Le génie logiciel - Ministère de l`Économie, de la Science et de l

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Le génie logiciel - Ministère de l`Économie, de la Science et de l
Bilan de l'activité
scientifique et technologique
de la région de Montréal
\
Le génie logiciel
par
Groupe Secor inc.
Étude sectorielle préparée à l'intention
du Comité du Bilan de l'activité
scientifique et technologique
de la région de Montréal
Le génie logiciel
2110 - 0109
juin 1992
Le présent document fait partie des travaux préparatoires au
Bilan scientifique et technologique de la région de Montréal
qui sont coordonnés par le:
Centre d'Initiative Technologique de Montréal (Citee)
710, Saint-Germain
Saint-Laurent, (Québec)
H4L 3RS
Ces travaux ont été financés par:
le Conseil de la science et de la technologie;
le ministère de l'Industrie, du Commerce et de la Technologie;
l'Office de planification et de développement du Québec;
la Commission d'initiative et de développement économiques de Montréal;
la Corporation de développement économique de Laval;
l'Office de l'expansion économique de la Communauté urbaine de Montréal et
Industrie, Sciences et Technologie Canada.
Ce texte n'a pas fait l'objet d'une
révision linguistique.
Les opinions exprimées dans la présente
étude sont celles de l'auteur.
Les organismes mentionnés ci-dessus n'y
souscrivent pas nécessairement.
Conception graphique de la page couverture :
Mc gee - concept image
Responsable de l'édition:
M. Jacques Langlois
Responsable des communications
Conseil de la science et de la technologie
Supervision et coordination du dossier :
M. Gabriel Clairet
Agent de recherche
Conseil de la science et de la technologie
CONSEIL DE LA SCIENCE ET DE LA TECHNOLOGIE
20S0, boulevard Saint-Cyrille ouest
Se étage
Sainte-Foy (Québec)
G1V 2K8
© Gouvernement du Québec, 1992
Dépôt légal: Zème trimestre 1992
Bibliothèque nationale du Québec
Bibliothèque nationale du Canada
ISBN: 2-SS0-Z6400-Z
Le présent document fait partie des travaux préparatoires au
Bilan scientifique et technologique de la région de Montréal
qui·sont coordonnés par le:
Centre d'Initiative Technologique de Montréal (Citee)
710, Saint-Germain
Saint-laurent, (Québec)
H4l3RS
Ces travaux ont été financés par:
le Conseil de la science et de la technologie;
le ministère de l'Industrie, du Commerce et de la Technologie;
l'Office de planification et de développement du Québec;
la Commission d'initiative et de développement économiques de Montréal;
la Corporation de développement économique de lavaI;
l'Office de l'expansion économique de la Communauté urbaine de Montréal et
Industrie, Sciences et Technologie Canada.
Ce texte n'a pas fait l'objet d'une
révision linguistique.
les opinions exprimées.dans la présente
étude sont celles de l'auteur.
les organismes mentionnés ci-dessus n'y
souscrivent pas nécessairement.
Conception graphique de Ja page couverture:
Mc gee - concept image
Responsable de J'édition:
M. Jacques Langlois
Responsable des communications
Conseil de la science et de la technologie
Supervision et coordination du dossier:
M. Gabriel Clairet
Agent de recherche
Conseil de la science et de la technologie
CONSEil DE lA SCIENCE ET DE lA TECHNOLOGIE
2050, boulevard Saint-Cyrille ouest
Se étage
Sainte-Foy (Québec)
GIV 2K8
© Gouvernement du Québec, 1992
Dépôt légal: 2ème trimestre 1992
Bibliothèque nationale du Québec
Bibliothèque nationale du Canada
ISBN: 2-550-26400-2
Avant-proposLe Conseil de la science ~t de l~ tec.hnologie a initié, dès 1982-1983, la préparation
de bilans régionaux des acti"lté~ s,cle~tIfiques et technologiques. Toutes les régions
administratives du Québec DOt faIt 10bJet d'un Bilan des activités scientifiques et tech-
nologiques.
Le Conseil a: entrepris dès 1990 ~es démarches auprès des principaux intervenants
des milieux concernés de la grande régIOn de Montréal pour les inviter à participer à ce
projet d'envergure.
Par ce Bilan, le Conseil ,,!se à.connaître et faire connaître les activités scientifiques et
technologiques de la région, à IdentIfier les fo.rce~ et les faiblesses de celles-ci de façon à
stimuler la planification du dé"eloppe~ent SClentI~que et technologique régional et enfin
à favoriser les échanges et la concertatIon entre les mtervenants dans ces domaines.
La préparation du Bilan est confiée à un Comité régional qui regroupe des représentants d'institutions d'enseigoement et de recherche, d'entreprises actives en recherchedéveloppement, d'institutionS locale~ et régionales, et d'organismes gouvernementaux.
Dans le cas du bilan de la grande régIOn de Montréal, ce comité est présidé par monsieur
Jean-Paul Gourdeau.
, Le rôle du Conseil consiste à fou~ir. un appui financier et un support
méthodologique aux différenteS étapes de réabsatIOn. Pour le financement du bilan de la
région de Montréal, le Conseil s'est associé six partenaires. Il s'agit de : la Commission
d'initiative et de développeJllent éc.onomiques de Montréal, l'Office de l'expansion
économique de la Communaoté urbame de Montréal, la Corporation de développement
économique de Laval, le ministère Industrie, Sciences et Technologie Canada, le ministère
de l'Industrie, du Commerce et de la Technologie et l'Office de planification et de
développement du Québec.
La coordination en a été confiée au Centre d'Initiative Technologique de Montréal
(Citec) qui a commencé la plani?cation du projet en mai 1991. Dès le début il s'est avéré
essentiel de procéder à un certal~noC?bre .d'études sect?rielles pour faire des diagnostics
plus précis en fonction du pote?tIel dlvers~fié de la régIOn en matière de recherche et de
développement. C'est pourqoOI,.le C~nsell, en a~cord a~ec ses partenaires publie ces
études sectorielles préparées à 1mtentIon du ComIté du BIlan de l'activité scientifique et
technologique de la région de Montréal. C'est avec p~aisir que nous rendons publique la
traduction française "du résoJllé .de cette .étude sectonelle portant sur le génie logiciel.
Cette traduction précède la "erSI?n .anglaIse de l'étude du Groupe SECOR. De plus, le
Comité est à préparer le Bilan amSI que ses recommandations lequel devrait être rendu
public à l'automne 1992.
. Au nom du Conseil de la science et de la technologie, nous remercions les
nombreuses personnes des entreprises, des universités, des collèges et des organismes
régionaux qui ont bien voo1l.l apporter leur concours au diagnostic de leur secteur
d'activité lors d'atelier sur chacune des études sectorielles. Les travaux préparatoires à ce
Bilan démontrent encore, coJllI1le ceux qui l'ont précédé, le bien-fondé de la concertation
au niveau régional en matière de développement scientifique et technologique.
Louis Berlinguet
Président
Conseil de la science et de la technologie
RÉSUMÉ
LES LOGICIELS: DE L'ART À LA SCIENCE
Les logiciels confèrent une intelligence à des systèmes de communication, de finance,
d'avionique, d'armement et autres. Leur réalisation exige des années de travail
collectif à des centaines de concepteurs, de contrôleurs, de programmeurs et de
gestionnaires de projet. Or, les entreprises et les administrations publiques subissent
actuellement une crise du logiciel : les budgets sont dépassés, les échéances ne sont
pas respectées, les logiciels sont de piètre qualité et la main-d'oeuvre manque. Le
génie logiciel est né pour régler ces problèmes. Cette nouvelle discipline a pour but
de proposer des méthodes et des outils systématisés en vue de produire des logiciels
fiables de manière rentable. Le génie logiciel inaugure une nouvelle époque de
«programmation collective», qui enterre l'<<art du logiciel» que pratiquaient les
programmeurs dans l'isolement.
Le génie logiciel, en plein essor, n'a encore aucunement l'air d'avoir atteint sa
maturité. À courte échéance, il dépendra largement des réalisations, des produits et
des services de l'Amérique et de l'Europe. L'idée maintenant est d'axer ses efforts sur
les aptitudes de gestion et sur la formation professionnelle plutôt que sur la
technologie; on s'intéresse en effet aux bases conceptuelles et non à la production de
code comme telle.
LE MARCHÉ DU LOGICIEL
Le marché des logiciels pouvant s'intégrer dans d'autres systèmes se développe à un
rythme croissant. Les commandes ont de plus en plus d'envergure et leur complexité
augmente. Un système n'est jamais statique. En moyenne, 10 à 15% d'un système
logiciel donné est modifié chaque année. Il en découle que le marché des services à
l'utilisateur prend des proportions phénoménales.
