and in other secondary
sources.
The first, but least important, question I asked myself was what went wrong, starting with
Peyrefitte? Soon I realized that Peyrefitte had probably just wanted to write a good novel, and that a
novelist is not restricted by the rigorous standards of biography. But, then, who was the historical
person Jacques d'Adelswärd? I had to find additional primary sources, more of the author's own
work, newspaper articles, archive materials, and observations about him by his contemporaries.
Peyrefitte's novel proved to be very helpful. I often admired the balance it struck between being a
readable story and dry biographical and bibliographical data. I discovered that Peyrefitte was doing
his utmost to make the most responsible use of his material. That suspicion was further increased
by reading the definitive version of L'Exilé de Capri. Although this edition lacks Jean Cocteau's
foreword (found only in the first edition),5 it is often more detailed, and weaves more
1
bibliographical information into the story. I considered this a generous gesture on the part of
Peyrefitte towards his curious readers. However, in the novel, one incident still remains unclear: in
1903 d'Adelswärd was brought before the court on morals charges involving a number of Parisian
schoolboys. In both versions of his novel, Peyrefitte glosses over the actual facts of the affair which
led up to d'Adelswärd's arrest and subsequent six months prison sentence, five years deprivation of
civil rights, and 50 francs fine.
In 1988, in the National Archives in The Hague, I came across some old inventories of important
Parisian archives. I asked myself whether material concerning the d’Adelswärd case might still
exist, and sent some letters to Paris. The Director of the Archives of the Préfecture de Police
informed me at the end of March that a search of the archives had not revealed any relevant
material.6 In May, the chief custodian of the Archives of the Paris and Île-de-France region
informed me that the dossier of the affair had "regrettably" been destroyed;7 they could only furnish
a photocopy of the sentence. Meanwhile, I had approached the Archives de France (formerly the
Archives Nationales). In mid-March I was told that they did indeed have the material I had
requested, but I was at the same time informed that there was a restriction on its being made public
until 2003, and that I would have to apply to the director of the archive for access. My written
request was refused in April 1988 with the statement that no reasonable arguments could be found
to support such a request to the Ministère de la Justice (Ministry of Justice).8 After a few days of
discouragement, I decided not to be stopped by this decision. Had my French perhaps not been
correct, or had faulty wording directed my request to the wrong person?
I wrote a letter to the cultural attaché at the Dutch embassy in Paris asking him to intercede on my
behalf. I received a positive and enthusiastic response. There followed negotiations with the
Archives de France, and in October the cultural attaché informed me that a compromise had been
reached: the Archives de France would not object to my inspecting the dossier provided I gave
assurance in writing that I would publish nothing which might reveal the identity of the children
involved.9 After wrestling with this offer, I decided not to accept it, because I already knew the
identity of a number of the boys from other sources, and above all because I was unable to obtain
any guarantee that the Ministry of Justice would also respond positively to my request.
L'Exilé de Capri
It must first be said that Peyrefitte did outstanding research for his novel. He possessed all the
writer's works;10 he immersed himself in the secondary sources and visited places where
d'Adelswärd had stayed; he spoke with many people, including family members, who had known
the writer personally. Such efforts have, no doubt, given the novel its reputation for historical authenticity, a reputation neither entirely unjustified, nor fully deserved.11 Peyrefitte did not want to
limit himself to writing a historical biography or a biographical novel, as can be gathered from the
remarks of Jean-Paul Sartre who, in 1958, spoke with Peyrefitte in Capri about the structure of the
book. Sartre's evaluation, with which apparently the author agreed, was that: "The homosexual
theme is very interesting. It also gives you the opportunity to portray the decadence of a whole
society."12
The final result, L'Exilé de Capri (fig. 1), is a distortion, however brilliant, perhaps revealing more
about Peyrefitte and his times than about d'Adelswärd and his. It is a kind of homosexual gossip
about a particular segment of that community at the turn of the century: who did it, might have
done it, or perhaps could have done it, and with whom. The hero (and, in any case, the historical
d'Adelswärd) finds himself thrown together with most of the "notorious" homosexuals of the finde-siècle and the belle époque, who are depicted as motivated principally by promiscuity. But
perhaps Peyrefitte was really imposing his own world of the 1940s and 1950s upon d'Adelswärd.
2
Figure 1 - Cover of the definitive edition
(1974) by Gaston Goor
The point is not that homosexuals of one era are more or less sexually driven than homosexuals of
another era, but rather that the reasons for following a promiscuous life-style in 1900 were often
different from the reasons in the 1950s. These differences are what Peyrefitte denies his readers. He
misses the opportunity to provide essential information about the mentality of the people of that
time, information that could help us to understand them. D'Adelswärd is to Peyrefitte merely a
"phenomenon," a caricature with only a few essential features of his own to distinguish him from
all those others who, since history began, have embraced "the love that dared not speak its name."
As to the real personality of Jacques d'Adelswärd, Peyrefitte often maintains a malicious silence.
One reads little in the novel about the long struggle, so persistent in d'Adelswärd's work, between
woman and boy, between hetero- and homosexuality. One thing is clear in the novel: d'Adelswärd's
ultimate choice was the adolescent boy, because he did not find mature men a likely alternative,
and not (we might add) because he loathed women.
Another objection I have is to the way Peyrefitte somehow manages to involve d'Adelswärd in the
vicissitudes of famous homosexual contemporaries. Perhaps he does this to compensate for the fact
that he does not define his hero very well, but the historically curious reader must here be on his
guard. For instance, the presence of d'Adelswärd at the confrontation between a group of English
tourists and Oscar Wilde and Lord Alfred Douglas in the Hotel Quisisana in Capri in 1897 is
extremely dubious.13 Jacques d'Adelswärd did indeed admire Wilde, but there is not one scrap of
evidence, as far as I know, that they ever saw each other, much less met.
One final point. Considering the ethical norms of the period in which the novel is written and from
which Peyrefitte has not been able completely to insulate himself, considering too the still vigorous,
small-minded secrecy in France about the events of 1903 and the decree that the Archives de
France tried to impose upon me in 1988, it seems understandable that Peyrefitte chose either to give
pseudonyms to a number of persons associated with d'Adelswärd or not to name them at all.14 He
certainly does not give the names of the Parisian schoolboys involved in the scandal; he only notes
that in the sentence, reference is made to six boys of whom three were brothers. Strangely,
however, earlier in the novel Peyrefitte gives a list of boys - even divided into the schools they
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attended! - who might possibly have participated in the events which led up to the trial.15 All of
these boys, later as adults, played important roles in French society.16 I must admit that I do not
understand Peyrefitte's intentions. A number of possibilities did occur to me. Did Peyrefitte not
wish to give the names of the six boys actually involved in the case, either for ethical reasons or
because they never became as famous as the boys he did list? Why did he include the names of
boys not directly involved in the case? Was he just trying to magnify the respectability of their
pedagogical institutions, or did the reputations of these boys have to be cleaned up, and, if so, why?
Were these the names which might be recorded in the dossier but which do not appear in the
sentence? One of those on the list, Paul Morand, in his autobiographical Venises (1971), recalled
d'Adelswärd all too well, and Peyrefitte recently admitted that Morand was one of the more
important informants for his novel.17 Or was it just another vindictive act, common to many of
Peyrefitte's books, listing the names to suggest that these boys had more to do with the affair than
appeared?
Jacques d'Adelswärd becomes Jacques d'Adelswärd-Fersen
Of d'Adelswärd's mother, Louise Emilie Alexandrine Vührer (1855-1935), we only know that she
came from a Catholic Alsatian family, and that her father, Thomas Michel Alexandre Vührer
(c.1817-1886), was a former referendary at the Ministère d’État (Ministry of State), the director of
Le Paris-Journal and the founder of the Parisian newspaper Le Soir.18
Figure 2 - Cover by Louis Morin
4
On his father's side, his family can be traced back in France to Baron Georges (Göran) Axel
d’Adelswärd (1781-1842), a Swedish officer who had been captured by the French in 1806 and
imprisoned in Longwy. There he married a daughter of a French notary, Anne Catherine Honorine
Bernard (1790-1872), in 1809;19 according to Peyrefitte, this daughter was the oldest cousin of
Count Hans Axel von Fersen (1755-1810). Before 1783, von Fersen, as aide-de-camp to General
Rochambeau, fought with the French troops in the American War of Independence; he received the
Order of Cincinnatus from George Washington himself. Later, as a diplomat, he raised a storm in
Versailles and arranged the escape of the French royal family to Varennes in 1791. He became the
personal favorite of the Swedish King Gustavus III (murdered in 1792), his son Gustavus IV
(forced to abdicate in 1809), and his successor Charles XIII. He operated as a president of the
University of Uppsala and was made a Swedish field-marshal in 1801. But in 1810, while singing
the “Frère Jacques,” he was killed by a mob in Stockholm at the funeral of the new king-elect,
Christian of Augustenberg: according to the people, von Fersen was to be blamed for the fact that
the new king had suddenly died before his coronation. It is to this same von Fersen that Jacques
dedicated his volume of poetry Chansons Légères (1901) (figs. 2 & 7) and whose name he later
added to his own.20
One descendent of the Protestant d'Adelswärd line was Jacques' grandfather, Renauld Casimir
Oscar (Reinhold Casimir Oscar) (1811-1898) (fig. 3), who became a naturalized French citizen in
1832 and married Amélie Steiner (1825-1881) in 1843. After serving in the army, he founded the
iron and steel industry in Longwy-Briey, bringing prosperity to the district. In 1848 he was
appointed deputy for the Meurthe district in the National Assembly in Paris, where he befriended a
deputy from Paris, none other than the famous writer Victor Hugo. After the coup d'état of 1851, he
and Hugo briefly shared exile on the island of Jersey. According to Peyrefitte, the only
accomplishment of Renauld-Oscar’s son, Axel d’Adelswärd (i.e., Jacques’ father, 1847-1887), was
to die at an early age of yellow fever in Panama. The newspaper Gil Blas, however, recalled
Jacques’ father as a courageous “yachtman” who had sailed “all the seas of the globe.” A few years
before, the same newspaper had praised Axel’s generosity for donating a life boat to the Rescue
Society of Le Havre: “One of our most endearing yachtsmen, Mr. Baron A. d’Adelsward, is going
to offer to the Rescue Society of Le Havre a big life boat, which, by a very ingenious system, is to
be launched at sea within eight seconds, fully armed and the crew on board. As one sees, those who
travel at sea to their amusement do not forget those who go to sea to earn a living, and more than
one sailor ows his rescue to the generous yachtsman to whom we address our most vivid
congratulations.”21
Figure 3 - Renauld-Oscar d’Adelswärd
5
Not much is known about Jacques' early youth. When he was born, his mother was twenty-four
(according to Jacques’ birth registration: twenty-three) years old and his father thirty-two; they had
been married since May 1879. When his father was still alive (and as far as he was not at sea), he
had given Jacques a very rigid education, whereas his mother especially provided for the more
tender wants of young Jacques.22 At the age of seven, Jacques became a half-orphan. Peyrefitte
provides us with the name of Jacques’ guardian and friend of the family, Viscount [Elie Marie]
Audoin de Dampierre (1846-1909), and mentions pleasant outdoor vacations with his grandfather
on Jersey. Jacques found these much more interesting than the long summer days spent within the
walls of Herserange, the family castle near Longwy (fig. 4 & 5), days interrupted only occasionally
by visits to the steel mills. During one vacation on Jersey, Jacques seems to have had intimate
relations with an unidentified blond Eton schoolboy. In the volume Chansons Légères. Poèmes de
l'enfance (Light verses: Poems of childhood) his poem, "Treize ans" (Thirteen years old), seems to
be dedicated to this youngster, though there is an ambivalence whether it is the poet or (as Timothy
d'Arch Smith has suggested) the dedicatee who is thirteen (or both of them).23 In the same
collection Jacques describes in "À Grand-Père" (To Grandfather), the loving but rather remote
relationship between himself and his grandfather. Jacques explained the fact that he hardly knew
his grandfather by saying that as a boy he was preoccupied with exploring the world around him,
catching butterflies, and picking flowers.24
Figure 4 - Powerstation Herserange; to the right the
d’Adelswärd family castle
Figure 5 - Château Herserange
Jacques passed the greater part of the year in Paris, part of the time in boarding schools since he
was nine,25 and the rest of the time with his family which, after his father’s death, consisted of his
mother, his grandmother Vührer, and two sisters, Germaine Juliette Fernande (1884-1973) and
Jeanne Yvonne Marguerite (called “Solange,” 1886-1942). Jacques remembers his little brother
Renold, who died young, in a tender in memoriam poem.26
In order to counterbalance the exclusively female company, and in order to receive “a more virile
education,” for a while Jacques was taken under the wings of his uncle Gustave d’Adelswärd
(1843-1895) and his wife, Jeanne-Mathilde d’Adelswärd-de Pourtalès (1854-1934).27 As an
engeneer and mechanic, Gustave took an active part in the development of the blast-furnaces in
northern France, especially in the Longwy region and at Audun-le-Tiche (Alsace); the 300 coke
furnaces at the Tilleur mill (near Liège, in Belgium) were built under his supervision. In addition to
this he was a talented painter who regularly contributed to the Parisian Salon du Champ de Mars
between 1876 and 1895. He also greatly improved the beer production of Brewery La Comète at
Châlons-sur-Marne (Champagne) with an annual output of 70,000 hectolitres (fig. 6).28
6
Figure 6 - Boy peeing in the snow. Beer advertisement by Millet of
Brewery La Comète on a post card for New-Year
Jacques’ school years were characterized by a most tiresome tour of the very illustrious bulwarks
of Parisian education: the Collège Sainte-Barbe-des-Champs, the Collège Sainte-Barbe de Paris,
the Lycée Michelet in Vanves, the Lycée Janson-de-Sailly (fig. 8), the Collège Rochefort, and the
École Descartes. Sainte-Barbe was chosen by his grandfather because of its noble tradition dating
back to 1460. The reason for the rapid change of schools remains unclear. The educational system
was probably much the same in all of them; the authoritarian approach could not have varied a
great deal. Moreover, he was a pupil of great promise and the winner of several prizes.29 But he
missed his mother’s tenderness and he felt lonely. Lack of freedom and the open air, sleepless
nights in the silence of the big dormitory, only disturbed by the regular respiration of his little
comrades, the interdiction of singing, running, of fatigueing himself, were recurring laments in his
letters home.30 Nancy Erber quotes Jacques’ explanation during the trial: that he was called “fille (a
girl)” by fellow pupils, and that he was horrified when a schoolmate took him to a brothel, which
earned him the nickname “fichu gosse (stupid kid).”31 Perhaps the best clues of the rapid change of
schools lie in Jacques’ character.32 Considering the spirit of the times, he must have seemed a
difficult pupil to his fellow pupils and his teachers: he had his own ideas about things, and was
7
perhaps a bit egocentric, non-conformist, and rebellious against idle authority. He gives a brilliant
picture of the boredom of boarding school study hours in the poetry collection L’Hymnaire
d'Adonis (The Hymnal of Adonis) (1902).This poem also bears the title "Treize Ans":
Figure 7 - Jacques d’Adelswärd in his teens
Treize Ans
Treize ans, blondin aux yeux précoces,
Qui disent le désir et l'émoi,
Lèvres, ayant je ne sais quoi
De mutin, de vicieux, de gosse.
Il lit; dans la salle ils sont
Tous penchés à écrire un thème,
Lui seul dans un coin lit quand même,
Des vers de Musset, polissons;
Le pion passe, vite il se cache,
Semblant travailler avec feu,
À quelque devoir nébuleux,
Très propre, soigné et sans tache,
Puis calmé, le moment d'après,
Reprend tout rose sa lecture,
Se met à changer de posture,
Pour être de l'ombre plus près;
8
Coule ses mains, sans qu'on devine,
Dans sa poche percée d'un trou,
Et là longuement fait joujou,
Rêveur de voluptés félines!
Thirteen
Thirteen, blond, with knowing eyes,
Flashing restlessness and desire,
Street boys' lips tinged with
The mischievous, even the vicious.
He is reading: in the study hall
The others are bent, writing an exercise,
He alone, in a corner, reads
Smutty poems by de Musset;
The proctor passes by; quickly he hides himself,
Pretending devoted concentration,
At some nebulous task,
Working properly, neatly, without stains,
Calm again, the moment passed,
Resumes his reading, flushing,
Shifting slowly
To be deeper in shadow;
Slips his hands, unobserved,
Into his pocket pierced by a hole,
And there, for a while, fondles his toy,
Lost dreaming in feline sensualities! 33
L'Hymnaire d’Adonis, which swarms with young blond boys, contains many poems directly
referring to Jacques' own school years. Were such contacts and meditations as are described in
"Crépuscule" (Twilight), "Rêve triste" (Gloomy dream), and "Adieu Mièvre" (Frisky farewell) 34 to
have come to light, they would no doubt have led to the immediate expulsion of those involved. I
Figure 8 - Lycée Janson-de-Sailly (1991)
9
doubt that this happened in Jacques' case; if it had, Peyrefitte would almost certainly have
discovered it.
After initial difficulties with his final examinations, Jacques finally obtained the necessary
baccalaureate to go to university. He enrolled at Geneva and there, in 1898, his first publication
appeared, Conte d’Amour (Tale of love).35 The same year, however, his grandfather died on Jersey,
and Jacques was called back to France where he tried to get used to the fact that he had received a
rich inheritance.36
According to Peyrefitte, in the summer of 1901, he went to Sweden to attend the wedding of a
prominent relative, Theodor Adelswärd (1860-1929) and his wife, Louise Douglas.37 Probably to
his regret, Peyrefitte had overlooked a short notice in Le Figaro of June 1901, which states that
“the young writer of Chansons légères” had been received in private audience at Stockholm by
King Oscar II and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Alfred Lagerheim, “to whom he had made a
present of his volume.”38 Back in Paris, Jacques enrolled in a number of courses without taking any
of them very seriously. After his compulsory military service was abridged to ten months (being the
son of a widow), he returned to Paris on 20 September 1902 and fell again into a rather
directionless existence.
Figure 9 - Jacques d’Adelswärd in his twenties
He debated between taking up a career in diplomacy or going into politics, took courses at the
École des Sciences Morales et Politiques at Saint-Germain-en-Laye and joined the Royalist Party.
He also took courses in law and literature, and a course in experimental psychology at the
Salpêtrière in Paris. His urge to show off was temporarily satisfied by the purchase of a royal blue
Darracq automobile, driven by a liveried chauffeur.39 But establishing himself as a writer (fig. 9)
offered the greatest promise: in the meantime he had published two collections of poems, the
above-mentioned Chansons Légères (1901) and L'Hymnaire d’Adonis (1902). He had also
published a miscellaneous volume, Ébauches et Débauches (Drafts and dissipations) (1901), and a
novel, Notre-Dame des Mers Mortes (Our Lady of the Dead Seas) (1902), the fruit of a visit to
Venice.40 Meanwhile, he had become a welcome guest in Parisian literary salons: there the ladies,
hoping for a casual flirt or merely seeking an ideal son, gushed over the promising but above all
10
rich young dandy; some probably had never read a word he had written. “Old ladies were very fond
of Mr. Adelsward,” Jean Lorrain mockingly observed.41 A number of his fellow artists, however,
expected better things from his young talent.
Baron Jacques and the Messes Noires of 1903
In January d'Adelswärd leased a bachelor's apartment at 18 Avenue Friedland, just two doors away
from his mother. The building still stands, and above the top floor windows one can read the
incised initials "NC." This is not, however, an homage to Jacques' future boy-friend, Nino Cesarini,
but simply the logo of the company that constructed the building, the Nationale Compagnie
d'Assurances sur la Vie. It is now occupied by several medical specialists (fig. 10).
1903 was the year of Jacques’ friendship with Loulou Locré, a talented fifteen-year-old pupil at
the Lycée Carnot, winner of several prizes.42 Loulou was a class mate of Paul Morand who, in his
correspondence with Jacques Chardonne of 1959, recalled his school pal several times: “I had
pointed out to the writer [i.e., Peyrefitte] that the just mentioned Loulou, in fact Louis, son of Baron
Locré, was a class mate at the Carnot. When I lived on rue Marbeuf, each morning I collected him
on rue de Berri, just like Jean Drake del Castillo who lived beyond the street, and together we set
off, to the Carnot.”43
1903 was also the year of Jacques’ ultimately disastrous association with Albert François de
Warren (born in the same year as Jacques’ brother Renold), who appears in Peyrefitte's novel as
Hamelin and whose elder brother, René, was knighted by Pope Leo XIII in 1900.44 It was also the
year of serious marriage plans involving Blanche Suzanne Caroline de Maupeou, who came from a
respected aristocratic family and whose father was a wealthy Protestant industrialist.45 Nothing,
however, was to come of those plans, for the long arm of the law intervened.
Figure 10 - Avenue Friedland, Nr. 18 (1991)
By order of the judge for the pretrial hearings, Charles de Valles, Jacques (fig. 11) was arrested by
Messieurs Hamard, chief of the Sûreté, and his deputy Blot on 9 July on suspicion of indecent
conduct with minors (figs. 12-13, 15) and offending the public decency. He was brought to the
Santé prison for questioning.
11
Figure 11 - Cover with d’Adelswärd's portrait
(1903)
The newspapers and magazines were full of the case in the days that followed.46 Jacques and
Albert de Warren were supposed to have held orgies (called Messes Noires – Black Masses – by
the press) in their homes twice a week (on Thursday and Sunday), involving countless youngsters
from the better circles of society, mostly recruited from Carnot, Chaptal, Condorcet, Janson-deSailly, and Saint-Joseph-des-Tuileries schools (figs. 8 & 14). Writing of a confrontation between
his father and d'Adelswärd years later in Venice, Paul Morand described how his fellow pupils used
to point out Jacques as he waited expectantly outside their school doors.47
Figure 12 - Caricature by František Kupka (1903)
According to the press and Peyrefitte, the alleged soirées involved the crème de la crème of
Parisian high society, including Catholic priests and the writer Achille Essebac (pseudonym of
Henri Louis Achille Bécasse, 1868-1936):48 many prominent ladies and gentlemen came to gape at
12
these exhibitionist tableaux vivants and poses plastiques, called “représentations païennes” (pagan
representations), and some of the observers actually participated in them - the much admired
courtesan Liane de Pougy, for example, posed as the Callipygian Venus. Nancy Erber quotes the
amusing comment by F.V. in the newspaper Gil Blas: “Two young Parisian gentlemen who
hungered for novelty hosted a series of children’s parties at their home. This attracted the attention
of the police. It seems that they were introducing the little schoolboys of our lycées to the sort of
homework that had only a distant relation to the kind the Education Ministry is recommending. In
addition, a certain number of ladies and gentlemen joined in these juvenile pastimes, which
certainly must have flattered the children, who always long for adult attention… The principal of
the lycée Carnot has assured us that in order to protect his charges from being accosted by ‘shady
women’ at the end of the school day, he himself patrols the sidewalk outside the establishment.
Alas! He hadn’t reckoned on ‘shady men’.” “Professional ephebes,” young rent boys, seem to have
been present too. Erber quotes one of the participants: “We put on pink robes. Sometimes we took
them off. Nothing more.”49
Figure 13 – “Two Removals” by František Kupka (1903)
Figure 14 - Lycée Carnot (1991)
According to Peyrefitte, scandal erupted following a failed blackmail attempt by Jacques' former
valet, “Pierre G.” (fig. 16) who demanded 100,000 francs in return for his silence. When Jacques'
mother also refused to pay, he went to the police, who at first refused to believe him. However,
Pierre's story was confirmed by a certain “Perrin,” a blackmailer arrested by Inspector Roux and
who seems to have been an intimate acquaintance of Albert de Warren. A number of schoolboys
were shadowed and their activities observed, after which the police stepped in. Forewarned, de
Warren had fled to the United States on 27 June (probably from Ostend in Belgium), but
d'Adelswärd's family50 was forced to retain the famous lawyer, Charles Edgar Demange, who had
recently defended the Jewish Captain Alfred Dreyfus.
13
Figure 15 - “The moral of the lawsuit of the Black Masses. « Daddy, mammy! What did I do to be condemned by you
to ten years prison! »” Caricature by Louis Morin (1903)
14
Figure 16 - “At the Aesthete’s - ... My Master is busy...”
Caricature by Hermann-Paul (1903)
During his detention, Jacques was examined by three psychiatrists named Notet, Magnan and
Vallon51 who, according to the newspaper Le Matin, diagnosed insanity, alcoholism, and epilepsy
inherited from his relatives. Jacques’ grandmother and even his father, Axel, are said to have
temporarily been interned in a mental institution – which Jacques’ mother vehemently denied.52
Vallon described attacks during Jacques’ youth which had brought him to death’s door, causing
brain damage which, according to the psychiatrist, condemned him to lead the life of a congenital
liar. Vallon even claimed that his residence in various boarding schools had only added to his lack
of education in moral hygiene, and the psychiatrist concluded that Jacques had a damaged sense of
responsibility.53 The newspaper Le Petit Parisien had already passed a different sentence on 16
July: “Strange sensations were explored by the young d’Adelsward far more in order to singularize
himself in the eyes of his comrades than out of personal taste. His Baudelairianism was «a pose»,
and if he made a display of certain vices, it was much less from corruption than from ostentation.
He is not a feeble-minded nor a demented, he is a misguided person.”54
In August, he was brought to the prison hospital at Fresnes-les-Rungis (perhaps also because the
regimen was less severe there) to undergo necessary medical treatment, including a “delicate
operation” by Doctor G. Le Filliâtre, surgeon-in-chief of the Prisons de la Seine.55 It was at this
time that he wrote a collection of poems entitled L’Amour enseveli (Love in burial costume), which
appeared in Paris a year later.
During Jacques’ stay at the prison hospital - and a dull moment in the press coverage of the
scandal - , the editor-in-chief of the newspaper L’Intransigeant, Henri Rochefort, launched a
villainous attack imbued with anti-semitism and inaccuracies: “A theft committed by a Jew is no
longer a theft, and an act of indecency perpetrated by a Protestant is no longer an act of indecency.
(…) Then, suddenly, in all the rags [i.e., newspapers] of the coalition there is a big silence! No
15
further persecutions against the celebrants of these eccentric masses! Adelsward, at first arrested,
has been returned to his family, with excuses, and nowadays you will look in vain for the slightest
allusion to this dark incident in the prime Parisian government papers. An inquiry has revealed that
the invert in question did not belong to the Catholic faith but to the Protestant, and, moreover, that
he was of half-Jewish race by descent. Once this was discovered, the official reptiles were
instructed to retain their hissings.”56
Already on 18 July, André Girard, in Les Temps Nouveaux, had made a serious analysis of the
press coverage of the affair: “When the author or the authors, writing about the scandal, belong to a
clerical or a royalist party, there is a rush of all the opposite parties, anti-clerical, republican,
socialist, even anarchist, in order to shift all responsibility to the «scum of priesthood», and to the
«scum of priesthood» alone. (…) However, it is not their exclusive apanage. And if one deigns to
look around, one has to admit that no political party, no social class, even no race – fanatics or not
by their particular faith – are exempt of it. Especially the Orient and the Far East do not yield to
Europe or America. Oscar Wilde, Flamidien, d’Adelsward are international characters.” Girard
emphasized the importance of looking at the more general, more exact causes, more in consonance
with the moral and psychological reality of the social facts: “It is too easy to decline responsibility
for a criminal aberration and shift it to a political adversary or a person of another opinion.” So, in
his opinion, it is ridiculous to blame the Republic and its modern ideas about morality, its public
schools, the naturalist and decadent literature, the intellectuals, looking beyond the beaten road. “In
the other camp,” he continues, “we perceive the exclusive incrimination of clericalism, and even
the affirmation that the unfortunate children of the lycée Carnot, being the victims of the lubricity
of aristocratic swines, had received an education by clerics, and that to this education one has to
attribute the facility with which they [the children] have submitted to the practices one knows. To
Drumont, on the contrary, these children are little Jews!” Girard rightly concludes: “So, make up
your mind about the opinion of the newspapers!” Already from its start, the press coverage of the
affair had become a mirror of the tripartite crisis France was plunged into at the time: the
controversies between Church and State, between Dreyfusards and anti-Dreyfusards, and between
exploiters and the exploited.57
On 17 October d’Adelswärd was returned to the Santé. According to Peyrefitte, Albert de Warren,
accompanied by his brother, René, and his counsel, Maître Henri-Robert, voluntarily appeared
before Judge de Valles on the same day; de Warren was arrested on the spot and brought to the
Santé.58 The next days de Warren pleaded for his innocence: he had never been a crimp of
d’Adelswärd nor assisted at “scenes of debauchery” at Avenue Friedland. During a confrontation
with d’Adelswärd at de Valles’ office, both de Warren and d’Adelswärd played into each other’s
hands by protecting each other and denying all the accusations.59
The trial began on 28 November in the ninth chamber of the Tribunal de la Seine headed by Judge
Bondoux, the court having decided that the proceedings would be held in camera. On 3 December
the prosecution lawyer, Lescouvé, outlined the case for the prosecution followed by the statements
for the defense by Demange and Henri-Robert. On the same day a guilty verdict was handed down:
having already served five months d'Adelswärd was set free that evening. Albert de Warren stayed
in prison and appealed to a higher court.60
Considering that the trial was held in camera, it is easy to understand why comparatively so little
was reported about it in the press. Grandgousier, in the republican newspaper Le Matin, Marréaux
Delavigne, in Le Journal, and other journalists had to squirm to fill several columns with pieces on
“noble deeds” discussed behind closed doors; deeds, which, according to Le Figaro, consisted for
the greater part of “impudicities of the dormitories, continued after boarding school.”61
It must be observed that the court did not wish to deal with the charge of “offending public
decency.” The case was restricted to “inciting minors to debauchery,” illegal conduct between a
number of boys and two young men in their twenties, thus averting the widening of the case and the
likelihood that steps would have had to be taken against other, perhaps older, participants.
16
Moreover, according to the sentence, “indecent behaviour” was cited with only six minors: Berecki,
Boesch, Locré, and the three brothers Adalbert, Jacques, and René Croisé de Pourcelet, sons of a
Parisian engineer of whom the oldest was fourteen – minors, of whom Renard asked himself in Gil
Blas: “and these children, weren’t they of the kind that only wants to be «excited»?” (fig. 17).62 In
so doing, it was probably hoped that the affair could be contained and above all the public's appetite
for sensation dampened.
Figure 17 - First page of the sentence
Whether this was indeed the intention of the court, or whether, as Peyrefitte suggests (following
the defense of Maître Henri-Robert),63 this was the wish of other and more important people, the
attempt failed. The degree to which the name d'Adelswärd-Fersen still stirs the public imagination
is a result not of his literary output but rather of the fabrications circulated about him from 1903
17
onwards. In 1904, for example, three years before Peyrefitte was born, the pornographer Alphonse
Gallais, using the transparent pseudonym of Doctor A.-S. Lagail, brought out a strange book
entitled Les Mémoires du Baron Jacques: Lubricités infernales de la noblesse décadente, in which
he set out to kill two birds with one stone. As often in Gallais' books, the nobleman was one target
of satire, and this time homosexuality was the other. The writer of these apocryphal memoirs
obviously had little affinity for, or experience with, the sexuality of children; whenever there is an
opportunity, his frame of reference is the (hetero)sexual behavior of adults. But the real purpose of
the book is to allow the author to cast asperions on every one around Jacques: he had intimate
relations with Oscar Wilde, Pierre Loti, and Jean Lorrain; he had an incestuous relationship with
his mother who took his virginity at an early age; Jacques, in turn, deflowered a number of young
boys upon the skeleton of his own mother. The piece ends with Jacques' death in the prison hospital
at Fresnes as a result of "a delicate operation on his anus." The book also contains a poem of 14
stanzas with 8 lines each, entitled "Notre-Dame des Verges Fortes" (Our Lady of the sturdy cocks),
a word play on Jacques' novel, Notre-Dame des Mers Mortes, of 1902. The poem is dedicated "to
my friends de Barden (de Warren) and La Lorraine (Lorrain)." It is not surprising that this small
book was condemned in the Cour d'Assises de la Seine on 11 October 1913.64 A few years later the
author tried to resurrect it: using the pseudonym Grimaudin d'Echara, he republished the material in
Chapter Four ("Chez le Baron d'Alderswald") of his Passions de Femmes. Roman vécu de moeurs
féminines et autres. Luxures orgiaques et ordurières. Livre III.65 Obviously the public way in
which the affair had been reported provided a rich source of nourishment for this kind of pulp.
Of course, there were comments from higher literary levels too. In a letter to his brother, Pierre
Louÿs condemned d’Adelswärd in private; Paul Léautaud talked with the diseased Marcel Schwob
about the affair, and Laurent Tailhade, a bisexual poet and polemic journalist, denounced Jacques’
conduct in his Lettre familière of 16 July 1903. In the salon of Madame Marguerite de Pierrebourg,
Marcel Proust had defended Jacques: when Paul Hervieu, member of the Académie Française, had
cursed the “homosexual Adelsward” and had pleaded for the wrath of Themis, the goddess of
Justice, Proust had contradicted him. He pleaded for compassion, and, modifying the dictum about
religion of the Prussian King Frederick II, he insisted upon the right of every one to love in his own
way. This reminds us of the end of Charles-Louis Philippe’s plea of tolerance, “Le Mouton à cinq
pattes,” in the issue of July/August of Le Canard Sauvage: “each passion is right, great and normal,
because it exists.” In the same issue, Alfred Jarry, the famous and notorious homosexual author of
Ubu roi, took d’Adelswärd under his protection in his ironical contribution, “L’Âme ouverte à l’Art
antique.”66
The most extensive comment came from the previously-mentioned homosexual writer, Jean
Lorrain (pseudonym of Paul Alexandre Martin Duval, 1856-1906). In his Pelléastres: Le Poison de
la littérature, his tirade against what he termed bad taste in literature, he devoted many pages to
d'Adelswärd. His description of Messes Noires reads like an eye-witness account; it is not unlikely
that he was present at some of the gatherings, even though he disliked d’Adelswärd, and Peyrefitte
expressly states that Lorrain had not been invited. Taken in context, it would seem that we are
dealing with a literary settling of accounts. Here are two people perceived by the outside world as
"friends" but who in fact lived in nearly separate worlds: a homosexual who worshipped at the
shrine of muscle-bound sailors and similar types, and an aristocratic French "Uranian," hankering
after loyal intimacy with the companions of his youth.67 Lorrain's descriptions of d'Adelswärd are
telling: not only is Jacques a "snob," but above all "puerile" and "pitiful." In Lorrain’s opinion, the
Messes Noires do not deserve such a label because they had nothing in common with the Black
Masses of Joris-Karl Huysmans, Abbé Guibourg, or Gilles de Rais. Besides, Lorrain added with a
sneer, one cannot expect a Protestant ever to make a convincing parody of the Catholic mass.