,
\i
RÉSUMÉ
LES LOGICIELS: DE LIART À LA SCIENCE
,
,
Les logiciels confèrent une intelligence à des systèmes de communication, de finance,
d'avionique, d'armement et autres. Leur réalisation exige des années de travail
collectif à des centaines de concepteurs, de contrôleurs, de programmeurs et de
gestionnaires de projet. Or, les entreprises et les administrations publiques subissent
actuellement une crise du logiciel : les budgets sont dépassés, les échéances ne sont
pas respectées, les lOgiciels sont de piètre qualité et la main-d'oeuvre manque. Le
génie logiciel est né pour régler ces problèmes. Cette nouvelle discipline a pour but
de proposer des méthodes et des outils systématisés en vue de produire des logiciels
fiables de manière rentable. Le génie logiciel inaugure une nouvelle époque de
«programmation collective», qui enterre l'«art du logiciel» que pratiquaient les
programmeurs dans l'isolement.
Le génie logiciel, en plein essor, nia encore aucunement l'air d'avoir atteint sa
maturité. À courte échéance, il dépendra largement des réalisations, des produits et
des services de l'Amérique et de l'Europe. L'idée maintenant est d'axer ses efforts sur
les aptitudes de gestion et sur la formation professionnelle plutôt que sur la
technologie; on s'intéresse en effet aux bases conceptuelles' et non à la production de
code comme telle.
LE MARCHÉ DU LOGICIEL
Le marché des logiciels pouvant s'intégrer dans d'autres systèmes se développe à un
rythme croissant. Les commandes ont de plus en plus d'envergure et leur complexité
augmente. Un système n'est jamais statique. En moyenne, 10 à 15% d'u~ système
logiciel donné est modifié chaque année. Il en découle que le marché des services à
l'utilisateur prend des proportions phénoménales.
RÉSUMÉ
Le marché mondial du logiciel1 est estimé à environ 110 milliards de dollars
américains par année, dont 57% aux États-Unis et 3% au Canada. Sa croissance se
chiffre à environ 15 à 20% par année.
Le marché militaire du logiciel occupe une place importante au Canada: les
dépenses du MDN dans ce secteur frisent le milliard de dollars, soit 8% de son
budget. Paradoxalement, l'initiative de paix et les compressions budgétaires
stimuleront la demande pour les logiciels.
Les entreprises canadiennes de télécommunications, de finance, d'aérospatiale et
de défense savent maintenant qu'elles doivent se concentrer sur le génie logiciel
pour profiter des ouvertures du marché relativement à l'entretien technique, aux
bancs d'essai et au développement des produits existants. En effet, le génie logiciel
porte sur le développement en soi.
LE MARCHÉ DES OunLS DE DÉVELOPPEMENT DE LOGICIELS DE GLA02
Le marché du GLAO (génie logiciel assisté par ordinateur) offre des logiciels (outils)
et des services qui servent au développement, à la modification ou à l'amélioration
de systèmes logiciels. Le marché mondial, estimé à 4,8 milliards de dollars
américains en 1990 (sans compter les ventes de matériel), devrait dépasser 12,1
milliards en 1995, ce qui représente un taux de croissance annuelle composé de
20%. On peut décomposer ce marché de trois façons:
•
•
•
secteurs public et privé (31 %, 69%)
secteurs technique et financier (28%, 72%)
Amérique du Nord, Europe et autres (61 %, 32% et 7%)
Il Y a trois catégories de vendeurs de logiciels de GLAO: les vendeurs de matériel
(IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment, etc.), les vendeurs de logiciels
indépendants (Cadre Technologies, Softool Corp., etc.) et les intégrateurs de
1. Source: "Can the U.S. Stay ahead in Software?», Business Week, 11 mars 1991.
2. Notre principale source d'information au sujet des outils de GLAO est Dataquest.
VI
RÉSUMÉ
systèmes (Ernst & Young, KPMG, Andersen Consulting, etc.). Sur les 470 vendeurs
de produits de GLAO qui existent dans le monde, seulement 9 ont un chiffre
d'affaires qui dépasse les 100 millions de dollars américains, et 85% ont des
revenus inférieurs à 20 millions. L'avenir du GLAO appartient probablement à ces
dernières entreprises, si elles peuvent toujours compter sur des sources de capital
de risque et sur des partenaires commerciaux. On prévoit une concentration rapide
dans l'industrie.
On peut douter que Montréal puisse se tailler une place importante sur ce marché. Il
n'empêche que plusieurs petites entreprises pourraient enlever la première place
dans des créneaux choisis, à condition que leurs produits soient compatibles avec
plusieurs plates-formes industrielles clés. Peu d'entreprises de consultation
canadiennes ont les compétences requises pour offrir leurs services comme
concepteurs ou sous-traitants.
UNIVERSITÉS
En matière de génie logiciel, pour la R-D et l'enseignement, les universités piétinent.
Les programmes de baccalauréat et de maîtrise portent souvent sur des notions
dépassés plutôt que sur le génie logiciel. Peu d'universités canadiennes jouissent
des compétences nécessaires pour faire de la R-D véritable en génie logiciel. Les
entreprises proposent la mise sur pied d'un programme de stages qui comblerait les
lacunes actuelles dans ce domaine.
Pour les universités montréalaises, la clé réside dans leur aptitude à reconnaître les
éléments scientifiques fondamentaux du génie logiciel et à emprunter aux autres
branches du génie les connaissances nécessaires. Ces universités ont déjà à leur
actif des personnes compétentes et profitent d'une importante contribution du secteur
privé, particulièrement de Bell Canada et de DMR.
VII
RÉSUMÉ
CE QU'IL FAUT FAIRE D'APRÈS LES ENTREPRISES
Pour le secteur privé, la difficulté numéro un consiste à former et à recycler le
personnel ainsi qu'à acquérir des compétences dans la gestion de projets
d'envergure. En deuxième lieu, presque ex aequo, viendrait l'acquisition de
compétences en gestion. Collectivement, l'accès aux méthodes, aux plates-formes et
aux outils les plus récents pose moins de problèmes.
BESOINS EN RESSOURCES HUMAINES
Rares sont les entreprises qui ont atteint un haut degré de compétence selon l'échelle
du Software Engineering Institute (SEI). La majorité des compagnies se situent
encore au niveau 1, quoique certaines en soient rendues au niveau 2. Le niveau 1
dénote des lacunes importantes en gestion et planification de projet, en contrôle des
modifications aux logiciels et en assurance de la qualité. On estime qu'il faut deux
ans pour passer du niveau 1 au niveau 2, moyennant des changements
fondamentaux dans l'entreprise. Le niveau 3 est le minimum à atteindre pour être
maître d'oeuvre. Il faut généralement deux années aussi pour passer du niveau 2 au
niveau 3.
L'acquisition par l'entreprise des compétences qu'il lui faut en matière de génie
logiciel passe par un processus ardu, complexe et coûteux qui nécessite des
professionnels compétents, une formation permanente, un apprentissage en situation
réelle et l'accès à des conseillers chevronnés. Le rôle du gouvernement devrait être
de soutenir les groupes de recherche dans l'exécution de programmes pluriannuels,
de lancer un programme de bourses et de favoriser les efforts conjoints de l'entreprise
et de l'université.
VIII
RÉSUMÉ
MONTRÉAL DANS LE CONTEXTE INTERNATIONAL
Le développement de gros logiciels en temps réel exige des capacités de gestion des
programmes, des projets et des processus qui ne s'acquièrent qu'à la longue. Le
milieu universitaire canadien, à l'écart de la réalité, continue de former des
programmeurs et des informaticiens. Pour demeurer concurrentielles, les entreprises
locales devront se doter de ressources et de compétences dans les domaines
suivants:
- méthodes et processus de modélisation,
- rétrotechnique,
- fonctionnement en temps réel,
- sûreté des dispositifs internes,
- systèmes de mesure pour l'élaboration de modèles,
- interfaces homme-machine,
- dépôt visant à assurer la compatibilité des outils d'étude de système
assistée par ordinateur avec plusieurs plates-formes.
Le problème majeur réside dans le recrutement, le renouvellement et le
perfectionnement de la main-d'oeuvre. C'est le personnel, et non le matériel, qui est
la clé.
Montréal a déjà des avantages qu'il doit exploiter: quelques grands utilisateurs,
quelques grandes entreprises d'experts-conseils, des producteurs de logiciels, de
solides ressources universitaires et un nouveau centre du génie logiciel appliqué.
Le succès des entreprises locales dépend :
- de leur aptitude à générer leurs propres ressources;
- du dynamisme des rapports entre l'entreprise et l'université : réseaux,
stages, formation, etc.;
- du soutien financier du gouvernement et de sa présence comme
utilisateur des technologies mises au point.
IX
TABLE OF CONTENTS
AVANT·PROPOS
RÉSUMÉ
ACKNOWLEDG EMENTS .........................•.................... ~ .......•. ~
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
111
V
XIII
~
XV
INTRODUCTION •...................................................................... ~
1.
Il.
OVERVIEW OF THE SOFTWARE AND CASE TOOL MARKETS
1.1
1 .2
Market Definition and Context
The Software Market
1 .3
The CASE Software
Development Toois Market
1.
3
7
12
.MAJOR PLAYERS AT THE TECHNOLOGICALAND SCIENTIFIC LEVELS.... 1 7
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
III.
XXI
Behavior of Main Users
19
Universities
21
Consulting Firms .............•...................................................... 24
Survey Results
25
Human Resources Needs
27
THE MONTREAL SECTOR IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
The Urgency to Act
Main Technological Trajectories
The Role of Governments
The Situation in Montreal..
·
29
;
~
31
33
36
39
TABLE OF CONTENTS
APPENDICES
1.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS.••••................................. i i i
II.
THE APPLIED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING CENTER
III.
PERTINENT SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INITIATIVES IN THE U.S.. ix
v
IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY.....................................................••.......................... xi
V.
LIST OF CONTACTS AND PARTICIPANTS
IN THE ROUND TABLE ............••••••••••.•••••.•..................................... xiii
VI. SOME KEY PLAYERS IN THE CANADIAN MARKET ..........•.........•.•..xv
XII
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This document could not havebeen prepared without significant support and
cooperation fram many indi~iduals in the Montreal region who are knowledgeablé in
the field of software engineering.
In particular, the following individuals were
instrumental in editing the draft analysis:
François Chassé
Groupe CGI
Denis Bistodeau
Sectorial Agent
Ministère des Communications du Québec
Claude Frasson
Département d'Informatique et
de recherche opérationelle
Université de Montréal
Many more individuals participated in individual interviews and in an industry raundtable discussion to help in analyzing the key issues to be faced in matters of software
engineering in Montreal.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
SOFTWARE: FROM AN ART TO A SCIENCE
Software systems provide the intelligence to modern systems like communications,
finance, avionics or weapons.
Hundreds of designers, testers, programmers and
project managers invest years of work as a team to produce them. However, firms and
government agencies are now facing a software crisis: budget overruns, unmet
schedules, poor software quality and software labour shortages.. The new discipline of
software engineering is emerging to address this issue. It aims to provide structured
methodologies and tools to meet the goal of producing reliable software products in a
cost-effective manner.
The evolutionary path of software engineering is ascending and shows no sign of
maturity. In the short term, it will rely heavily on American and European
achievements, products and services. The key will be to develop project management
abilities and manpower training rather than technology, the aim being at the
conceptual front-end rather than actual code production.
THE SOFTWARE MARKET
The market for software systems embedded in other products is increasing at an
accelerating pace. Projects are becoming ever larger and more comp/ex. Systems
are never static. On average, 10 to 15% of a given software system is modified
annually. Consequently, the support market is growing disproportionately.
The world software market
1
is estimated to be about US$ 110 billion per year, 57% of
which is in the U.S. and 3% in Canada. It is expanding at about 15 to 20% annually.
The Canadian military software market is large: DND's expenditures on software are
approaching $ 1 billion, Le. up to 8% of DND's budget.
Paradoxically, the peace
initiative and budget cuts will drive up the demand for software.
1
Source: "Canada U.S. Stay ahead in Software?", Business Week, March 11, 1991.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Canadian telecommunications, finance, aerospace and defence firms are now aware
of the need to build software engineering competencies to tackle market opportunities
in maintenance projects, test bench development and adding value to present
products.
With software engineering, the preoccupation is with the process of
development itself.
THE CASE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS MARKET2
The CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering) market is defined as software
products (tools) and services related to the development, modification or enhancement
of software systems. The worldwide market is estimated at US$ 4.8 billion in 1990
(exclusive of hardware sales). The market should grow to more that US$ 12.1
billion in 1995, a 20% compound annual growth rate. It can be broken down in three
ways:
•
•
•
Public vs Private (31 %,69%);
Technical vs Financial (28%, 72%); and
Geographical (North America: 61 %, Europe: 32%, Other: 7%).
Three types of vendors sell CASE software products: computer hardware vendors
(IBM, Hewlett-Parkard, Digital Equipment, etc), independent software vendors (Cadre
Technologies, Softool Corp., etc.) and systems integrators (Ernst & Young, KPMG,
Andersen Consulting, etc.). Or 470 vendors of CASE products worldwide, only 9 have
revenues over US$ 100 million, 85% have revenues under US$ 20 million. The future
of new CASE technology will Iikely be developed by the members of this last category
if their continued financing can be assured by the venture capital community and
corporate partners. Rapid industry consolidation is forecast.
The probability of the Montréal area developing a major player in this field is slim.
Nevertheless, several small firms may be able to secure themselves a leading position
within market niches, as long as their products are compatible with several industrial
2
The main source of information about CASE tools is Dataquest.
XVI
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
operating platforms. Few Canadian software consulting firms have the competencies
to bid as systems developers or subcontractors.
UNIVERSITIES
Universities are lagging in the performance of R&D and education tasks in Software
Engineering. Teaching at the B.Sc. or M.Sc. level is often focused on obsolete ways of
programming instead of software engineering. Few universities in Canada have the
competencies to engage in significant R&D in Software Engineering. Industry
suggests the creation of an internship program to ease the present weaknesses in the
area of manpower training.
For the Montréal universities, the solution resides in their capacity to identify the
fundamental scientific elements of software engineering and to borrow the pertinent
knowledge fram other disciplines of engineering. Local universities are already
endowed with knowledgeable individuals and strong industry contributions, specially
from Bell Canada and DMR.
INDUSTRY'S PERCEPTION Of ACTIONS REQUIRED IN S.E.
Companies see industry's greatest need to lie in the area of training and retraining of
existing staff and building capabilities in large-scale project management. Building
process management competence is a close second. Collectively, access to the latest
methodology tools and plattorms is less of an issue.
HUMAN RESOURCES NEEDS
Few firms and agencies have reached high levels of competence according to the
Software Engineering Institute (SEI) process scale. A majority of them are still at level
1; some have reached level 2. Level 1 indicates major problems in project
management, project planning, software configuration management and software
XVII
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
quality assurance.
Process maturation means cultural changes over time, with an
estimate of two years to mature from level one to level two. Level 3 is the minimum
maturity level for a prime contractor. Another two years are generally required to
mature from level 2 to level 3.
The process of building adequate software engineering competencies at the firm level
is a lengthy, complex and expensive challenge requiring competent professionals,
continuous training, learning on real projects, and access to high level consultants.
The role of governments must be to support research teams on multi-year programs, to
launch a scholarship program in this field and to support joint industry-university
efforts.
MONTRÉAL IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
Large, real-time software system development requires program, project and
process management skills that take time to build. The Canadian academic
community is as yet unaware of this situation, and continues to train programmer and
computer scientists. To remain competitive, local firms will have to master the
following technology skills:
•
modelization techniques and processes,
•
reverse engineering,
•
real time operation,
•
•
on-board systems reliability,
measuring systems for the development of models,
•
•
man-machine interfaces,
repository to ensure compatibility CASE tools with several platforms.
The most critical issue is manpower recruiting, renewal and upgrading. People,
and not harware, are the key assets.
XVIII
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Montréal has assets on which to build: sorne large users, a few large consulting
firms, software producers, strong university resources and a new applied software
engineering centre.
The success of the local firms will reside in:
•
their capacity to generate the proper resources;
•
adynamie industry-university relation: networking, internships, training, etc.;
•
government as financial supporter and user of the developed technologies.
XIX
INTRODUCTION
Software engineering (SE) is a discipline of increasing strategie importance. Many
technologies require the development of powerful software engineering tools and
methodologies. The aim of the present document is to identify the major issues related
to software engineering. Beyond the technological aspects, this document
demonstrates the need for the discipline and its importance to the various players in
the Montreal area.
The Quebec government recognized the importance of SE in its December 1991
policy paper on industrial cluster "Vers une société à valeur ajoutée". The information
technology products cluster is described in appendix. It is one of the most promising
clusters because of its central importance to the service sector.
Information technologies are more and more one of the key elements in the firm's
competitiveness, hence the importance of studying software engineering as part of the
"bilan scientifique".