According to him, the Messes Noires were nothing more than ordinary literary salons held on
Avenue Friedland which degenerated into "banal" costume parties with d'Adelswärd at the center
(are we supposed to think here of similar gatherings at the home of the German poet Stephan
18
George?). The most shocking and, in light of Lorrain's personal preferences, "pitiful" thing which
occurred during one of the gatherings was the appearance of “an adolescent, stark naked, lying on
a white bearskin, his body covered with golden gauze, his forehead crowned with roses and his
arms resting on a skull of polished ivory” (fig. 18).68
Figure 18 - “Messe noire” by Manuel Orazi (1903)
Was this the "indecency" for which Jacques was condemned? Peyrefitte's description in L'Exilé de
Capri, based largely upon Lorrain's report, gives us no further information; at the point where the
reader might want clarification, the boys disappear behind a screen of discretion, in this case into
the bathroom. What follows is one of the strongest passages in the novel; unfettered by details, the
writer skillfully uses suggestion to draw the reader to one conclusion: "It" happened in the
bathroom. But what actually took place in that bathroom?
When Peyrefitte came to write his memoirs, Propos Secrets, the screen of discretion came down.
Pity for Jacques' family had prevented him from detailing in 1959 what he already knew: Jacques
followed the boys, who were stimulated by the tableaux, to the bathroom and masturbated them.69
After all the build-up, this revelation is not terribly spectacular. Peyrefitte, however, submitted
that his information came from the declarations of those involved, such as can be found in the court
documents. Peyrefitte claimed that a copy of the relevant dossier had been given him by “an
important magistrate” through a lawyer, a certain Marcel Mirtil.70 Upon questioning, the Director
of the Archives de France assured me three times that no outsider had ever taken the dossier out of
the archive, nor inspected it. What then of Peyrefitte's claim? The simplest explanation would be
that one of the two parties was lying. I consider this the least likely alternative. If Peyrefitte had
wanted to invent, he would have provided us with a more spectacular climax; and one cannot really
expect the director of an archive to know the precise history of all the documents in his care. There
is always the chance of a leak; some unscrupulous employee could have been bribed to make a
clandestine copy of "Top Secret" material. A duplicate of the dossier might have come into the
19
hands of the defense lawyer, Demange, and his copy might have been the one obtained by
Peyrefitte.71
Another aspect of the case has to be cleared up, one which is referred to neither in the sentence
nor in Peyrefitte's novel: newspapers reported that during the police search of d'Adelswärd's
apartment a number of pornographic photos were seized - Le Matin wrote of “sadistic photos.” It
was suspected that the photos had been made by a certain “Tr...,” an amateur photographer and
brother-in-law of de Warren, a regular guest at the Black Masses. Upon Jacques’ arrest, Tr., or
Anselme Trilles, seemed to have disappeared. However, the next day he presented himself at the
office of Le Matin in order to deny the allegations, showing the photos the police had come across
in his studio at the Boulevard Pereire, and claiming that he had never been present at the séances.
Le Temps reported that the police found only sports photos when they searched the photographer's
atelier. According to Nancy Erber, obscene photos were also found in de Warren’s apartment
(which is incorrect), and, during the trial, Jacques admitted the possession of pornographic photos,
which he had also shown to the boys: “I considered them artistic. That’s why I displayed them
openly in my home.”72
Lord Lyllian
There is another source which might provide us with some clarification of the events leading up to
the trial, a novel written by d'Adelswärd in Ceylon and Capri in 1904 and published in 1905,
entitled Lord Lyllian. Messes Noires (fig. 19). Oddly enough it was dedicated to the juge
d'instruction, that is to the judge for pretrial hearings. One of his strongest works, it consists of an
astonishing mixture of fact and fiction. Only the last quarter of it deals with the affair of 1903; the
remainder we must consider Jacques' apologia. It is a book full of mirrors and masks (much of it
takes place in Venice) in which a layman, perhaps even a judge, must get lost. Maybe that is why
the Dutch writer and essayist, Gerrit Komrij, even though he made a good attempt to unravel its
mysteries, called it a "deafening mistake."73
Figure 19 - Cover by Claude Simpson
20
First of all, there is considerable juggling with names. When the reference is to more or less
contemporary events, the players assume their real names: Huysmans, Barrès, King Louis of
Bavaria. With those of d'Adelswärd's circle, and as events become more and more fantastic, the
names take on their own masks: the German industrialist Supp (Friedrich Alfred Krupp), Sar
Baladin (Sâr Mérodack = Joséphin Péladan), Montautrou (“the arse climber” = Robert de
Montesquiou), Achille Patrac (Achille Essebac = Achille Bécasse), the painter Chignon (Édouard
Chimot), Claude Skrimpton (Claude Simpson). Albert de Warren becomes Guy de Payen. The hero
lives on Avenue d'Iéna (Friedland), and we can recognize Inspector Roux in the police officer
Pioux. Jean Lorrain appears repeatedly as the chatter-box and sexual match-maker, Jean d'Alsace
(probably a literary application of the Alsace-Lorraine conflict), who on one occasion even forgets
his wig.
The main character is Renold Howard Evelyn Monrose, Lord of Lyllian Castle in Scotland who at
the age of seventeen lost his parents: first his adulterous mother and then his tender loving father.
Following a tender puppy-love affair with a fourteen-year-old girl, the young orphan falls into the
clutches of Harold Skilde (Oscar Wilde), the writer of The Portrait of Miriam Green (The Picture
of Dorian Gray, of course). Skilde falls in love with the innocent youth, but perverts him and turns
him into a simultaneous reincarnation of Adonis, Heliogabalus, and Narcissus. Countless men and
women, mostly older, court him and bind him to serve their sexual needs. Following the suicide of
one of his female worshippers during a night-time erotic performance by the Lord in the ruins of a
Greek temple, he breaks off his relations with Skilde, who is immediately arrested in England and
sentenced to "hard labour." Komrij rightly points out parallels between Lord Lyllian and Lord
Alfred Douglas. Chapter Nine even begins with a letter from Skilde to Lord Lyllian which seems a
paraphrase of Wilde's De Profundis even though this work was only published by Robert Ross in
abbreviated version in 1905.74
After protracted wanderings through Europe, filled with memories of his innocent youth and his
loving father; after a number of new conquests (which he takes as his due) and the accompanying
ennui; and after a short-term love affair with a Gypsy girl in Venice and a "true love" romance with
the young Swedish poet Axel Ansen (who unfortunately dies young), Lord Lyllian finally settles
down in Paris. There follows the well-known story resulting in the Messes Noires, though
d'Adelswärd's perspective is that of the sensation-hungry public. All the ingredients are there: the
schoolboys arrive (Lyllian's "choirboys"); a naked boy lies on an altar and is bedecked with white
roses and black lilies, a skull in his hand; Lord Lyllian worships in front of him on his knees while
reciting poetry. There even follows a scene in which a sword-wielding Lyllian chases a little boy.
Someone in the public asks, "Is it true that he cuts the children's throats?" The writer's comment is
short but crushing: Black Masses are the ease-loving substitutes of those who lack the capacity to
be Rosicrucians!75
Lord Lyllian has previously informed us that he only wanted to raise the ethical and aesthetic
consciousness of the schoolboys and expose them to good poetry (Byron and Verlaine). He would
guide them to experience the magnificent, consoling character of love and so stimulate them into
seeking a deserving comrade with whom they would not be ashamed and could share the
excitement of discovering life, beauty, and tenderness.76 In the end Lord Lyllian betrays the boys;
he renounces boy-love and abandons his friends to throw himself into the arms of his ultimate love
- a young girl of noble birth. The hero is asked to justify himself by one of the schoolboys, André
Lazeski (the young Berecki from the sentence),77 and is subsequently killed in a mêlée. The boy
also dies in the fight.
The novel is a breathtaking mixture of truth and fiction providing some new information about
pedagogical eros. Where the book is of exceptional value is in casting new light on the writer
himself, his character, and his artistry. D'Adelswärd appears in the novel in at least four guises, and
he even lets them carry on love affairs with each other. Most important, of course, is the decadent
Lord Lyllian. He is offset by the chaste Renold (the name of d'Adelswärd's brother who died
21
young). But he is also the sly old diplomat d'Herserange who bears the name of the d'Adelswärd
family castle. Renold loses his chastity when he discovers his own body in a mirror; d’Herserange
tries to manipulate Lord Lyllian to serve his sexual needs.78 The fourth is an artist of his own age,
Axel Ansen, with whom Lord Lyllian is only able to exchange a single kiss before the poet dies.
When Lyllian tells the story to d’Herserange, he realizes that this young man was the first person in
his life who loved him without reservation. Axel, of course, was the first name of d'Adelswärd's
father. This is sufficient, I believe, to demonstrate the complexity of the novel, which is a virtually
unique manifestation of narcissism. We can rightly conclude, I think, that the early deaths of his
little brother Renold and his father placed an ineradicable stamp upon the character of the young
Jacques d'Adelswärd.
The Dossier d’Instruction of 1903
In 2003 I finally got the opportunity to consult the dossier of the Archives de France.79 At first
glance, it seemed a complete mess! It took some time to restore the chronological order of the
documents included. The dossier consists of 24 documents in handwriting, from several authorities,
and covers the period of 10 July 1903 to 21 January 1904; especially the orthography of names
turns out to be rather sloppy.
Included are two letters concerning de Warren’s appeals,80 and some correspondence between the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the French General Consul at New York about the whereabouts of
de Warren. There are some instructions to the police and notes of observations during the
investigation; short notices about the findings in d’Adelswärd’s and de Warren’s homes during the
police search, and statements by Blanche’s father, the Viscount de Maupeou, and the father of the
Croisé de Pourcelet boys. Two documents refer to d’Adelswärd’s mental and physical
examinations, but most of the dossier consists of résumés of interrogations. Of course, there were
interviews with d’Adelswärd himself and some of the boys involved, including several rent boys.
D’Adelswärd’s door-keeper, Alfred Adam, was also interviewed, as well as Jacques’ chauffeur,
Bernedat, his former valet, Velpry, and the valet of his mother, Médard (the latter not included in
the dossier). What do these documents add to our investigations so far?
On 2 August 1903, the French General Consul at New York, de Magny, informed the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, that de Warren and his brother had arrived on the steamer “Touraine” in New York
on 4 July, traveling with the pseudonym Rossen because their name had also been divulged in the
American press coverage of the scandal; they had departed for Liverpool and Queenstown on the
steamer “Oceanic” on 29 July, using the name Fernando.81 From a letter of the Tribunal de la Seine
of 10 July (appendix by the juge d’instruction, Charles de Valles), it appears that Jacques had been
forwarned too! That is why he had stopped all the gatherings and the reception of youngsters at his
home, and why he had fixed his engagement at an earlier date, intending to set out on a journey
with Blanche and her family on 11 July.
The story about the failed blackmail attempt by Jacques’ former valet “Pierre G...” (whose real
name was Velpry) was probably invented by Peyrefitte. Velpry82 told de Valles about the
frequentations of d’Adelswärd’s apartment by the brothers Croisé de Pourcelet, from April 1903
onwards: after their departure, he had found obscene photos, left on the table, and handkerchiefs
stained with sperm; he had informed Jacques’ mother about the situation, and had quit his job
because he had become the laughing-stock of all domestics in the house, who knew of Jacques’
moral conduct.
On the contrary, it appears that Jacques had been blackmailed by several rent boys. 83 During the
investigations, three letters were discovered, one of them addressed to the Viscount de Maupeou,
who received it just a few moments before Jacques’ arrest. When the viscount informed de Valles
about the letter, he also expressed his joy about the fact that the family had received the revelations
concerning Jacques before the marriage. The dossier does not reveal the name(s) of the
22
blackmailer(s); the name “Perrin” is not mentioned at all. However, most close in pronunciation
there is the name of Béret, a comrade of the fifteen-year-old rent boy [Fernand] Boscher. Maybe
Peyrefitte mixed up this name with the name of Béchet, a close friend of de Warren.84
In the dossier, we can find the names of six rent boys, with whom d’Adelswärd had sexual
contacts: Béret, Boscher, twenty-one-year-old Kothé, Lefebvre, nineteen-year-old Leroy, and
fifteen-year-old Verguet. Boscher declared that in March he had been hauled up from the
boulevards and had been taken in Jacques’ automobile to Avenue Friedland; he had spent the night
with d’Adelswärd, he had been masturbated and Jacques had oral sex with him too; the next day he
had introduced his comrade, Béret, to Jacques. Kothé and Leroy also gave detailed information (not
included in the dossier) about their sexual contacts with d’Adelswärd. It was probably from these
contacts that he had caught several venereal diseases. During the physical examination of Jacques,
the prison doctor, Socquet, diagnosed scabies, gonorrhoea and soft ulcer, which needed immediate
medical treatment; Socquet spoke about a “deplorable pathological condition.” His diagnosis
elicited the satirical poem “Terza rima d’Adonis galeux” (Terza-rima of scabby Adonis) by Louis
Marsolleau in Gil Blas; Le Matin revealed that de Valles and his clerk “never omit to visit a bathing
establishment at the end of the day” to prevent any contagion.85
Jacques himself told de Valles that, after his military service in Charleville and Sedan, his former
camp comrade, Édouard Chimot, engraver from Lille, had introduced him to the professional
ephebes of the streets and other public spots. The germ of his “depravations” had to be traced back
to the reading of licentious literature, and to the bad company of fellow pupils at the Collège
Sainte-Barbe, the Lycées Michelet and Janson-de-Sailly, and the École Descartes; at the age of
twelve he had learned everything from the elder boys.86
A relative and female friend of de Warren, Madame d’Aubusson, had encouraged Jacques to
organize gatherings, such as were described in his L’Hymnaire d’Adonis, and in the books of
Achille Essebac, Jean Lorrain, and Joséphin Péladan. Jacques told de Valles about the previouslymentioned Messe Noire described by Jean Lorrain. It took place at Avenue Friedland on 17 or 18
May. After the recitation of Baudelaire’s “La Mort des amants” (The Death of the lovers) from Les
Fleurs du mal, and at the sounds of a funeral march, the guests defiled along the tableau vivant of
“Youth and Death”: a skull amidst flowers and lights, and a nude fourteen-year-old boy, lying on
the floor, his sex covered with a scarf.87 Jacques emphasized that the gathering had not a licentious
character,88 nor the soirée in March and other mundane afternoon parties; moreover, college boys
had not been present. Rent boy Kothé, who assisted at some of the gatherings, testified that usually
three fourths of the guests consisted of pederasts known to him. The dossier only mentions two
names of regular guests: Count Guy d’Harasat d’Etchegoyen and Abbé Marin.89
According to the newspaper Le Petit Parisien, to de Valles’ disappointment, a lot of boys did not
appear for interrogation. In order to prevent uncomfortable situations, they had been sent by their
parents to the countryside “on accelerated vacation,” without leaving any notice of their sojourn. As
to the schoolboys who did appear, it must first be observed that the names of boys “not directly
involved in the case” (from Peyrefitte’s above-mentioned list) do not occur in the dossier.90 There
is a list of schoolboys (as an appendix of a letter from the Tribunal de la Seine of 13 July 1903),
which, compared with the remainder of the dossier, is incomplete. From all the documents in the
dossier, one can compose the following list of schoolboys involved: Besnard (a young comrade of
André Berecki and probably a son of the painter Paul-Albert Besnard), Raoul Clerc (a special
friend of de Warren), Ramo-Braga, and a pupil of the “classe de rhétorique” (no schools
mentioned).91 From the École Saint-Joseph-des-Tuileries, about seventeen-year-old Starcelli. From
the Lycée Carnot: seventeen-year-old André Berecki, son of the General Municipal Secretary of the
XVIIth Arrondissement; fourteen-year-old Henri Boesch; fourteen-year-old Adalbert and Jacques
Croisé de Pourcelet, and their younger brother, René (seven or eight years old); two brothers
Jacquet (about fourteen years old); a boy de Laguerre; Loulou Locré; and a boy Ménard,92 son of
Doctor Saint-Yves Ménard.
23
Figure 20 - Albert [Hamelin] de Warren (1903)
Most of the boys were introduced to d’Adelswärd by Albert de Warren (fig. 20), who hauled them
up in the Parc Monceau, in the vicinity of the Lycée Carnot. The boys were treated to light meals,
with fancy cakes and liqueurs, to poetry, and rides in Jacques’ automobile.93 Sometimes Jacques
picked the boys up at their school door; occasionaly accompanied by de Warren, at which time both
of them, clearly being the subject of conversation of almost every one, were pointed out by a flock
of other pupils.
From the declarations of the boys we can infer that most of them did not attend d’Adelswärd’s
soirées; they mostly visited him alone, or in couples, or met him at de Warren’s home (at first at 12
Rue Desrenaudes and later at 27 Avenue Mac-Mahon). Acts of mutual masturbation between them
and Jacques, were reported by André Berecki and the brothers Adalbert and Jacques Croisé de
Pourcelet; both brothers testified that d’Adelswärd had performed oral sex on them as well. Saying
that he was a collector, d’Adelswärd had made a drawing of Adalbert’s penis; and Henri Boesch
declared that d’Adelswärd had measured his sex in a toilet, in the presence of the brothers Adalbert
and Jacques. Especially Adalbert seems to be omnipresent94 in the dossier: when on 12 June
d’Adelswärd and de Warren picked up a fourteen-year-old boy at the Lycée Carnot, they drove to a
confectioner’s shop at the Avenue de Villiers; there, as by chance, Adalbert turned up as well. It
also seems that there was an erotic correspondence between d’Adelswärd and Jacques Croisé de
Pourcelet; the latter received d’Adelswärd’s letters and post cards, under the initials J.C.P., poste
restante at the office on the Rue Jouffroy. His brother René, who emerges from the dossier as a
precocious young boy, testified that d’Adelswärd only once had touched his fly (which the accused
denied).
René declared that once or twice he had masturbated himself, after he had learned how to do it
from the continuous conversations of his brothers about the subject in de Warren’s home, and after
he had caught his brothers in the act. In the same document, de Warren is accused of having
masturbated Jacques (who was thirteen at that time) in front of his brother Adalbert. Of course, the
boys’ father was furious when he was informed about the attacks on the virtue of his over-
24
enthusiast sons. He threatened d’Adelswärd with violence, and yelled that he would find de Warren
and kill him, if he was not arrested by the police. Hamard, the chief of the Sûreté, and de Valles had
to do their utmost to appease him.95 In a document of 10 October 1903, de Valles observed that
d’Adelswärd and de Warren had used no violence to the boys.96 Regarding Jacques’ physical
condition, it is strange that there is no sign of concern about the health of the boys in the dossier;
however, the press noted that the “children involved” had been examined by doctor Socquet, and
that he had not found “any contamination.”97
Compared with the sentence, there is something odd about the dossier. There is no résumé of an
interrogation of Loulou Locré! In a document from the Tribunal de la Seine of 12 July 1903, the
boy is once mentioned (spelled as “Locret”),98 by the brothers Adalbert and Jacques, as a regular
visitor of d’Adelswärd, whereas in the sentence (and in Peyrefitte’s novel) he plays a prominent
part. From this document one cannot possibly understand why Loulou Locré should be mentioned
in the sentence as a victim. However, the same document states that “Locret, Boesch, de Laguerre,
Starcelli, and a pupil of the rhétorique” will be interviewed tomorrow. Unfortunately, there is no
document concerning these interviews!99 Has it been removed from the dossier? There is a small
indication that this might be the case: on the original jacket of the dossier, there is a note “24
pièces” (24 pieces); the note is in a recent handwriting. I am afraid, that we have to conclude that
the dossier is incomplete. I do not dare to think of what else is missing...
According to Paul Morand, Loulou participated in d’Adelswärd’s “saturnales” (saturnalia), and he
had told his friends, “to their astonishment,” that he had gone for dinner with d’Adelswärd in a
private cabinet.100 More information about Loulou Locré seems to have oozed into the press.
During the long hearing by de Valles of 16 July, a number of Jacques’ intimate friends were
interviewed; all of them had frequented Avenue Friedland and now, “unanimously and in a
touching way,” defended “their former benefactor:” “youngsters with pale faces, their eyes rimmed
with bistre.” One of them, named “L…,” is given special attention. According to Le Petit Parisien
he had almost become d’Adelswärd’s heir. One day, when ether and morphine had turned Jacques’
head more than usually, he is said to have addressed the boy: “Come… let’s flee together… I give
you half of my fortune… heavy rings I will bestow upon your fingers… and we are going to die
near the lagoon, in Venice…”101 During the trial, the relationship between Jacques and “L…”
received special attention too. Jacques did not deny their relationship, but emphasized that he was
not the initiator. In Le Petit Parisien “L…” is described as “this child, which, in spite of its tender
age, has succumbed to the peak of perversity, judging from the style of its letters.”102
Are we really dealing with fifteen-year-old Loulou Locré? This is unlikely, for both the
newspapers Le Matin and Le Temps classified the boy, though “still a minor,” as one of the
“professionnels” (rent boys). Gil Blas, Le Matin and Le Rappel even mentioned his nicknames:
“Pompadour” or “Albert (or: Robert) de Rothschild.” What about other candidates? Rent boy Leroy
can be left out of consideration, I think, because he was nineteen. However, rent boy Lefebvre
might be a serious alternative, since the Dossier d’Instruction does not mention his age. Le Petit
Parisien states that “L…” was a sixteen-year-old boy; L’Aurore, Gil Blas and Le Rappel added that
he was a former waiter of a Parisian restaurant.103
The Years of Exile
Immediately upon his release, on 3 December 1903, Jacques tried to make amends for his past. He
appeared with bouquet in hand at the door of his fiancée, Blanche de Maupeou, intending to explain
all, but was sent away by a servant without a chance to speak with her. In despair, he decided to
end his life with a bullet in the head, but his attempt failed.104 No longer feeling welcome in the
Parisian salons, he decided to join the French Colonial Forces. That came to nothing because of his
delicate health and because the Ministry of War had referred him to the Foreign Legion: Jacques
could not “persuade himself to accept living together with people of a bad reputation as proposed
25
companions.” Peyrefitte’s version is that his rank would have been that of a common soldier
because of his jail sentence.105
Although Jacques’ mother had tried to extenuate the case in July as “ce petit incident” (this small
incident) or “petites affaires” (small affairs), and had remarked to de Valles: “Come on! For some
amusement with vicious children!... Is this really so grave?...,”106 Jacques could not expect any
longer the support from his family, and so there was no choice for him but to leave France. His
aunt, Jeanne, suggested that he go to Sweden, but Adolf Adelswärd (1862-1931) (fig. 21), a remote
kinsman of Jacques and military attaché of Sweden and Norway in France, did not like the idea:
Jacques should be “exported (i.e., sent) to America or Australia where, if he was willing to
rehabilitate himself, he could get a position with a newspaper or something like that.” 107
Figure 21 - Adolf Adelswärd (centre) during the Major Military Exercises (Autumn 1904)
Precisely why Jacques established himself on Capri is not known. Many writers point to the long
history of the island, from its beginnings with the supposed orgies in Villa Jovis of the Roman
Emperor Tiberius. Others point to the fact that Marquis Donatien Alphonse de Sade and Lord
Alfred Douglas (after Wilde’s trial in 1895) had both fled there, and this cannot be excluded as a
motivation. However, I believe there were more practical considerations: Jacques knew Capri from
vacations during his adolescence; he was thus probably aware of the existence of its international
colony of artists and expatriates which might have seemed at that moment his only safe haven, a
place where he could build a new life, and, moreover, which he could use as a stage to profile
himself. Jacques appears in the writings of a number of authors who lived and worked there: in the
memoirs of the English writer Norman Douglas, Looking Back (1933), and in his novel South Wind
(1917); in the memoirs of Edward Frederic Benson; and in the novels Vestal Fire (1927) and
Extraordinary Women. Theme and Variations (1928) by Compton Mackenzie, who stages
d'Adelswärd as the dandy, Count Robert (Bob) Marsac Lagerström. The American author Edward
Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson (better known with his pseudonym, Xavier Mayne), who lived for many
years in Italy, stages d’Adelswärd as the protagonist, Dayneford, of his story “Out of the Sun”
26
(1913). The Caprian writer and architect Edwin Cerio staged d’Adelswärd in his story “Il marchese
di Pommery” (c.1927).108
Jacques took up residence in the Hotel Quisisana and soon purchased land in the small valley of
Unghia Murana on a hill opposite the ruins of Tiberius' palace. He commissioned his friend
Édouard Chimot to design a villa and hired a local contractor to build it (fig. 22). As the time drew
near for construction to begin, in February he departed with friends from Naples to the Far East to
visit, among other places, Ceylon (Sri Lanka). He worked on Lord Lyllian during that trip; at the
same time he began Le Sourire aux yeux fermés (The smile with closed eyes) which is imbued with
Hinduism and the further acquaintance with opium. He returned, via the United States, to Capri in
the autumn of 1904, residing temporarily in the Villa Certosella which, according to Peyrefitte, he
filled with orchids, oriental perfumes, jewels, ebony furniture, bronze and copper objects, and
"suitcases full of opium."109 He also hired three Caprian boys to help him in the house and garden.
Figure 22 - Villa Lysis
After his return to Capri he had to flee temporarily to escape the wrath of the islanders who
blamed d’Adelswärd when a local worker was killed by an accident during the construction of Villa
Lysis. In Rome he met a fourteen-year-old construction worker selling newspapers, Nino
Cesarini,110 who immediately stole his heart. Jacques sounded out the boy's family and obtained
their permission to take Nino with him as his secretary. The two of them were greeted with
understandable suspicion on Capri. Nino, especially, was a problem: not because he was a boy but
because he was from Rome and not from Capri.
In the spring of 1905 they visited Sicily, according to Peyrefitte to make a pilgrimage to the grave
of the German poet Count August von Platen Hallermünde (1796-1835) in Syracuse and to visit the
photographer Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden (1856-1931) in Taormina. Both visit and pilgrimage are
possible, even probable, but I can find no documentary evidence of either, nor for a meeting, later,
between Jacques and Kuno von Moltke and Philipp zu Eulenburg-Hertefeld.111 In Taormina
d'Adelswärd began his novella, Une Jeunesse (A youth), which, together with Le Baiser de
Narcisse (The Kiss of Narcissus), appeared in 1907. Le Baiser, dedicated to Germain Wenzel and
27
Figure 23 - Jacques d’Adelswärd
in the opinion of the writer Rachilde really a minor masterpiece which deserved the Prix Goncourt,
must be considered a failure; it is hopelessly mired in its own classical allusions: the principal
character, Milès, even drowns in his own mirror image! The plot of Une Jeunesse revolves around
the twenty-three-year-old French painter, Robert Jélaine (fig. 23), who is in love with Nino, a
sixteen-year-old seminary student. The couple's antagonists are Father Seraphino, also in love with
Nino, and a girl, Michaëla, whom Nino loves. Ultimately, the girl dies and Nino decides to become
a priest. The novella is dedicated to "N[ino]. C[esarini]. More beautiful than the Roman light."112
Figure 24 - The dedication stone
28
The construction of the villa was finally completed in July: it was handed over by the contractor,
and Nino was invited to put in place the stone with the inscription “In the year MCMV this villa
was constructed by Jacques Count [sic] Adelswärd Fersen and dedicated to the youth of love” (fig.
24). In the autumn they made a short visit to Paris to deliver the manuscript of the poetry volume,
Le Danseur aux Caresses (The caressing dancer), which was published the following year. They
probably went directly from there to Oxford where Une Jeunesse was completed in 1906. Back on
Capri, Jacques took a fourth Caprian boy into service in order to depart immediately with Nino on a
long journey to China. Towards the beginning of 1907, both returned to Italy, Jacques enriched
with a collection of 300 opium pipes which he had assembled in China.
The years 1907 and 1908 seem in all respects to have marked a crisis in d'Adelswärd's life. In any
case, he found it necessary to restore contact with his family; he visited his sister Germaine, who in
the meantime (October 1906) had married the Marquis Alfredo Maria Sergio Gaspare Melchiore
Baldassarre Capece Minutolo di Bugnano, a young member of parliament from Naples. 113 He
invited his sisters and his mother to visit his new home on Capri, during which time Nino was
temporarily installed elsewhere. Now seventeen, the boy was in Jacques' eyes in the full glory of
his youthful bloom. Such beauty needed preservation, and Jacques commissioned a number of
artists to immortalize him. Nino's portrait was painted by Umberto Brunelleschi (1879-1949), a
young artist from Pistoia who was making an international furore and liked the company of "young
poets." The sculptor Francesco Ierace (1854-1937) from Polistena, whose atelier was now in
Naples and who had in the meantime achieved national fame, cast Nino's image in bronze after
photos (c. 1906) by Guglielmo Plüschow (1852-1930), a cousin of Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden. A
new painting of Nino (c. 1908) (fig. 25) was also executed by the German homosexual painter Paul
Höcker (1854-1910), professor of the Academy of Arts at Munich and co-founder of the “Munich
Secession,” who had been forced to leave Germany because of a sexual scandal. The photo of Nino
on the terrace of Villa Lysis (fig. 26) dates from about this time. The boy is wearing a toga, with a
diadem around his head and in his left hand is holding a small Nike on a globe, symbols
traditionally associated with the power of Roman gods and emperors.114
Nino's attractiveness smote others as well. During a visit to Venice, Jacques was roaming about
the Square of San Marco (where he met Paul Morand and his father), whereas Nino flirted with
Alexandrine (Sacha) Ricoy Antokolsky, who found Nino so much to her taste that she even
followed him to Capri and eventually seduced him. It almost seems a compensation of the Parisian
schoolboys for the felony of Lord Lyllian. Jacques reacted furiously in a volume of poetry
appropriately entitled Ainsi chantait Marsyas (So sang Marsyas), an exalted song of praise to his
Nino who he felt was about to leave him. "How many tears must it take to wash away her kisses?"
he asked in the poem "Ce matin, tu dormais comme un petit enfant" (This morning you slept like a
little child). The poem "L'Icône" (The icon) is a vision of the future and begins with the
conciliatory words, "Later, when you are no longer with me and have left me for another..." But in
"La Fripeuse de Moëlle" (The crusher of the pith) the defiler of their common shrine is reproached
and Nino receives a lecture on the nature of women: no matter what guise she may assume, Venus
or Eve, a whore remains a whore, a vampire, and syphilis follows in her wake.115
This explosion of passion can only be understood in light of Jacques' consuming fear of losing the
boy and the jealousy aroused by that fear. I doubt that Nino really intended to leave his comfortable
situation; rather he would have considered the dalliance as a small adventure and a pleasant
distraction from life at Villa Lysis, which had become rather dull.
29
Figure 25 - Nino Cesarini by Paul Höcker
30
Figure 26 - Glorification of Nino Cesarini
After this incident the household domestics from Capri were discharged for failing to fulfill their
responsibilities and Jacques wired Ceylon to ask that he be sent two Singhalese houseboys.
The Expulsion from Italy
After d’Adelswärd’s brief stay at London in the autumn of 1908,116 his novel about Capri, Et le feu
s'éteignit sur la mer… (And the fire was smothered by the sea), with the young sculptor Gérard
Maleine as principal character, appeared in 1909 and caused a local sensation. The author spared
hardly anyone in his exposure of island habits and morals. The book was much criticized and raised
fiery discussions among the inhabitants of Capri; some of them, who recognized themselves in the
book, attempted to prevent its distribution. According to Ettore Settanni, there was a kind of
ostracism against the author, which had contributed to his eventual expulsion. Roberto Ciuni cites a
formal decision of the Consiglio Comunale di Capri of 16 September 1909: to pursue the expulsion
of the author of the book.117
Nino was growing older and Jacques now sought pleasure with Neapolitan boys and in clouds of
opium. According to Peyrefitte, he smoked at this time some 30 or 40 pipes a day which sounds
like an absurdly high number but actually is not.118
There is some evidence that d’Adelswärd also invited the boys from Naples to Capri. Peter
Weiermair has published a reproduction of a photo of one of these boys by Guglielmo Plüschow.
We can see a nude young boy, resting on a sofa; his bare buttocks are turned towards the viewer,
and a skull is resting on a pillow above his head. To the left of the photo, the above-mentioned
painting of Nino by Paul Höcker is hanging on the wall (fig. 27). The boy is definitely not Nino,
because he is too young. Plüschow and d’Adelswärd must have known each other for some time.
Although now living in Rome, Plüschow was a regular visitor of Naples and Capri, and maybe
31
d’Adelswärd even placed Villa Lysis at his disposal as a studio. Plüschow made many photos of
Nino; some of them have been published now.119 A frontal nude of Nino, possibly by Plüschow,
was to be found on the Internet at an Italian site (fig. 28).120 Jean-Claude Féray even suggested, that
Plüschow made Jacques and Nino acquainted with each other, which is possible, but unfortunately
there is no conclusive evidence.121
Figure 27 - Interior of Villa Lysis with Höcker’s painting
The “reputation” of Villa Lysis is also documented in the autobiography of Giorgio Amendola
(1907-1980), the future leader of the P.C.I. (Italian Communist Party). As an eleven-year-old boy
from Rome, he had constituted himself the leader of a small gang of boys and girls who roamed
about Capri in 1918: “There were forbidden zones we were not supposed to set foot on. For
instance, we were told never to draw near a white villa near [Monte] Tiberio, because (…) nasty
things were happening there. Later I grasped that Fersen was meant, and his strange friendships. I
was eleven years old, and the Caprian boys were of about my age. They knew very well the
meaning of all these allusions.” (fig. 29).122
Events associated with Nino's call-up for military service, and similar festivities at Villa Lysis
forced d'Adelswärd to leave Capri. Jacques invented a pleasant skit for Nino's twentieth birthday
(30 September 1909) in which the boy would be elevated to a “soldier of Mithras” (fig. 30). It was
performed before a group of friends one night in the Matermània grotto by torchlight. According to
local gossip, Jacques himself played an important part as the “handsome youth” Hypatos, whereas
the “fat old cook” of his female friends, Kate and Saidee Wolcott-Perry, played the part of Tiberius;
a barber played the part of the high-priest.123 Peyrefitte minutely describes the twenty lashes which
the Singhalese boys, playing the parts of slaves, administered at daybreak to Nino's bare buttocks.
32
Figure 29 - Bathing boys at Capri (c. 1900)
A passer-by gathering herbs could not understand what was happening; she informed her father,
who lodged an official complaint of violation of public decency.
Figure 28 - Frontal nude of Nino Cesarini
Figure 30 - Nino Cesarini as a Roman soldier
(c. 1910)
33
The local authorities took advantage of this circumstance to rid themselves of d'Adelswärd.