This paper is based on a synthesis of several recent studies undertaken by SECOR.
The studies led to the establishment of the applied Software Engineering Center
(ASEC). The information in this report is based largely on recent developments in the
aeronautics and defence sectors. Management applications on the other hand is a
vast field and summary information is not readily available (e.g. penetration rate of
software engineering in Montreal firms, quantity of researchers in local universities,
etc.). A round table discussion among key industry representatives supplemented the
available data. This paper concentrates on the three following aspects of SE:
•
•
Overview of the Software and CASE Tooi Markets;
Major Players at the Scientific and Technological.levels;
•
Montreal within the Global Context.
Further information about important developments Iike the ASEC are included in
appendix.
CHAPTERI
OVERVIEW Of THE SOFTWARE
AND CASE TOOLS MARKETS
THE SOFTWARE MARKET
1.1
MARKET DEFINITION AND CONTEXT
DEFINITION1
•
Many Canadian firms and government agencies, just as everywhere else,
are now facing a software crisis. Symptoms are budget overruns, unmet
schedules and poor software quallty. The complexlty and slze of the task
challenges our present technlcal and managerlal competencles. A new
discipline Is presently emerglng to address thls Issue: It Is called software
engineering.
·Software engineering is the establishment and application of sound engineering
and management: concepts, principles, models, methods, tools and environment
combined with appropriate standards, guidelines and practices to support
computing which is correct, modifiable and maintainable, reliable and safe,
efficient and understandable, throughout the life cycle of the applications·.
CONTEXT
Systems engineering, whlch Includes software engineering, Is emerglng as a
discipline to replace craft approaches to industrial systems development.
•
Software engineering aims to provide structured methodologies and tools to
meet the goal of producing reliable software products in a cost-effective manner.
Software development is now moving away from the era where programmers
worked in isolation, to a new era called -programming-in-the-Iarge- or -megaprogramming- (although software engineering is not Iimited to megaprojects). In
this new area, a large number of designers, testers, programmers and project
managers work, for months or years, as a team to produce the software systems
that give intelligence to communications, administration, finance, production,
avionics or weapons systems.
1 Source: Adapted (rom Dr. C. McKay.
- Page 3·
The Software Market ...
•
Software engineering is evolving under the leadership of buyers and prime
contractors. For this reason, both government-Ied top-down initiatives and
industry collaborative projects are pushing the frontiers of the software
engineering discipline. One important part of this evolution will be its inclusion
within the wider perspective called systems engineering.
•
The evolutionary path of software engineering is ascending and shows no sign
of maturity. On the contrary, numerous CASE (Computer-Aided Software
Engineering) tool developers and consulting firms are entering the industry and
offering a wide range of products and services. Without neglecting the need to
solve technical issues such as documentation, configuration management, etc.,
It Is clear that, ln the short term, the transition to a hlgher level of software
engineering competence ln Canada will rely heavlly on Amerlcan, European
and Japanese achlevements, produets and services.
•
Canadian systems integrators, subcontractors and government agencies
indicate that the required transition to build software engineering competencies
in Canada will depend more on developlng project management abilities and
manpower training than on technology development (this last aspect is still of
key importance). The survey2 of fifty-one aerospace and defence systems
integrators, subcontractors and military agencies clearly indicated that firms and
government agencies see software project management as their major
weakness. On the technical side, problems are mostly at the system and
software requirements definition phase of the Iife cycle, i.e. at the conceptual
front-end rather than actual code production. Respondents identified training
and retrainihg as the greatest needs in order to build software engineering
capabilities.
•
Although no formai survey was done, several comments pointed to the
conclusion that management problems were similar in business applications.
2
Source: "The Market for a Canadian Software Engineering Center to Serve the Aerospace and
Defence Industries: Needs and Opportunities~ Secor, June 20, 1990.
- Page 4·
The Software Market ...
The evolutlonary path of progress ln Information technology Is now cutting
across a series of industrial sectors such as aerospace, transport, utilities,
telecommunications, defence, finance and administration where large real-time
crltlcal systems can now be bulit to meet market or government demands.
•
Commercial and mllltary markets are demandlng the embedding of
software capablllties Into products and systems to add Intelligence.
Software demand is increasing because large systems can now be bullt to
perform complex functions.
•
However, according to a recent survey3 from the Software Engineering Institute
(SEI), approximately 90 % of 106 senior executives in U.S. government and
industry expect a serious problem in producing military software over the next
five years. Four of the top factors contributing to schedule slippage and budget
overruns were software labor shortages in critical areas such as :
systems engineers,
project managers,
software englneers,
software managers.
•
Software production is evolving from its ad-hoc, "craft" practices of the
sixtles and early seventles into a true engineering discipline. The objective
Is to develop competencles to produce reliable and cost-efflcient,
embedded software and management Information systems wlthln schedule
to meet Increaslng user requlrements.
•
The new reallty has hlt at the front IInes of software engineering. Systems
Integrators, and subcontractors have been forced to conform to the new
paradigm of software engineering and transform themselves :
3
Source; Siegel, J.A. AI, -National Software Capacity: Near-Term Study-, Camegie-Mellon
University Technical Report 12, May 1990.
- Page 5-
The Software Market ...
Building new software competencies
This means methodologies, risk and cost analysis, project management
skills, etc.
A long road ahead
The process of building software engineering competencies is long and
persistent efforts are required :
re-training existing personnel will take between 2 to 3 years;
transforming the knowledge embodied in university graduates will
take 4 to 6 years at the undergraduate and 4 years at the master's
level;
transformation within firms requires about 1.5 to 2 years per software
engineering maturity level2 ; therefore, it takes a minimum of 8 years to
reach -Ievel 5- after initiation of the change process.
4
Five software engineering maturity levels have been defined by the Software Engineering Institute
(SEI) at Carnegie-Mel/on University. They are: 1) initial, 2) repeatable, 3) defined, 4) managing and,
5) optimizing.
- Page 6·
The Software Market ...
1.2 THE SOFTWARE MARKET
•
The market for software systems embedded ln other products, e.g.
alrcraft, finance, process control systems, etc. Is Increaslng at an
accelerating pace.
•
A large and growing demand for software.
The world software market3 is estimated to be about US$ 110 billion per
year, 57% of which is in the U.S. and 3% in Canada. The rest is split
between Japan (13%), France (8%), Germany (7%), Britain (6%), and
other countries (6%).
The software market is expanding at about 15 to 20 % annually.
ln the United States, the Oepartment of Oefence (000) budget for software
acquisition and maintenance amounted to US$30 billion in 1990, or sorne
10% of the total budget. In Canada, the Oepartment of National Oefence's
(ONO) expenditures on software are approaching $1 billion, Le. up to 8% of
ON O's budget.
Organizations on the technological frontier are spending an even greater
portion of their budget on software.
•
5
Paradoxlcally, the peace Initiative and budget cuts will drive up the demand
for software.
Source: -Can the U.S. Stay ahead in Software?-, Business Week, 11 mars 1991.
- Page 7·
The Software Market ...
Less predictable threats
For example, the rapidly evolving Eastern European situation and the rise
of third world conflicts like Iran and Iraq require increasing capability in
Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C 31).
The new budget realities
Budget cuts mean a stretched Iife for existing weapons systems. This will
increase costly support as weil as extensive upgrades.
Reduced manpower will require greater productivity through automation,
i.e. software.
A reduced DoD worldwide presence increases the reliance on rapid
deployment which is heavily dependent on logistics and other softwareintensive activities.
A qualitative change ln demande
Projects are becomlng ever larger and more complex. For example,
today's front-line fighters like the CF-18 require sorne 320,000 lines of onboard software code. Tomorrow's fighters, like the ATF will need almost 3
million Iines of on-board code.
Systems are never static. From the day of delivery, users push software
systems -at the edge of the envelope-. On average, 10 to 15% of a given
software system is modified annually. Consequently, the support market is
growing disproportionately. For example, DND officers estimate that for
each $40 spent on software acquisition, sorne $60 will be spent on support
over the Iife of the system.
- Page 8·
The Software Market ...
the market of post-engineering tools (restructuring, retro-engineering and
re-engeneering) will go from 50 million $ in 1985 to 300 million in 1994 (for
the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany).
•
Systems are no longer "black boxes".
They must be transparent and designed for extensive modification and
upgrading over their service Iife. Moreover, they must be modular in
nature.
•
Performance expeetations are ever Increaslng.
For example, the Advanced Automatic System for Air Traffic Control used
by the FAA must not exceed 2.3 seconds of downtime annually: Le. ·Zero
Defects· are rapidly becoming the norm for some systems.