Fearing a new outburst in the press following the famous Krupp scandal in 1902, the police were
kept out of the affair and Jacques' brother-in-law, the Marquis di Bugnano, was asked to
intervene.124 D'Adelswärd was summoned by the Marquis to Naples and given the choice of
leaving the country voluntarily or being officially expelled. Jacques chose the former and returned
to France in November 1909.125 He briefly stayed in Paris (Passy), where he lived at 24 Rue
Eugène Manuel.
Jacques could now dedicate all his time to the cultural magazine, Akademos. Revue Mensuelle
d'Art Libre et de Critique (fig. 31), which he had founded the previous year in Paris and which had
appeared monthly from 15 January 1909. The foundation of the magazine was probably inspired by
German forerunners. From visits to Germany, Jacques knew of Adolf Brand’s (1874-1945)
magazine Der Eigene (1896-1931), and in 1907 the Belgian writer Georges Eekhoud (1854-1927)
had established contacts between Jacques and Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935), who in 1899 had
founded his Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen (1899-1923). Both magazines were the
showcases of the German homosexual emancipation movement.126
Figure 31 - The first issue of Akademos
34
Whoever thumbs through the 2,000 odd pages of the 12 issues of Akademos which appeared must
be impressed. The magazine was very well produced and contains countless interesting original
stories, poems, plays, and critical essays, and a very impressive array of contributors, some of
whom, it must be said, did not keep their promise to contribute.127 Even Nino, actually in military
service, appears as "M. le gérant" (Mr. the book-keeper), and in issue 10 there is a little joke: the
author of Baiser de Narcisse, Jacques himself, is requested to make his name and address known to
the editors!128
The editors promised a point of view free of platitudes and preconceptions. They pledged a return
to the tradition of Greek simplicity and natural paganism, and to Latin purity. According to the two
editorial statements in the first issue, one probably written by Jacques, their greatest enemies were
vulgarity, hypocrisy, obscurantism, and ugliness; French culture had to free itself from Slavic
decadence, German heaviness, the [Anglo-]Saxon slang of thieves, and Judeo-Christian
prejudices.129 Since they did not wish to confine their vision to France alone, cultural activities in
other countries were regularly reviewed and attention was given to what was being published
elsewhere, including works by Elisar von Kupffer, Arthur Lyon Raile (Edward Perry Warren), John
Henry Mackay, Walt Whitman, and Xavier Mayne (Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson).
There were, of course, a number of contributions by Editor Jacques d'Adelswärd himself (fig. 32),
either under his own name or the pseudonym Sonyeuse.130 In the first issue there is his "In
Memoriam" for the editorial secretary, Raymond Laurent, cousin of Fernand Gregh and friend of
Marcel Proust, who had committed suicide in Venice, on 24 September 1908, under the hotel
window of a young American (Mr. Langhorn Whistler) with whom he was hopelessly in love.
According to d’Adelswärd, his still-warm body was found by none other than Vyvyan Holland,
Oscar Wilde's son!131
Figure 32 - “FERSEN. The writer of: Et le
Feu s’éteignit sur la Mer...” Caricature by
Moyano (1909)
In order to promote the magazine and its concepts, d’Adelswärd even flirted for a while with the
futurism of Emilio Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944), the future literary champion of Italian
35
fascism. In the second issue of Akademos Marinetti appeared with a poem, “Le Dompteur” (The
Tamer), whereas Jacques at the same time published two poems, “Poème dans la rosée” (Poem in
Dew) and “Tes Yeux…” (Your Eyes…), in Marinetti’s magazine Poesia. Rassegna
Internazionale. After the publication of Marinetti’s Manifesto of Futurism, d’Adelswärd
contributed two pieces to the next issue of Poesia: a short notice about Akademos and a letter of
adherence in which he wrote: “I adhere to the principles of Futurism which will disengage man of
all his slavery. If it is true that an Artist has to live in nostalgia, it would be better for him to cling
to the divine essence of the future than to the human materialism of the past. (…) Young people
have to tremble of unrest to ask for enthousiasm. (…) Let us abandon the twilights, the graveyards,
the museums or the legends, in favour of the Nativities, the PROGRESS, the holy FORCE, and
LIFE!”132 But after only one year, Jacques had to stop publication of Akademos as it was
consuming enormous sums of money and its circulation remained rather small.133
Peyrefitte describes d’Adelswärd’s Sunday receptions of collaborators of Akademos and other
important people during his sojourn in the Rue Eugène Manuel.134 He also notes that, at that time,
Jacques and Nino frequented bars, like Le Scarabée d’Or, Maurice, and Palmyre; in the latter
d’Adelswärd once got so angry that the police had to be called in for assistance.135 A letter from the
Marquise Mathilde de Morny to her intimate friend, the writer Colette, confirms “riots in the
Palmyre, the bistro at Montmartre.” That night d’Adelswärd got so tight that he insulted all those
present; the owner of the bar had boxed his ears, and Jacques had poured a glass of wine on her.
Then all homosexuals present had risen “like one man (if I may say so)” to throw him out. One of
them had plucked out a tuft of d’Adelswärd’s hair; that is why Jacques denounced the bar, at the
police station, as “an odious tavern for lesbians and queers.”136 In May 1910, Le Journal and Le
Matin mentioned another incident: a collision with an eighteen-year-old cyclist, Albert Toupans,
and his sixteen-year-old brother, Jules, at Garches (near Saint-Cloud). Albert was grievously
wounded; the automobile of “comte Versen d’Adelsward” was driven by “Antonio Cesarini.”137
The stay in Paris did not last very long. Since Jacques was now accustomed to a Mediterranean
climate, he briefly stayed at Porquerolles on the Isles d’Hyères (near Toulon), and soon took up
residence in the Villa Mezzomonte at Nice.138 After a quarrel with Jean de Mitty about some
offensive letters, which resulted in a duel between de Mitty and Robert Scheffer in September 1910
(fig. 33),139 Jacques went on a trip to the Far East, to return home early in 1911.140
Figure 33 - Duel Jean de Mitty – Robert Scheffer (September 1910)
36
In September 1911 Nino was completely discharged from military service; the two of them set out
again on a trip through the Mediterranean and to the Far East,141 returning to Nice at the end of the
spring of 1912. In the meantime, Jacques had published an interesting list of aphorisms, “Vous
disiez?” (1910), and a volume of poetry, Paradinya (1911); some of its poems are dedicated to his
brothers in arms of Akademos (among them Laurent Tailhade, Georges Eekhoud, and Robert
Scheffer), and Nino (“N.C.”) is pleased with an overt sexual literary assault: “Érotique.”142 Jacques
had also completed Le Sourire aux yeux fermés, which included a revised version of his essay
"L'Extase" (Ecstasy) which had first appeared in Akademos. It was published in 1912. In April
1913 Jacques finally obtained permission to return to Capri, which he celebrated in the long poem,
"Ode à la Terre Promise" (Ode to the promised land), dedicated to the Italian Prime Minister Luigi
Luzzatti.
The Final Years
With the outbreak of war in 1914 (fig. 34), Jacques was asked to present himself for military
service. In the French consulate in Naples, he was found unfit for combat and was sent to a hospital
to be cured of addiction, though he secretly compensated for his abstinence from opium with the
use of cocaine. It was during this period that he met the sculptor Vincenzo Gemito (1852-1929).143
Figure 34 - First World War-propaganda post cards: a naked German boy, sitting on a chamber pot, is polishing the
German helmet as an act of civil duty, whereas it is used as a chamber pot by the French and the British
Nino was wounded in battle and sent to a hospital in Milan to recover. Jacques returned to Capri,
his doctors having declared him incurably ill. In Villa Lysis (fig. 35), he took up his old habits and
spent most of his time treading back and forth between his study and smoking room, in the
newspaper Il Mattino nicknamed the Opiarium.144 His last published volume of poetry appeared in
1921, Hei Hsiang. Le parfum noir (Hei Hsiang: The black perfume) (figs. 36-37), almost entirely
devoted to opium.
But life had one surprise left in store for him: his acquaintance in 1920 with fifteen-year-old
Corrado Annicelli (1905-1984), son of a notary in neighboring Sorrento, who had come on vacation
to Capri with his parents.145 Corrado's mother and father had no objection to their son's association
with a man of the world who knew many important people – including the painter Gennaro Favai
(1879-1958) and the composer Ottorino Respighi (1879-1936)146 – and who above all could
37
Figure 35 - Villa Lysis (1961)
stimulate the boy's fluency in French. In Peyrefitte's novel, Corrado is called Manfred, after the
half-brother of the Hohenstaufen King Conrad IV.
Figure 36 - Cover of d'Adelswärd’s last book
38
Initially, Corrado was more of a sly fox than a “petit faune” (little faun), as Jacques called him.
The boy kept Jacques firmly in tow by expecting all sorts of things in return for his companionship:
trips around Italy and the dedication of poems to himself. For the Christmas vacation of 1922, the
boy tried to convince Jacques that he was unable to visit him, but Jacques insisted and was invited
to come to Sorrento and fetch him. This sort of teasing was probably all part of their (erotic) play.
Corrado also came to Capri, on his own initiative, for his Easter vacation in 1923. Jacques was still
working on his poem cycle, La Neuvaine du petit faune (The little faun's novena), which was not
published before 2010. The manuscript was still in Corrado's possession when Peyrefitte spoke
with him.147 For summer vacation, Corrado came again to Capri. Now seventeen, the boy was torn
between feelings of sincere love for Jacques and compassion and an intense disgust for his drug
addiction. On 15 September, Jacques brought the boy back to his parents in Sorrento, and on his
return journey he visited his sister Germaine who, since her divorce, lived near Turin. Alarmed by
Jacques' physical condition, she advised his mother to come at once. According to Peyrefitte,
pressure was put on him to have his will drawn up.148
Figure 37 - Autograph of d'Adelswärd
39
It seems that on 15 October Jacques felt that his end was approaching. He departed hastily for
Sorrento to pick up Corrado. According to Peyrefitte, the boy, by chance, was home sick from
school that day. They immediately left for Sicily; again von Gloeden was visited in Taormina, and
the grave of von Platen in Syracuse.149 On their return journey to Capri, early in November, they
briefly stayed in Sorrento. Because of his physical condition, Corrado’s parents advised Jacques to
consult a doctor and pass the night in a local inn. But since Jacques intended to buy some new
cocaine at the clandestine market in the Galleria Umberto in Naples, he and Corrado departed for
Naples and passed the night together in the same suite in the Hotel Excelsior. The next day Nino
picked them up and took them to Capri, Jacques by now gravely ill. Jacques died after supper that
same evening – of an overdose of cocaine dissolved in a glass of champagne, leaving his friends in
dismay. Most commentators have assumed that it was suicide. Norman Douglas noted that a
thunderstorm burst out that night and that it maintained its fury for twelve straight hours.150
Figure 38 - Jacques d’Adelswärd
Doctor Gatti (assisted by his colleagues Cuomo and Weber), who signed the death certificate,
gives a heart attack as the cause of death. Jacques' devoted female friend Ephi Lovatelli, a princess
of Greek origins, prepared the body with rouge and lipstick, sealing his lips with a gold
Macedonian coin to be used to pay the boatman carrying him over the River Styx. In order to
safeguard the inheritance, Jacques' family spread the rumor that Jacques (fig. 38) had been
poisoned by Nino out of jealousy.151 His sister, Germaine, and his mother insisted on a postmortem examination; it was carried out by the authorities in Naples and lent no support to their
accusations.152 Jacques' body was released and later cremated in Rome. The ashes were placed in
the non-Catholic cemetery in Capri. His grave (fig. 39) is on a hillside, opposite that of Norman
Douglas, whose gravestone bears the inscription, "Omnes eodem cogimur" (We all gather at the
same place).
40
In accordance with Jacques’ stipulations, his mother was appointed executor of his last will and
universal inheritor. “To bear witness and in recognition of all his benevolence to me, of his advice
and his perpetual example of kindness, his indulgence and nobility, which his life has given to me,”
Nino received 302 shares of the steel mills in Longwy, all credits of Jacques’ bank-accounts in
Paris, Naples and Capri, and all the money in Jacques’ purse and in the villa at the moment of his
death. Nino also received the right to inhabit the villa, and the right to rent it out; Germaine became
the owner of the villa, without its contents. Jacques’ mother inherited the remainder of the capital in
Paris, Lorraine and Switserland. Lawsuits, about the inheritance and the validity of Jacques’ will,
were to continue for the next years.153
As to Jacques’ intimates, the still mysterious Loulou stayed a bachelor for nearly fourty years,
until he married in 1928 and lived as the proud father of a daughter in a castle in the French
countryside. According to Paul Morand, he did not quite remember his time with Jacques; when
Peyrefitte asked him about it some sixty years later, he could only advance: “Fersen… he was very
much in love with my sister.”154
Nino sold his rights to the villa to Germaine for 200,000 lira. His portrait by Brunelleschi and his
statue by Ierace were sold to a Swiss antiquarian and have since disappeared. He returned to Rome,
where he owned a newspaper kiosk and a bar, and died in middle-age in a hospital in 1943.155
Corrado became a talented actor, on the stage as well as in the movies.156
Figure 39 - Part of d’Adelswärd’s tombstone, Cimitero Acattolico, Capri
Editor’s Note:
Will H.L. Ogrinc is a Dutch author and medievalist. The author wishes to thank Raimondo Biffi, Jean-Claude Féray,
Patricia Marcoz, and Caspar Wintermans for their support, Paul Snijders for kind permission to use his library, Dré
Leyten and Wolfram Setz for their criticism and photogra-phic contributions, Ed Schilders and Gonnie van der Zander
for assistance with the translation of some obscure passages from the French, and the late Frank Torey for the
translation of the first version (1994) of this essay from the Dutch. This version was needed, since a lot of historical
(French) newspapers are recently available in digitalized version and easily to be searched.
41
APPENDIX
[dans la marge: Page première]
TRIBUNAL DE PREMIÈRE INSTANCE
du Département de la Seine
Police correctionelle Neuvième Chambre
Audience publique du Jeudi Trois Décembre mil neuf cent trois
MM.
Bondoux, Président
Chanson, Juge
Coularou, Juge
Lescouvé, substitut
Weydert, greffier
1.67.868
68.067
Pour le Procureur de la République
Dét[enu]: d’Adelsward Jacques, 23 ans, né à Paris, 8e arrondissement, le 20 février 1880, de Axel et de Louise Emilie
Alexandrine Vuhrer, célibataire, demeurant à Paris, avenue Friedland, N° 18,
Mandat de dépôt du 9 juillet 1903
2e Mandat de dépôt du 10 juillet 1903
Dét[enu]: de Warren Albert François , 22 ans, né à Saint-Dié (Vosges) le 12 août 1881, de Anthelme Stanislas Firmin
Léon et de Pauline Louise Marie Huyn de Varnéville [= Verneville], demeurant à Paris, rue Alfred de Vigny N° 14,
Mandat de dépôt du 17 octobre 1903
Outrages publics à la pudeur; Excitation de mineurs à la débauche.
Le Tribunal, après en avoir délibéré conformément à la loi; Attendu que, d’après la nature des faits reprochés à
d’Adelsward et à de Warren, la publicité des débats pourrait être dangereuse pour la morale publique, Faisant droit aux
réquisitions du Ministère Public, Vu l’article 87 de la Constitution du 4 novembre 1848, Ordonne que les débats auront
lieu à Huis clos.
[Signé] Coularou, Bondoux, Chanson, Weydert
___
1bis.67.868
68.067
Pour le Procureur de la République
Dét[enu]: d’Adelsward Jacques, 23 ans, né à Paris, 8e arrondissement, le 20 février 1880, de Axel et de Louise Emilie
Alexandrine Vuhrer, célibataire, demeurant à Paris, avenue Friedland N° 18,
Mandat de dépôt du 9 juillet 1903
2e Mandat de dépôt du 10 juillet 1903
Dét[enu]: de Warren Albert François, 22 ans, né à Saint-Dié (Vosges) le 12 août 1881, [dans la marge: appèl de
Warren (…) 17 Décembre 1903] de Anthelme Stanislas Firmin Léon et de Pauline Louise Marie Huyn de Varnéville [=
Verneville], demeurant à Paris, rue Alfred de Vigny, [dans la marge: Page deuxième] Numéro 14
Mandat de dépôt du 17 octobre 1903
Outrages publics à la pudeur; Excitation de mineurs à la débauche.
Le Tribunal après en avoir délibéré conformément à la loi, Attendu que de Warren et d’Adelsward sont poursuivis pour
avoir en mil neuf cent trois à Paris, 1° à diverses reprises, commis des outrages publics à la pudeur en se livrant à des
gestes ou à des actes obscènes en présence de mineurs de vingt et un ans; 2° ensemble et de concert, attenté aux mœurs
en excitant, favorisant ou facilitant habituellement la débauche ou la corruption des sieurs Berecki, Boesch, de
Pourcelet Adalbert, de Pourcelet Jacques, de Pourcelet Réné; que d’Adelsward est poursuivi également pour avoir à
Paris, en mil neuf cent deux et mil neuf cent trois, attenté aux mœurs en excitant, favorisant ou facilitant habituellement
la débauche ou la corruption du sieur Locré; sur ce premier chef de prévention: Attendu que l’inculpation d’outrage
42
public à la pudeur n’est pas suffisamment établie à l’encontre d’Adelsward et de Warren; qu’en effet les actes obscènes
auxquels ceux-ci se sont livrés, ont été commis dans un lieu privé d’où ils ne pouvaient être vus du dehors; que la
présence de personnes qui y ont participé ou qui en ont été les témoins volontaires ne suffit pas pour constituer la
publicité exigée par l’article 330 du Code Pénal; Renvoie de ce chef les prévenus des fins de la poursuite.
Sur le deuxième chef de prévention: En ce qui concerne d’Adelsward: Attendu qu’il ressort de l’instruction et des
débats la preuve que d’Adelsward, en mil neuf cent trois à Paris, a excité, facilité ou favorisé habituellement la
débauche ou la corruption des sieurs Berecki, Boesch, Croisé de Pourcelet Adalbert, Croisé de Pourcelet Jacques,
Croisé de Pourcelet Réné et Locré, mineurs de vingt et un ans, en se livrant à des actes de lubricité, à diverses reprises,
à des époques différentes, en leur présence ou dans une chambre voisine et dans des conditions telles que les enfants ne
pouvaient ignorer ce qui s’y passait; Attendu que pour parvenir à son but, d’Adelsward attirait ces mineurs par des
goûters, leur lisait des poésies lascives et mettait sous leurs yeux des gravures licencieuses; qu’il allait attendre Berecki
et Locré jusqu’à la sortie de leur lycée;
En ce qui concerne de Warren: Attendu qu’il ressort également de l’instruction et des débats la preuve que de Warren,
en mil neuf cent trois, à Paris, a excité, facilité ou favorisé habituellement la débauche ou la corruption de Croisé de
Pourcelet Adalbert, Croisé de Pourcelet Jacques, Croisé de Pourcelet Réné, [dans la marge: Page troisième] mineurs de
vingt et un ans, en se livrant à différentes reprises et à des époques différentes, en leur présence, à des actes immoraux;
qu’il a de plus, dans un but de corruption, lié connaissance avec ces enfants au Parc Monceau, les a reçus chez lui, leur
a offert des goûters et les a mis en rapport avec d’Adelsward; Attendu qu’il y a lieu en raison des circonstances de la
cause de faire aux prévenus une application modérée de la loi; Attendu que les faits ci-dessus constituent le délit prévu
et puni par les articles 334, paragraphe 1er et 339 du Code Pénal, dont lecture a été donnée par le Président et qui sont
ainsi conçus (334) sera puni d’un emprisonnement de six mois à trois ans et d’une amende de cinquante francs à cinq
mille francs 1° quiconque aura attenté aux mœurs en excitant, favorisant ou facilitant habituellement la débauche ou la
corruption de la jeunesse de l’un ou de l’autre sexe au-dessous de l’âge de vingt et un ans; 2° [rature: quiconque, pour
satisfaire les passions d’autrui, aura embauché, entraîné ou détourné, même avec son consentement, une femme ou fille
mineure en vue de la débauche] (339). Les coupables d’un des délits mentionnés au précédent article seront interdits de
toute tutelle ou curatelle et de toute participation aux conseils de famille savoir: les individus auxquels s’appliquent les
paragraphes 1, 2, 3 et 4 de cet article pendant deux ans au moins et de cinq ans au plus, et ceux dont il est parlé dans le
paragraphe suivant pendant six ans au moins et vingt ans au plus, si le délit a été commis par le père ou la mère le
coupable sera de plus privé des droits et avantages à lui accordé sur la personne et les biens de l’enfant par le Code
Civil, livre premier titre IX de la puissance paternelle [dans la marge: Dit qu’ils seront interdits pendant cinq années
des droits de famille mentionnés à l’article 339 du Code Pénal]; dans tous les cas les coupables pourront en outre être
mis, par l’arrêt ou le jugement en état d’interdiction de séjour en observant pour la durée de l’interdiction ce qui vient
d’être établi par le premier paragraphe du present article.
Condamne d’Adelsward et de Warren chacun à Six mois d’emprisonnement, et chacun et solidairement à Cinquante
francs d’amende.
Les condamne sous la même solidarité aux dépens liquides à mille trois cent soixante huit francs quatre vingt dix
centimes plus trois francs pour droits de poste. Fixe au minimum la durée de la contrainte par corps s’il y a lieu de
l’exercer pour le recouvrement des amendes et des dépens.
[Signé] Coularou, Bondoux, Chanson, Weydert
[Source: Paris, Archives de Paris. Transcription: Will H.L Ogrinc & Caspar Wintermans]
43
NOTES
1
The sub-title of this essay is a translation of the inscription "Amori et Dolori Sacrum" which d'Adelswärd placed on
his villa in Capri (first called "La Gloriette" and later "Villa Lysis") in 1905. The line is taken from an inscription on
the church of Santa Maria della Passione in Milan and at the same time served as title for a book by Augustin-Maurice
Barrès (Paris: Félix Juven, 1902). The latter contains, among other things, recollections by Barrès of his youth in Nancy
where, with the Marquis Stanislas de Guaita, he attended the lyceum. De Guaita founded the Ordre Kabbalistique de la
Rose-Croix in 1884 (see my article "Boys in Art. The Artist and his Model: Ferdinand and Hector Hodler. A New
Approach" in Journal of Homosexuality 20:1/2 (1990), p. 79). Barrès, a member of this order, and d'Adelswärd knew
each other.
2
The following variations appear: Jacques d'Adelsward(-)Fersen; (Jacques) de Fersen; Fersen; Count (de) Fersen;
Baron Jacques. The newspapers L’Aurore and Le Rappel called him several times (Jacques d’)Axel d’Adelsward. His
own publications for the most part list the author as Jacques d'Adelswärd(-Fersen), whereas the court documents refer
to him as Jacques d'Adelsward. Arvid Andrén, in his Capri. From the Stone Age to the Tourist Age (Göteborg: Paul
Åströms Förlag, 1980), p. 161, mentions the incredible carelessness to which the writer's name has often been subject:
"Fate willed that he, who could not tolerate a single misprint in his poems, had both his first and last names misspelt on
his tombstone, which attests that it was raised over the Baron Jaques Adelswàrd Fersen." A photo of the tombstone (see
fig. 39) is reproduced in À la Jeunesse d’Amour. Villa Lysis a Capri: 1905-2005 (Capri: Edizioni La Conchiglia, 2005),
p. 122 and R. Peyrefitte, L’Esule di Capri (Capri: Edizioni La Conchiglia, 2003), [no pagination]. Peyrefitte had
previously pointed out in his L’Exilé de Capri. Édition définitive (Paris: Flammarion/Le Livre de Poche, 1974), p. 321,
that the data on the tombstone were incorrect: his date of birth was not 20 February 1879, but 20 February 1880, and
his date of death not 6 November 1923 but 5 November 1923. J. Money (Capri: Island of Pleasure. London: Hamish
Hamilton, 1986, pp. 86, 310, n. 30) obviously overlooked this correction in the date of birth. Peyrefitte must have
copied his correction from the sentence of 1903. It is confirmed by the Civil Registration of Paris: “Jacques
d’Adelswärd” was born 20 February 1880, Rue de Constantinople 8, at 13.30 p.m. (Paris, Archives de Paris. État Civil
du Huitième Arrondissement de Paris, 1880, Nr. 259). Meanwhile the typesetter has played his part in d'Adelswärd's
commemoration. On a map of Capri which I bought there in 1985, Villa Lysis is identified as Villa Felsen; in an article
by Boudewijn Büch the writer suddenly becomes "Fernsen" (see "Curieus Capri" in Avenue 21:8, 1986, p. 82); in
Memorie di un Uomo Inutile by Francesco Caravita di Sirignano (Napoli: Fiorentino, 1990), p. 243, he is called Jacques
Fersen d'Adelswar, whereas Claudia Salaris calls him Adelswärd de Fersne (see Marinetti editore. Bologna: Il Mulino,
1990, p. 41). Even in the first edition of this essay, in the journal Paidika, the writer’s name was misspelt three times
(Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fensen, Jacques d’Adelswärdt), etc., etc. Philip Core carries matters a bit too far in his Camp:
The Lie that Tells the Truth (New York: Delilah Books, 1984), p. 83 by referring to the author as "Von Fersen, Baron
D'Adleswaard" and above all by dating him a century earlier, listing the dates of birth and death of Hans Axel Count
von Fersen ("le beau Fersen"), a personal friend and purported lover of Queen Marie Antoinette, and instigator of the
flight to Varennes. This is hardly "camp"; it is sheer laziness.
3
The reference here is to a number of notebooks with a handwritten selection from d'Adelswärd's volumes of poetry
in the Royal Library at Brussels. The Belgian copyist faithfully transcribed the various volumes and noted beside the
titles of the poems he does not include in his selection the comment “s.i.” (“sans intérêt” or “not interesting”). The
copyist clearly made his selection on the basis of homosexual themes and is often sloppy in copying the punctuation.
After Brongersma’s death (1998) his manuscript collection has been housed in the IISG (Internationaal Instituut voor
Sociale Geschiedenis/International Institute of Social History) at Amsterdam.
4
In 1987 Eric Wohl produced a very thorough study of the literary reception of Peyrefitte's L’Exilé de Capri in his
unpublished B.A. thesis Mémoire de IVème Année (...) sur Interferences Morales dans le Domaine Esthétique: de
Fersen à Peyrefitte (Memoir of the fourth year [of university] on moral interferences in the aesthetic domain: from
Fersen to Peyrefitte) (Kensington, Australia: University of New South Wales, 1987). Wohl concluded that the criticism
of Peyrefitte's novel rested more on moral prejudice than on the upholding of literary/aesthetic criteria. In light of this
study the question remains why Peyrefitte depicted the hero of his novel as being so pitiful. A copy of the thesis was
kindly furnished by Professor J.S. Chaussivert of the French Department of the University of New South Wales.
5
As Peyrefitte later attested in Propos Secrets [1] (Paris: Albin Michel, 1977, pp. 157-158) and Propos Secrets 2
(Paris: Albin Michel, 1980, p. 363), he had scrapped Jean Cocteau's foreword following Cocteau's death and upon
request of d'Adelswärd's nephew, Count Carlo Capece Minutolo di Bugnano (1912-1964), the youngest son of Jacques’
sister Germaine. Peyrefitte, too, found the foreword not very appropriate, based as it was mainly upon Cocteau's
jealousy of the aristocratic d'Adelswärd. See also R. Peyrefitte, Notre amour (Paris: Flammarion/J’ai Lu, 1975), p. 77.
6
Letter of the Préfecture de Police, Cabinet du Préfet. Archive - Musée, Paris, 31 March 1988: "Research in our
archives has not enabled us to discover any documents relating to Baron Jacques d'ADELSWARD (Fersen) and Albert
de WARREN." The statement implied that either documents of the affair did not exist or that they could not be (were
not permitted to be?) found. For further information, the letter referred me to the Ministry of Justice! However, in
Homosexualité et prostitution masculine à Paris, 1870-1918 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2005), pp. 71-72, Régis Revenin
quotes a document from this archive in which “le Baron de FERSEN” is mentioned (see Note 84).
44
7
Letter from the Direction des Services d'Archives de Paris, Paris, 26 May 1988.
Letter from the Directeur Général des Archives de France, Paris, 20 April 1988.
9
Letter from the Ambassade van het Kobninkrijk (sic) der Nederlanden, Hoofd Pers- en Culturele Zaken, Paris, 4
October 1988. Within a year, the same cultural attaché was removed from his duties in Paris and sent to the Dutch
embassy in Saudi Arabia (see NRC-Handelsblad 23 September 1989, p. 7)!
10
R. Peyrefitte, Propos Secrets 2, p. 353.
11
See, for example, J. Money, op. cit., pp. 255, 301. Although Money was aware that the novel is "a blend of fact and
fancy," his study of d'Adelswärd's life is often untrue and unreliable in its details because he a) did not consult a
number of sources; b) largely based his facts on Peyrefitte's novel which, above all, he sometimes wrongly interpreted
or even read censoriously (perhaps the English translation which he used is here to blame); c) used Compton
Mackenzie's novel set in Capri, Vestal Fire (1927) (London: Hogarth Press, 1985), and the communications of
prominent Italians, as objective historical sources without considering the possibility that they had colored the facts.
For instance, Francesco Caravita di Sirignano, op. cit., p. 184, refers to Nino Cesarini as "Cesarino Romano" (little
Caesar from Rome).
12
R. Peyrefitte, Propos Secrets [1], p. 195.
13
R. Peyrefitte, L’Exilé de Capri, pp. 19-20; A. Andrén, op. cit., pp. 160-161; J. Money, op. cit., pp. 55, 310, n. 30.
14
It definitely concerned persons who were still alive. Recently Peyrefitte had begun to reveal several names in his
Propos Secrets.
15
R. Peyrefitte, L’Exilé de Capri, p. 80.
16
Peyrefitte mentions pupils of the Carnot, Condorcet, and Janson-de-Sailly lycea. D'Adelswärd knew the latter from
his own school years. I was able to document, among others, the following names from the Carnot school: André
François-Poncet, politician, diplomat and writer who during the Second World War was interned in Germany; Gabriel
Marcel (son of art historian Henry Marcel, after 1912 director of the Musées Nationaux), philosopher and writer and
spokesman for Christian existentialism; Paul Morand (son of painter Eugène Morand, director of the École des Arts
Décoratifs), diplomat and writer; Pierre-Etienne Flandin, repeatedly minister of several departments after 1924,
including Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Vichy regime, arrested by Charles de Gaulle and in 1946, upon Winston
Churchill's intercession, found innocent.
17
See P. Morand, Venises (Paris: Gallimard, 1985), p. 39-40; R. Peyrefitte, Propos Secrets 2, p. 359. After his stay at
the Carnot, the writer Paul Morand (1888-1976) studied law and political sciences at Oxford and Paris. He became a
diplomat in 1913, and was dismissed and punished as an ambassador for the Vichy regime in Bern (Switserland) in
1944. See also Note 47.
18
Unfortunately the 660 pages dissertation (Paris-Sorbonne University) of Patricia Marcoz, Renaître païen à la Belle
Époque: la vie et l’oeuvre de Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen ([Paris: s.n.,] 2008), has not yet been published. We must of
necessity rely upon Peyrefitte for some information about Jacques’ ancestry and youth. See also Claës C:son
Lewenhaupt (ed.), Sveriges Ridderskaps och Adels Kalender 1923 (Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag, 1922), pp. 5-7.
The newspaper, Le Soir, was established in 1867 and offered moderate opposition to the empire. Following the war of
1870/71 it supported the politics of Adolphe Thiers and the establishment of a conservative republic. In 1873 the paper
was bought by the Orleanists. According to “Obsèques de M. Vührer” in Gil Blas 23 October 1886, p. [3], Vührer died
of grief over the premature death of his only son (François George Hermann Vührer, c.1854-1885) who had died the
year before.
19
Ample discussions about Jacques' ancestry in J. Balteau, et al. (ed.), Dictionnaire de Biographie Française. I
(Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1933), p. 544-545. The biographical note about d’Adelswärd was composed by A. Jaulme,
librarian at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. However, the year of Göran Axel’s arrest mentioned (“1793”) is odd,
because, in that case, Göran Axel should have been a twelve-year-old “officer” (see for Göran Axel’s year of birth and
death: [Johan] Gabriel Anrep, Svenska adelns ättar-taflor. I, Stockholm: P.A. Norstedt, 1858, p. 10). According to
Viveka Adelswärd, “Alltför adlig, alltför rik, alltför lättjefull”: Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen (Stockholm: Carlsson
Bokförlag, 2014), pp. 17-19 (p. 19 also has a nice portrait of Göran Axel), it is clear from the archives of the Adelswärd
family in Sweden that Göran Axel became a captive of war during the Battle of Lübeck in 1806, and that he was sent to
Longwy by one of Napoleon’s generals, Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, the future king of Sweden and Norway.
Obviously, Jaulme had copied his inaccurate information from Arthur Dupin’s article “Les Dégénérés” in Le Journal
13 July 1903, p. 3; the same article mentions te marriage of the daughter of Notary Nicolaus Joachim Bernard.
20
R. Peyrefitte, L’Exilé de Capri, pp. 14-15. See also Note 2. L. Aressy, Les Nuits et les Ennuis du Mont-Parnasse
(Paris: Jouve & Cie., 1929), p 142. For more information about Hans Axel von Fersen, see Arthur Dupin, “Les
Dégénérés” in Le Journal 13 July 1903, p. 3; Jean Lorrain, “Le Baron d’Adelsward à Venise” in Le Journal 3 August
1903, p. 3; N.I. Garde (pseudonym of Edgar Leoni), Jonathan to Gide: The Homosexual in History (New York:
Nosbooks, 1969), pp. 491-495; A. von Fersen, Rettet die Königin. Revolutionstagebuch 1789-1793 (München: Paul
List, 1969), pp. 189-204; F. Kermina, Hans Axel de Fersen (Paris: Perrin, 2001).