The cost of failure is extremely high. For example, the F-16D is highly
maneuverable, but inherently unstable. A computer system failure would
result in the loss of the aircraft and its crew.
Another example is provided by the- Gulf War4. When a Scud missile struck
barracks in Dharan, Saudi Arabia, during the Gulf War, killing 28 Desert
Storm soldiers, the Army claimed the Scud had broken up in flight.
Subsequent investigations showed that a software error had caused the
Patriot system to shut down and ignore the incoming Scud.
Also, in July 1991, more than 12 million people in the United States lost
their phone service because of a software error in phone-switching
computers. Businesses lost millions of dollars...
6
Source: Leonard Lee "Computers Out of Contror, BYTE, February 1992.
- Page 9·
The Software Market .•.
•
These examples demonstrate how the need for more rellable computer
software has never been greater.
Software is now embedded almost everywhere: car engines, microwave
ovens, VeR's, etc. It runs airliners, air traffic control, missiles, bombers,
and nearly every business.
•
The current industry average of one error per thousand Unes of code is no
longer good enough when modern programs often grow to be millions of
Unes long.
•
Software production is evolving from its ad-hoc, "craft" practices of the
sixties and early seventies into a true engineering discipline.
Market pull is forcing the transition
Endless cost and budget overruns forced DoD to begin to come to grips
with the issue of software engineering.
Discussions with key 000 policy makers led to the identification of four
major structural initiatives: Ada, STARS, SEI, and Software Masterplan.
Definition of norms to favor a more harmonious development of software
tools.
The objective of these initiatives was to transform, from a total systems
perspective, the ways that :
universities teach software engineering;
government agencies acquire and manage software over the entire Iifecycle;
- Page 10-
The Software Market ...
systems integrators and sub-contractors manage the development of
software projeets;
software engineering firms develop methodologies and tools.
•
As discussed by Leonard Lees (among others):
"Sill, the time has come to make software engineering a science rather than
an art. Sofware engineering standards must be codified, and programmers
must strictlyadhere to those standards. 1...] As computers become more
sophisticated, so too must the methods of writing the programs that- run
them. Failure to do so will only mean catastrophes, and the priee we pay
for those failures grows eve/}' day. n
7
Source: "Computers Out of Contra!", BYTE, February 1992.
- Page 11 •
The Software Market ...
1.3
THE CASE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS MARKET6
•
The CASE market Is deflned as products and services related to the
development and enhancement of software sytems. It Includes softwares,
methodologles and training programs. Excluded from thls deflnitlon are :
computer hardware, operatlng systems, data-base only software,
transaction management software and network communications software.
•
Two types of tools are found. Upper CASE tools for the analysis, specification
and design phases and lower CASE tools for the realization, verification and
operational phases.
•
Three types of vendors sell CASE software products :
Computer hardware vendors (IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment, etc.)
They face decreasing margins on hardware. Therefore, their attention to
software products has increased, to improve margins and provide
competitive differentiation.
They develop more integrated environments and system management
tools.
They have taken an active role in jointly marketing products of the
independent software vendors , or in some cases, reselling these
products.
Independant software vendors - ISV (Cadre Technologies, Knowledgeware,
Computer Associates, Texas Instruments, etc.)
8
The main source of information in section 1.3 is DataquBst.
- Page 12-
The Software Market ...
They represent the core of the CASE market in many respects. They sell
by far the most software tools, have the largest installed base, and have by
most accounts the hottest CASE technology.
Systems integrators (Ernst & Young, KPMG, Andersen Consulting, etc.)
They provide expert knowledge of the tools market and solutions to endusers' typical problems. Along with the tools from the independent software
vendors, they create solutions for the end-users.
They can also develop their own tools as part of an implementation
solution.
Market opportunities will continue to grow for them as end-users and
independentsoftware integrators recognize the potential of this channel.
•
A fourth type could be added, namely, the ISU that offer consultation services
(for example: CGI-France, Ernst & Young, Andersen Consulting). These firms
possess their own software engineering CASE tools to develop their customers'
applications. Anderson Consulting has launched the Foundation workshop - a
$50 million investment over 3 years.- It has been retained to develop a
management system for the Albertville Winter Olympics. In less than a year,
they were able to develop a user/provider architecture integrating 1,500
workstations to handle ail kinds of data.
•
The worldwide market is estimated at US$4.8 billion in 1990 (exclusive of
hardware sales). The market should grow to more than US$12.1 billion in 1995,
a 20% compound annual growth rate. Market growth will be a result of several
factors:
number of professional programmers and analysts,
number of non-professional programmers (engineers, financial analysts,
etc.),
- Page 13·
The Software Market ...
value of CASE tools per programmer.
•
The market can be segmented in three ways, among others :
i}
Public vs Private
Government
Commercial
ii}
Technical vs Flnanclal
Technical
Business-MIS
iii}
31%
69%
28%
72%
Geographlcal
U.S. (incl. CAN.)
Europe
Asia
61% (55% in 1995)
32% (36% in 1995)
7% (9% in 1995)
•
The market is fragmented : 470 vendors of CASE products7 worldwide. Only 9
have revenues over US$100 million; they account for 42 % of the market. 85%
of the vendors have revenues less than US$ 20 million.
•
The U.S. government market is very significant (US$ 875 million in 1990);
however, it has special needs : long term support, stability and commitment to
strategie directions based on norms such as Application Portability Profile
(APP) from NIST. These needs are most IIkely to be met by the largest
vendors that can apply large-scale resources and can serve as systems
integrators for the niche product technologies coming from the smaller
vendors. Partnershlp between large and small vendors Is clearly very
9
According to Info-Log, there are more than a hundred software engineering tools to assist in
design, management and operate applications.
- Page 14-
The Software Market •..
Important; a key to success Is to provide mechanlsms for smaller
companles to partner wlth larger vendors to market produets.
•
Small vendors are key players because they represent the entrepreneurial spirit
of the CASE industry. These vendors are small in size but important in ideas,
creativity and imagination. The future of new CASE technology will Iikely be
developed by the members of this category, if their financing can be
continuously assured by the venture capital community and corporate partners.
Foreseeable Evolution
•
The available CASE tools show little differentiation and the number of suppliers is
doubtless too many in relation to market needs. Therefore, there will IIkely be
a rapid sectorlal consolidation wlthln flve years. It is conceivable that sorne
ten to fifteen important players worldwide can be expected. These will be the
ones which control the strategie elements of marketing and distribution. In
addition, there will be severai small players in selected niches.
•
Within such an outlook, the adaptability of CASE tools will be a key factor in
market penetration. Thus, the definition of norms and standards constitutes an
element of the future evolution of softwàre engineering. The role of standards
organizations is very important.
Montreal's Place
•
It is unlikely 1hat a major player will emerge locally. However, several small firms
can undoubtedly carve out niches to the extent that their products are
operational on severai ·platforms·. They will foster links with strategie partners.
•
As norms get accepted on the market (for example in the case of open systems)
smail local firms have the potential to develop state-of-the-art expertise keyed to
the proper credentials.
- Page 15·
CHAPTER Il
MAJOR PLAYERS AT THE TECHNOLOGICAL
AND SCIENTIFIC LEVELS
MAJOR PLAVERS AT THE TECHNOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC LEVELS
2.1
BEHAVIOR OF MAIN USERS8
Technicallnformation
•
The Canadian mllltary and other agencies have not been pushlng for
solutions and transformations.
DND's top level is only now realizing the full consequences of the new
software engineering conditions and requirements.
DND needs to train program and software managers in key issues Iike
processes, methodologies and tools.
DND program managers note that, unlike 000 programme managers, they
have no access to independent ·think tanks· for early concept definition
and source evaluation; Le., there is a lack of broad technical vision to help
guidethem.
Canadian Forces program managers note that lack of emphasis on concept
definition and front-end analysis leads to:
difficulties in the procurement process,
over and under specification of requirements,
continuai delays, failures, defects and overruns.
•
Canadian aerospace and defence firms are aware of the need to build
software engineering competencles to tackle market opportunlties ln :
maintenance projects over the Iife cycle of systems;
test bench development for aircraft maintenance;
adding value to present produets.
•
ln the aeronautics and defense sectors, software engineering was provided,
until recently, as a support to the hardware rather than a science in itself.
10 This section deals more with the technical applications rather than the management aspects due to
the available information.
- Page 19·
Major Players...
•
Clients' growing needs will result in players adjusting their products and
services. In the future. clients will be more concerned with the process and the
management of software engineering.