21
R. Peyrefitte, op. cit., pp. 13-14. N. Erber, “Queer Follies: Effeminacy and Aestheticism in fin-de-siècle France, the
Case of Baron d’Adelsward Fersen and Count de Warren” in: G. Robb and N. Erber (eds.), Disorder in the Court:
Trials and Sexual Conflict at the Turn of the Century (New York: New York University Press, 1999), p. 195,
8
45
incorrectly states that Jacques’ father had drowned during a yachting trip to the Far East. Probably she had copied
Arthur Dupin, “Les Dégénérés” in Le Journal 13 July 1903, p. 3, who has the information that Jacques’ father died at
“the seas of China” (Dupin has a lot of inaccurate information), or Marréaux Delavigne, “Le scandale de l’avenue
Friedland” in Le Journal 29 November 1903, p. 2, who has “the Indies” as the place of his decease. However, Axel
d’Adelswärd, accompanied by his wife, died 10 July 1887 on the trading-ship “Olinde Rodrigues,” between Colón and
La Guayra, and before arriving in Venezuela. His dead body had immediately to be thrown into the sea to prevent
contagion. See: “La mort du baron Paul d’Adelsward” in Le Matin 2 September 1887, p. 3 (Le Matin probably used
Axel’s second Christian name); “Nouvelles et Échos” in Gil Blas 21 September 1887, p. [1]; R. Colas, “Les
d’Adelsward” in Pays-Haut. Bulletin de l’Association des Amis du Vieux Longwy 2 (1969), p. 77; J. Perot, “Le Destin
français d’une famille suédoise: les barons d’Adelswärd” in Bulletin du Musée Bernadotte de Pau 26 (1986), p. 22.
Axel was praised in “Sport Nautique” in Gil Blas 11 September 1883, pp. 3-4: “Un de nos plus sympathiques
yachtsmen, M. le baron A. d’Adelsward, vient d’offrir à la Société des sauveteurs du Havre un grand canot de
sauvetage qui, par un système des plus ingénieux, peut être lancé à la mer en huit secondes, tout armé et l’équipage à
bord. Comme on le voit, ceux qui naviguent pour leur agrément n’oublient pas ceux qui vont à la mer pour gagner leur
vie, et plus d’un marin devra son salut au généreux yachtsman, auquel nous adressons nos plus vives félicitations.” It is
not clear whether this life boat is the same as the “canot (life boat) Adelsward” of the Rescue Society of Honfleur,
which, directed by “patron Langlois” and “sous-patron Périer,” and after many hours, had succeeded in rescuing the
crew (four sailors and the captain) of an English schooner, the “Mary,” during a big tempest on 11 July 1888: one year
after Axel’s death! One might say that the rescue of these five sailors was to commemorate the anniversary of Axel’s
death in Panama. See: “Récompenses pour faits de sauvetage et actes de dévouement” in Journal Officiel de la
République française 15 April 1890, p. 1933, and Précis analytique des travaux de l’Académie des sciences, belleslettres et arts de Rouen pendant l’année 1897-1898 (Rouen-Paris: Imprimerie Cagniard / A. Picard, 1899), pp. 80-83.
22
“Les deux barons” in Le Petit Parisien 29 November 1903, p. 3; “L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in La Presse 29
November 1903, p. 1.
23
The section "Un Souvenir pour une Larme" (A souvenir for a tear) in d'Adelswärd's poetry volume Les Cortèges
qui sont passés (Corteges of the past) (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein, 1903), pp. 93-131, is dedicated to this
guardian. J. d'Adelswärd, Chansons Légères. Poèmes de l'enfance (Paris: Léon Vanier, 1901), p. 120; T. d'Arch Smith,
Love in Earnest. Some Notes on the Lives and Writings of English 'Uranian' Poets from 1889 to 1930 (London:
Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970), p. 118. Concerning “Treize ans” see also R. Peyrefitte, Notre amour, p. 90.
24
J. d'Adelswärd, Chansons Légères, pp. 156-158.
25
V. Maron, “Le Procès d’Adelsward-de Warren” in L’Aurore 29 November 1903, p. 2. A good example of boarding
school impressions is found in the poem “Innocence,” from d'Adelswärd's poetry collection, L’Hymnaire d’Adonis, à
la façon de M. le Marquis de Sade. Paganismes (Paris: Léon Vanier, 1902), p. 118.
26
J. d'Adelswärd, op. cit., pp. 95-96: “À mon frère Renold” (To my brother Renold). In neither version of his novel
does Peyrefitte mention the boy, nor does Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., pp. [4-5], in her genealogical tree of the family!
According to the Civil Registration of Paris, Renold was born 18 May 1881; he was registered with the Christian names
Reinhold Harald (Paris, Archives de Paris. État Civil du Huitième Arrondissement de Paris, 1881, Nr. 726); he died in
Paris 11 January 1882, at the age of 7 months and 24 days (communication from Laurent François, President of the
Association “Les Amis d’Henri Duvernois,” who kindly furnished some genealogical data concerning Jacques’ family).
Germaine’s year of death is to be found on the Internet (http://www.sardimpex.com/capece/capece%20minutolo.htm);
her year of birth is here incorrectly listed as 1888. A photo album of the d’Adelswärd family, probably from
Germaine’s inheritance, is in the Archive of Pietro Tommasini Mattiucci at Città di Castello; it is to be found on the
Internet
(http://www.archiphoto.it/galleria.php?Categoria1_Click=7&Categoria2_Click=7&ID_Categoria1=1&ID_Categoria2=
40&ID_Categoria3=89&Categoria2=Famiglia Adelsw䲤-Fersen&Img_x=Fersen 021.jpg).
27
M. Delavigne, “Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Le Journal 29 November 1903, p. 2; Viveka Adelswärd, op.
cit., p. 41.
28
See “Nos Échos” in Le Journal 21 November 1895, p. 1; Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., pp. 38-40; [Jean-Claude
Féray], “Gustave d’Adelswärd” in Bulletin mensuel Quintes-feuilles 24 (2014), p. 1 (http://www.quintesfeuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/décembre-2014.pdf). This article also contains a photograph of Gustave d’Adelswärd.
29
See “Distribution de Prix. À Sainte-Barbe” in La Presse 2 August 1893, p. 3; “Les Distribution de Prix. Lycée
Michelet” in Le Figaro 1 August 1895, p. 2; “Distribution de Prix. Lycée Janson-de-Sailly” in Le Figaro 2 August
1896, p. 3. See also the remarks of Frantz Muller de Beaupré, director of the École Descartes, in “L’instruction” in La
Presse 14 July 1903, p. 2, “Faits divers. Un scandale” in Le Temps 15/16 July 1903, p. [3], and “La folie érotique” in
Le Rappel 19 July 1903, p. [2]. On the French educational system at this time, see A. Prost, Histoire de l’Enseignement
en France 1800-1967 (Paris: Armand Colin, 1970), pp. 57 ff., 246 ff.
30
See Gaston Donnet, “Sensibleries” in L’Aurore 7 December 1903, p. 1; “Le roman d’un névrosé” in Le Matin 14
July 1903, p. 2; “Les deux barons” in Le Petit Parisien 29 November 1903, p. 3; Fernand Hauser, “Adelsward intime”
in La Presse 14 July 1903, pp. 1-2.
46
31
Marréaux Delavigne, “Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Le Journal 29 November 1903, p. 2; N. Erber, op.
cit., p. 199; V. Maron, loc. cit.
32
Several articles in the press of 1903 tried to fathom Jacques’ character and artistry by referring to his behaviour
during his boarding school years and the influence of his readings. See: Pierre Mortier, “Jacques d’Adelsward” in Gil
Blas 11 July 1903, pp. [2-3], and 12 July 1903, p. [2]; Fernand Hauser, “Un nouvel Oscar Wilde. Le scandale du jour”
in La Presse 12 July 1903, pp. 1-2; J. Philip, “Pourriture” in L’Aurore 14 July 1903, p. 1; “Le scandale de l’Avenue de
Friedland” in La Lanterne 14 July 1903, p. 1; “Le roman d’un névrosé” in Le Matin 15 July 1903, p. 2; H. Harduin,
“Choses & autres” in Le Matin 16 July 1903, p. 1; “Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 16 July 1903, p. 3, and
Note 86. According to “L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in La Presse 13 July 1903, pp. 1-2, Senator René Bérenger (18301915) blamed the reading of “bad literature” for d’Adelswärd’s deviation from the “right path:” pernicious books and
libertine journals should be submitted to special surveillance! Léonce Armbruster was more or less of the same opinion
(“Le petit jeune homme” in Le Rappel 6 December 1903, p. [1]. See for a different opinion: Alcanter de Brahm, “La
Décadence morale et la littérature” in Le Rappel 1 August 1903, p. [1]). Bérenger, nicknamed “Père la Pudeur” (Father
Virtue), was appointed senator for life in 1876, and was a notorious opponent of prostitution, especially among minors.
The journalist P. de Cassagnac endorsed the view that “the little baron of the messes noires was the medical result of a
special literature of the Third Republic” (see “Calomnies” in La Lanterne 19 July 1903, p. 1). Paul Adolphe Marie
Prosper Granier de Cassagnac (1842-1904) was a journalist and royalist politician; he was the founder and director of
the newspaper L’Autorité, which followed the device “Pour Dieu, pour la France!” (For God, for France!).
33
J. d'Adelswärd, L'Hymnaire, pp. 136-137. English translation by the author. Referring to this poem, Mirande Lucien
(ed.), Akademos. Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen et «la cause homosexuelle» (Lille: Gay Kitsch Camp, 2000), p. 6, observed:
“Though Fersen has not the genius of Rimbaud, it looks like he has.” According to Pierre Mortier, “Jacques d’Adelsward”
in Gil Blas 12 July 1903, p. [2], Jacques was caught twice reading de Musset, which resulted in a big scandal. About the
poet and dramatist Louis-Charles-Alfred de Musset (1810-1857), the “enfant gâté du romantisme” (spoiled child of
Romanticism), G. B[rereton], in S.H. Steinberg (ed.), Cassell’s Encyclopaedia of Literature. II (London: Cassell &
Company Ltd., 1953), p. 1278, observed: “At 30 Musset, his naturally fragile health undermined by sexual excess and
alcoholism and a prey to hallucinations conceivably of epileptic origin, was prematurely old. New disappointments in love
(…) completed his demoralization.”
34
J. d’Adelswärd, op. cit., pp. 49, 114-115, 144-145. According to some authors, probably following A. Jaulme’s
information, the publication of L’Hymnaire brought about d’Adelswärd’s first legal prosecution; I could not find any
conclusive evidence. See: J. Balteau, et al. (ed.) , op. cit., p. 544; M. Lucien (ed.), op. cit., p. 7; G. Picq, Laurent
Tailhade ou De la provocation considérée comme un art de vivre (Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose, 2001), p. 629. There is
some talk about it in the press; see for instance: “L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in La Presse 13 July 1903, p. 2.
35
R. Peyrefitte, L’Exilé de Capri, p. 30. Though mentioned in, for instance, Chansons Légères (“Du même auteur”)
as a “poem,” according to Fernand Hauser, op. cit., p. 1, it is an ordinary love-story, without any morbidity, and simply
told. Since it is not to be found in any library, it is hard to decide whether the book is really a poem or a novella. Michel
Desbruères, “Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen ou la vie inoubliable à Capri” in Nouvelle Revue de Paris (1989), p. 68,
mentions the names of its protagonists as Joyzelin and Gisèle.
36
“Nos Échos” in Le Journal 3 March 1898, p. 1.
37
Photographs of th wedding are to be found in Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., pp. 8, 44, 49.
38
R. Peyrefitte, op. cit., pp. 41-42; “Renseignements Mondains” in Le Figaro 21 June 1901, p. 2.
39
J. Balteau, et al. (ed.) , loc. cit.; R. Peyrefitte, op. cit., p. 46. During his military service, he first stayed at the
fortress of Les Ayvelles (4th Company of the 91th Infantry Regiment), and later in Charleville-Mézières and Sedan
(Ardennes), where he rised to the rank of a corporal. According to Peyrefitte, d'Adelswärd read to his camp comrades,
including Édouard Chimot (1880-1959), engraver from Lille, passages from works by Rimbaud, Péladan, and
Huysmans. Several newspapers also mentioned orgies held in Jacques’ private abode at Charleville (Arthur Dupin, “Un
scandale” in Le Journal 11 July 1903, p. 2; “Messes Noires” in Le Matin 12 July 1903, p. 2; “Échos. ‘Monsieur le
baron ne reçoit pas’” in L’Aurore 13 July 1903, p. 1; “Pornographie mondaine” in Le Rappel 13 July 1903, p. [1]; “Les
deux barons” in Le Petit Parisien 29 November 1903, p. 3). It remains unclear whether Jacques was licensed at law:
this was claimed in an anonymous article in Le Matin headed "Messes Noires en plein bacchanale," 11 July 1903, p. 2,
but was denied by A. Jarry, "L'Âme ouverte à l'Art antique" in MESSES NOIRES. Le Canard Sauvage 1:19 (1903), [no
pagination]. Louis Peltier, “Un gros scandale. Fêtes orgiaques” in Gil Blas 11 July 1903, p. [2], mentions the name of
the chauffeur as Fernand Bretonnet (nicknamed “Mocau”). Peltier incorrectly wrote that Jacques was of Bavarian
origins.
40
It has been suggested that d’Adelswärd had to finance himself the publication of his books, and that title page
imprints, such as “third edition,” were often spurious, clearly intending to exaggerate his commercial success.
However, I have seen myself different editions of some of his books. A recently discovered letter of d’Adelswärd of 19
August 1902 (Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi), apparently written from Sedan to his publisher, confirms that
there were several editions of Chansons Légères and Ébauches et Débauches, and that Jacques was expecting the
payment of royalties.
47
41
Jean Lorrain, “Le Baron d’Adelsward à Venise” in Le Journal 2 August 1903, p. 3: “M. d’Adelsward plaisait
beaucoup aux vieilles dames.”
42
The poem, “Noëlleries” (Christmas tales), in the collection Les Cortèges, p. 16, is dedicated to this Loulou. R.
Peyrefitte, op. cit., pp. 74-75, constructed the last name of Loulou, who lived on Rue de Berri (a street off Avenue
Friedland), in the form of a puzzle. To solve the puzzle, one combines the data from P. Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire
Universel du XIXe Siècle (Paris: Administration du Grand Dictionnaire Universel, 1865-1890), Volume IV, p. 526 and
Volume X, p. 613, with the names in the sentence: Loulou was descended from the jurist Jean-Guillaume Locré, Baron
de Roissy (1758-1840), author of the 31-volume work, Législation civile, commerciale et criminelle de la France
(Paris: Treuttel et Würtz, 1827-1832). Loulou was born as Louis Jean Napoléon Locré 24 September 1888 (Paris,
Archives de Paris, État Civil du Huitième Arrondissement de Paris, 1888, Nr. 1487). His parents lived on Rue
Matignon and his father, Baron Charles Jules Locré (called Louis in the press), was a stockbroker’s clerk. Loulou was
the winner of several prizes during his stay at Lycée Carnot (see “Distributions de Prix. Lycée Carnot” in Le Journal 3
August 1901, p. 5; 6 August 1902, p. 6).
43
See Paul Morand and Jacques Chardonne, Correspondance, I, 1949-1960 (Paris: Gallimard, 2013), pp. 746-747:
“Le livre de Peyrefitte, L’Exilé de Capri, s’occupe d’un petit Louis II de Bavière grotesquement 1900, Adelsward.
C’est assommant, mais plein de minutieuse exactitude. C’est moi qui ai signalé à l’auteur que ledit Loulou, en réalité
Louis, fils du baron Locré, était dans ma classe, à Carnot. Comme j’habitais rue Marbeuf, je le cueillais chaque matin
rue de Berri, ainsi que Jean Drake del Castillo, qui avait la maison d’en face, et nous faisions route ensemble, vers
Carnot. Peyrefitte a eu le front de retrouver ce baron chauve, de se recommander de moi, et de le mettre ensuite en
cause, de façon la plus transparente, dans le livre. Quel drôle d’auteur, sans aucune pudeur. Je n’en ai pas été gêné, car
j’ai perdu de vue Locré depuis plus d’un demi-siècle, mais ce sont néanmoins de drôles de façons.”
44
Albert François de Warren, called Hamelin by his intimates, was born 12 August 1881 at Saint-Dié (Vosges).
During the affair, several newspapers brought out this Parisian pied piper of Hamelin’s record, L’Aurore being the most
extensive: it is here revealed that Hamelin, though unemployed, “always had enough money to live at haphazard.” In
Paris, he probably continued spending his time as he did during the stay with his father, Anselme de Warren: “living
from prostitution and at the expense of his friends” (see “Grave affaire de moeurs” in L’Aurore 12 July 1903, p. 2; “Le
scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne 14 July 1903, p. 1). Hamelin married the lyrical female singer
Maguy-Warna (pseudonym of Marguerite Lévy) in 1911 (see “Mariages” in Le Figaro 29 March 1911, p. 3;
“Informations diverses” in Le Temps 29 March 1911, p. [3]); the marriage was without children (communication by
Jean-Claude Féray). He died at Amiens in August 1928 (see “Une auto dérape” in L’Echo d’Alger 6 August 1928, p.
[4]; “Le comte de Warren est mort des suites de son accident d’auto” in Le Journal 8 August 1928, p. 3). In
“Mouvement Social” in La Lutte Sociale de Seine-&-Oise 18 July 1903, p. [1], Hamelin was mixed up with his brother
René. “Pornographie mondaine” in Le Rappel 12 July 1903, p. [1], and 13 July 1903, p. [2], stated that (Édouard)
Bruno de Warren (1886-1957), Hamelin’s younger brother, was one of the first “victims” of d’Adelswärd and de
Warren. René de Warren (1879-1926) was made a duke by papal breve of 27 June 1900. “À Travers Paris. Messes
Noires” in Le Matin 20 July 1903, p. 4, quotes some remarkable details from the justification in the breve, signed by
Cardinal Mocchi: “Your ancestors are of royal blood: they have been dukes of Normandy, kings of England, and, at the
death of the king of Scotland, they occupied royal functions. They have transmitted to their posterity, as the best of
heritages, their love for the Catholic name and the faith of their ancestors. (…) And among them one especially
distinguishes Saint Pierre Fourrier and the venerable maid Jeanne d’Arc, who are linked to you in parentage.” Saint
Pierre Fourrier (1565-1640) founded the first teacher’s training college in France and indirectly contributed to the
improvement and spread of education among lower class children.
45
Jacques’ engagement with Blanche was reported in the press. One newspaper announced both the engagement and
Jacques' arrest on the same day! See Regina, "La Vie de Paris. L'Île de Puteaux" and "Un scandale Parisien" in Le
Figaro 10 July 1903, pp. 1, 4. A photograph of Blanche de Maupeou is to be found in Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., p.
97.
46
See Note 45 and, among other sources, "Messes Noires" in Le Matin 10 July 1903, p. 2, and 12 July 1903, p. 2;
"Messes Noires en plein bacchanale," loc. cit.; "Un scandale" in Le Temps 12 July 1903, p. [3]; “Le scandale de
l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne 24 July 1903, p. 1; A. Jarry, "Le Périple de la littérature et de l'art. Héliogabale
à travers les âges" in La Plume: littéraire, artistique et sociale bimensuelle 16:343 (1903), pp. 209-210; MESSES
NOIRES. Le Canard Sauvage 1:19 (1903), the whole issue. Several newspapers mixed up Viscount Audoin de
Dampierre, d’Adelswärd’s guardian who visited Jacques at de Valles’ office on 11 July, with Jacques’ father, who had
died in 1887 (see “Grave affaire de moeurs” in L’Aurore 12 July 1903, p. 2; “Les Messes Noires” in La Presse 12 July
1903, p. 1). The case was not overlooked by the foreign press. The report in the Berliner Tageblatt 10 July 1903 (taken
directly from Le Matin) appears in Iwan Bloch, Das Sexualleben unserer Zeit in seinen Beziehungen zur modernen
Kultur (Berlin: Louis Marcus Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1909), p. 698. Nancy Erber wrote an interesting essay about the
press coverage of the case (see N. Erber, op. cit.). Caspar Wintermans is preparing an annotated anthology of articles
from the French press.
47
P. Morand, op. cit., p. 40. Morand recalls the response of his school friends on a walk with his father over the
Square of San Marco in Venice, during the course of which they suddenly encountered d'Adelswärd. His father refused
48
Jacques' proffered hand because he did not wish to shake hands with a pederast, much to the amusement of the young
Morand who observed that his father, without realizing it, did so all day long: “«Je ne serre pas la main à un pédéraste»,
disait mon père (sans se douter qu’il ne faisait que ça toute la journée).” Morand must have been mistaken here in the
year he cites (1908), for the meeting can only have taken place in 1907. Several newspapers mentioned Jacques’ denial
of hauling up boys at their school door (see for instance: “Faits divers. Une affaire scandaleuse” in Journal des Débats
Politiques et Littéraires 12 July 1903, p. 3; “Moeurs antiques” in La Lanterne 30 November 1903, p. 2), but his
chauffeur, Bernedat, testified in contrario (see “Grave affaire de Moeurs” in L’Aurore 19 July 1903, p. 1; “Nouvelles
Diverses. À Paris. Un scandale Parisien” in Le Figaro 19 July 1903, p. 4; “Les Messes Noires” in Le Matin 19 July
1903, p. 2; “Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 19 July 1903, p. 2; “Un scandale” in Le Temps 20 July 1903, p.
[3]; “Le scandale de l’Avenue Friedland” in La Lanterne 21 July 1903, p. 3). Still in 1959, Paul Morand was able to
recall d’Adelswärd’s extravagant appearance at their school door: “Fersen, dégoûté sans doute des femmes par les
amours de son ancêtre avec Marie-Antoinette, faisait la sortie du lycée, avec des yeux peints et une canne à la Jaloux
(honni soit...) imitant J. Lorrain et M. de Phocas.” (see Paul Morand and Jacques Chardonne, op. cit., pp. 643-644). In
“Les complices de de Warren. La traite des blancs. – Rabatteurs professionnels” (La Presse 19 July 1903, p. 2),
mention is made of professional crimps who hauled up the boys at their school door and took them to d’Adelswärd and
de Warren. See also René Racot, “Le Scandale de l’Avenue Friedland” in Gil Blas 19 July 1903, p. [4]; “Les Messes
Noires” in Le Matin 19 July 1903, p. 2.
48
About Achille Essebac, see René Racot, “Le Scandale de l’Avenue Friedland” in Gil Blas 18 July 1903, p. [3] and
19 July 1903, p. [4]; “Les Dégénérés” in Le Journal 18 July 1903, p. 2, and 19 July 1903, p. 3; “Messes Noires” in Le
Matin 18 July 1903, p. 2; “Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 18 July 1903, p. 2; “La folie érotique” in Le
Rappel 19 July 1903, p. [2]; “Un scandale” in Le Temps 19 July 1903, p. [3]; “Nouvelles Diverses. À Paris” in Le
Figaro 28 July 1903, p. 4. Within one day the writer’s name and profession was transformed in the press from
“Esbach” (L’Aurore) and the “poet Esbach” (Gil Blas) into the “musician Hesbach” (Le Matin), the “composer Mr.
X…” (Le Journal), and the “composer Desbach” (Le Petit Parisien). The next days he was called “a man of letters, Mr.
D…” (Le Figaro), the “composer Desbach” (Gil Blas), “a well-known music composer” (Le Journal), “a poet and
friend, Mr. E…” (Le Rappel), and “a composer” (Le Temps). L’Aurore solves the mix-up: a composer of café chantant
songs, “Mr. S…,” was interviewed by de Valles at the same day as Essebac (see “Grave affaire de moeurs” in L’Aurore
18 July 1903, p. 2). Jean-Claude Féray has recently published a challenging first biography of the writer, Achille
Essebac, romancier du Désir (Paris: Quintes-feuilles, 2008) (see also Note 88).
49
“Choses du jour” in Gil Blas 11 July 1903, p. [1]; N. Erber, op. cit., pp. 190, 193. Erber gives a rather free
rendering of “le Conseil de l’Université” as “the Education Ministry;” a more appropriate translation is “Advisory
Board of the Minister of Public Education” (see Le Nouveau Littré. Édition augmentée et mise à jour, Paris: Éditions
Garnier, 2005, p. 348).
50
Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., pp. 79-81, provides first-hand information: Jacques’ aunt, Jeanne d’Adelswärd, took the
lead: before engaging Maître Demange, she consulted Adolf Adelswärd, the military attaché of Sweden and Norway in
France, the Swedish minister Åkerlund, and Jacques’ former guardian, Viscount Audoin de Dampierre. Jacques’
mother was not invited nor allowed to participate, because she was considered to be a problem and of no help (see also
p. 26, and Note 106).
51
The orthography of the names is far from uniform in the press: Motte(t), Magnan, Val(l)on / Mottet, Maignan,
Wallon / Mottet, Magnon, Walton / Garnier, Magnan, Wal(l)on.
52
Renard, “Gazette Judiciaire. Scènes antiques” in Gil Blas 29 November 1903, p. [2]; M. Delavigne, “Le scandale de
l’avenue Friedland” in Le Journal 29 November 1903, p. 2; “Les deux barons” in Le Petit Parisien 29 November 1903,
p. 4; “L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in La Presse 29 November 1903, p. 1; “Dernières Nouvelles du Palais. Scènes
«antiques»” in Le Temps 29 November 1903, p. [4]; “Correspondance” in Le Journal 30 November 1903, p. 4; “Scènes
antiques” in Le Temps 1 December 1903, p. [3]; “Tribunaux. Le procès d’Adelsward-de Warren” in L’Aurore 4
December 1903, p. 3.
53
Grandgousier, "Un procès à huis clos. Les Messes Noires" in Le Matin 29 November 1903, p. 1.
54
“Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 16 July 1903, p. 3.
55
“À Fresnes-les-Rungis” in Le Journal 5 August 1903, p. 2; “Le scandale de l’Avenue Friedland” in La Lanterne 7
August 1903, p. 3; “La folie érotique” in Le Rappel 7 August 1903, p. [3].
56
Henri Rochefort, “Crimes impunis” in L’Intransigeant 8 September 1903, p. 1. L’Intransigeant was at first the
newspaper of the left-wing opposition and the pulpit of the anti-Dreyfusards; it later became a rather radical right-wing
paper.
57
André Girard, “La vie normale” in Les Temps Nouveaux 18 July 1903, p. 1 (see also Hugues Destrem, “La
Jeunesse française” in Le Rappel 18 July 1903, p. [1]). Friar Flamidien [aka. Isaïe Edmond Lucien Hamez] of the
Christian Brothers and teacher at the day school of Notre-Dame-de-la-Treille at Lille is said to have abused and killed a
twelve-year-old pupil, Gaston Louis Alphonse Foveaux, in 1899 (see: “Campagne cléricale” in L’Aurore 15 July 1903,
p. 1; Henry (Bon) Dard, Les Calomniés, les frères des écoles chrétiennes et le frère Flamidien (20 juillet 1899), Arras:
Sueur-Charruey, [1899]; Henri Masquelier, La Vérité sur le crime de Lille, Le frère Flamidien: par Cyr, Lille: [s.n.,
1899]). The Flamidien-affair was still of current interest in 1903, since it also inspired Émile Zola’s anticlerical novel
49
Vérité. Les quatre Évangiles (Paris: E. Fasquelle, 1903). Édouard Adolphe Drumont (1844-1917) was a journalist and
anti-Semite, founder of the anti-semitic gutter paper La Libre Parole. A typical example of an anti-aristocratic
contribution to the press coverage is J. Philip, “Pourriture” in L’Aurore 14 July 1903, p. 1, for d’Adelswärd has fallen
deeper than a common labourer ever would: “The labourer and the farmer do have their vices, but less complicate (…)
and more sane. (…) They stay in contact with nature. Even immoral, they stay normal.” In 1904, the Dutch newspaper
Algemeen Handelsblad referred to the political tangle in its résumé of the case: “another case of immorality which at
first seemed, especially to the socialists, a splendid opportunity to inveigh against the upper classes, but finally turned
out to be restricted to the dissipations of two young depraved little barons, the case Adelsward-Warren. France can be
satisfied with the goddess of Justice.” (see “Frankrijk in 1903. III. Rechtszaken en toestand des lands” in Algemeen
Handelsblad 6 January 1904, p. Avondblad 10). Le Matin quoted an article about the scandal by Paul de Cassagnac
(see also Note 32) in L’Autorité (see “L’Autorité” in Le Matin 17 July 1903, p. 3), which stated that all members of the
upper classes were republicans and freethinkers. According to “Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 16 July 1903,
p. 3, d’Adelswärd called himself a socialist, and manifested “a bizarre opinion:” “he is not a republican because of his
birth, but he is a socialist, because, as he said, «one can perfectly be both a socialist and a grand seigneur!»” Already in
July 1903, Fernand Hauser (“Les Noces de Satan” in La Presse 11 July 1903, p. 2) quoted Charles de Valles: “As to the
accomplices [of d’Adelswärd], if there are any, they do not belong to the clergy nor to the world of politics.”
58
R. Peyrefitte, op. cit., p. 111; “Nouvelles Diverses. À Paris” in Le Figaro 18 October 1903, p. 4; “L’Affaire
d’Adelsward-Warren” in Le Journal 18 October 1903, p. 2; “Les Messes Noires” in Le Matin 18 October 1903, p. 4;
“L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in Le Petit Parisien 18 October 1903, p. 3; “Dernières Nouvelles du Palais” in Le Temps 18
October 1903, p. [4]; “L’Affaire des Messes Noires” in Le Rappel 19 October 1903, p. [3].
59
“Le scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in Le Figaro 21 October 1903, p. 3; “Faits divers. Un scandale mondain”
in L’Aurore 22 October 1903, p. 3, and 24 October 1903, p. 3; “Faits divers. L’affaire d’Adelsward” in Gil Blas 22
October 1903, p. [3]; “L’Affaire des Messes Noires” in Le Rappel 22 October 1903, p. [3]; “Nouvelles Diverses. À
Paris” in Le Figaro 23 October 1903, p. 4; “Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Le Journal 23 October 1903, p. 5;
“Les Messes Noires” in Le Matin 23 October 1903, p. 2; “L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in Le Petit Parisien 23 October
1903, p. 2; “L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in La Lanterne 24 October 1903, p. 2; “Les Messes Noires” in Le Rappel 24
October 1903, p. [3]; “Faits divers. Le scandale de l’Avenue Friedland” in Le Temps 24 October 1903, p. [3].
60
According to Nancy Erber, op. cit., p. 202, there “is no record of an appeal and no trace in the public record of de
Warren’s life after his release.” However, in the margin of fol. 1 of the sentence (Ms. 3 December 1903, Paris,
Archives de Paris. Tribunal de Première Instance du Département de la Seine. Police correctionelle Neuvième
Chambre. Audience publique du Jeudi Trois Décembre mil neuf cent trois), there is a handwritten note “appèl de
Warren (…) 17 Décembre 1903.” This date must be a mistake. Added to the Dossier d’Instruction of 1903 (Paris,
Archives de France. BB18 2255, dr. 1468 A 1903) there are two letters from the Parquet de la Cour d’Appel de Paris. In a
letter of 16 December, an appeal of de Warren of 12 December is mentioned. A letter of 21 January 1904 (referring to the
decision of the Cour d’Appel of 12 January 1904) confirms the sentence of the Tribunal de la Seine of 3 December 1903,
and states that de Warren has appealed to the Cour de Cassation (see also: “Tribunaux. Scènes «antiques»” in Le Temps 5
December 1903, p. [3]; “Tribunaux. D’Adelsward n’a pas fait appel” in Le Matin 17 December 1903, p. 2; “Nouvelles
Judiciaires” in Le Petit Parisien 17 December 1903, p. 3; “Gazette des Tribunaux. Nouvelles Judiciaires” in Le Figaro 13
January 1904, p. 4; Marréaux Delavigne “Chronique des Tribunaux” in Le Journal 13 January 1904, p. 4; “Les
Tribunaux. L’affaire de Warren en appel” in Le Petit Parisien 13 January 1904, p. 2; “Scènes antiques” in Le Temps 13
January 1904, p. [4]; “Les Tribunaux. Moeurs antiques” in La Lanterne 14 January 1904, p. 2; “Les Tribunaux. L’appel
de M. de Warren” in Le Rappel 14 January 1904, p. [3]; “Échos” in Le Journal 21 February 1904, p. 3; “Tribunaux. Le
pourvoi de M. de Warren” in Le Temps 22 February 1904, p. [3]; “Les Tribunaux. Le pourvoi de de Warren” in La
Lanterne 23 February 1904, p. 2; “Gazette Judiciaire” in Gil Blas 13 April 1904, p. [3]; “Les Messes Noires” in Le
Journal 20 October 1904, p. 3; “À Travers Paris. Les messes noires” in Le Matin 20 October 1904, p. 4; “Faits divers”
in Le Petit Parisien 20 October 1904, p. 3; “Demande en revision du procès d’Adelsward-de Waren [sic]” in Le Temps 20
October 1904, p. [3]; “Les Messes Noires. Une lettre de M. de Warren” in Le Journal 21 October 1904, p. 5; “Une
demande en revision” in La Lanterne 21 October 1904, p. 3; “Express-Nouvelles” in Le Rappel 21 October 1904, p. [4];
“Nouvelles Judiciaires” in Le Figaro 25 November 1904, p. 4; “Nouvelles Judiciaires” in Le Petit Parisien 27 November
1904, p. 4; “Nouvelles Judiciaires” in Le Matin 18 May 1905, p. 2; “Tribunaux” in Le Temps 19 May 1905, p. [3]).
61
Grandgousier, loc. cit.; “Gazette des Tribunaux” in Le Figaro 29 November 1903, p. 3; “Tribunaux. Les Messes
Noires” in Le Matin 4 December 1903, p. 2.
62
Ms. 3 December 1903, Paris, Archives de Paris, op. cit., fol. 1-3 (see Appendix); Renard, “Gazette Judiciaire.
Scènes antiques” in Gil Blas 4 December 1903, p. [2].
63
“Tribunaux. Le procès d’Adelsward-de Warren” in L’Aurore 4 December 1903, p. 3; “Les Tribunaux. Le proces
d’Adelsward-de Warren” in Le Petit Parisien 4 December 1903, p. 3.
64
A.-S. Lagail, Les Mémoires du Baron Jacques: Lubricités infernales de la noblesse décadente (Priapeville:
Librairie Galante, An IV du XXe siècle foutatif [=1904]). A clumsy English translation was published in Canada in
1988; it had one positive result: the 1991 reprinting of the original text in France, now provided with page numbers,
and the pages printed at last in proper sequence. See: A. Gallais, The Memoirs of Baron Jacques: The Diabolical
50
Debaucheries of Our Decadent Aristocracy. Transl. and introd. by Richard West (Vancouver: Ageneios Press, 1988);
P. Cardon (ed.), Dossier Jacques d’Adelsward-Fersen (Lille: Cahier Gai-Kitsch-Camp XX-4, 1991), pp. 63-95; P. Pia,
Les Livres de l'Enfer. Bibliographie des ouvrages érotiques du XVIème siècle à nos jours. II (Paris: Coulet er Faure,
1978), p. 441; L. Perceau, Bibliographie du roman érotique au XIXe siècle. II (Paris: Georges Fourdrinier, 1930), pp.