•
ln this context, the relationships between large clients (Bell Canada, Canadair,
etc.) and sub-contractors should put more emphasis on partnership rather than
on confrontation. Software engineering, in order to be put into operation
efficiently, demands an incremental approach along with increased efforts at
education and communication with the client. This corresponds to the industrial
cluster concept adopted by the Ouebec government. These clusters represent
a grouping of industries which interact within a same sector and collaborate or
cornpete among themselves to increase their competitivity and their growth.
•
The approach adopted by Bell Canada corresponds to this model :
Bell has given financial support to three local universities;
Bell has assumed part of the development effort in its own research
centers, but purchases a high proportion of products and services from
outside suppliers (sorne $3 billion annually); this partnership is a key factor
in Bell's success; this participative approach is important since the
developers of applications which interact with Bell Canada will have to
rapidly increase their expertise. According to Info-Log, Bell Canada gives
them a two year deadline to reach the third level of maturity of the SEI
scale~
- Page 20·
~or
Players...
2.2 UNIVERSITIES
•
Universities are lagglng ln the performance of R&D and education tasks in
software engineering.
•
Universlties do not always master state-of-the-art fields; they are too
often "generalists" with -boller-plate" knowledge.
•
Few universities in Canada have the competencies to engage in significant
R&D in software engineering.
Some notable exceptions are found (e.g. École Polytechnique, the
Universities of Montreal, Concordia, McGiII, Laval, Ottawa and Waterloo);
however, most focus on computer sciences;
Research is not necessarily focussed on real industry problems (Le.
critical, real-time, large software projects);
Resources are inadequate to tackle significant problems; because of that,
universities work too much in the -small-;
There were no software engineering proposais in the Centers of
Excellence programme.
•
Teaching at the B.Sc. or M.Sc. level is often focused on obsolete ways of
programming instead of software engineering:
There are currently no software engineering programmes at the
undergraduate and graduate levels in Canadian universities:
Few universities have solid M.Sc. programs;
Industry's recruitment problems are compounded by the training of students
in outdated approaches;
A major transformation of software engineering education is needed.
- Page 21 -
Major Players...
•
At the training level, one factor Industry participants often mentloned ln
order to mltigate the shortcomlngs of university education was to set up
co.operative programs.
•
Canadian universitles have to go through the same transformation as
leading U.S. unlverslties.
Canadian industry will have to push for change;
As yet, there is no real push from the Canadian government as in the U.S.;
Being late can take significant advantage in learning from others.
•
Unlversities are at the tall-end of the diffusion of know-how whlch Is
transformlng software engineering Into a true knowledge.based discipline.
•
ln the United States, some unlversltles have tended to Increasingly
combine thelr Information science and software engineering departments,
reflectlng the need to brlng these two disciplines closer together.
- Page 22-
Major Players...
The Montreal-area Universities
•
Llke other North American universltles, those ln the Montreal reglon are
evolving ln a sclentlflc envlronment whlch Is partlcular to disciplines such
as software engineering.
It is a young discipline;
Its scientific foundations are still not firmly established 9 ;
Its present approach is based largely on empirical data.
•
For unlversltles, the key lies ln thelr ablllty to Identlfy the sclentiflc basis of
software engineering and to borrow the approprlate elements from other
engineering disciplines (e.g. modelling techniques).
•
Local university research depends on a few exceptlonal Indivlduals and on
the major support of two companles ln partlcular: Bell Canada and DMR.
Private sector support will certainly grow over the next few years.
•
This Interaction between the prlvate sector and the universltles Is most
important ln establishlng a better dialogue, a better comprehension of each
other's mission and in Identlfying key avenues of research the two sides
should pursue.
11
It is interesting to note that software engineering, unlike other engineering disciplines, is -invisibleand not subject to the laws of nature like mechanical engineering or engineering physics.
- Page 23-
Major Players...
2.3 CONSULTING FIRMS
•
Few Canadian software consulting flrms have the competencles to bld as
systems developers or sub-contractors. It Is princlpally the large
consultlnghouses IIke DMR ("Productlvlty .Plus"), CGI, LGS
("Inspiration"), Systemhouse, etc. that develop software engineering
applications.
Only a handful of firms are seen as- having the required capabilities in
mission-critical, real-time software systems development.
The development of a sub-contracting market in software engineering will
be long because systems integrators are learning to master software
engineering and software project management and want to control ail
aspects of the work.
Systems integrators find it difficult to sub-contract intelligently until a firm
has reached level 3 on the SEI maturity scale.
Yet, many non-critical parts in the development of large software projects
can be better handled by specialized consulting firms.
•
A major "bootstrapping" operation is needed to bulld software engineering
capabllities ln the supplier base.
- Page 24-
.M!Jor Players...
2.4 SURVEY RESULTS10
•
Companles saw Industry·s greatest need to Ile ln the area of training and
retraining of exlstlng staff and building capablIItles ln large scale project
management: Building process management competence was a close
second. Collectlvely, access to the latest methodology, tools and
platforms was less of an Issue.
INDUSTRY·S PERCEPTION
Of ACTIONS REQUIRED IN SE
PERCEIVED NEED
1
Action Requlred
2
Major
action
5
4
3
Some
action
No
action
2.5
Assessment and identification of strategic, technical = = = = = = =
or market choices
Building capabilities in
large scale project mgmt
Building process mgmt
competence
Training & retraining
existing staff
2.2
2.3
2.2
3.1
Having access to the
latest methodology, tools
and platforms
•
Most companies were at levels 1 or 2 according to the SEI scale.
ta Serve the Aerospace and Defence
Needs and Opportunities", SECOR, June 20, 1990.
12 "The Market for a Canadian Software Engineering Centre
Industries -
- Page 25·
Major Players...
•
On average, the 30 companles that responded tended to subcontraet about
15% of thelr software engineering actlvltles.
Reasons for subcontracting (In order of prlorlty) :
workload,
lack of internai expertise,
flexibility.
Amongst others :
to meet program requirements,
to benefit from economies of scale by letting out maintenance and
service.
Klnd of work subcontraeted
specialist tasks (meeting standards, software design...),
detailed design and programming,
maintenance.
Klnd of subcontractor used
specialists in particular technologies (real time systems,...),
software consultants.
- Page 26·
Major Players... _
2.5
HUMAN RESOURCES NEEDS
Canadlan systems integrators, contractors, private companles and government
agencles vary ln thelr mastery of software engineering. The software
engineering compétencles of those flrms range from adequate to emerglng. The
lack of quallfled resources like software engineering researchers will have to be
resolved ln the next few years.
•
A majority of firms are in the process of building software engineering
competencies to improve their product's competitiveness, to become software
houses or to act as effective system integrators. These firms hire consultants,
send personnel to training activities and purchase equipment and tools. They
recognize that building and maintaining competencies will require time and
continuai investments.
•
A few firms have built adequate software engineering competencies, either
recently or over the last 20 years. They do not have to undergo crash programs
but intend to focus on better project management, following the progress curve
of software engineering, and deepening their skills.
•
Equipment and CASE tool suppliers are knowledgeable about software
engineering. Their business is selling the hardware and the software tools which
are used to build corporate software engineering competencies.
•
Yet, few firms and agencies have reached high levels of competence according
to the SEI -process scale. A majority of them are still at level 1; sorne have
reached level 2. Level 1 indicates major problems in project management,
project planning, software configuration management and software quality
assurance. Process maturation means cultural changes over time. It is
estimated that on average, an organization can mature from level one to level
two in approximately two years! Level 3 is the minimum maturity level for a prime
contractor. Another two years are generally required to mature from level 2 to
level 3 (which corresponds to Bell Canada's requirements as mentioned earlier).
- Page 27·
Major Players...
•
Ali firms, even those with adequate software engineering competencies, are
faced with the need to improve their competencies constantly as a function of
the rapid technical progress curve in this field. Firms with lower levels of
competence need to make substantial efforts.
The process of building adequate software engineering competencles at the firm
level is a lengthy, complex and expensive challenge requiring competent
professlonals, contlnuous training, learnlng on real projects, and access to hlgh
level consultants.
•
The process of building a medium-sized software engineering capabi1ity for an
enterprise (i.e. a 25 person-year staff) is lengthy and costly. Equipment and software costs are approximately $1 million, but training and consulting fees will
average 3 times equipment costs over a 4 year period for a total transition cost of
$4 million. Salaries are not included. (Furthermore, changes in the teaching of
software engineering at the university level will not lead to new graduates before
3-5 years). Actual pilot projects are required to implement new processes,
methods and tools.
•
The technical progress curve in software engineering is presently accelerating
upward without indications that it will 'soon reach an inflection point. As a
consequence, firms which did not build competencies have to adapt through
radical changes while firms with sorne competencies have to adapt to continuai
changes by monitoring methodologies and tools.
•
ln this vein, government should seek to:
ensure continulty through multi-year commitments to research groups in
software engineering;
favour establishing a scholarship program in this area;
support university/private sector co-operation through a program of
matching funds;
favor joint government, industry, university application and development.
- Page 28·
CHAPTER III
THE MONTREAL SECTOR IN'THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
THE MONTREAL SECTOR IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
3.1
THE URGENCY TO ACT
A major transformation is required to build the software engineering
competencies of Canadian companies, government agencles, systems
integrators, subcontractors, software consultants and universities.
•
The transformation which is required in the aerospace and defence sector is
also occurring in railways, utilities, telecommunications, banks, financial
services, air traffic, etc. under the impetus of progress in information technology.
For example, Bell Canada has a real-time switching system with 16 million Iines
of code, developed by Bell-Northern Research.
•
Canadian firms need to transform themselves to meet the new Hbest practice n
requirements in software engineering. In order to go through this change, the
challenges are more managerial/organizational than technical.
•
Canadian firms are keenly aware of the need for a major transformation to
develop their software engineering competencies either to produce software,
maintain large systems or perform the systems integration function adequately.
•
Canadian universities are lagging in R&D as weil as in education in the new
software engineering perspective. Without industry and government help they
cannot face the new challenges.
•
Only a handful of Canadian software consulting firms and contractors have the
capabilitiesfor getting involved in large, critical real-time software development
projects. As a consequence, a Hbootstrapping ll operation is required to build a
competent supplier base. Here the industrial cluster concept takes on its full
meaning in the Quebec and Montreal context.
- Page 31 •
Montreal...
.This transformation Is urgently required at ail levels ln Canada.
•
Military and government program managers are under tremendous pressures in
systems definition and acquisition.
•
Managers of systems integration firms face the difficulties of bootstrapping their
organization from a programming, computer-science umind-set to high levels of
competence in Systems Software Engineering in order to face competition.
U
•
Large, real-time software system development requires program, project and
process management skills that take time to build.
•
The Canadian academic community is as yet unaware of this situation, and
continues to train programmer and computer scientists.
•
Sub-contractors will never attain the required competence without support.
Other countries have already put in place strategic Initiatives with respect to
software engineering (see Appendix 1). In Canada, a few Initiatives are taking
place in Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, British Columbia (Software Productivity
Consortium), etc. In Quebec, the concept of industrial clusters will surely fuel
the development of the sector. The launch of the Centre de génie logiciel
(supported by Montreal Computer Research Centre) and the Technology
Development Fund which supported such projects as uMacroscope" are
important toolsto support the sector·s development.
- Page 32·
Montreal...
3.2
•
MAIN TECHNOLOGICAL TRAJECTORIES
To remaln competitive Internatlonally, Canadlan firms involved ln software
engineering should master the following technological trajectories which
will characterize the sectorls development in the next few years.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
modelling techniques and processes,
post-engineering,
real-time applications,
reliability of on-board systems,
measurement systems for developing and validating models,
user-machine interfaces,
a repository for CASE tools,
increasing the kind of data treated (text, geomatics, etc.).
•
Within these technological trajectories, the key rests principally in the
applications areas (software and user interface) and in the architecture of
operating systems; platforms are secondary.
•
Building a software engineering capability is more a management than a
technical issue.
•
Methodologies and tools are, and will be, available as a result of the response
and offerings of CASE tool developers and computer hardware companies.
•
Organizations have to leam to manage a major transformation and quantum
shifts in an evolutionary framework driven by technology.
•
The first step beyond top management awareness is assessing the strengths and
weaknesses of present capabilities as a function of competitively required
competencies.
- Page 33·
Montreal...
•
Commitment of financial and human resources is required to achieve the
transitions to SEI level 2, 3 or 4 through an action plan over several years.
•
Implementing a structured process for software Iife cycle management which
stresses front-end analysis rather than coding is essential.
The most critical issue is manpower recruiting, renewal and upgrading. People,
and not hardware, are the key assets.
- Page 34·
Montreal...
3.3
THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENTS
Governments ean play a slgnlfleant raie through :
•
an increased recognition of information technologies as a strategic economic
.development tool (as done by the OECO regarding software engineering).
•
a matching mechanism for financial contributions with other partners to maximize
synergy;
•
fiscal poWcies adapted to information technologies;
•
increased support to universities in recognition of the fundamental research
which is needed in software engineering;
•
a flexible approach to any emerging centers of excellence (to avoid spreading
funds around too thinly);
•
a purchase policy which favours the establishment of a company-university
network in order to expand capabilities; work in isolation is inappropriate;
•
a purchasing approach which moves in the direction of a partnership with
suppliers and recognizes the importance of process and management issues.
- Page 35·
MontreaL.
3.4
THE SITUATION IN MONTREAL
Montreal has definite advantages to ensure itself of a role in the industry, to
answer the pressing needs and catch up on the countries that launched their
software engineering efforts years ago.
•
Several large users: Bell Canada, Canadair, Paramax, Spar Aerospace, CAE,
Hydro-Quebec, Montreal Trust, The Fédération des Caisses Populaires
Desjardins, etc. as weil as governments. Some initiatives are already
underway, for example :
Centre d'intérêt sur les métriques (Montreal Trust),
Software Quality (Fédération des Caisses Populaires),
Quality Systems Engineering Research Consortia (Bell Canada),
Datrix (École Polytechnique),
Groupe de génie logiciel (GGL)
•
Several large consulting firms capable of participating in large projects: DMR,
CGI, IST, LGS, DTI, Atkinson Tremblay, etc. Already, DMR, with the
u
"Macroscope project, is realizing a major step towards a software engineering
approach. This project seeks to propose a complete and integrated system for
employing information technologies in large organizations. An excellent
example of partnership, "Macroscope" headed by Groupe DMR, is based on the
participation of CSA-Silverrum, Lambda, and Info Innov; IBM supplies computer
equipment. Quebec firms support the projects: Alcan, Bombardier, Banque
Nationale, Groupe La Laurentienne, Provigo, Culinar, Hydro-Quebec, the
Régie de l'assurance-automobile and the Ministère de la Main-d'oeuvre and the
Ministère de la Sécurité du revenu et de la formation professionnelle. Under this
multi-partner approach, efforts will be made to insure the universality of the
methodologies and tools developed.
•
Software producers represent a strong potential in particular niches: Virtual
Prototypes, Visual Edge Software, Novasys, etc.
- Page 36·
Montreal.•.
•
Top-notch university researchers who should come together to create a
critical mass of research in software engineering and also ensure academic
training essential to the sector's players;
•
An Applied Software Engineering Center which would constitute a privileged
site to make accessible know-how in software engineering and ensure the
training of those involved. The ASEC could be a key center for the Montreal
software engineering sector over the next few years.
•
The success of Montreal companies will be based on :
•
their ability to apply sufficient resources;.
•
the university-company dynamic: interaction, work stages, on-the-job
training, etc.
•
government support such as financial assistance (matching) and as a user
of technologies and tools developed;
•
a partnership between different players, both local and foreign coming from
various sectors (industry, university, governments).
- Page 37·
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS ..,
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PRODUITS DES
TECHNOLOGIES DE L'INFORMATION
~
LE POINT
Décrire celle grappe industrielle, c'est avant tout la
reconnaitre comme un intrant universel dans toule
activité économique. On ne peut y dissocier les
activilés et les produits résultants.
les activilés sont inhérentes au savoir, à la gestion,
à la recherche, au développement, aux services, à
l'ingénierie, et axées sur des concepts, des moyens
portant d'une part sur les données, l'information,
les connaissances, d'·autre part, sur leur
administration, leur saisie, leur trailemènt et leur
communication.
les produits sont toute combinaison de matériel,
équipeme'nt électroniques ou logiciel, conçu pour
son propre fonctionnement, pour les fonctions de
saisie, de captage, d'emmagasinage, de traitement
et de communication de données, d'informations,
de connaissances.
Cene grappe est analysée selon Quatre principales
aclivilés industrielles présentes au Québec: les
modules des équipements de télécommunications;
des composants élec-troniques; des équipements
informatiques et des logiciels.
La famill. de. "l'communication. emploie
environ 12 000 personnes dans une cinquantaine
d'entreprises. Il atteint une production d'une valeur
approximative de 2 milliards de dollars. Sa balance
comrnorcinlo ost prllB du point cl'f1quililJro nu
Québec. Plusieurs entreprises sont reconnues sur
le plan mondial.