41-43. Perceau, who described the work as "the most horrible of its kind," mis-states the title of the poem as (perhaps a
Freudian error): "Notre-Dame des Vierges Fortes" (Our Lady of the sturdy virgins), instead of "Notre-Dame des Verges
Fortes" (Our Lady of the sturdy cocks)!
65
P. Pia, op. cit., pp. 535-536.
66
J.-P. Goujon, Pierre Louÿs, une Vie Secrète (Paris: Seghers, 1988), p. 84; P. Léautaud, Journal littéraire. I. 1893–
1906 (Paris: Mercure de France, 1954), p. 74. Léautaud talked with Schwob on 14 July 1903; about d’Adelswärd no
further details are mentioned. L. Tailhade, “À M. Jacques d’Adelsward de Fersen, embasicète” in Lettres familières
([Paris]: Librairie de “La Raison”, 1904), pp. 136-143; M. Duplay, Mon ami Marcel Proust. Souvenirs intimes (Paris:
Gallimard, 1972), pp. 136-137; C.-L. Philippe, “Le Mouton à cinq pattes” in MESSES NOIRES. Le Canard Sauvage
1:19 (1903), [no pagination]; A. Jarry, “L'Âme ouverte à l'Art antique” in MESSES NOIRES. Le Canard Sauvage 1:19
(1903), [no pagination]. Already in 1903, Jean de la Lune had sneered at d’Adelswärd in the story “Narva” in his Les
Pantins (see: J. de la Lune, Les Pantins, Paris: Genonceaux, 1903, pp. 73-78, and Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen
7, 1905, pp. 887-888). On 17 February 1904, Roland Brévannes’ play, Messes noires, was performed in the Théâtre de
la Bodinière in the Rue Saint-Lazare in Paris; the ‘quatrième tableau,’ entitled “La messe noire au XXe siècle: Les
dégénérés,” with the protagonist Axel Wartz (= Adelsward), is about the Fersen affair (see R. Brévannes, Les Messes
noires. Reconstitution dramatique en 3 parties et 4 tableaux, donnée au théâtre de la Bodinière, le 17 février 1904,
Courbevoie: Impr. E. Bernard, [1904], pp. 23-31; G.-J. Witkowski and L. Nass, Le Nu au Théâtre depuis l’antiquité jusqu’à
nos jours, Paris: H. Daragon, 1909, pp. 199-200).
67
de Fersen, Lord Lyllian. Messes Noires (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein, 1905), pp. 169-171.
68
J. Lorrain, Pélleastres: Le Poison de la littérature (Paris: A. Méricant, 1910), p. 135. The book was posthumously
published by Georges Normandy, the executor of Lorrain’s last will. The passages about d’Adelswärd were first
published in serial form in Le Journal in 1903. In the last few years a lot of new studies have appeared on Gilles de
Rais and Joris-Karl Huysmans. On the Black Masses of Abbé Guibourg, see U.K. Dreikandt (ed.), Schwarze Messen.
Dichtungen und Dokumente (Herrsching: M. Pawlak Verlagsgesellschaft mbH., 1970), pp. 69-77, and R. Cavendish,
Die schwarze Magie (Frankfurt/Main: G.B. Fischer Verlag, 1969), pp. 377-381. It is here revealed in passing that as
early as 1889 the newspaper Le Matin had given special attention in its news coverage to "Black Masses." This study,
on pages 46-49, gives some other details of the Black Masses of Abbé J.A. Boullan (1824-1893) who during the 1880s
and 1890s had captured the imagination of many in France. Huysmans and Stanislas de Guaita (see Note 1) were
members of his circle for some time. Typical of all cited examples seem to be accusations of ritual child murder
combined with orgiastic convocations. It almost seems as if Lorrain regretted that d'Adelswärd had spared the lives of
his young friends! See also Fernand Hauser, loc. cit.; the interview with Joris-Karl Huysmans during the affair (“À
propos de Messe Noire” in La Presse 12 July 1903, p. 2); and Jules Bois (“Les Messes Noires” in Gil Blas 12 July
1903, pp. [2-3]). Jules Bois (1868-1943), also a follower of Abbé Boullan, was an expert on occultism and satanism,
and the writer of Le Satanisme et la magie (Paris: L. Chailley, 1895). Hinting at the recent scandal, Bois bitingly
concluded his summary in Gil Blas of Black Masses in France: “This ritual of blood and luxury has become a pastime
of lycéens and depraved poetasters. The twentieth century decidedly belongs to the buffoons.” However, in his Les
Noces de Satan of 1890 (Paris: Chamuel, 1892), Bois himself had presented Satan as a beautiful athletic youngster,
whose rustling hair reflects the heavenly stars like a glittering sea, and whose real essence is Love.
69
R. Peyrefitte, Propos Secrets 2, p. 362.
70
Ibid., p. 361. Marcel-Adolphe Mirtil (1882-1965) was an attorney at the Cour d’Appel de Paris (see, for instance,
Bulletin de la Société de Législation comparée 45:43, 1913-1914, p. 24); in March 1929 he was elected president of the
Zionist Federation of France.
71
The furnishing of duplicate copies of court dossiers for the benefit of the accused is a rather recent practice in many
countries of Europe (communication from the late Edward Brongersma). It is unclear whether this started at an earlier
period in France. In 2000, Michael Sibalis, Professor in History at Wilfrid Laurier University (Ontario, Canada),
suggested to me that Marc Daniel (pseudonym of Michel Duchein) might have been the one who gave Peyrefitte the
opportunity to see the dossier. Both, Peyrefitte and Daniel, were important members of “Arcadie,” the French gay
association (1954-1982). Marc Daniel was a historian and archivist at the Archives Nationales.
72
"Messes Noires" in Le Matin 10 July 1903, p. 2, and 12 July 1903, p.2; "Messes Noires en plein bacchanale," loc.
cit.; Louis Peltier, loc. cit.; “Scandale mondain” in La Lanterne 11 July 1903, p. 2; “À l’Instruction” in La Presse 12
July 1903, p. 2; “Pornographie mondaine” in Le Rappel 12 July 1903, p. [1], and 13 July 1903, p. [1]; “Un scandale” in
Le Temps 12 July 1903, p. [3]; “Le scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne 13 July 1903, p. 1. “Tr…,” or
Anselme-Paul-Martin Trilles, was a sports photographer and journalist, who had married Monique de Warren,
Hamelin’s sister, in 1901 (see A.-F.-J. Borel d’Hauterive and A. Révérend, Annuaire de la noblesse de France. LXI,
Paris: Au Bureau de la Publication, 1905, p. 144). On 11 July, Fernand Hauser, loc. cit., already quoted Charles de
Valles about the findings in d’Adelswärd’s home: “There were photos, well-known to the Préfecture de Police, of
51
ephebes, and these photos are not suggestive at all. (…) And Mr. de Valles showed us and a young counsel, present
during the interview, some frivolous, very frivolous photos. The young counsel lowered his eyes…” See also “Grave
affaire de moeurs” in L’Aurore 11 July 1903, p. 2; “Dernières Nouvelles du Palais. Scènes «antiques»” in Le Temps 29
November 1903, p. [4]. In the sentence there is only reference to “gravures licencieuses” (licentious engravings) which
d'Adelswärd showed to the schoolboys. N. Erber, op. cit., pp. 194 and 200, is quoting ‘Un scandale Parisien’ in Le
Figaro 11 July 1903, p. 3, Arthur Dupin’s article “Un scandale” in Le Journal 11 July 1903, p. 2, and Marréaux
Delavigne’s article “Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Le Journal 29 November 1903, p. 2. See also Arthur Dupin,
“Les ‘Messes noires’” in Le Journal 12 July 1903, p. 2. The information about the findings in de Warren’s home is
incorrect. In the Dossier d’Instruction, op. cit., there is a note of de Valles (appendix of a letter from the Tribunal de la
Seine of 10 July 1903), in which he states that nothing was found in de Warren’s home, because de Warren had
destroyed all compromising evidence (see also “Le scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne 24 July 1903, p.
1). However, “obscene photos” must have been present before. In a document from the Tribunal de la Seine of 12 July
1903 in the Dossier, Adalbert Croisé de Pourcelet testified that he had seen how a stark naked de Warren had left his
bath, and had taken photos of Raoul Clerc, who was nude as well (see also Note 84).
73
See Note 67. G. Komrij, Verzonken Boeken (Amsterdam: Synopsis, 1986), p. 67.
74
Ibid., p. 68; de Fersen, op. cit., pp. 78-83; R. Ellmann, Oscar Wilde (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1987), p. 551.
75
de Fersen, op. cit., pp. 151-180. I have been unable to discover whether d'Adelswärd himself was a member of the
Rosicrucians or only sympathized with them. In any case, Péladan and Barrès, leaders in the Ordre de la Rose-Croix
Catholique (a secession of the Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose-Croix – see Note 1), participated in d’Adelswärd’s
magazine Akademos in 1909. According to Otto de Joux (pseudonym of Otto Rudolf Podjukl), Die Enterbten des
Liebesglückes oder das dritte Geschlecht. Ein Beitrag zur Seelenkunde (Leipzig: Max Spohr, 1893), p. 126, this order
was nothing more than a veiled society of homosexuals. In my opinion, Lyllian’s cryptic remark refers to concepts of
Péladan about “The Worthy Subject” and “Ephebic Beauty” (see my article “Neither to Laugh nor to Cry. A Failure in
the End: Charles Filiger (1863-1928)” in Paidika 1:4, 1988, pp. 38-41).
76
de Fersen, op. cit., p. 162.
77
Erroneously given by Komrij, op. cit., p. 67, as a “Hungarian poet.” He was a seventeen-year-old Polish boy whom
Lord Lyllian encouraged to write poetry. From the sentence it seems that not just Loulou Locré but also the Berecki
boy had special bonds with d’Adelswärd. The Dossier d’Instruction, op. cit., also mentions the boy’s Christian name:
André.
78
de Fersen, op. cit, p. 27: at the threshold of puberty, the boy fondles himself in front of a mirror, fantasizing about a
non-existent “brother”! Already in Notre-Dame des Mers Mortes (Venise) (Paris: P. Sevin et E. Rey, 1902), p. 215,
d’Adelswärd’s principal character, Jacques de Liéven, is weeping when he recalls his deceased “little brother” Renold:
“I love him since I do not have him any more.” According to Jean-Claude Féray and Raimondo Biffi, “Ce que révèlent
les lettres (1904-1908) de Jacques d’Adelswärd à Édouard Chimot” in Inverses. Littératures, Arts et Homosexualités 13
(2013), pp. 97-101, Armand Marie de Prat (1861-1922), the French vice-consul in Venice at the turn of the century, is
hidden behind the mask of d’Herserange. Unfortunately, there is no discussion of why d’Adelswärd should have used the
name d’Herserange as a pseudonym of de Prat: the transition Wilde – Skilde is comprehensible, the transition de Prat –
d’Herserange is not!
79
Paris, Archives de France. BB18 2255, dr. 1468 A 1903.
80
See Note 60.
81
See also N. Erber, op. cit., p. 207, n. 26. According to Arthur Dupin, “Les Dégénérés” in Le Journal 14 July 1903,
p. 5, and “Le scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne 15 July 1903, p. 2, his family had received a message
of de Warren from the United States, dated New York 5 July: that he had visited New York, Chicago and Philadelphia.
He was expected home in three months. De Warren (and his family) stuck to the contention that he had not fled, but
went to the United States to assist with the negotiations concerning his brother’s marriage in New York (see for
instance: “Pornographie mondaine” in Le Rappel 12 July 1903, p. [1]; “L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in Le Matin 13 July
1903, p. 2; “Grave affaire de moeurs” in L’Aurore 14 July 1903, p. 2; R[ené] R[acot], “Le Scandale de l’Avenue
Friedland” in Gil Blas 14 July 1903, p. [3]; “La folie érotique” in Le Rappel 15 July 1903, p. [2]; “À Travers Paris. Le
scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Gil Blas 17 July 1903, p. [3]; “Messes Noires” in Le Matin 17 July 1903, p. 4; “Le
scandale mondain” in L’Aurore 18 July 1903, p. 1; “Les Dégénérés” in Le Journal 18 July 1903, p. 2; “La folie érotique” in
Le Rappel 18 July 1903, p. [2] ; “Faits divers. Un scandale” in Le Temps 18 July 1903, p. [3]; “Échos. Un scandale
mondain” in L’Aurore 19 July 1903, p. 1; “L’Affaire des Messes Noires” in L’Ouest-Éclair et l’Étoile de la Mer 29
November 1903, p. 5; “L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in La Presse 29 November 1903, p. 1; “Moeurs antiques” in La
Lanterne 30 November 1903, p. 2; “Les Tribunaux. L’affaire d’Adelsward-de Warren” in Le Rappel 30 November
1903, p. [2]; M. Delavigne, “Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Le Journal 4 December 1903, p. 2).
82
Pierre Velpry (mentioned as “Pierre G...” or “Pierre V...” in the press) was a former camp comrade of rural origins
whom Jacques took into his service in Paris after his abridged military service (see “Grave affaire de moeurs” in
L’Aurore 12 July 1903, p. 1; “Messes Noires” in Le Matin 12 July 1903, p. 2; “Un scandale” in Le Temps 12 July 1903,
p. [3]; “Le scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne 13 July 1903, p. 1).
52
83
See also “Grave affaire de moeurs” in L’Aurore 13 July 1903, p. 2; “L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in La Presse 13 July
1903, p. 1; “Le scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne 14 July 1903, p. 1.
84
Jules Béchet was the Parisian correspondent of Le Petit Méridional, a provincial republican newspaper at
Montpellier. He was a close friend of de Warren since 1899, and the keeper of de Warren’s house key during his
absence (see Louis Peltier, loc. cit.; “Messes Noires” in Le Matin 12 July 1903, p. 2; “Pornographie mondaine” in Le
Rappel 12 July 1903, p. [2], and 13 July 1903, p. [1]; “L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in Le Matin 13 July 1903, p. 2; “Le
scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne 15 July 1903, p. 2). From the boy’s mother, Béchet knew of a letter
of d’Adelswärd to a boy-friend of de Warren, Raoul Clerc, which contained “obscene proposals” (see also Note 72, and
“Grave affaire de moeurs” in L’Aurore 14 July 1903, p. 2; “Les deux barons” in Le Petit Parisien 29 November 1903,
p. 4). Rent boy Fernand Boscher had already been interviewed by the police in April 1903, which resulted in
d’Adelswärd becoming subject of surveillance by the police (Paris, Archives de la Préfecture de Police de Paris. Série
BM2 Nr. 61, 6 April 1903). Due to a transcription error, in my essay, “Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen – Stationen seines
Lebens”, in Wolfram Setz (ed.), Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen. Dandy und Poet. Annäherungen (Hamburg:
MännerschwarmSkript Verlag, 2005), p. 75, Boscher is mentioned as Dascher.
85
Louis Marsolleau, “Terza rima d’Adonis galeux” in Gil Blas 25 July 1903, p. [1]; “Messes Noires” in Le Matin 25
July 1903, p. 4.
86
During the trial, d’Adelswärd mentioned the writers he was introduced to at school, and whose works he most
admired: Virgil, Plato, Theocritus, Shakespeare, and Huysmans. There he had found, in colourful and poetical
descriptions, the same things which occured in his presence (see Grandgousier, “Un procès à huis clos. Les Messes
Noires,” loc. cit.; V. Maron, loc. cit.; “Gazette des Tribunaux” in Le Figaro 29 November 1903, p. 3; Renard, “Gazette
Judiciaire. Scènes antiques” in Gil Blas 29 November 1903, p. [2]; “L’Affaire des Messes Noires” in L’Ouest-Éclair et
l’Étoile de la Mer 29 November 1903, p. 5; “Les deux barons” in Le Petit Parisien 29 November 1903, p. 3; “L’Affaire
d’Adelsward” in La Presse 29 November 1903, p. 1; “Dernières Nouvelles du Palais. Scènes «antiques»” in Le Temps
29 November 1903, p. [4]; “Moeurs antiques” in La Lanterne 30 November 1903, p. 2 ; “Les Tribunaux. L’affaire
d’Adelsward-de Warren” in Le Rappel 30 November 1903, p. [2]; “Tribunaux. Le procès d’Adelsward-de Warren” in
L’Aurore 4 December 1903, p. 3). N. Erber, op. cit., p. 199, adds the names of Baudelaire and Verlaine, and that Judge
Bondoux had interjected: “Very unhealthy literature (Cette littérature était bien malsaine).” (see: M. Delavigne, “Le
scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Le Journal 29 November 1903, p. 2). In a letter to an unknown addressee
(Trouville-sur-Mer, 26 September 1902), now in the collection of Raimondo Biffi in Rome, d’Adelswärd already
mentioned the authors Heinrich Heine, Alphonse de Lamartine, François de Malherbe, Clément Marot, Alfred de
Musset, Pierre Ronsard, Albert Samain, and François Villon (pseudonym of François de Montcorbier). According to
Paul Morand and Jean Lorrain, another source of inspiration of d’Adelswärd was the writer Françis de Croisset
(pseudonym of Franz Wiener), who had published a volume of poetry, Les Nuits de Quinze Ans, in 1898 (Paris:
Ollendorff). Morand had discovered a copy of the book in his father’s library, and, in 1959, he remembered to have
been confused as a twelve-year-old boy by its “cover, with nude interlaced figures in the bluish.” (see Paul Morand and
Jacques Chardonne, op. cit., p. 751: “lecture favorite de votre Fersen; la couverture, avec des corps nus enlacés dans le
bleuâtre, troublait mes 12 ans.”; J. Lorrain, “Le Baron d’Adelsward à Venise” in Le Journal 2 August 1903, p. 3). See
also Note 32.
87
Or, as the prosecution lawyer, Lescouvé, put it in his requisitory: “a young ephebe (…) completely naked, or
insufficiently dressed in a silk scarf (un jeune ephèbe (…) complètement nu, ou insuffisamment vétu d’une écharpe de
soie).” See M. Delavigne, “Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Le Journal 29 November 1903, p. 2, and 4 December
1903, p. 1.
88
Achille Essebac attended the Messe Noire of 17 or 18 May, and confirmed Jacques’ contention: during his visits to
“representations of a special mysticism, organised by Jacques d’Adelsward,” he had never noticed anything scandalous
nor something which could be interpreted as an attack on morality. During the Messe Noire of 17 or 18 May
“youngsters, dressed in peplums and wearing cothurni, played on ancient flutes or strewed flowers,” whereas “a young
man was resting on a bed (…), covered with a scarf of gauze, and d’Adelsward was reciting La Mort des Amants.” It
was “marvellous, paradisiac, without any indecency,” Essebac concluded. “So, you see!” d’Adelswärd triumphantly
exclaimed to de Valles (see Notes 48, 92). The same tenor is to be found in Arthur Dupin’s article, “Les Dégénérés” in
Le Journal 13 July 1903, p. 3, in a quote (borrowed from Le Français) of a “friend of Jacques d’Adelsward” (perhaps
Essebac himself): the youngster on the bed was “in his twenties,” “it was artistic,” and “no minors present.” See also
“Les Dégénérés” in Le Journal 28 July 1903, p. 2; M. Delavigne, “Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Le Journal 29
November 1903, p. 2.
89
Count Etchegoyen was mentioned as a guest of d’Adelswärd in “Informations - Mondanités” in Le Journal 5
March 1903, p. 2. The dossier and the press (see for instance “Le scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne
13 July 1903, p. 1) mentioned another priest (who might have visited some of the gatherings): fifty-five-year-old Abbé
Jean Baptiste Labeyrie, a former vicar of Saint-Philippe-du-Roule in Paris, and “nowadays Chaplain of the Military
Hospital at Vincennes.” Because of his visits to the public toilets on the Boulevard Haussmann, the Rue Tronchet, and
the Avenue des Champs-Elysées, Labeyrie had a reputation for pederasty, and he had already been subject of
surveillance by the police. For many years he had been the private teacher of de Warren and his brother. In his home,
53
the police seized about fifty letters of the fugitive de Warren, addressed to his teacher. In the letters, de Warren was on
first-name terms with Labeyrie; he called him his very dear friend, expressed an ardent desire to have him near himself,
and sent his “kisses” and his “caresses.” In “Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 14 July 1903, p. 2, Labeyrie tried
to explain away de Warren’s way of addressing him: “He speaks to me like a suffering child would speak to his father.”
To de Valles he said: “This can only be interpreted as a quasi filial affection of a pupil towards his teacher.” At the
same time he emphasized that he did not know d’Adelswärd personally, which was confirmed by d’Adelswärd himself
(see “Nouvelles Diverses. À Paris” in Le Figaro 26 July 1903, p. 4; “Nouvelles Diverses. Paris” in Le Journal 26 July
1903, p. 6; “Messes Noires” in Le Matin 26 July 1903, p. 2; “Faits divers. Un scandale” in Le Temps 27 July 1903, p.
[3]; “Le scandale de l’Avenue Friedland” in La Lanterne 28 July 1903, p. 2; and also Louis Schneider, “La Paroisse de
Vincennes” in Gil Blas 24 December 1906, pp. [1-2]).
90
“Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 19 July 1903, p. 2, A. D[upin], “Les Dégénérés” in Le Journal 19 July
1903, p. 3, and “Le scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne 24 July 1903, p. 1. See Note 15 for Peyrefitte’s
list.
91
The “classe de rhétorique” was, except one, the highest form of the French lyceum. Besnard was probably one of
the younger sons of the famous painter Paul-Albert Besnard (1849-1934), who married the sculptress Charlotte Dubray
in 1879. They had three sons: Robert (1881-1914), who became a painter, married in 1903, and was killed in battle at
the beginning of the First World War; Philippe (1885-1971), who became a sculptor; and Jean (1889-1958), a boy of
delicate health because of tuberculosis, who later became a talented ceramist. Their father had made a portrait of
d’Adelswärd’s mother (the painting is reproduced by Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., p. 70); he refused to appear when
summoned by de Valles for interrogation (see “À Travers Paris. Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Gil Blas 25 July
1903, p. [3]; “Le scandale de l’Avenue Friedland” in La Lanterne 26 July 1903, p. 2; “Messes Noires” in Le Matin 24
July 1903, p. 4 and 28 July 1903, p. 4; “Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 25 July 1903, p. 4). Probably the
“portrait en pied du jeune baron, signé d’un peintre connu,” a life-sized painting of Jacques himself, mentioned in the
press (Arthur Dupin, “Un scandale” in Le Journal 11 July 1903, p. 2; “Grave affaire de moeurs” in L’Aurore 12 July
1903, p. 1; “Un scandale” in Le Temps 12 July 1903, p. [3]; “Pornographie mondaine” in Le Rappel 13 July 1903, p.
[1]), was also made by Besnard. A nice portrait of the Besnard family, “Une famille” (1890), is now in the Musée
d’Orsay at Paris. The article “Nouvelles Diverses. À Paris. À l’Instruction” in Le Figaro 24 July 1903, p. 4, noted that
the boy too did not respond to a confrontation at de Valles’ office (see also “Nouvelles Diverses. Paris” in Le Journal
24 July 1903, p. 6; “Le scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne 24 July 1903, p. 1). However, the young
Besnard later denied all allegations, whereas his father declared to have not in the least been upset by the spectacles at
Avenue Friedland (see “La folie érotique” in Le Rappel 26 July 1903, p. [3]; “Messes Noires” in Le Matin 28 July
1903, p. 4; “Faits divers. Paris. À l’Instruction” in Le Petit Parisien 28 July 1903, p. 3; Grandgousier, “Un procès à
huis clos. Les Messes Noires” in Le Matin 29 November 1903, p. 1).
92
Probably the “eighteen-year-old lycéen, named M…,” mentioned by René Racot in “Le Scandale de l’Avenue
Friedland” in Gil Blas 19 July 1903, p. [4]. Several newspapers noted the declaration of young Ménard: that he had
never assisted at scandalous scenes; he had only been present at “messes blanches” (White Masses), including the
meeting of 17 or 18 May, at which nothing immoral or indecent had happened (see “Nouvelles Diverses. À Paris” in Le
Figaro 25 July 1903, p. 3; “Nouvelles Diverses. Paris” in Le Journal 25 July 1903, p. 4; “Messes Noires” in Le Matin
25 July 1903, p. 4; “À Travers Paris. Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Gil Blas 26 July 1903, p. [3]; “La folie
érotique” in Le Rappel 26 July 1903, p. [3]; “Nouvelles Diverses. À Paris” in Le Figaro 28 July 1903, p. 4; “Messes
Noires” in Le Matin 28 July 1903, p. 4). However, according to the article “Les Dégénérés” in Le Journal 28 July 1903,
p. 2, the “son of a well-known doctor,” together with a pupil of the Lycée Janson-de-Sailly, had testified that
d’Adelswärd had “made them take off their clothes, just like all the children who had assisted at the feast (que Jacques
d’Adelsward leur avait fait quitter leurs vêtements, ainsi qu’à tous les enfants qui avaient assisté à la fête.)”.
93
Louis Peltier, loc. cit., notes that d’Adelswärd also took the pupils of the Lycée Carnot in his automobile to the
Pond of Saint-Cucufa in the woods of Saint-Cloud; “Grave affaire de moeurs” in L’Aurore 11 July 1903, p. 2, and
“Pornographie mondaine” in Le Rappel 12 July 1903, p. [1], add the Mount Valérien near Saint-Cloud. Arthur Dupin,
“Un scandale” in Le Journal 11 July 1903, p. 2, also mentions the Bois de Boulogne.
94
See also Note 72. According to Norman Douglas, Looking Back: An Autobiographical Excursion (London: Chatto
and Windus, 1934), pp. 358-364, d’Adelswärd was a talented drawer.
95
Also mentioned by Arthur Dupin, “Un scandale” in Le Journal 11 July 1903, p. 2.
96
It was already noticed in “À Travers Paris. Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Gil Blas 17 July 1903, p. [3].
97
See “Les Messes Noires” in Le Matin 19 July 1903, p. 2; “Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 19 July 1903,
p. 2.
98
Due to a transcription error, Jean-Claude Féray, “L’exilé de Capri: un portrait très retouché” in Inverses. Littératures,
Arts et Homosexualités 4 (2004), pp. 209-215, transposes the prominent role of Loulou Locré to Jacques Croisé de
Pourcelet. However, the document of 12 July 1903 does not read “… seroient les Jacques Locret, Boesch, de Laguerre,
Starcelli, …” but “… seraient les jeunes Locret, Boesch, de Laguerre, Starcelli, …” A Jacques Locré/Locret did not exist!
The name Loulou means “doggy” or “darling.”
99
Only a résumé of an interview of Henri Boesch is to be found in a document of 20 July 1903.
54
100
See Paul Morand and Jacques Chardonne, op. cit., p. 643: “Pour en revenir à Adelsward, je crois vous avoir
raconté quel ravage il faisait vers 1902-1903 dans ma classe de Carnot. Venant à pied de la rue de Marbeuf, je
cueillais, en passant chaque matin rue de Berri, deux de mes amis, dont le fils du baron Locré, qui, lui, était de ces
saturnales (ravissante figure), et qui nous racontait, à notre émerveillement, qu’Adelsward Fersen l’emmenait diner en
cabinet particulier.”
101
“Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 17 July 1903, p. 3; “Les Dégénérés” in Le Journal 17 July 1903, p. 3.
Jacques seems to have been obsessed with death, which is understandable when we consider that, as an eighteen-yearold boy, he had already lost at least seven close relatives (between 1881 and 1898): his grandmother Amélie, his young
brother, his uncle Vührer, his father, his uncle Gustave d’Adelswärd, and two grandfathers. The obsession with death
was also noticed in the press; see for instance “Échos” in L’Aurore 14 July 1903, p. 1; Arthur Dupin, “Les Dégénérés”
in Le Journal 14 July 1903, p. 5; “Le roman d’un névrosé” in Le Matin 14 July 1903, p. 2; Fernand Hauser,
“Adelsward intime” in La Presse 14 July 1903, p. 1; “La folie érotique” in Le Rappel 15 July 1903, p. [2]; “Le
s[c]andale de l’Étoile” in La Lanterne 16 July 1903, p. 2.
102
“Les deux barons” in Le Petit Parisien 29 November 1903, p. 4.
103
“Messes Noires” in Le Matin 17 July 1903, p. 4, and “Un scandale” in Le Temps 18 July 1903, p. [3]. “Grave
affaire de moeurs” in L’Aurore 17 July 1903, p. 2; “À Travers Paris. Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland” in Gil Blas 17
July 1903, p. [3]; “Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 17 July 1903, p. 3; “Échos. Les amis du baron” in L’Aurore
18 July 1903, p. 1; René Racot, “Le Scandale de l’Avenue Friedland” in Gil Blas 18 July 1903, p. [3]; “La folie
érotique” in Le Rappel 18 July 1903, p. [2]; “Faits divers. Un scandale” in Le Temps 18 July 1903, p. [3]. Probably
“L…” was one of the “chattes” (kittens), mentioned by Victor Leca in Pour s’amuser, guide du viveur à Paris (Paris:
Librairie P. Fort, [1904]), pp. 166-167.
104
About the suicide attempt a lot of contradictory information is to be found in for instance “Le suicide du baron
d’Adelsward?” in Gil Blas 11 December 1903, p. [3]; “Le Baron d’Adelsward” in Le Journal 11 December 1903, p. 4;
“Faits divers. Le cas du baron d’Adelsward” in L’Aurore 12 December 1903, p. 3; “Nouvelles Diverses. À Paris” in Le
Figaro 12 December 1903, p. 4; “Faits divers. Le désespoir d’Adelsward” in Gil Blas 12 December 1903, p. [3]; “Le
Baron d’Adelsward” in Le Journal 12 December 1903, p. 3; “Les Messes Noires” in L’Ouest-Éclair et l’Étoile de la
Mer 12 December 1903, p. 1; “Le Baron d’Adelsward” in Le Petit Parisien 12 December 1903, p. 1; “Le suicide
d’Adelsward” in La Presse 12 December 1903, p. [2]; “Il tentato suicidio del barone Adelsward, il protagonista del
processo della Messa Nera” in La Stampa. Gazzetta Piemontese 12 December 1903, p. 3; “Le Baron d’Adelsward” in
Le Journal 13 December 1903, p. 6: in the park of the de Maupeou family castle at Hombourg near Mulhouse (Alsace),
Jacques had put a revolver at his temple and had fainted after firing. A doctor had lent first aid upon which Jacques had
regained consciousness; he is said to have been brought in “a butcher’s van” or “a woodman’s van” to his hotel at
Mulhouse. The injury turned out to be not very grave: the bullet had entered his right temple, slided down the frontal
bone, and had left the head below his eye. Jacques returned to Paris 11 December 1903. In “Faits Divers” in Le Temps
16 December 1903, p. [3], d’Adelswärd rectified “certain details” (being “pure fantasies”) in the press coverage of his
attempt. To La Presse, Hombourg (Haut-Rhin) must have sounded like a place in a foreign country, for the village is
mixed up with Hamburg in Germany (see “Le Baron d’Adelsward” in La Presse 13 December 1903, p. 2). Quoting the
local newspaper, L’Express de Mulhouse, several newspapers added an interesting detail: before he went to Hombourg,
d’Adelswärd had booked the Hotel Central at Mulhouse with the name Jacques Liéven (see “M. d’Adelsward.
L’Épilogue des «Messes Noires»” in Le Matin 12 December 1903, p. 1; “La tentative de suicide du baron
d’Adelsward” in Le Figaro 14 December 1903, p. 4; “Le Baron d’Adelsward” in Le Journal 14 December 1903, p. 4;
“Le Baron d’Adelsward” in Le Temps 14 December 1903, p. [3]; “L’Affaire d’Adelsward” in La Lanterne 15
December 1903, p. 2; and Note 78).
105
See for instance “Le Baron d’Adelsward” in Le Journal 11 December 1903, p. 4; “Le Baron d’Adelsward” in Le
Petit Parisien 12 December 1903, p. 1; “Le Baron d’Adelsward” in Le Temps 12 December 1903, p. [4]; “Le Baron
d’Adelsward” in Le Rappel 13 December 1903, p. [2]; R. Peyrefitte, L’Exilé de Capri, p. 116.
106
See “Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 13 July 1903, p. 3. The article concluded: “Actually this noble
lady is astonished of the fact that a young man with 40,000 francs of income does not have the right to satisfy his
likings, his passions, even his vices.” Also to be found in “Échos” in L’Aurore 14 July 1903, p. 1; “Grave affaire de
moeurs” in L’Aurore 14 July 1903, p. 2; R. R[acot], “Le Scandale de l’Avenue Friedland” in Gil Blas 14 July 1903, p.
[3], “Le scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland” in La Lanterne 15 July 1903, p. 2, and “La folie érotique” in Le Rappel 15
July 1903, p. [2].
107
Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., p. 102: “exporteras till Amerika eller Australien der han ju möjligen om han vill söka
rehabilitera sig kan komma in som medarbetare i någon tidning eller dylikt.” The photo on the undated post card (fig.
21) must have been made during “Les grandes manoeuvres de l’Est” in the Autumn of 1904 (see “Informations L’Armée” in Le Journal 1 September 1904, p. 5).
108
J. Money, op. cit., pp. 86-88. Nino Cesarini, Jacques' later boy-friend, is recognizable in the novel, Vestal Fire, in
the person of Carlo di Fiore, and Villa Lysis (named from Plato's dialogue on "the good" as the ultimate goal of all
human desires) is called Villa Hylas, after the beloved of Herakles. E.[I.] Prime-Stevenson, “Out of the Sun” in Her
Enemy, Some Friends - and Other Personages: Stories & Studies Mostly of Human Hearts (Florence: Obsner, 1913). In the
55
protagonist of the story, Dayneford, we can recognize d’Adelswärd, and his lover Gino must be Nino. Reprinted in: M.
Mitchell and D. Leavitt (eds.), Pages Passed from Hand to Hand. The Hidden Tradition of Homosexual Literature in
English from 1748 to 1914 (Boston-New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997), pp. 394-403. E. Cerio, Aria di Capri: il libro degli
uomini. ([Portici]: Casella, [c.1936]); pp. 63-78 contain the short story “Il marchese di Pommery,” with d’Adelswärd as the
protagonist Marchese Paolo de Pommery dei Lenormant d’Étoile.
109
R. Peyrefitte, L’Exilé de Capri, p. 130. Hints at d’Adelswärd’s drug addiction (ether, morphine, opium) are
already to be found in 1903 (see for instance: “Premiers-Paris. L’Intransigeant” in Le Journal 14 July 1903, p. 4;
Arthur Dupin, “Les Dégénérés” in Le Journal 14 July 1903, p. 5; “Faits divers. Grave affaire de moeurs” in L’Aurore
20 July 1903, p. 3; Gaston Donnet, “Sensibleries” in L’Aurore 7 December 1903, p. 1; Pierre Mortier, “Jacques
d’Adelsward” in Gil Blas 11 July 1903, p. [3]; R. R[acot], “Le Scandale de l’Avenue Friedland” in Gil Blas 14 July
1903, p. [3]; Renard, “Gazette Judiciaire. Scènes antiques” in Gil Blas 29 November 1903, p. [2]; “Le scandale de
l’Avenue Friedland” in La Lanterne 21 July 1903, p. 3; “Le roman d’un névrosé” in Le Matin 14 July 1903, p. 2;
“Scandaleuse affaire” in Le Petit Parisien 14 July 1903, p. 2, 16 July 1903, p. 3, 17 July 1903, p. 3, and 19 July 1903,
p. 2; “La folie érotique” in Le Rappel 15 July 1903, p. [2]; “Un scandale” in Le Temps 14 July 1903, p. [3], and 20 July
1903, p. [3]).
110
According to Jacques’ last will, Nino was born in Rome 30 September 1889 (see F. Esposito, I misteri di Villa
Lysis. Testamento e morte di Jacques Fersen, Capri: Edizioni La Conchiglia, 1996, p. 62), although his gravestone has 29
September 1889 (see J. Desse, “Nino et son jumeau. Visages et mythes de l’ami de Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen.” (2012),
(http://issuu.com/gloeden-pluschow-galdi/docs/ninocesarini), p. [10], and Note 155). According to R. Peyrefitte, op. cit., pp.
137-142, they met each other for the first time 9 July 1904, one year after Jacques’ arrest in Paris. This must be a romantic
invention of Peyrefitte! Compared with a number of recently discovered letters of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, now in
the collection of Raimondo Biffi in Rome, Peyrefitte’s story of d’Adelswärd’s 1904 itinerary turns out to be rather dubious.
According to Peyrefitte, op. cit., pp. 126-128, Jacques departed to the Far East in February, and returned to Capri on 14
May. However, an undated letter, sent from the steamer “Sachsen” (China Sea), documents that d’Adelswärd went from
Ceylon to Signapore, Penau (or: Penaoe, a small island in the Dutch East Indies), Hong Kong, Shanghai, Peking, Japan.
According to a letter of 4 August 1904, sent from the steamer “Doric” (North Pacific Ocean), he had left Yokohama on 20
July, visited Hawaii on 30 July, and he expected to arrive in San Francisco on 8 August. On his journey through the United
States, partly by “sleeping car,” he intended to pass St. Louis in order to embark for Naples on 2 September. A letter to
Chimot of 24 September 1904 testifies that Jacques was back in Europe by then. So, the meeting with Nino in Rome on 9
July seems to be not very plausible, hence must have happened much earlier or at a later moment that year. Photos of the
“Sachsen” and the “Doric” are to be found in Will H.L. Ogrinc, “Nouvelles concernant les Adelswärd et la mer” in Bulletin
mensuel Quintes-feuilles 23 (2014), p. 6 (http://www.quintes-feuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/Novembre-2014.pdf).
111
R. Peyrefitte, op. cit., pp. 169-174, and my article, "Op het snijpunt van twee wegen - John Henry Mackay,
anarchist en knapenminnaar" in Maatstaf 31:8 (1983), pp. 70-78. In a letter to Chimot of 14 May [1905] (Rome, Italy,
Collection Raimondo Biffi) d’Adelswärd mentioned the arrival of his first Singhalese houseboy.
112
J. d'Adelswärd-Fersen, Une Jeunesse/Le Baiser de Narcisse (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein, 1907); Rachilde
“Une Jeunesse” in Mercure de France 69:248 (16 October 1907), p. 700. The Uranian and expert on witchcraft,
Montague Summers (1880-1948), wrote with great sympathy about d'Adelswärd and even dedicated a collection of his
poetry to him, Antinous and Other Poems (London: Sisley's, [1907]). He incorrectly wrote that the novella took place
in Venice, whereas it actually was set near Taormina and in Verona. See M. Summers, The Galanty Show. An
Autobiography by Montague Summers (London: Cecil Woolf, 1980), p. 236. Summers also was a secretary to the
department for the study of homosexuality of the British Society for the Study of Sex Psychology (see also Note 126).
The supposition made by T. d'Arch Smith, op. cit., p. 156, that Rachilde (pseudonym of Marguerite Aymery Vallette)
used Jacques' name for the two incestuous homosexual brothers Fertzen in her novel, Les Hors nature. Moeurs
contemporaines (Paris: Mercure de France, 1897), must be corrected: in 1897 Jacques had not yet acquired his
"reputation"! Possibly Rachilde was referring to Hans Axel von Fersen (see Note 20).
113
According to Professor Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., p. 127, it is believed that his family had asked Jacques to
leave Europe in order to be relieved of the obligation to invite him for his sister’s wedding.
114
For a description of Brunelleschi’s painting, see F. Esposito, op. cit., p. 91. For reproductions of the statue of
Nino cast by Francesco Ierace, see J. Money, op. cit., p. 95; P. Cardon (ed.), Dossier Jacques d’Adelsward-Fersen
(Lille: Cahiers Gai-Kitsch-Camp 21, Curiosa 3, 1993), p. 14; À la Jeunesse d’Amour, op. cit., pp. 36 (photo by
Guglielmo Plüschow), 37, 46-47; Amori et Dolori Sacrum, introd. by Roger Peyrefitte (Capri: Libreria «La
Conchiglia», 1990), pp. 23 and 45; T.G. Natter and P. Weiermair (eds.), Et in Arcadia ego (Zürich: Oehrli, 2000), pp.
18 and 19 (photos by Guglielmo Plüschow!). R. Peyrefitte, L’Esule di Capri (Capri: Edizioni La Conchiglia, 2003), [no
pagination], includes reproductions of a photo of the statue by Ierace, and photos of Nino by Guglielmo Plüschow (c.
1906) which seem to have been used by Ierace as a model for his statue. These photos are also reproduced in À la
Jeunesse d’Amour, op. cit., p. 101-102, and in P. Weiermair, Guglielmo Plüschow (Köln: Benedikt Taschen, 1993), pp.
30 and 33. The photo of Nino on the terrace is to be found in À la Jeunesse d’Amour, op. cit., p. 103, Amori et Dolori
Sacrum, op. cit., p. 41, and M. Hirschfeld, Geschlechtskunde. IV (Stuttgart: Julius Püttmann, 1930), p. 632. With
respect to the photo, the same symbols - although in mirror image - can be found on a drinking vessel from the First
56
Century B.C. on which Emperor Augustus is shown in all his majesty, and on a Fourth Century A.D. coin on which
Emperor Constantius II is depicted as Perpetuus Augustus. The closest resemblance with the photo is found in Second
and Third Century A.D. depictions of Zeus Nicephorus, see A. Dimitrova-Milcheva, Antique Engraved Gems and
Cameos in the National Archeological Museum in Sofia (Sofia: Septemviri Publishing House, 1981), pp. 32-33, Nrs.
13-14a. The photo differs in the following respects: standing posture, lack of scepter, and a Christian cross around
Nino's neck. Recently there has been published a reproduction of a painting of Nino (c. 1908) by the German artist Paul
Höcker, which is now in the private collection of Inka Nero in Switserland (see Goodbye to Berlin? 100 Jahre
Schwulenbewegung, Berlin: Verlag rosa Winkel, 1997, pp. 62, 78-79). Nino, more or less undressed, was painted
several times by Höcker. One of these paintings, “Roman Youngster,” appeared on the title page of Number 26 of the
magazine Jugend (1904) (see also: A. Sternweiler (ed.), Selbstbewusstsein und Beharrlichkeit. Zweihundert Jahre
Geschichte, Berlin: Schwules Museum, 2004, pp. 69-70). Fausto Esposito, loc. cit., describes another painting of a
dressed Nino, hanging in the “camera goyesca” of Villa Lysis, and signed with “Paul.” In 1897 Höcker had fled to
Italy, when it became common knowledge in Germany that he had used a rent boy from Munich, with whom he had an
intimate relationship, as a model for a painting of a Madonna.
115
J. d'Adelswärd-Fersen, Ainsi chantait Marsyas.... Poèmes (Florence and Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein,
1907), pp. 15-16, 23-28. The photo of Jacques in J. Money, loc. cit., dates from this time and gives evidence of
d'Adelswärd's increasing use of opium.
116
“Déplacements et Villégiatures des Abonnés du «Figaro»” in Le Figaro 24 September 1908, p. 6.
117
On the response of the residents of Capri, see: J. Money, op. cit., pp. 109-111; E. Settanni, Scrittori stranieri a
Capri ([Napoli]: La Conchiglia, 1986), pp. 30-31; R. Ciuni, I peccati di Capri (Roma: New Deal, 1998), p. 99. One of
Jacques' friends suggested that readers might have mis-read the implications of the dots following “mer,” which of
course means that they interpreted it as “merde” (shit).
118
The use of opium - following the Chinese Chandu method - was very popular with a number of artists, especially
since the drug was easily obtainable in European chemist’s shops, even after the First World War. W. Schmidbauer and
J. vom Scheidt, Handbuch der Rauschdrogen (München: Nymphenburger, 1975), pp. 139-146, states that the smoking
of 20 to 40 pipes (6 to 7 grams) per day was common for the average user (10 grams of opium contain approximately 1
gram morphine, of which 0.2 to 0.3 grams come directly into the blood with smoking). A. Hayther, Opium and the
Romantic Imagination (London: Faber and Faber, 1968), goes deeply into the influence which the drug had on various
artists. Jacques' attraction to this particular drug can be explained in part by the fact that from ancient times opium has
been used in various mystery cults and initiation ceremonies.
119
For reproductions of the photo of the Neapolitan boy, see: À la Jeunesse d’Amour, op. cit., p. 43, E. Cooper, Fully
Exposed. The Male Nude in Photography (London: Unwin Hyman, 1990), p. 157, P. Weiermair, op. cit., p. 69, Amori
et Dolori Sacrum, op. cit., pp. 31 and 39 (divided into two parts!), and R. Peyrefitte, op. cit., [no pagination]. In the
early 1870s the German Guglielmo (= Wilhelm Eduard Hermann Gottlieb) Plüschow lived as a photographer in Naples
(Mergellina district). Between 1892 and 1909 he operated in Rome. In the aftermath of the Krupp scandal, he was
accused of sexual match-making, the seduction of minors, and the production and distribution of “obscene” photos. He
was arrested 14 May 1907 because he had made photos of a twelve-year-old Roman boy, Ernani Marinelli, in “a pose
not in accordance with the laws of decency” (see: “L’arresto di un fotografo tedesco” in Il Messaggero 15 May 1907, p.
4; “Il fotografo arrestato” in La Tribuna 16 May 1907, p. 3; “Un fotografo corruttore” in La Tribuna 15 May 1907; “Il
fotografo tedesco arrestato” in Il Messaggero 16 May 1907, p. 4; “Un processo scandaloso” in Il Messaggero 15 June
1907; “Fotografi corruttori” in Bollettino della Lega per la Moralità Pubblica 13:2, 1908, pp. 6-7; and L. Ferriani, “E
lo scandalo del fotografo?” in Battaglie d’oggi 3:14, 1907, pp. 1-2). During the police raid of Plüschow’s apartment, a
famous German concert singer was found in his home with a young “civus [= civis] romanus” (Roman citizen) in a
compromising situation (see Xavier Mayne, The Intersexes. A History of Similisexualism as Problem in Social Life,
Naples: [Privately printed, c.1910], p. 486). Recently Enrico Oliari has published the complete transcription of the
sentence of the Corte Penale di Roma of 4 April 1908 (see E. Oliari, L’Omo Delinquente. Scandali e delitti gay
dall’Unità a Giolitti, Civitavecchia-Roma: Prospettiva editrice, 2006, pp. 203-214; also published on the Internet at
http://www.oliari.com/ricerche/sentenzaplueschow.html). Xavier Mayne’s “civus romanus” can now be identified as
the Roman boy, Amedeo Moretti, and the German concert singer, “Dott[ore] Wulmer Luigi,” must be Dr. Ludwig
Wüllner (1858-1938) (see Spemanns goldenes Buch der Musik, Berlin-Stuttgart: Verlag W. Spemann, 1900, Nr. 1390,
which also contains a photo of the concert singer). Plüschow was sentenced to seven months and fifteen days prison,
and a big fine. After 1910 he returned to Germany (see U. Pohlmann, Guglielmo Plüschow (1852-1930). Ein
Photograph aus Mecklenburg in Italien, Grevesmühlen: NWM-Verlag, 1995, pp. 8-11). Reproductions of Plüschow’s
photos, possibly representing Nino, are to be found in the following books: U. Pohlmann, op. cit., Inv. Nr. 89/74-84
“Rückenakt eines männlichen Modells” (Nude back of a male model); Inv. Nr. 89/74-78 “Porträt eines jungen Mannes”
(Portrait of a young man); and Inv. Nr. 89/13-45 “Männlicher Akt mit ‘Heiligenschein’” (Male nude with a ‘nimbus’).
The latter is also reproduced in À la Jeunesse d’Amour, op. cit., p. 100, Amori et Dolori Sacrum, op. cit., p. 35, on the
cover of F. Esposito, op. cit., in R. Peyrefitte, op. cit., [no pagination], in P. Weiermair, op. cit., the first photo of the
book, and in Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., p. 120. According to Pohlmann, these photos are from about 1900, which
seems to be dated too early. However, Jacques Desse, op. cit., p. [22], has recently discovered that “Männlicher Akt mit
57
‘Heiligenschein’” had already been published in 1902 (see C. Klary, La Photographie du Nu, Paris: C. Klary, 1902);
hence the photo cannot possibly represent Nino since the boy was only thirteen at that time. D. Leddick, The Male
Nude (Köln: Taschen, 1998), p. 134, reproduces a photo of Nino as a nude Roman soldier, and in Wilhelm von
Gloeden, Wilhelm von Plüschow, Vincenzo Galdi. Italienische Jünglings-Photographien um 1900 (Berlin: Janssen,
1991), p. 37, we can find a nude back-pose of Nino, playing with a tambourine. The Italian edition of R. Peyrefitte, op.
cit., has more photos of Nino by Plüschow, including several nudes (c. 1906). These are also to be found in À la
Jeunesse d’Amour, op. cit., pp. 99, 104-105 (see also P. Weiermair, op. cit., pp. 10, 13, 21, 91).
120
A copy of the frontal nude (Figure 28) apparently was in Peyrefitte’s private collection; it has recently been
reproduced in R. Peyrefitte, Wilhelm von Gloeden: Biographie. Avec un cahier de 50 nus masculins (Paris: Éditions
Textes Gais, 2008), p. [99].
121
J.-C. Féray, loc. cit. If the supposition, made by Féray, is correct, it casts a new and less romantic light on the
acquaintance than in Peyrefitte’s novel (see also Note 110): Nino would be one of the boys possibly exploited by
Plüschow. The editors of À la Jeunesse d’Amour, op. cit., p. 12, claim that Nino already was a model of Plüschow, and
Féray’s supposition seems to be additionally supported: in the above-mentioned sentence of the Corte Penale di Roma
(Note 119), we can find a quote from the seized correspondence of Plüschow, in which a certain Geofray is looking at a
photo of Nino (Cesarini?), and recalls the beautiful moments he had with the boy: “Stamane ho avuto la sorpresa di
trovare fra la mia posta la meravigliosa fotografia di Nino e ne sono rimasto in estasi. Quanto è bello e quali dolci
ricordi mi ha risvegliato in quel momento.” Another boy, Rodolfo Consorti, testified that he was introduced by
Plüschow in Capri to the “notoriamente sospetto pederasta passivo” (evidently suspect passive pederast) Fersen, who
had made “proposte oscene” (obscene proposals) which the boy had rejected (see E. Oliari, op. cit., pp. 210-211). From
all this, it seems obvious that Plüschow was not only selling photos, but also supplying boys.
122
G. Amendola, Una scelta di vita (Milano: Rizzoli, 2001), p. 33: “Formammo una banda di ragazzi e ragazze,
sempre uniti nell’esplorare l’isola. C’erano zone interdette, nelle quali non dovevamo entrare. Così ci avevano detto di
non avvicinarci mai a una villa bianca verso [Monte] Tiberio dove, si diceva, si facevano brutte cose. Più tardi sentii
parlare di Fersen e delle sue strane amicizie. Avevo undici anni e i ragazzi di Capri avevano pressapoco la mia stessa
età, e comprendevano perfettamente il senso delle varie allusioni.”
123
A. Andrén, op. cit., p. 161. "Le triste héros des messes noires Jacques d'Adelsward meurt mystérieusement à
Capri" in Le Matin 10 December 1923, p. 1, prints sensationalistic reports from the local rumor mill: the residents of
Capri crossed themselves when strange sounds and lights came from similar nocturnal “orgies” held in Villa Lysis.
During the Plüschow scandal (see Note 119), the Italian press even referred to a note of the Carabinieri of 7 June 1907:
in his “small villa at Capri (…), D.F.” (= De Fersen) not only received “molti ragazzi” (many boys); “celebrations,
similar to the ones he was condemned for by the Tribunal de la Seine,” took place: “messe nere” (Black Masses).
Reference is also made to his “Roman lover C.A.” (= Antonio [= Nino] Cesarini) (see “Un processo scandaloso”, op.
cit.; also to be found on: http://www.oliari.com/ricerche/plueschow.html).
124
See Note 111. According to Edwin Cerio (L’Ora di Capri, Capri: La Conchiglia, 2000, pp. 208-209), the course of
events had turned out differently: the performance was brutally terminated by the police. The preparations of the
celebration had raised suspicions of the local priest, who feared for an orgy, and the mayor, who hoped for a scandal:
“So when, one night, the whole heretical and erotic company of the island disappeared into the grotto by torchlight, for
both of them there was no doubt, and the intervention of the Carabinieri was decided.” D’Adelswärd and others were
arrested and a list was made of seized objects. By intervention on high authority (mention was made of “diplomatic
pressure”) the scandal vanished into smoke.
125
“Déplacements et Villégiatures des Abonnés du «Figaro»” in Le Figaro 4 November 1909, p. 7; “Italie” in Le
Temps 29 December 1909, p. [2]; “Italie” in La Lanterne 30 December 1909, p. 3.
126
In a letter of 8 December 1907, d’Adelswärd thanked Eekhoud for the contacts with the “leaders of the German
party.” See: P. Cardon (ed.), op. cit., pp. 64-65; M. Lucien (ed.), op. cit., p. 15; P. Snijders, “De komeet van Fersen. Het
literaire tijdschrift Akademos (1909)” in De Parelduiker 1:1 (1996), p. 43. Der Eigene was founded by Adolf Brand
and Benedict Friedländer (1866-1908), and was clearly influenced by the philosophy of the German anarchist
pedagogue and philosopher Max Stirner (pseudonym of Kaspar Schmidt, 1806-1856), centering upon the selfdevelopment of the individual. In 1897, the psychiatrist and sexologist Hirschfeld had founded in Berlin the first
association of the German gay liberation, the “Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee” (1897-1933), with a special
branch in the Netherlands (“Nederlandsch Wetenschappelijk Humanitair Komitee,” 1912-1940). Together with the
Alsatian jurist Numa Praetorius (pseudonym of Eugen Daniel Wilhelm, 1866-1951), Hirschfeld also published the
quarterly Vierteljahrsberichte des Wissenschaftlich-humanitären Komitees, in fact a follow-up of the Jahrbuch für
sexuelle Zwischenstufen. In the presence of, among others, Numa Praetorius and the Swiss psychologist Camille Spiess,
d’Adelswärd attended a “crowded” meeting in the building of the Sociétés Savantes in Paris on 26 February 1910,
during which Hirschfeld, by request of the Cercle International d’Études Sociales et Littéraires, read a lecture on “The
deviations of the sexual instinct, with special attention to the homosexual question” (see Vierteljahrsberichte des
Wissenschaftlich-humanitären Komitees 1, 1909/1910, p. 342). Praetorius stayed for a longer time in Paris (see Numa
Praetorius, “Homosexuelle Pissoirinschriften aus Paris” in Anthropophyteia 8, 1911, pp. 410-422). During 1909, Spiess
figured on the list of collaborators of Akademos, but he never made a contribution to the magazine. Spiess (1878-?) was
58
a friend of d’Adelswärd and a visitor of Villa Lysis (see C. Spiess, Mon Autopsie. Éjaculations autobiographiques, Nice:
Athanor, 1938, pp. 109-112, 129). Raimondo Biffi (http://www.multimania.com/jgir/fersen.htm) suggested that
d’Adelswärd also might have been a member of the “Order of Chaeronea.” The name of this worldwide secret society
was inspired by the battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C., when 300 members of the Sacred Band of Thebes (composed
entirely of friends and lovers) were slaughtered by the army of Philip of Macedonia. The Order was founded in 1897 by
the homosexual Edwardian poet and author, George Cecil Ives (1867-1950), co-founder of the British Society for the
Study of Sex Psychology (1914), and most famous of his study The Graeco-Roman View of Youth (London: Cayme
Press, 1926). Its aim was to promote the end of the oppression of homosexuals.
127
The following are some of the best known names: Paul Adam, Henri Barbusse, Maurice Barrès, Jules Bois,
Norman Douglas, Georges Eekhoud, Achille Essebac, Claude Farrère, Jean Ferval (pseudonym of Roger Charbonnel),
Anatole France, Henry Gauthier-Villars and his wife Colette Willy (pseudonym of Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette), Maxim
Gorky (pseudonym of Alexey Maximovich Peshkov), Robert d'Humières, Pierre Loti, Maurice Maeterlinck, F.T.
Marinetti, Octave Mirbeau, Robert de Montesquiou, Jean Moréas, Joséphin Péladan, Laurent Tailhade and his close
friend Robert Scheffer, Emile Verhaeren, Renée Vivien, Eugene (sic) [Daniel] Wilhelm. For a more detailed evaluation
of the magazine, see the article of Paul Snijders, op. cit., pp. 39-51. Florence Tamagne, A History of Homosexuality in
Europe. Volume I & II. Berlin, London, Paris 1919-1939 (New York: Algora Publishing, 2006), p. 102, mentions
Marc-André Raffalovitch as a co-founder of Akademos, without giving any evidence.
128
(Anonymous "N.D.L.R."), "Note de la Direction" in Akademos 1:10 (1909), p. 640.
129
“Inaugural” and “Notre But” (Our Aim) in Akademos 1:1 (1909), pp. 1-2, 113. Though he was listed as a
collaborator, Norman Douglas (1868-1952), op. cit., p. 363, knew only this issue of the magazine. J. Money, op. cit.,
pp. 109, 311-312, knew of ten of the twelve issues but only consulted six.
130
Jacques borrowed this pseudonym from the book by Jean Lorrain, Sonyeuse (Paris: Charpentier, 1891).
131
Vyvyan Holland’s part is not mentioned in the press articles I found: “Il suicidio di uno sconosciuto” in La
Gazetta di Venezia 25 September 1908, and “Il suicida francese R. Laurent” in La Gazetta di Venezia 27 September
1908. See also: C. Arnaud, Jean Cocteau (Paris: Gallimard, 2003), p. 45; E. Oliari, op. cit., pp. 157-163.
132
F.T. Marinetti, “Le Dompteur” in Akademos 1:2 (1909), p. 176; J. d’Adelswärd-Fersen, “Poème dans la rosée”
and “Tes Yeux…” in Poesia. Rassegna Internazionale 5:1-2 (1909), pp. 43, 77. On page 75, in the same issue of
Poesia, there is a poem by Robert Scheffer, “Visions de Minuit,” dedicated to “J. de Fersen.” Together with Victor
Litchfousse, the French writer Robert Scheffer (1864-1926) was interim editor of Akademos. Marinetti’s Manifesto was
simultaneously published in Poesia and Le Figaro (20 February 1909). Fersen, “Akademos” in Poesia. Rassegna
Internazionale 5:3-6 (1909), p. 49; J. Adelswärd de Fersen, “Mon cher Poète” in Poesia. Rassegna Internazionale 5:3-6
(1909), p. 8. In a letter to Marinetti of 5 July 1909 (New Haven, USA, Yale University. Beinecke Rare Book and
Manuscript Library. Marinetti Collection GEN MSS 130, Series III, Box 7, Folder 79), Jacques again praised the
Manifesto, and invited Marinetti to send new contributions to Akademos.
133
Although, on 10 May 1909, d’Adelswärd was still confident, and even intended a bimonthly publication of the
magazine (starting in January 1910), in the same letter to Georges Eekhoud (who made several contributions to
Akademos) he complained about the “ludicrous rarity” of subscriptions, and that he felt himself abandoned by other
“adonisiens” (worshippers of Adonis) who, out of fear, had turned their back upon him (“perhaps by custom?” Jacques
added with a sneer), instead of helping him. See P. Cardon (ed.), op. cit., pp. 66-67. The letter is part of a collection of
six letters (and a post card for New-Year 1908) from d’Adelswärd to Eekhoud, preserved in the Royal Library Albert I,
Archives et Musée de la Littérature, at Brussels. A reproduction of the post card is to be found in M. Lucien (ed.), op.
cit., p. 142.
134
R. Peyrefitte, L’Exilé de Capri, pp. 221-225.
135
R. Peyrefitte, op. cit., pp. 227-228.
136
J. Thurman, Colette. Roman ihres Lebens (Berlin: Berlin Verlag, 2001), pp. 873-874. Mathilde de Morny
(nicknamed “Monsieur le Marquis,” “Missy,” or “Oncle Max”) not only financially supported the publication of
Akademos; together with her partner Colette, she also frequented d’Adelswärd’s salons, went with him for dinner, or
visited the cinema (see C. Francis and F. Gontier, Mathilde de Morny. La scandaleuse marquise et son temps, Paris:
Perrin, 2000, pp. 260-262).
137
Or “Toutpanse” (see “En banlieue” in Le Matin 6 May 1910, p. 5). “Nouvelles Diverses” in Le Journal 6 May
1910, p. 6, has “Antoine Césarim” as the driver.
138
“Déplacements et Villégiatures des Abonnés du «Figaro»” in Le Figaro 27 August 1910, p. 5. R. Peyrefitte, op.
cit., p. 251; the stay at Nice is not mentioned in the press articles I found.
139
Jean de Mitty (pseudonym of Mircea Golfineanu, 1862-1911) was a journalist, literary chronicler, and director of
the magazine Le Cri de Paris. In the newspaper Gil Blas, the quarrel and the duel were referred to as “a lot of blood for
a bit of ink” (see “Informations” in Le Figaro 22 and 23 September 1910, p. 3; “Entre hommes de lettres” in Le Matin
22 September 1910, p. 3; “Échos. Après une chronique” in Gil Blas 24 September 1910, p. [1]; “Le Duel d’Hier” in Le
Journal 29 September 1910, p. 3; “Un duel” in Le Temps 29 September 1910, p. [3]; “Le duel Mitty-Scheffer” in Le
Figaro 30 September 1910, p. 3; “Un nouveau duel” in Le Journal 30 September 1910, p. 3; Maurice de Noisay
“Correspondance” in Le Journal 30 September 1910, p.3; “Paris. Le duel d’hier” in Le Rappel 30 September 1910, p.
59
[3]; “Sur le Pré des Duels” in Le Stéphanois 30 September 1910, p. 1; “Sur le Pré. Autre duel” in Le Stéphanois 1
October 1910, p. 1). There are no details in the press about the reason for the quarrel.
140
Le Figaro lists Jacques’ sojourn at Kandy (Ceylon/Sri Lanka), Benares (India), Batavia (Dutch East Indies), and
Hong Kong (see “Déplacements et Villégiatures des Abonnés du «Figaro»” in Le Figaro 27 October 1910, p. 7; 2
December 1910, p. 7; 17 December 1910, p. 7; 16 February 1911, p. 7).
141
According to R. Peyrefitte, op. cit., pp. 254, 257-261, before they went on to the Far East, the trip with Jacques’
yacht “Orta” took them, along the Italian coast, to Greece, Algeria and Tunisia. A photograph of the “Orta” is to be
found in Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., p. 129. The trip is partly confirmed by a certain “Dan461”. On the Internet he
wrote: “Je recherche tout renseignement sur le “steam-yacht” ORTA. Son propriétaire était le comte Jacques
d’Adelswärd-Fersen. Mon Grd-père était matelot à bord du 4 sept. 1911 au 13 déc. 1911. Il débarque à Corfou pour se
rendre en France accomplir son service militaire.” See Message Nr. 37364, posted 16 May 2013, 09:14:17
(http://pages14-18.mesdiscussions.net/pages1418/Forum-Pages-d-Histoire-aviation-marine/marine-19141918/yachtmen-immediat-guerre-sujet_3194_1.htm): his grandfather had been a sailor of the “Orta” from September to
December 1911; he had left the yacht at the isle of Corfu.
142
Fersen, “Vous disiez?” in Pan. Revue libre 3:11 (1910), pp. 686-688; J. d’Adelswärd-Fersen, Paradinya (Paris:
Edition de <Pan>, 1911), p. 23.
143
J.H. van Epen, Compendium Drugverslaving en Alcoholisme. Diagnostiek en behandeling (Amsterdam:
Agon/Elsevier, 1974), p. 90, cites Sigmund Freud's experiments with curing opium addiction by administering cocaine.
This resulted in the patient becoming psychotic. On Gemito, see my article "Street-Urchins: Antonio Mancini (18521930)" in Paidika 2:3 (1991), pp. 31-47, passim. According to F. Esposito, op. cit., p. 90, Jacques possessed a bronze
statuette of a nude ephebe on a pedestal of agate, made by Gemito. In a new edition of an Italian translation (1959) of
L’Exilé de Capri, we can find a portrait by Gemito (1920) of a moustached Nino with a turban, now in the collection of
Lino Maesano (see: R. Peyrefitte, L’Esule di Capri, back of the cover, and À la Jeunesse d’Amour, op. cit., p. 107). J.
Money, op. cit., pp. 124-126, 134, has d'Adelswärd undertake in 1913/14 another trip to the Far East, with Nino and
some female friends from the colony at Capri. This trip is only mentioned by E.F. Benson and Compton Mackenzie and
is probably based upon fantasy.
144
“Oppiarum” (“Della vita e della morte del barone di Fersen” in Il Mattino 8/9 December 1923). In 2010, a frontal
nude (made by an unknown photographer) of d’Adelswärd himself, reclining in his Opiarium, was for sale on the
Internet. The photograph is partly reproduced in J. Desse, op. cit., p. [6], and Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., p. 15. An
uncensored version was to be found at the Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen Appreciation Group
(https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=104353689578527&set=o.40311732882&type=3&theater).
145
R. Peyrefitte, Propos Secrets 2, p. 355. J. Money, op. cit., pp. 159, 170, describes Nino after 1918 as a young
man who "at last" was set on the straight and narrow path through his war experiences; he was not only decorated with
the Cross of War but seems to have suddenly taken on Anglo-Saxon morals. He is supposed to have stayed with
d'Adelswärd only out of compassion for the "madman"; "they were now 'just friends,' and Fersen's attempts to revive
the old sexual relationship were rejected." This is a concatenation, perhaps based upon wishful thinking, of absurdities
and suspicions presented as fact which is based in no respect upon existing documentation. Above all, because of
Jacques' preference for ephebes, we may assume that the sexual component of the relationship had ended years before.
146
See: M. Favai-Kietsvi [aka. Kievits], Vita con Gennaro (Milano: Ceschina, 1965), pp. 147-155; E. Respighi,
Ottorino Respighi: dati biografici ordinati da Elsa Respighi (Milano: Ricordi, [1954]), p. 138.
147
R. Peyrefitte, loc. cit. A copy of La Neuvaine du petit faune is in the collection of Alexandre de Villiers
(Peyrefitte’s godson and executor of his last will). It is not clear whether this is the original manuscript, given by
Corrado to his friends Romolo Valle and Giorgio de Lullo, directors of the Teatro Eliseo in Rome, with whom
Peyrefitte spoke on Capri. It has recently been published in Une Jeunesse/La Neuvaine du petit faune (Paris: Quintesfeuilles, 2010), pp. 139-154.
148
In fact, Jacques himself had his last will drawn up in French in Villa Lysis 21 November 1921; after the recitation
of the Italian version on 16 November 1923, it was registered by Notary Aniello Paturzo from neighbouring Piano di
Sorrento on 23 November 1923 (see: F. Esposito, op. cit., p. 62-63; À la Jeunesse d’Amour, op. cit., pp. 163-164).
149
According to Peyrefitte's novel; I can find no other documentation. Peyrefitte's opinion is highly probable. It
raises the question of why d'Adelswärd visited von Gloeden with Corrado just as he had with Nino years before. He
must have been fond of von Gloeden’s photos, and perhaps he wanted both youngsters preserved in the work of the
most famous photographer of boys at that time. Perhaps these photos will some day come to light! R. Peyrefitte, L'Exilé
de Capri, pp. 292, 298, says that d'Adelswärd also had sketches made of Nino and Corrado by the sculptor Vincenzo
Gemito (see also Note 143). The imprint (lower left corner) on d’Adelswärd’s photo, sent as a gift to Georges Eekhoud,
and now in the Archives et Musée de la Littérature at Brussels (see M. Lucien, op. cit., cover), testifies that there also
were contacts between d’Adelswärd and the Bohemian photographer Rudolph Lehnert and his German assistant Ernst
Landrock, famous of their photos (and post cards) of (nude) oriental boys (see: Ph. Cardinal, L’Orient d’un
photographe. Lehnert & Landrock, Lausanne-Paris: Favre, 1987; Winckelmann [pseudonym], “Lehnert & Landrock.
Photographers of the Orient” in Gayme 3:2, 1997, pp. 26-33).
60
150
F. Esposito, op. cit., pp. 67-68. N. Douglas, op. cit., p. 365. It remains unclear whether Jacques died on 5
November or 6 November. Peyrefitte, without giving any evidence, expressly states that it was on 5 November (see
Note 2), whereas the Italian press and Nino’s testimonies have 6 November.
151
“Le triste héros des messes noires Jacques d’Adelsward meurt mystérieusement à Capri,” loc. cit.; “Le Baron
d’Adelsward aurait été assassiné” in Le Journal 10 December 1923, p. 3.
152
The Dutch in memoriam, “De dood van baron Adelsward von Ferzen” in Het Vaderland: staat- en letterkundig
nieuwsblad 12 December 1923, p. Avondblad B 1, states that Jacques had been at odds with his sister “who had never
forgiven his conduct.” On 8 December 1923, in the presence of Judge Ferrara, the autopsy was carried out by Vincenzo
Maione, Professor in Forensic Medicine at the University of Naples, and Vincenzo Gianturco, Professor in Pathological
Anatomy, and lasted from 11.30 a.m. to 15.30 p.m. See: “L’autopsia del cadavere del barone De Fersen” in Il Messaggero
8 December 1923, and “Sulla morte del Barone De Fersen. L’autopsia eseguita ieri confermerebbe la morte per sincope” in
Il Mezzogiorno 8/9 December 1923.
153
F. Esposito, op. cit., pp. 62-63, reprints the Italian translation of Jacques’ will in facsimile and in partial
transcription. The document does not mention any shares of foreign railway-companies, often referred to by the Italian
press. Concerning the lawsuits, see pp. 75-80. A British professor, who, in his youth, was the lover of the photographer
Algernon Islay de Courcy Lyons, told Raimondo Biffi an odd story. In a deposit in New York there had been a huge
quantity of photos, books, and letters from d’Adelswärd and his friends from Capri. It was part of Lyons’ inheritance to
his adopted Thai son, Manop Charoensuk. Lyons had been the last lover of the Scottish writer Kenneth Macpherson,
husband of the lesbian and millionaire writer “Bryher” (Annie Winifred Ellerman), the lifelong partner of the poetess
Hilda Doolittle. Bryher supported her husband and his friend in Capri, and also stipulated that they should take into
their home the aging Norman Douglas. The material of d’Adelswärd’s circle most probably came from Douglas. It was
inherited by Macpherson, who left everything to his lover Lyons. Charoensuk sold it to an American millionaire. A few
years ago, the complete collection was offered by Sotheby’s in London to the American antiquarian David Deiss, but
was bought by an unknown British dealer.
154
Loulou married a relative of Jacques’ former guardian, Juliette Marie Martine de Dampierre, 3 December 1928
(see “Mariages” in Le Figaro 5 December 1928, p. 2; Le Gaulois 5 December 1928, p. 2, and 6 December 1928, p. 2;
Journal des Débats Politiques et Littéraires 6 December 1928, p. 2). In 1936 he stayed at Rochecorbon near Tours
(“Déplacements et Villégiatures des Abonnés du «Figaro»” in Le Figaro 23 June 1936, p. 7). See also Note 42. Paul
Morand and Jacques Chardonne, op. cit., p. 644: “Je crois aussi vous avoir raconté comment, 60 ans plus tard,
j’envoyai Peyrefitte, avide de documentation, audit Louis, devenu un père de famille respectable (ceci, très Proust) et
qui lui répondit: « Fersen... il était très amoureux de ma sœur. »”; Will H.L. Ogrinc, “Souvenir de Loulou Locré, ancien
petit ami de Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen” in Bulletin mensuel Quintes-feuilles 15 (2014), pp. 2-3 (http://www.quintesfeuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Mars-2014.pdf). According to an addition in the margin of his birth
registration, Loulou died at Chaillé-les-Marais (Vendée) 13 December 1970.
155
J. Money, op. cit., pp. 172, 315; R. Peyrefitte, op. cit., p. 314; Propos Secrets 2, loc. cit. Giuseppina Messanelli
told James Money that Nino died in 1939 (see F. Esposito, op. cit., p. 76). A site on the Internet of Jacques Girard has
1943 as year of death (http://www.multimania.com/jgir/fersen.htm); the latter is confirmed by the Italian photographer
Giovanbattista Brambilla, who is preparing a book about Nino Cesarini, and who recently discovered his grave at a
Roman cemetery, the Campo Verano. A photograph of his grave is reproduced in Jacques Desse (see Note 110) and
Viveka Adelswärd, op. cit., p. 158. In 2001, Nino’s grand-nephew still owned the same newspaper kiosk on the Via
Veneto in Rome (communication from Raimondo Biffi). After Nino’s death, his family destroyed all his letters from
d’Adelswärd, most of the photos representing Nino as a nude boy, as well as oriental erotic objects, deposited by Nino
in a private case in a Roman bank. In R. Peyrefitte, L’Esule di Capri, there are some photos of objects from Nino’s
inheritance, now in the possession of his heirs, the Maesano family (see Note 143). These are also reproduced in À la
Jeunesse d’Amour, op. cit., pp. 158-161.
156
The Internet Movie Database (http://www.imdb.com) even lists 23 movies (between 1930 and 1970), in which
Corrado played a part.
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Primary Sources: Jacques d’Adelswärd
Books
1898 - Conte d'amour. (Genève) [further bibliographical information unknown].
1901 - Chansons Légères. Poèmes de l'enfance. Préfaces d'Edmond Rostand et de Fernand Gregh. Les Images par Louis
Morin. (Paris: Léon Vanier) [with a portrait of d'Adelswärd; at least four editions].
- Ébauches et Débauches. Préface de François Coppée. (Paris: Léon Vanier) [in collaboration with Jean-Louis
Vaudoyer; at least eight editions; with cover by “A.P.” and a portrait of d’Adelswärd].
1902 - L'Hymnaire d'Adonis, à la façon de M. le Marquis de Sade. Paganismes. (Paris: Léon Vanier) [with cover by
61
George Auriol (aka. Jean-Georges Huyot) and a reproduction by Jean-Paul Laurens; at least three editions. Reprint:
S.l.: Elibron Classics, 2005].
- Musique sur tes lèvres. (Paris: Albert Messein) [only bibliographical information; second edition of Ébauches et
Débauches; at least seven editions ].
- Notre-Dame des Mers Mortes (Venise). (Paris: P. Sevin et E. Rey) [with cover by Louis Morin and a portrait of
d’Adelswärd; at least four editions].
1903 - Les Cortèges qui sont passés. (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein) [with a portrait of d'Adelswärd on the cover].
1904 - L'Amour enseveli. Poèmes. (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein).
1905 - Lord Lyllian. Messes Noires. (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein) [with cover by Claude Simpson; at least three
editions].
1906 - Le Danseur aux Caresses. (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein).
- Le Poison dans les fleurs. (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein) [same contents as the previous title] .
1907 - Ainsi chantait Marsyas…. Poèmes. (Florence and Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein) [reprint with a dossier about
the magazine Akademos by Mirande Lucien: Montpellier: éditions QuestionDeGenre/GKC, 2012].
- Une Jeunesse/Le Baiser de Narcisse. (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein) [dedicated to "N[ino]. C[esarini]. Plus
beau que la lumière romaine"].
1909 - Et le feu s'éteignit sur la mer… (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein/Édition de la Revue »Akademos«) [with cover
by Ernest Marie Brisset].
1911 - Paradinya. (Paris: Éditions de <Pan>) [with cover by Henri S. Ciolkowski; only 132 copies].
1912 - Le Baiser de Narcisse. Illustré de seize compositions de E. Brisset. (Reims: L. Michaud) [only 220 copies. Reprint:
Montpellier: éditions QuestionDeGenre/GKC, 2012].
- Le Sourire aux yeux fermés. (Paris: Librairie Ambert) [illustration by Ernest Marie Brisset].
1913 - Choix de poèmes 1901-1913. (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein) [illustration by Ernest Marie Brisset].
- L'Essor vierge. (Paris: Librairie Ambert) [only bibliographical information].
- Ode à la Terre Promise. (Paris: Collection de <Pan> chez Figuière) [French original and Italian prose translation
»À l'Italie« by Hermès Bertolazzi].
1921 - Hei Hsiang. Le parfum noir. (Paris: Albert Messein) [cover by Ernest Marie Brisset; only 505 copies].
1990 - Oppio: poesie scelte. (Napoli: A. Caròla) [selection and Italian translation from Hei Hsiang by Mariano Bàino, with
a comment by Ada Negri].
1991 - E il fuoco si spense sul mare. (Capri: La Conchiglia) [Italian translation of Et le feu s’éteignit sur la mer by Romano
Paolo Coppini and Rolando Nieri].
2005 - Black Masses – Lord Lyllian. ([North Pomfret]: Asphodel Editions) [English translation introd. by Jeremy Reed;
only 500 copies].
2006 - Lord Lyllian. (Hamburg: MännerschwarmSkript Verlag) [German translation by Wolfgang Wiebe and Wolfram
Setz].
2010 - Une Jeunesse/La Neuvaine du petit faune.Préface de Patricia Marcoz. (Paris: Quintes-feuilles) [cover painting
by Dirk (aka. Dick) van der Maat].
2011- Lord Lyllian. Messes Noires. (Montpellier: éditions QuestionDeGenre/GKC) [with cover by Claude Simpson;
postscript by Jean-Claude Féray and a reprint of Jean de Palacio’s ‘Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen et la figure
d’Héliogabale’].
Poems and Articles
1901 - ‘Éveil’/‘Berceuse’ in La Nouvelle Revue 22:11 (1901), p. 402.
1909 - 'L'Extase' in Akademos 1:9 (1909), pp. 321-326.
- 'Ode au Pape et au Roi' in Akademos 1:11 (1909), pp. 656-659.
- ‘Poème dans la rosée’ in Poesia. Rassegna Internazionale 5:1-2 (Febr./March 1909), p. 43.
- 'Sur la glorification du [sic!] Vierge dans la religion d'Oscar Wilde' in Akademos 1:10 (1909), pp. 547-550.
- 'Sur l'Opium (Causerie faite au Gymnase)' in Akademos 1:4 (1909), pp. 557-559 [d’Adelswärd only wrote the
inserted ‘Requiem’; the remainder was written by Olivier Seylor (pseudonym of Olivier Diraison)].
- ‘Tes yeux…’ in Poesia. Rassegna Internazionale 5:1-2 (Febr./March 1909), p. 77.
- 'Trois Poèmes' in Akademos 1:12 (1909), pp. 825-827.
1910 - ‘Paganismes’ in Pan. Revue libre 3:7 (1910), pp. 455-457 [three poems, dedicated to Giorgino, Giacintho
Benavente, and Robert Scheffer].
- ‘Vous disiez?’ in Pan. Revue libre 3:11 (1910), pp. 686-688.
1911 - ‘Deux sonnets. Au page de Sa Majesté’ in Pan. Revue libre 5:1 (1911/1912), pp. 65-66 [two poems dedicated to
“M.J.R.”].
1912 - ‘Pour le Prince abandonné’ in Pan. Revue libre 5:8-10 (1912), pp. 583-585.
1913 - ‘In memoriam’ in Pan. Revue libre 6:2 (1913), p. 83 [poem in commemoration of the French poet Francis Latouche].
1914 - ‘À la petite lampe’ in Mercure de France 108:404 (1914), p. 722.
- ‘À quelque pipe mandarine’ in Mercure de France 108:404 (1914), p. 720.
62
- ‘Au pavot de la Sonde’ in Mercure de France 108:404 (1914), p. 721.
- ‘Au pavot du Gange’ in Mercure de France 108:404 (1914), p. 719.
- ‘Au pavot du Yun-nan’ in Mercure de France 108:404 (1914), p. 721.
- ‘L’eunuque’ in Mercure de France 108:404 (1914), p. 719.
- ‘Initiation’ in Mercure de France 108:404 (1914), p. 718.
- ‘Sur la guitare à deux cordes’ in Mercure de France 108:404 (1914), p. 720.
1920s - Several anonymously published poems (among them ‘L’excuse des rêveurs’ and ‘Instants du sage’) in Edwin
Cerio’s magazine Le Pagine dell’Isola di Capri (August 1922, p. 6).
1970 - Curieux d'Amour. Transl. by Ian Young with an illustration by [Gaston] Goor. (London-Toronto: Privately printed)
[English language translation from L'Hymnaire d'Adonis].
1984 - Liedekerke, A. de. La Belle époque de l’opium. Anthologie littéraire de la drogue de Charles Baudelaire à Jean
Cocteau. (Paris: Éd. de la Différence), pp. 311-315 [contains poems from Hei Hsiang. Le parfum noir].
1990 - Amori et Dolori Sacrum. Jacques Fersen – La scelta di Capri. Poesie ed immagini. Introd. by Roger Peyrefitte.
(Capri: Libreria «La Conchiglia») [selection of poetry and prose fragments in Italian translation along with a
collection of photos of d’Adelswärd’s Capri, including photos of Nino by Guglielmo Plüschow. A limited number of
special copies contain a facsimile of the poem ‘Instants du sage’ and a reproduction of a nude portrait of Nino].
- Iezzi, B. (transl.). ‘Instants du sage’ in Almanacco Caprese 1 (1990), pp. 80-81 [facsimile with Italian
translation; reprinted in: Esposito, R. (ed.). Versocapri. Antologia poetica del Novecento. (Capri: La Conchiglia,
1991), pp. 75-85].
1992 - The Eternal Flame. A World Anthology of Homosexual Verse (c. 2000 B.C.-c. 2000 A.D.). I. Ed. by Anthony
Reid. (Elmhurst: Dyanthus Press), pp. 437-439 [English language translations from Chansons Légères and
L'Hymnaire d'Adonis].
2000 - Lucien, M. (ed.). Akademos. Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen et «la cause homosexuelle». (Lille: Gay Kitsch Camp)
[reprints Ainsi chantait Marsyas… . Poèmes and d’Adelswärd’s contributions to the magazine Akademos; with a
photo of d’Adelswärd on the cover (with the imprint of Lehnert & Landrock), dedicated to “George (sic) Eekhoud”].
Poems and Articles with the Pseudonym "Sonyeuse"
1909 - 'Daménos' in Akademos 1:5 (1909), p. 708.
- 'L'Immarscessible' in Akademos 1:7 (1909), p. 65.
- 'In Memoriam: Raymond Laurent' in Akademos 1:1 (1909), pp. 66-71 [reprinted in: Joecker, Souvenir, pp. 18–21].
- 'Sur une Amphore Grecque' in Akademos 1:8 (1909), pp. 233-234.
- ‘Tω παιδι ’ερωτι’ [To paidi eroti] in Akademos 1:8 (1909), p. 268.
Reviews and Criticism
1909 - ‘Akademos’ in Poesia. Rassegna Internazionale 5:3-6 (April/July 1909), p. 49.
- ‘Mon cher Poète’ in Poesia. Rassegna Internazionale 5:3-6 (April/July 1909), p. 8 [letter of d’Adelswärd to the
editor of the Italian magazine, Emilio Filippo Tommaso Marinetti].
- ‘Les Poèmes’ in Akademos 1:10 (1909), pp. 587-592.
- 'Les Poèmes' in Akademos 1:12 (1909), pp. 969-974.
- 'Les Romans' in Akademos 1:1 (1909), pp. 124-128.
- 'Les Romans' in Akademos 1:2 (1909), pp. 276-279.
- 'Les Romans' in Akademos 1:3 (1909), pp. 437-442.
- 'Les Romans' in Akademos 1:5 (1909), pp. 742-744.
- 'Les Théâtres' in Akademos 1:4 (1909), pp. 600-605.
Archive Materials
- Dammarie-lès-Lys, France, Archives Départementales de Seine-et-Marne. 129 J 64, Nr. 3 [letter of d’Adelswärd to Th.
Peters, [Paris] 12 November 1901].
- The Hague, The Netherlands, Collection Paul Snijders. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Deverin, Capri 9
September 1909].
- New Haven (CO), USA, Yale University. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Marinetti Collection GEN MSS
130, Series III, Box 7, Folder 79 [letter of d’Adelswärd to Emilio Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Capri 5 July 1909].
- Paris, Archives de France. BB18 2255, dr. 1468 A 1903 [file concerning the offence against public morals by Albert de
Warren and Jacques d'Adelswärd, involving the Parisian high society and some pupils of the Lycée Carnot].
- Paris, Archives de Paris. État Civil du Huitième Arrondissement de Paris, 1880, Nr. 259 [birth registration of Jacques].
- Paris, Archives de Paris. État Civil du Huitième Arrondissement de Paris, 1881, Nr. 726 [birth registration of Jacques’
brother].
- Paris, Archives de Paris, État Civil du Huitième Arrondissement de Paris, 1888, Nr. 1487 [birth registration of Loulou
Locré].
63
- Paris, Archives de Paris. Tribunal de Première Instance du Département de la Seine. Police correctionelle Neuvième
Chambre. Ms. 3 December 1903, fol. 1-3: Audience publique du Jeudi Trois Décembre mil neuf cent trois.
- Paris, Archives de la Préfecture de Police de Paris. Série BM2 Nr. 61, 6 April 1903 [file concerning rent boy Fernand
Boscher].
- Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, site Richelieu. Nouvelles Acquisitions Manuscrits Français 15307, fol. 8-9 [two
letters of d’Adelswärd to Robert de Montesquiou, 17 December 1908 and [15] January [1909]].
- Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, site Richelieu. Nouvelles Acquisitions Manuscrits Français 15307, fol. 10 [letter
of Nino Cesarini concerning Robert de Montesquiou].
- Private collection. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to an unknown contributor to Akademos, Paris 7 April 1909].
- Private collection. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Tonio de Nicolaï-Lota, 9 January 1922].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Carte Pneumatique [short notice of d’Adelswärd to Paul Deverin, [Paris] February
1900].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd about the royalties for Chansons Légéres and
Ébauches et Débauches, Sedan 19 August 1902].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to an unknown addressee, Trouville-sur-Mer
26 September 1902].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, [Rome 1904?]].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, China Sea, Steamship
“Sachsen” [1904?]].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, North Pacific Ocean,
Steamship “Doric” 4 August 1904].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, 24 September 1904].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, Capri [February 1905]].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, [Capri] 22 March 1905].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, [Capri] 5 April 1905].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, [Capri] 14 May [1905?]].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, Marseille 15 June 1905].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, Venice 26 or 29 August
1905].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, [Capri 1906?]].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, [Capri] 1 February 1906].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, Capri [c.20 February
1906]].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, Capri [1907?]].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, Capri 15 April 1907].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, Basel [July 1907?]].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, [Capri] 25 August 1907].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd (to Édouard Chimot?), Zurich 15 September
1907].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, [1908?]].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to Édouard Chimot, Capri [May 1909?]].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to an unknown addressee, Capri 4 January
1908].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to an unknown contributor to Akademos, 17
January 1909].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Fersen-letter [letter of d’Adelswärd to the director of L’Intransigeant, Paris 13
January 1910].
- Rome, Italy, Collection Raimondo Biffi. Two sheets from a notebook in d’Adelswärd’s handwriting [include a table of
contents of an unpublished work, a nice drawing of the garden of a villa, 190[9?], some poems, with two references to Alain
Chartier].
Secondary Sources
Printed Matter
‘D’Adelsward en liberté’ in L’Ouest-Éclair et l’Étoile de la Mer 5 December 1903, p. 2.
Adelswärd, V. “Alltför adlig, alltför rik, alltför lättjefull”: Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen. (Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag,
2014) [lavishly illusrated biography with many unpublished photographs].
‘L’Affaire Adelsward’ in La Croix 29/30 November 1903, p. 2.
64
‘L’Affaire d’Adelsward’ in La Lanterne 11 September 1903, p. 3; 19 October 1903, p. 2; 22 October 1903, p. 2; 23 October
1903, p. 2; 24 October 1903, p. 2; 26 October 1903, p. 2; 30 October 1903, p. 2; 1 November 1903, p. 2; 2 November 1903,
p. 2; 3 November 1903, p. 3; 14 November 1903, p. 2; 13 December 1903, p. 3; 14 December 1903, p. 3; 15 December
1903, p. 2.
‘L’Affaire d’Adelsward’ in Le Matin 13 July 1903, p. 2; 8 November 1903, p. 4.
‘Affaire d’Adelsward’ in L’Ouest-Éclair et l’Étoile de la Mer 1 November 1903, p. 5.
‘L’Affaire d’Adelsward’ in Le Petit Parisien 8 October 1903, p. 4; 18 October 1903, p. 3; 23 October 1903, p. 2.
‘L’Affaire d’Adelsward’ in La Presse 13 July 1903, pp. 1-2; 29 August 1903, p. 3; 1 October 1903, p. 2; 29 November
1903, p. 1.
‘L’Affaire d’Adelsward-de Warren’ in Le Petit Parisien 13 November 1903, p. 2.
‘L’Affaire d’Adelsward-Warren’ in Le Journal 18 October 1903, p. 2.
‘L’Affaire des Messes Noires’ in L’Ouest-Éclair et l’Étoile de la Mer 29 November 1903, p. 5.
‘L’Affaire des Messes Noires’ in Le Rappel 19 October 1903, p. [3]; 22 October 1903, p. [3].
‘À Fresnes’ in Le Matin 29 September 1903, p. 1.
‘À Fresnes-les-Rungis’ in Le Journal 5 August 1903, p. 2.
‘À l’Instruction’ in Le Figaro 17 July 1903, p. 5; 18 July 1903, p. 4.
‘À l’Instruction’ in Le Petit Parisien 21 October 1903, p. 2; 22 October 1903, p. 4; 25 October 1903, p. 3; 29 October 1903,
p. 4; 31 October 1903, p. 4; 1 November 1903, p. 4.
‘À l’Instruction’ in La Presse 12 July 1903, p. 2.
À la Jeunesse d’Amour. Villa Lysis a Capri: 1905-2005. (Capri: Edizioni La Conchiglia, 2005) [contains a selection from
Le Danseur aux Caresses, Et le feu s’éteignit sur la mer…, Paradinya, and Hei Hsiang in Italian translation, and many
photos, including photos of d’Adelswärd and Nino Cesarini].
Aldrich, R. Gay Lives. Lebensgeschichten. (Köln: DuMont, 2012).
Aldrich, R. The Seduction of the Mediterranean. Writing, Art and Homosexual Fantasy. (London: Routledge, 1993) [with
many inaccuracies].
Aldrich, R. and G. Wotherspoon (eds.). Who is Who in Gay and Lesbian History. From Antiquity to World War II.
(London-New York: Routledge, 2001), p. 5.
Alexandrian, [S.] Histoire de la littérature érotique. (Paris: Seghers, 1989).
Amendola, G. Una scelta di vita. (Milano: Rizzoli, 2001), p. 33.
‘Ancora della morte di Fersen d’Adelswaerd. Il Cesarini si presenterà alle nostre autorità di P.S.’ in Il Giorno 8 December
1923.
‘Ancora il mistero della morte del barone De Fersen’ in Don Marzio 7/8 December 1923.
Andreis, M.L. de. Capri 1939. (Roma: In-Edit-A, 2002).
Andrén, A. Capri. From the Stone Age to the Tourist Age. (Göteborg: Paul Åströms Förlag, 1980).
Angelis Bertolotti, R. de. Capri. La natura e la storia. Fotografie di Alessandro Bertolotti. (Bologna: Zanichelli, 2000),
pp. 137-140.
[Anonymous] in Akademos 1:5 (1909), p. 796.
[Anonymous "N.D.L.R."] 'Note de la Direction' in Akademos 1:10 (1909), pp. 639-640.
‘À propos de Messe Noire’ in La Presse 12 July 1903, p. 2 [interview with Joris-Karl Huysmans].
‘À propos d’une enquête’ in La Plume: littéraire, artistique et sociale bimensuelle 387 (15 May 1912), p. 230.
‘À qui la faute?’ in La Lanterne 14 July 1903, p. 1.
Arbour, R. Les revues littéraires ephemères paraissant à Paris entre 1900 et 1914. (Paris: Corti, 1956), p. 9.
Arch Smith, T. d'. Love in Earnest. Some Notes on the Lives and Writings of English 'Uranian' Poets from 1889 to 1930.
(London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970).
Aressy, L. Les Nuits et les Ennuis du Mont-Parnasse. (Paris: Jouve & Cie., 1929), pp. 142-148 [with a drawing of
d'Adelswärd by Édouard Deverin; includes a letter of d’Adelswärd to Jean Lorrain].
Armbruster, L. ‘Une Couleuvre’ in Le Rappel 27 July 1903, p. [1].
Armbruster, L. ‘Le petit jeune homme’ in Le Rappel 6 December 1903, p. [1].
‘L’Assassin Greuling’ in Le Journal 16 October 1903, p. 7.
‘À Travers Paris’ in Le Figaro 26 July 1903, p. 1.
‘À Travers Paris. Jacques d’Adelsward à l’hôpital’ in Le Matin 23 July 1903, p. 4.
‘À Travers Paris. Les messes noires’ in Le Matin 20 July 1903, p. 4; 8 October 1903, p. 2; 21 October 1903, p. 2; 29
October 1903, p. 4; 31 October 1903, p.4; 20 October 1904, p. 4 [about de Warren’s appeal].
‘À Travers Paris. Le roman d’un névrosé’ in Le Matin 16 July 1903, p. 4.
‘À Travers Paris. Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland’ in Gil Blas 17 July 1903, p. [3]; 24 July 1903, p. [3]; 25 July 1903, p.
[3]; 26 July 1903, p. [3]; 27 July 1903, p. [3]; 28 July 1903, p. [3]; 2 August 1903, p. [3]; 5 August 1903, p. [3].
Aubray, G. ‘Causerie littéraire de la Correctionelle à l’Académie’ in Le Mois littéraire et pittoresque 6:7 (1904), p. 109.
‘Au grand jour’ in La Lanterne 24 October 1903, p. 1.
‘Une auto dérape’ in L’Echo d’Alger 6 August 1928, p. [4] [about de Warren’s death].
‘L’autopsia del barone De Fersen confermerebbe la morte per sincope’ in Corriere della Sera 12 December 1923.
65
‘L’autopsia del cadavere del barone De Fersen’ in Il Messaggero 8 December 1923.
‘L’autopsia del cadavere del barone De Fersen’ in Il Messaggero 9/10 December 1923.
‘L’Autorité’ in Le Matin 17 July 1903, p. 3; 14 December 1903, p. 3.
‘Autour d’un scandale’ in Le Journal 16 August 1903, p. 6.
‘Le avventure parigine del barone De Fersen’ in Il Giornale d’Italia 18 December 1923.
Balteau, J., et al. (ed.) Dictionnaire de Biographie Française. I (Paris: Librairie Letouzey et Ané, 1933), pp. 544-545.
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‘Le Baron d’Adelsward’ in Le Journal 11 December 1903, p. 4; 12 December 1903, p. 3; 13 December 1903, p. 6; 14
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‘Le Baron d’Adelsward’ in La Lanterne 12 December 1903, p. 3.
‘Le Baron d’Adelsward’ in Le Petit Parisien 12 December 1903, p. 1.
‘Le Baron d’Adelsward’ in La Presse 11 December 1903, p. 1; 13 December 1903, p. 2; 14 December 1903, p. 3.
‘Le Baron d’Adelsward’ in Le Rappel 12 December 1903, p. [2]; 13 December 1903, p. [2].
‘Le Baron d’Adelsward’ in Le Temps 11 December 1903, p. [4]; 12 December 1903, pp. [3-4]; 13 December 1903, p. [3];
14 December 1903, p. [3].
‘Le Baron d’Adelsward aurait été assassiné’ in Le Journal 10 December 1923, p. 3.
‘Le Baron d’Adelsward cycliste’ in Le Journal 29 July 1903, p. 5.
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Berton, Cl. ‘Notes sur la vie. Comme en voyage. Littératures’ in La Presse 16 July 1903, pp. 2-3.
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‘La blessure d’Adelsward’ in Le Rappel 15 December 1903, p. [3].
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Bois, J. ‘Les Messes Noires’ in Gil Blas 12 July 1903, pp. [2-3].
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‘Calomnies’ in La Lanterne 19 July 1903, p. 1.
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the texts by Balteau, Jean Lorrain, Georges-Anquetil, Alfred Jarry, Ituriel, A.-S. Lagail].
Cardon, P. (ed.) Dossier Jacques d'Adelsward-Fersen. (Lille: Cahiers Gai-Kitsch-Camp 21, Curiosa 3, 1993) [augmented
edition of the previous title; also contains a complete reprint of MESSES NOIRES. Le Canard Sauvage, caricatures from
L'Assiette au Beurre, and some letters from d'Adelswärd to Georges Eekhoud; reproduces the illustrations from Money].
66
‘Il caso Adelsward’ in La Stampa. Gazzetta Piemontese 27 July 1903, p. 2.
Catalogus van de Bibliotheek van het Nederlandsch Wetenschappelijk Humanitair Komitee. ('s-Gravenhage: NWHK,
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Cerio, E. L’Ora di Capri. (Capri: Insula editrice, 1950) [new edition in two volumes: Capri: La Conchiglia, 2000)].
Chapier, H. 'L'Exilé de Capri' in Synthèses. Revue Internationale 14:157 (1959), pp. 267-269.
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Ooievaar, 1997), pp. 169-189. Contains many inaccuracies about d'Adelswärd].
‘Chiacchiere Parigine. Che cosa c’è di vero sulle diavelerie dello scandolo parigino’ in La Stampa. Gazzetta
Piemontese 14 July 1903, p. 2.
‘Chiacchiere Parigine. Il processo della Messa Nera’ in La Stampa. Gazzetta Piemontese 29 November 1903, p. 1.
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Clemenceau, G. ‘Notre Petit Quatre-Vingt-Treize’ in L’Aurore 21 July 1903, p. 1.
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‘Communiqués de mariages’ in Le Matin 8 October 1906, p. 5 [about Germaine’s marriage].
‘Les complices de de Warren. La traite des blancs. – Rabatteurs professionnels’ in La Presse 19 July 1903, p. 2.
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death].
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Le Courier Français 20:50 (13 December 1903) [with subtitle La Morale du Procès des Messes Noires; illustrated by Louis
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‘Dans le monde’ in Le Matin 19 February 1901, p. 2.
Debidour, V.H. 'Roger Peyrefitte - L'Exilé de Capri' in Bulletin des Lettres 208 (1959), pp. 213-214.
‘Les Dégénérés’ in Le Journal 16 July 1903, p. 3; 17 July 1903, p. 3; 18 July 1903, p. 2; 23 July 1903, p. 4; 28 July 1903, p.
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‘Les Dégénérés. Chez le docteur Voisin’ in La Presse 20 July 1903, p. 3.
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Delavigne, M. ‘Le scandale de l’avenue Friedland’ in Le Journal 29 November 1903, pp. 1-2 [with a drawing of
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‘Della vita e della morte del barone di Fersen’ in Corriere di Napoli 7/8 December 1923.
‘Della vita e della morte del barone di Fersen’ in Il Mattino 8/9 December 1923.
‘Une demande en revision’ in La Lanterne 21 October 1904, p. 3 [about de Warren’s appeal].
‘Demande en revision du procès d’Adelsward-de Waren [sic]’ in Le Temps 20 October 1904, p. [3] [about de Warren’s
appeal].
‘Déplacements et Villégiatures’ in L’Aurore 5 August 1903, p. 1.
‘Déplacements et Villégiatures des Abonnés du «Figaro»’ in Le Figaro 24 September 1908, p. 6; 4 November 1909, p. 7;
27 August 1910, p. 5; 27 October 1910, p. 7; 2 December 1910, p. 7; 17 December 1910, p. 7; 16 February 1911, p. 7; 23
June 1936, p. 7.
‘Dernières Nouvelles du Palais’ in Le Temps 18 October 1903, p. [4]; 25 February 1904, p. [4].
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67
Desbruères, M. 'Découvrez l'oeuvre de Fersen' in Arts 716 (1959), p. 2 [with the portrait of d'Adelswärd from Ébauches et
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Warren].
‘Disciples d’Oscar Wilde’ in Le Rappel 4 August 1911, p. [1].
‘Distribution de Prix. À Sainte-Barbe’ in La Presse 2 August 1893, p. 3.
‘Distribution de Prix. Lycée Janson-de-Sailly’ in Le Figaro 2 August 1896, p. 3.
‘Les Distribution de Prix. Lycée Michelet’ in Le Figaro 1 August 1895, p. 2.
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Donnet, G. ‘Sensibleries’ in L’Aurore 7 December 1903, p. 1.
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‘Un duel’ in Le Temps 29 September 1910, p. [3].
‘Le Duel d’Hier’ in Le Journal 29 September 1910, p. 3.
‘Le duel Mitty-Scheffer’ in Le Figaro 30 September 1910, p. 3.
D[upin], A. ‘Autour d’un scandale’ in Le Journal 4 August 1903, p. 2.
Dupin, A. ‘Les Dégénérés’ in Le Journal 13 July 1903, p. 3; 14 July 1903, p. 5; 19 July 1903, p. 3.
Dupin, A. ‘Les “Messes noires”’ in Le Journal 12 July 1903, pp. 1-2.
Dupin, A. ‘Un scandale’ in Le Journal 11 July 1903, p. 2 [with a drawing of d’Adelswärd].
Duplay, M. Mon ami Marcel Proust. Souvenirs intimes. (Paris: Gallimard, 1972), pp. 136-137.
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1903, p. 1.
‘Échos’ in Le Journal 25 October 1903, p. 1; 25 November 1903, p. 1; 21 February 1904, p. 3 [about de Warren’s
appeal].
‘Échos’ in Le Supplément 31 March 1906, p. 1.
‘Échos. Après une chronique’ in Gil Blas 24 September 1910, p. [1].
‘Échos et Nouvelles. La France aux Français’ in L’Aurore 24 September 1899, p. 1.
‘Échos. Figure de gentilhomme’ in L’Aurore 12 July 1903, p. 1.
‘Échos. “Monsieur le baron ne reçoit pas”/Messes noires’ in L’Aurore 13 July 1903, p. 1.
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68
‘L’état du baron Adelsward’ in Le Matin 13 December 1903, p. 4.
‘Express-Nouvelles’ in Le Rappel 21 October 1904, p. [4] [about de Warren’s appeal].
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information].
‘Faits divers’ in Le Petit Parisien 20 October 1904, p. 3 [about de Warren’s appeal].
‘Faits divers’ in Le Temps 17 October 1903, p. [3].
‘Faits divers. L’affaire d’Adelsward’ in L’Aurore 10 September 1903, p. 3; 29 October 1903, p. 3; 1 November 1903, p. 3.
‘Faits divers. L’affaire d’Adelsward’ in Gil Blas 22 October 1903, p. [3]; 25 October 1903, p. [3].
‘Faits divers. L’affaire d’Adelsward-de Warren’ in L’Aurore 14 November 1903, p. 3.
‘Faits divers. Une affaire scandaleuse’ in Journal des Débats Politiques et Littéraires 12 July 1903, p. 3.
‘Faits divers. Le baron d’Adelsward’ in Gil Blas 22 December 1903, p. [3].
‘Faits divers. Le cas du baron d’Adelsward’ in L’Aurore 12 December 1903, p. 3.
‘Faits divers. Le désespoir d’Adelsward’ in Gil Blas 12 December 1903, p. [3].
‘Faits divers. Et l’affaire Adelsward?’ in Le Rappel 17 October 1903, p. [3].
‘Faits divers. Grave affaire de moeurs’ in L’Aurore 20 July 1903, p. 3.
‘Faits divers. M. d’Adelsward’ in L’Aurore 13 December 1903, p. 4.
‘Faits divers. M. de Warren’ in Le Temps 16 December 1903, p. [3].
‘Faits divers. Paris. À l’Instruction’ in Le Petit Parisien 28 July 1903, p. 3; 1 August 1903, p. 3.
‘Faits divers. Paris. Le baron d’Adelsward’ in Le Petit Parisien 11 December 1903, p. 3; 13 December 1903, p. 3; 14
December 1903, p. 3..
‘Faits divers. Un scandale’ in Le Temps 15/16 July 1903, p. [3]; 18 July 1903, p. [3]; 27 July 1903, p [3].
‘Faits divers. Le scandale de l’Avenue Friedland’ in Le Temps 24 October 1903, p. [3]; 1 November 1903, p. [3]; 2
November 1903, p. [3]; 14 November 1903, p. [3].
‘Faits divers. Un scandale mondain’ in L’Aurore 24 July 1903, p. 3; 25 July 1903, p. 3; 2 August 1903, p. 3; 20 October
1903, p. 3; 22 October 1903, p. 3; 24 October 1903, p. 3; 26 October 1903, p. 3.
‘Faits divers. Tentative de suicide du baron d’Adelsward’ in L’Aurore 11 December 1903, p. 5.
‘I fastosi vizi d’un barone alsaziano e il mistero della sua morte a Capri’ in Corriere della Sera 8 December 1923.
Favai-Kietsvi [aka. Kievits], M. Vita con Gennaro. (Milano: Ceschina, 1965), pp. 147-155 [contacts between d’Adelswärd
and the Italian painter Gennaro Favai (1879-1958)].
Féray, J.-C. Achille Essebac, romancier du Désir. Paris: Quintes-feuilles, 2008.
Féray, J.-C. ‘L’exilé de Capri: un portrait très retouché’ in Inverses. Littératures, Arts et Homosexualités 4 (2004), pp. 209215.
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‘Il fermo di un cadavere. Alla scoperta di un delitto?’ in Il Giornale d’Italia 7 December 1923.
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‘La folie érotique’ in Le Rappel 14 July 1903, pp. [2-3]; 15 July 1903, p. [2]; 17 July 1903, p. [3]; 18 July 1903, p. [2]; 19
July 1903, p. [2]; 20 July 1903, pp. [2-3]; 22 July 1903, p. [3]; 25 July 1903, p. [3]; 26 July 1903, p. [3]; 27 July 1903, p.
[3]; 29 July 1903, p. [3]; 6 August 1903, p. [3]; 7 August 1903, p. [3]; 6 September 1903, p. [3]; 11 September 1903, p. [3];
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Franck, P. Un si joli petit monde. (Paris: La Table Ronde, 1961) [novel inspired by d’Adelswärd’s life].
Franc-Nohain. ‘Le Péché Véniel de la Censure’ in Gil Blas 1 December 1903, p. [1].
‘Frankrijk. Geheimzinnige dood’ in Nieuwe Tilburgsche Courant 13 December 1923, p. 1.
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‘Gazette Judiciaire’ in Gil Blas 13 April 1904, p. [3] [about de Warren’s appeal].
69
‘Gazette Judiciaire. Nouvelles Judiciaires’ in Gil Blas 15 November 1903, p. [4].
‘Gazette des Tribunaux’ in Le Figaro 29 November 1903, p. 3.
‘Gazette des Tribunaux. Nouvelles Judiciaires’ in Le Figaro 13 November 1903, p. 4; 4 December 1903, p. 3; 13
January 1904, p. 4 [about de Warren’s appeal].
‘Gemengd buitenlandsch nieuws’ in Het Nieuws van den Dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië 7 January 1904, p. Dag 6.
Georges-Anquetil. Satan conduit le bal .... (Paris: Agence Parisienne, 1948) [first published in 1925; contains extremely
inaccurate information].
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Giannoli, P.X. Roger Peyrefitte, ou Les clés du scandale. (Paris: Fayard, 1970).
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Goodbye to Berlin? 100 Jahre Schwulenbewegung. (Berlin: Verlag rosa Winkel, 1997), pp. 62, 78-79 [includes the portrait
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Goujon, J.-P. Pierre Louÿs, une Vie Secrète. (Paris: Seghers, 1988), p. 84.
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Platen, Ch. de. Autographes. Recueil de ma collection. (Roma: E. Calzone, 1910), p. 64 [d’Adelswärd’s autograph].
Pohlmann, U. (introd.). Guglielmo Plüschow (1852-1930). Ein Photograph aus Mecklenburg in Italien. (Grevesmühlen:
NWM-Verlag, 1995) [contains photos of Nino Cesarini].
Pollard, P. André Gide: Homosexual Moralist. (New Haven-London: Yale University Press, 1991) [contains a chapter about
Akademos].
Ponchon, R. ‘Messes Noires’ in Le Courrier Français (19 July 1903).
‘Pornographie mondaine’ in Le Rappel 12 July 1903, pp. [1-3]; 13 July 1903, pp. [1-2].
Précis analytique des travaux de l’Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de Rouen pendant l’année 1897-1898.
(Rouen-Paris: Imprimerie Cagniard/A. Picard, 1899), pp. 80-83.
‘Premiers-Paris. L’Intransigeant’ in Le Journal 14 July 1903, p. 4.
Prime-Stevenson, E.[I.]. ‘Out of the Sun’ in Her Enemy, Some Friends - and Other Personages: Stories & Studies Mostly of
Human Hearts. (Florence: Obsner, 1913) [reprinted in: Mitchell, M. and D. Leavitt (eds.). Pages Passed from Hand to
Hand. The Hidden Tradition of Homosexual Literature in English from 1748 to 1914. (Boston-New York: Houghton
Mifflin, 1997), pp. 394-403; also translated into German: ‘Out of the Sun (Wenn bei Capri die rote Sonne . . .)’ in Capri.
Zeitschrift für schwule Geschichte 32 (2002), pp. 3–9].
‘Le procès Adelsward’ in La Presse 4 December 1903, p. 1.
‘Un processo scandaloso’ in Il Messaggero 15 June 1907.
Les p'tits jeun' hommes [special issue of] L'Assiette au Beurre 422 (1 May 1909) [with illustrations by Miklós Vadász].
Quillard, P. 'Le Danseurs [sic] aux caresses' in Mercure de France 61:215 (1906), pp. 429-430.
Rachilde [pseudonym of Marguerite Aymery Vallette]. ‘Une Jeunesse – Le Baiser de Narcisse’ in Mercure de France
69:248 (16 October 1907), pp. 699-700.
Rachilde. ‘Lord Lyllian’ in Mercure de France 64:188 (15 April 1905), pp. 575-576.
Rachilde. 'Les Romans. Le Sourire aux yeux fermés' in Mercure de France 98:362 (1912), p. 374.
Racot, R. ‘Le Scandale de l’Avenue Friedland’ in Gil Blas 14 July 1903, p. [3]; 18 July 1903, p. [3]; 19 July 1903, p. [4].
Raffalovich, M.-A. ‘Une affaire unisexuelle à Paris en 1904’ in Archives d’Anthropologie Criminelle 166/167 (1907), p.
779.
‘Récompenses pour faits de sauvetage et actes de dévouement’ in Journal Officiel de la République française 15 April
1890, p. 1933.
Reed, J. Baron Jacques d’Adelsward Fersen. (London: Tragara Press, 1997).
Regina. 'La Vie de Paris. L'Île de Puteaux' in Le Figaro 10 July 1903, p. 1 [about d'Adelswärd's mother].
Renard. ‘Gazette Judiciaire. Scènes antiques’ in Gil Blas 29 November 1903, p. [2]; 4 December 1903, p. [2].
‘Renseignements Mondains’ in Le Figaro 21 June 1901, p. 2.
74
Respighi, E. Ottorino Respighi: dati biografici ordinati da Elsa Respighi. (Milano: Ricordi, [1954]) [about the friendship
between the composer Respighi and d’Adelswärd].
‘Retour de vacances’ in Le Rappel 6 September 1903, p. [3].
Revedin, J. Lysis. (Klagenfurt: Wieser, 2011) [novel about the visitors of Villa Lysis].
Revenin, R. Homosexualité et prostitution masculine à Paris, 1870-1918. (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2005), pp. 71-72, 176177, 205-206.
Richard, J.-P. Onze études sur la poésie moderne. (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1964).
Richter, D. Il giardino della memoria. Il cimitero acattolico di Capri. Storia di un luogo. (Capri: La Conchiglia, 1996).
Ridge, D. ‘Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen et la loi morale’ in Histoires littéraires. XVe Colloque des Invalides: Crimes et
délits. (Tusson/Charente: Éd. Du Lérot, 2011) [paper presented at the colloquy in the Centre Culturel Canadien at Paris of
November 2011].
Rieu, M. Méandres. (Paris: Édition de Pan, 1912) [short essays, one (‘Décor’, pp. 35-40) dedicated to “Fersen”].
Robb, G. Strangers. Homosexual Love in the 19th Century. (London: Picador, 2003), pp. 168, 230.
Rochefort, H. ‘Crimes impunis’ in L’Intransigeant 8 September 1903, p. 1.
‘Le roman d’un névrosé’ in Le Matin 14 July 1903, p. 2; 15 July 1903, p. 2 [with a drawing of d’Adelswärd].
‘Il romanzo di orgie e di perversità del bar. Fersen nei verdi incantesimi dell’Isola di Capri’ in Il Giornale d’Italia 8
December 1923.
Rosario, V.A. The Erotic Imagination. French Histories of Perversity. (New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1997), pp. 98-108.
Ross, A. Reflections on Blue Water. Journeys in the Gulf of Naples and in the Aeolian Islands. (London: Harvill, 1999)
[retells the story of Peyrefitte].
Roussel, F. ‘Les Détraqués’ in Le Matin 18 July 1903, p. 1.
Roussel, G. ‘Critiques d’actualités’ in La Critique illustrée, internationale, indépendente, des Arts et de la Littérature
9:202 (5-20 August 1903), pp. 123-124.
‘Rouvrira-t-on bientôt?’ in La Lanterne 31 August 1903, p. 1.
Roux, H. le. ‘La jeunesse qui vient’ in Le Journal 16 July 1903, p. 1.
Ruig, R. de. In de schaduw van de grand seigneur. (Utrecht: E.J. van Himbergen, 1984), pp. 72-73.
‘En ruskig skandal’ in Aftonbladet 14 July 1903.
Ryersson, S.D. and M.O. Yaccarino. Infinite Variety: The Life and Legend of the Marchesa Casati. (Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, 2004), pp. 105-107.
Saint-Marc. ‘Causerie. Les amants tragiques’ in Le Supplément 15 December 1903, p. 1.
Salaris, C. Marinetti editore. (Bologna: Il Mulino, 1990), pp. 41, 84-85.
‘La salma del barone de Fersen sequestrata e mandata alla sala mortuaria del Trivio per ordine dell’autorità giudiziaria’ in
Corriere di Napoli 6/7 December 1923.
‘Le Salon des poètes’ in Le Rappel 17 March 1904, p. [1].
‘La santé du baron d’Adelsward’ in Gil Blas 13 December 1903, p. [2].
‘Un scandale’ in Le Temps 12 July 1903, p. [3]; 14 July 1903, p. [3]; 18 July 1903, p. [3]; 19 July 1903, p. [3]; 20 July
1903, p. [3]; 29 July 1903, p. [3]; 5 August 1903, p. [3].
‘Un Scandale à Lyon’ in La Lanterne 5 September 1903, p. 3.
‘Un Scandale à Montmartre’ in Le Journal 22 June 1909.
‘Le scandale de l’Avenue de Friedland’ in Le Figaro 21 October 1903, p. 3.
‘Le scandale de l’Avenue Friedland’ in Gil Blas 12 July 1903, pp. [2-3].
‘Le Scandale de l’avenue Friedland’ in Le Journal 23 October 1903, p. 5.
‘Le scandale de l’Avenue Friedland’ in La Lanterne 13 July 1903, p. 1; 14 July 1903, p. 1; 15 July 1903, p. 2; 19 July 1903,
p. 3; 21 July 1903, p. 3; 24 July 1903, p. 1; 26 July 1903, p. 2; 28 July 1903, p. 2; 6 August 1903, p. 3; 7 August 1903, p. 3;
20 October 1903, p. 1.
‘Le s[c]andale de l’Étoile’ in La Lanterne 16 July 1903, p. 2.
‘Le scandale d’Orléans’ in La Lanterne 2 August 1903, p. 1.
‘Le scandale mondain’ in L’Aurore 18 July 1903, p. 1.
‘Scandale mondain’ in La Lanterne 11 July 1903, p. 2.
‘Un scandale Parisien’ in Le Figaro 10 July 1903, p. 4; 11 July 1903, p. 3.
‘Scandaleuse affaire’ in Le Petit Parisien 13 July 1903, p. 3; 14 July 1903, p. 2; 16 July 1903, p. 3; 17 July 1903, p. 3; 18
July 1903, p. 2; 19 July 1903, p. 2; 25 July 1903, p. 4.
‘Scènes antiques’ in Le Temps 1 December 1903, p. [3]; 13 January 1904, p. [4] [about de Warren’s appeal].
S[cheffer]., R. 'Les Romans. Et le feu s'éteignit sur la mer ...' in Akademos 1:6 (1909), pp. 918-919.
Scheffer, R. ‘Vers de Minuit’ in Pan. Revue libre 3:5 (1910), pp. 281-283 [poems dedicated to “J. de Fersen”].
Scheffer, R. ‘Visions de Minuit’ in Poesia. Rassegna Internazionale 5:1-2 (Febr./March 1909), p. 75 [poem dedicated to “J.
de Fersen”].
Schenk, Chr. Venedig im Spiegel der Décadence-Literatur des Fin de siècle. (Frankfurt/Main: Lang, 1987).
75
Schneider, E. ‘Sur la mort de Jacques d’Adelswaerd’ in La Renaissance politique, littéraire, artistique 29 December
1923.
Schneider, L. ‘La Paroisse de Vincennes’ in Gil Blas 24 December 1906, pp. [1-2].
‘Séquestrations arbitraires (?). Interview du Docteur Vallon’ in La Presse 28 August 1903, p. 2.
Settanni, E. Scrittori stranieri a Capri. ([Napoli]: La Conchiglia, 1986), pp. 30-31.
Setz, W. ‘Fünffüßiger Hammel in Rosa oder Jacques d'Adelswärd-Fersen, Roger Peyrefitte und andere’ in Forum
Homosexualität und Literatur 46 (2005), pp. 25-65.
Setz, W. (ed.). Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen. Dandy und Poet. Annäherungen. (Hamburg: MännerschwarmSkript
Verlag, 2005) [illustrated; includes essays by Patricia Marcoz, Will H.L. Ogrinc, Wolfram Setz, Paul Snijders and
Thomas Steinfeld].
Sibalis, M.D. ‘Paris’ in: Higgs, D. (ed.). Queer Sites. Gay urban histories since 1600. (London-New York: Routledge,
1999), pp. 10–37.
Simonetti, P. ‘Villa Lysis: la villa di un personaggio infelice’ in Il Caprifoglio. Rivista di Storia Locale 9:1 (1999), pp. 161169.
Snijders, P. 'Akademos' in Tegendeel. Periodiek voor de leden van het Genootschap voor Tegennatuurlijke Letteren 5:3
(1988), pp. 68-70, 71-86 [pp. 71-86 contain a selection of reprints from Akademos].
Snijders, P. 'De komeet van Fersen. Het literaire tijdschrift Akademos (1909)' in De Parelduiker 1:1 (1996), pp. 39-51 [with
the portraits of d'Adelswärd from Chansons Légères and Les Cortèges. Also translated into German ‘Der Komet von
Fersen’ in Capri. Zeitschrift für schwule Geschichte 30 (2001), pp. 24-34].
SNOB. ‘Les Potins de Paris’ in Le Rire 2 June 1906, p. [8].
Sonnentag, S. Spaziergänge durch das literarische Capri und Neapel. (Zürich-Hamburg: Arche, 2003).
‘Sous le Boisseau’ in La Lanterne 21 July 1903, p. 1.
Sper, A. [pseudonym of Hans Rau]. Capri und die Homosexuellen. Eine psychologische Studie. (Oranienburg-Berlin:
Orania-Verlag, [1903]).
Spiess, C. Mon Autopsie. Éjaculations autobiographiques. (Nice: Athanor, 1938), pp. 109-112, 129.
‘Sport Nautique’ in Gil Blas 11 September 1883, pp. 3-4 [about Jacques’ father].
Sprigge, E. and J.-J. Kihm. Jean Cocteau. The Man and the Mirror. (New York: Coward-McCann, 1968), p. 235.
Steinfeld, T. ‘Opiumelegie. Wenn in Capri die rosa Sonne im Meer versinkt – Rausch und Ruin des Baron Jacques von
Adelswärd-Fersen’ in Süddeutsche Zeitung 6/7 July 2002, p. SZ Wochenende IV.
Sternweiler, A. (ed.). Selbstbewusstsein und Beharrlichkeit. Zweihundert Jahre Geschichte. (Berlin: Schwules Museum,
2004), pp. 69-70 [reproduces the painting of Nino Cesarini from Jugend].
Stora-Lamarre, A. L'Enfer de la IIIe République. Censeurs et Pornographes (1881-1914). (Paris: Imago, 1990).
‘Le suicide d’Adelsward’ in La Presse 12 December 1903, p. [2].
‘Le suicide du baron d’Adelsward?’ in Gil Blas 11 December 1903, p. [3].
‘Sulla morte del barone De Fersen’ in Il Mezzogiorno 8 December 1923.
‘Sulla morte del Barone De Fersen. L’autopsia eseguita ieri confermerebbe la morte per sincope’ in Il Mezzogiorno 8/9
December 1923.
Summers, [A.J.-M.A.] M. Antinous and Other Poems. (London: Sisley's, [1907]) [poems dedicated to “Jacques
d'Adelswärd-Fersen”; reprint: London: Cecil Woolf, 1995, with introd. by T. d'Arch Smith and E. Pouncey, a letter from
d'Adelswärd to Summers, and the portrait of d'Adelswärd from Chansons Légères].
Summers, [A.J.-M.A.] M. The Galanty Show. An autobiography by Montague Summers. (London: Cecil Woolf, 1980), pp.
236-237.
‘Sur le Pré. Autre duel’ in Le Stéphanois 1 October 1910, p. 1.
‘Sur le Pré des Duels’ in Le Stéphanois 30 September 1910, p. 1.
Szeemann, H. Visionäre Schweiz. (Aarau: Sauerländer, 1991) [contains correspondence of the Swiss Gilbert Clavel d’Adelswärd].
Tailhade, L. ‘3 juin. Lundi’ in Je Dis Tout (15 June 1912).
Tailhade, L. ‘À M. Jacques d’Adelsward de Fersen, embasicète’ in: Lettres familières. ([Paris]: Librairie de “La Raison”,
1904), pp. 136-143 [letter of 16 July 1903].
Tamagne, F. A History of Homosexuality in Europe. Volume I & II. Berlin, London, Paris 1919-1939. (New York:
Algora Publishing, 2006), pp. 19, 102.
‘La tentative de suicide d’Adelsward’ in Le Rappel 14 December 1903, p. [3].
‘La tentative de suicide du baron d’Adelsward’ in Le Figaro 14 December 1903, p. 4.
‘Il tentato suicidio del barone Adelsward, il protagonista del processo della Messa Nera’ in La Stampa. Gazzetta
Piemontese 12 December 1903, p. 3.
Thurman, J. Colette. Roman ihres Lebens. (Berlin: Berlin Verlag, 2001), pp. 873-874.
‘Tribunaux’ in Le Temps 22 February 1904, p. [3] [about de Warren’s appeal]; 19 May 1905, p. [3] [about de Warren’s
appeal].
‘Tribunaux. D’Adelsward n’a pas fait appel’ in Le Matin 17 December 1903, p. 2 [about de Warren’s appeal].
‘Les Tribunaux. L’affaire d’Adelsward’ in La Lanterne 15 November 1903, p. 2.
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‘Tribunaux. L’affaire d’Adelsward-de Warren’ in Le Matin 13 November 1903, p. 2.
‘Tribunaux. L’affaire d’Adelsward-de Warren’ in Le Rappel 20 November 1903, p. [3]; 29 November 1903, p. [2]; 30
November 1903, p. [2]; 5 December 1903, p. [2].
‘Les Tribunaux. L’affaire de Warren en appel’ in Le Petit Parisien 13 January 1904, p. 2 [about de Warren’s appeal].
‘Les Tribunaux. L’appel de M. de Warren’ in Le Rappel 14 January 1904, p. [3] [about de Warren’s appeal].
‘Les Tribunaux. En liberté’ in La Lanterne 6 December 1903, p. 2.
‘Les Tribunaux. Moeurs antiques’ in La Lanterne 14 January 1904, p. 2 [about de Warren’s appeal].
‘Tribunaux. Nouvelles judiciaires’ in Le Matin 5 December 1903, p. 2.
‘Les Tribunaux. Le pourvoi de de Warren’ in La Lanterne 23 February 1904, p. 2 [about de Warren’s appeal].
‘Tribunaux. Le procès d’Adelsward-de Warren’ in L’Aurore 4 December 1903, p. 3.
‘Les Tribunaux. Le procès d’Adelsward-de Warren’ in Le Petit Parisien 4 December 1903, p. 3.
‘Tribunaux. Scènes «antiques»’ in Le Temps 30 November 1903, p. [3]; 5 December 1903, p. [3] [about de Warren’s
appeal].
'Le triste héros des messes noires Jacques d'Adelsward meurt mystérieusement à Capri' in Le Matin 10 December 1923, p. 1
[with a portrait of d'Adelswärd].
Vergine, L. (ed.). Capri 1905/1940 – Frammenti Postumi. (Capri: La Conchiglia, 1993), pp. 66-76 [contains photos of
d’Adelswärd].
‘La vie et la mort de Jacques d’Adelsward-Fersen’ in Le Libertaire 11 December 1923.
‘La vita e il sogno. Scintillio di gemme ed ombre di peccato nell’isola di Tiberio. Il sequestro della salma del barone Fersen,
morto nella sua villa di Capri’ in Il Giorno 7 December 1923.
Vitrano, S. ‘Nel rifugio del dandy infelice’ in Il Mattino 1 June 1992.
Weiermair, P. Guglielmo Plüschow. (Köln: Benedikt Taschen, 1993) [contains photos of Nino Cesarini and an indoor photo
of Villa Lysis].
Wilhelm von Gloeden, Wilhelm von Plüschow, Vincenzo Galdi. Italienische Jünglings-Photographien um 1900. (Berlin:
Janssen, 1991) [contains a photo of Nino Cesarini by Plüschow].
Willy [pseudonym of Henry Gauthier-Villars]. Le Troisième Sexe. (Paris: Paris-Édition, 1927), pp. 66-73 [reproduces the
text by Georges-Anquetil].
Wintermans, C. ‘Gebak, champagne en bananen: Een Parijse affaire uit 1904, deel 2.’ Gay News 20:239 (July 2011), pp.
34-41 [about some contributors to Akademos].
Witkowski, G.-J. and L. Nass. Le Nu au Théâtre depuis l’antiquité jusqu’à nos jours. (Paris: H. Daragon, 1909), pp. 199200 [about Brévannes’ play].
Typescripts
Wohl, E. Mémoire de IVème Année (...) sur Interferences Morales dans le Domaine Esthétique: de Fersen à Peyrefitte
[Unpublished BA-thesis. Kensington (Australia): University of New South Wales, 1987].
Internet sites
- Archivio Storico. Album Fotografici. ‘Famiglia Adelswärd-Fersen.’
(http://www.archiphoto.it/galleria.php?Categoria1_Click=7&Categoria2_Click=7&ID_Categoria1=1&ID_Categoria2=
40&ID_Categoria3=89&Categoria2=Famiglia Adelsw䲤-Fersen&Img_x=Fersen 021.jpg).
- Desse, J. ‘Nino et son jumeau. Visages et mythes de l’ami de Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen.’ (2012).
(http://issuu.com/gloeden-pluschow-galdi/docs/ninocesarini).
- [Féray, J.-C.]. ‘À propos d’un poème de Jacques d’Adelswärd extrait de La Neuvaine du petit faune.’ Bulletin
mensuel Quintes-feuilles 18 (2014), pp. 8-9.
(http://www.quintes-feuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Juin-2014.pdf).
- [Féray, J.-C.]. ‘Gustave d’Adelswärd.’ Bulletin mensuel Quintes-feuilles 24 (2014), p. 1 [contains a photograph of
Gustave d’Adelswärd].
(http://www.quintes-feuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/décembre-2014.pdf).
- [Féray, J.-C.]. ‘Une inimitié plus que littéraire: Robert de Montesquiou et Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen.’ Bulletin
mensuel Quintes-feuilles 14 (2014), pp. 3-9.
(http://www.quintes-feuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Fevrier-2014.pdf).
- [Féray, J.-C.]. ‘Note bibliographique. Au sujet de L’Excuse des rêveurs.’ Bulletin mensuel Quintes-feuilles 19 (2014),
p. 10.
(http://www.quintes-feuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Juillet-2014.pdf).
- [Féray, J.-C.]. ‘Réaction mitigée de Paul Léautaud, sollicité par Jacques d’Adelswärd pour collaborer à la revue
Akademos.’ Bulletin mensuel Quintes-feuilles 27 (2015), pp. 6-7.
(http://www.quintes-feuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/Mars-2015.pdf).
- García Pérez, R. and C. Barraud. ‘“Et je me sentais pur et le mal aboli”: l’Hymnaire d’Adonis de Jacques
d’Adelswärd-Fersen.’ (2008).
(http://pendientedemigracion.ucm.es/info/especulo/numero37/adfersen.html).
77
- Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen Appreciation Group [contains a frontal nude of d’Adelswärd, reclining in his Opiarium].
(https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=104353689578527&set=o.40311732882&type=3&theater).
- Ogrinc, W.H.L. ‘Frère Jacques: A Shrine To Love And Sorrow. Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen (1880-1923). Third,
revised edition.’ (2013).
(http://www.quintes-feuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Fersen-engelsill.pdf).
- Ogrinc, W.H.L. ‘Nouvelles concernant les Adelswärd et la mer.’ Bulletin mensuel Quintes-feuilles 23 (2014), pp. 5-6.
(http://www.quintes-feuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/Novembre-2014.pdf) .
- Ogrinc, W.H.L. ‘Souvenir de Loulou Locré, ancien petit ami de Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen.’ Bulletin mensuel
Quintes-feuilles 15 (2014), pp. 2-3.
(http://www.quintes-feuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Mars-2014.pdf).
Music
Les Amants Solitaires (2003), composed and performed by the French soprano and accordionist Nicole Renaud; contains
four songs based on poems by d’Adelswärd: ‘Les extatiques’ and ‘Gongs’ from Ainsi chantait Marsyas, ‘Chanson cruelle,
chanson d’adieu II’ and ‘T’en souvient-il?…..’ from L’Hymnaire d’Adonis (CD-Label: Le Producteur Invisible; Cat.Nr.
9287).
Chanson pour toi (“À Mlle Juliette Fayé”) (c.1902), by the Alsatian composer Jules Weyer (1878-1965). Musical score
published in: Weyer, J. Deux mots – poésie de B. de Reyle / Chanson pour toi – poésie du Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd
pour soprano. (Paris: E. Demets, [1902]), pp. 3-6.
Cinque Liriche per Canto e Pianoforte (P108; 1918), by the Italian composer Ottorino Respighi (1879-1936); contains
two songs based on poems from L’Hymnaire d’Adonis by J. de Fersen: ‘3. Par les soirs…’ and ‘4. Par l’étreinte’ (CDLabel: King; first issue Cat.Nr. NKCD359, and CD-Label: Channel Classics; Cat.Nr. CCS 14998).
Les extatiques, by the French composer Jean Nouguès (1875-1932); song based on a poem from Ainsi chantait Marsyas.
Perversités. Deux poèmes de Jacques de Fersen (c.1905), by the French composer Daniel Lamotte (?-?). Musical score
published in: Lamotte, D. Perversités. Deux poèmes de Jacques de Fersen pour voix et piano. (Paris: E. Demets, [1905]);
two songs (published in separate volumes) for mezzo soprano or baritone, based on poems from L’Hymnaire d’Adonis: ‘1.
Par la Mort…’ and ‘2. Voix d’Enfant’ [= XVII].
Les P’tits Messieurs de la Messe Noire. Chanson cultuelle (c.1907), by the French composers Jean Meudrot and Henri
Christiani. Musical score published in: Meudrot, J. Les P’tits Messieurs de la Messe Noire. Chanson cultuelle. (Paris:
Maurice Vieu, 1908).
Il pleut, gentil berger (P123; 1919), by Ottorino Respighi; song based on a poem from L’Hymnaire d’Adonis (CD-Label:
Nuova Era; Cat.Nr. 7182, and CD-Label: Channel Classics; Cat.Nr. CCS 14998).
Films
Musik, die sich entfernt: Capri und die Träume des Cyrill K. (1984), directed by Ferry Radax.
Stage performances
Musique pour toi seul/Musica per te solo (2011), directed by Jacopo Serafini.
Sources of Figures
1. Cover by Gaston Goor of the definitive Livre de Poche edition of 1974.
2. Cover by Louis Morin.
3. Renauld-Oscar d’Adelswärd. In: S.B. Boëthius et al. (eds.). Svenskt biografiskt lexikon, I (Stockholm: Bonniers, 1918), p.
94.
4. Powerstation Herserange; to the right the d’Adelswärd family castle. Collection of the author.
5. Château Herserange. Collection of the author.
6. Boy peeing in the snow. Beer advertisement by Millet of Brewery La Comète on a post card for New-Year
(http://www.quintes-feuilles.com/wp-content/uploads/décembre-2014.pdf).
7. Jacques d'Adelswärd in his late teens. In: Chansons Légères (Paris: Léon Vanier, 1901).
8. The Lycée Janson-de-Sailly (1991). Photo by Dré Leyten.
9. Jacques d'Adelswärd in his twenties. In: Ébauches et Débauches (Paris: Léon Vanier, 1901).
10. Avenue Friedland, Nr. 18 (1991). Photo by Dré Leyten.
11. Cover of Les Cortèges qui sont passés (Paris: Léon Vanier/Albert Messein, 1903) with d'Adelswärd's portrait.
12. Caricature by František Kupka, in MESSES NOIRES. Le Canard Sauvage 1:19 (1903) [no pagination].
13. “Two Removals” Caricature by František Kupka, in MESSES NOIRES. Le Canard Sauvage 1:19 (1903) [no
pagination].
14. The Lycée Carnot (1991). Photo by Dré Leyten.
78
15. “The moral of the lawsuit of the Black Masses. « Daddy, mammy! What did I do to be condemned by you to ten years
prison! »” Caricature by Louis Morin, in Le Courrier Français 20:50 (13 December 1903), cover drawing.
16. “At the Aesthete's - ... My Master is busy...” Caricature by Hermann-Paul, in MESSES NOIRES. Le Canard Sauvage
1:19 (1903) [no pagination].
17. First page of the decision by the Ninth Chamber of the Tribunal de la Seine, 3 December 1903.
18. “Messe noire” by Manuel Orazi, in MESSES NOIRES. L'Assiette au Beurre 141 (12 December 1903).
19. Cover by Claude Simpson.
20. Albert [Hamelin] de Warren, in ‘Les deux barons’ in Le Petit Parisien 29 November 1903, p. 4.
21. Adolf Adelswärd (centre) during the Major Military Exercises (Autumn 1904). Picture post card by Bauer & Duroux,
Dijon. Collection of the author.
22. Villa Lysis. From: B. Büch, “Curieus Capri” in Avenue 21:8 (1986), p. 68. Photo by Martin Thomas.
23. Jacques d'Adelswärd. In: M. Hirschfeld, Geschlechtskunde. IV (Stuttgart: Julius Püttmann, 1930), p. 632.
24. The dedication stone (1905), Villa Lysis, Capri. In: À la Jeunesse d’Amour. Villa Lysis a Capri: 1905-2005 (Capri:
Edizioni La Conchiglia, 2005), p. 74.
25. Painting of Nino Cesarini (c. 1908) by Paul Höcker. In: Goodbye to Berlin? 100 Jahre Schwulenbewegung (Berlin:
Verlag rosa Winkel, 1997), p. 62.
26. The glorification of Nino Cesarini. In: M. Hirschfeld, Geschlechtskunde. IV (Stuttgart: Julius Püttmann, 1930), p. 632.
27. Interior of Villa Lysis with Höcker’s painting. In: P. Weiermair, Guglielmo Plüschow (Köln: Benedikt Taschen, 1993),
p. 69.
28. Frontal nude of Nino Cesarini.
29. Bathing boys at Marina, Capri (c. 1900). Picture post card by Richter & Co., Naples. Collection of the author [there also
exists a copy of this post card, with the postmark “Capri (Napoli) 18 Giu[gno 19]04,” in the correspondence of Georges
Eekhoud in the Archives et Musée de la Littérature at Brussels (ML 2970/543), written by an undecipherable sender].
30. Nino Cesarini as a Roman soldier (c. 1910) by Guglielmo Plüschow. In: D. Leddick, The Male Nude (Köln: Taschen,
1998), p. 134.
31. Cover by George Auriol of the first issue of Akademos (15 January 1909).
32. “FERSEN. The writer of: Et le Feu s’éteignit sur la Mer...” Caricature by Moyano, in Akademos 1:5 (1909), p. 708.
33. Duel Jean de Mitty – Robert Scheffer (September 1910) (http://p7.storage.canalblog.com/77/00/545230/57759981.jpg).
34. First World War-propaganda post cards: a naked German boy, sitting on a chamber pot, is polishing the German helmet
as an act of civil duty, whereas it is used as a chamber pot by the French and the British. Collection of the author.
35. Villa Lysis (1961). Collection Raimondo Biffi, Rome.
36. Cover by Ernest Marie Brisset of Hei Hsiang. Le parfum noir (1921).
37. Autograph of d’Adelswärd, double signed: Au passant, l'inavouable. F[ersen.] avec beaucoup de sympethie [sic] vraie.
Fersen. (To the passer-by, the unspeakable. F[ersen.] with lots of sincere sympathy. Fersen.) In: Hei Hsiang. Le parfum noir
(Paris: Albert Messein, 1921). Collection of the author.
38. Portrait from the in memoriam “Le triste héros des messes noires Jacques d'Adelsward meurt mystérieusement à
Capri” in Le Matin 10 December 1923, p. 1.
39. Part of d’Adelswärd’s tombstone, Cimitero Acattolico, Capri (http://www.kirche-capri.de/images/fersen.jpg).
Copyright © 2015 by W.H.L. Ogrinc.
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