La famill. de. compo••nt. 'Iectronlqu••
a réalisé une production de 650 millions de dollars,
dont une grande partie de c~lIe production est
exportée. Une quarantaine d'entreprises
engendrent environ 5 000 emplois. Ce module
regroupe les domaines des microcircuits, des
circuits hybrides, intégrés et imprimés et des
COli Ipo!;:llll~; ()11l(:troniqllo~01 oploohll:trol1iqllfln Ill)
le Québec possède certaines expertises. La balance
commerciale demeure malgré tout déficitaire.
Ces deux modules se sont è1assés Quatrième en
terme d'exportation et deuxième pour ce Qui est
des produits finis après le papier-journal en 1990.
La famille de. 'qulpemen"lnformatlqu••
a réalisé une production de 500 millions de dollars.
Plus d'une trentaine d'entreprises procurent de
l'emploi à quelque 3 500 personnes. la balance
commerciale est largement déficitaire.
La famille de. logiciel. comprend les logiciels
commerciaux et les logiciels sur mesure. L'industrie
des services informatiques compte plus de 2 000
entreprises au Québec et réalise un chiHre d'affaires
aux alentours de 1,5 milliards de dollars, elle emploie
au-delà de 15 000 personnes. Les logiciels
commerciaux comptent pour 15 % de ce chiffre
d'affaires Quant aux services professionnels où l'on
retrouve le logiçiel sur-mesure, leur part s'élève à
35 ,"o. D'àutres entreprises Québécoises (500)
consacrent 150 millions sur des revenus globaux
de 690 millions à la conception de logiciels.
les technologies de l'information sont considérées
comme une industrie stratégique au plan industriel
par tous les principaux pays industrialisés. Ceux-ci
ont d'ailleurs défini des politiques pertinentes en y
intégrant une vision globale.
L'industrie québécoise a été favorisée par des
politiques d'appui gouvernementales, ce qui a
assuré notamment l'essor des télécommunications.
Depuis plusieurs années, le contexte change
particulièrement en raison des effets des éléments
suivants: la déréglementation intérieure au plan
des services de télécommunications; la
convergence technologique entre le monde des
télé-communications et de l'informatique;
l'nccroir.~ornllnldo~ colil~1 01 lion d!lqllWI n'l~oc:i()1
au développement des produits, la complexilé des
projets mis en oeuvre, la normalisation
technologique. Tout cela ainsi que le processus de
démilitarisation de l'industrie ont influencé la
réorganisation de l'industrie à l'échelle
internationale: fusions, acquisitions et alliances
stratégiques.
la présence d'entreprises multinationales favorisent
la dynamique des entreprises québécoises. Les
entreprises d'envergure sont attirées au Québec
essentiellement par les dispositions fiscales et le
caractère stratégique des endroits choisis.
Les entreprises Québécoises sont de taille
très variée. On y retrouve des fonctions
ou activités diversifiées couvrant un éventail
très large. Elles ont cependanl des traits
communs: entrepreneurship, savoir-faire, capacité
d'innovation, intérêt pour la haute valeur ajoutée.
Le capital de risque esl cependant cher et
peu disponible et "infrastructure de
commercialisation est déficiente.
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Lorsqu'elles atteignent une taille suffisante,
certaines entreprises québécoises songent il
internationaliser leurs opérations, ce qui réduit notre
croissance locale.
En bref, les entreprises de celle grappe auront
avantage:
- à créer un climat de cohésion pour la mise en
commun des ressources surtout en matière de ,
recherche et du développement el.
commercialisation;
- il s'insérer harmonieusement dans la dynamique
propre à la mondialisation de l'économie.
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Appendix Il:
The Applied Software ...
The Applied Software Engineering Center (ASEC) 11 will provide access
to and training in the best software engineering managerial and
technical solutions available, in order to help the Canadian software
community to raise its competence in software engineering, mainly in
critical applications. Critical applications are those whose failure could
impact security, safety or cause large financial or social losses.
This mission will be accomplished through the pursuit of seven principal
objectives :
(i)
to identify, promote and diffuse best practic"e in systems and software engineering;
(ii)
to accelerate the process of technology transfer in systems and software
engineering;
" (iii) to provide farsighted technical and strategic information to decision-makers in
Canadian companies;
(iv) to identify and promote international and foreign standards, and to participate in
the establishment of Canadian standards for critical application softwares;
(v)
to initiate and promote Special Interest Groups (SIG) such as Ada, Education,
Process Improvement, Metrics, Project Management, reliability of critical
application softwares and system integration;
(vi) To foster the establishmént of curricula in software engineering education;
(vii) To promote technology insertion projects between government, industry and
university.
13
ASEC has begun its operations only recent/y...
v
Appendix Il:
The Applied Software
Given the tasks at hand, namely : (i) performing technology transition
activities; and, (ii) coordinating R&D projects, the ASEC has been
structured as follows :
•
A joint venture between partners and the ASEC as an agent for the
purpose of technology transition.
This structure has been judged preferable to a limited partnership; the agent
is kept responsible. A limited partnership is not suitable for collaborative
R&D or cooperation for technology transition. Furthermore, it brings
undivided ownership of intellectual property and of commercial production
rights.
Given the varying contributions of members to specifie projects, a joint venture may not be adequate for the purposes of research. For that reason,
specifie R&D corporations should be established when needed.
•
Specifie R&D corporations for the financing and execution of R&D
projects as part of ASEC's activities.
Many legal instruments could be used : (i) joint ventures; (ii) R&D
corporations for profit; (iii) partnerships; (iv) Iimited partnerships; (v)
combinations of joint venture, not-for-profit R&D corporations and
partnerships.
As a start-up tool, it seems highly convenient for ASEC to set-up R&D
corporations under the Income Tax Act to profit fully from R&D contributions
and tax credits.
vi
Appendix Il:
The Applied Software
ASEC will provide to members the following six principal services
•
Software Engineering assessment and improvement;
•
Software Engineering contractor evaluation;
•
Training;
•
Monitoring technical and strategie developments;
•
Special Interest Groups (SIG) :
Ada,
Education,
Metrics,
. Process Improvement;
•
Contracting facilitators for precompetitive activities with government
agencies.
vii
Appendix Il:
The Applied Software ...
The key is commitments from industry and government sponsors,
agencies and clients as weil as ·universities to identify the key players
and the resources they can bring to the· table.
•
An initial budget target
Once ASEC has successfully completed a 6-month ·start-up period,
operations will "ramp-up" over an 18 month period to a core budget of some
$1.5 million annually. This is based oil :
.
$750,000 - about 10 industrial memberships based on a sliding scale
starting at $100,000 with a $75,000 average;
$750,000 - matching contributions from the federal and provincial
governments.
Once the consortium is up and running, additional external contracts and
R&D commitments at the $4 million level will flesh out the program to meet
expressed member needs. Contributions in kind will play an important part
in ASEC's plan.
•
A budget overview
- ASEC's budget should be funded in four separate phases:
Phase
Period
$(000)
Budget
Description
(i)
An interim budget
oto month 6
160
Interim start-up
(ii)
A ramp-up budget
m.6 to m. 18
750
Half-scale operations
(H i) Initial budget target
m. 18 to m. 30 1,500
m. 30 to m. 42
(iv) Additional budget
commitments, based
on expressed
member needs
viii
n.a.
Full target budget
Expanded budget to meet
additional member needs
Appendix III:
Pertinent SE Initiatives...
Institute for Defence Analysis
•
•
consortium of universities,
federally funded research center: $20 million per year,
•
70 researchers with at least a PhD degree.
Software Engineering Institute
•
funded by 000 : $150 million for 1990-1995,
•
175 persons working on technical missions (with a ceiling of 250); they come
from universities, industry and 000.
MITRE Corporation
•
funded by US Air Force and F.A.A. : $550 million in 1989,
•
total personnel of 6 000; approximately 400 engineers and scientists involved in
software engineering.
Software Productivity Consortium
•
partners of 12 of aerospace and defence companies,
•
total budget: approximately $12 million in 1990.
Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation
•
•
cooperative research venture,
software engineering program is composed of 4 projects costing a total of $10
million a year (Mee total budget is $70 million a year),
•
440 employees, 40 of whom have PhD's.
ix
Appendix III:
Software
Pertinent SE Initiatives...
Enginering
Research
Centers
(Florida,
Purdue,
Houston
Universities)
1
•
National Science Foundation supported industry-university research centers
•
budget: $1 million per year per university.
National Computing Center
•
2 500 members : government, researchers, users, suppliers
•
3 500 students per year
Centre d'enseignement
et systèmes (CERICS)
et de recherche en informatique, communication
•
operation budget: $2 million per year
•
40 students, 5 full-time professors and 25 part-time lecturers.
x
APPENDIX IV:
BIBLIOGRAPHY
SECOR's STUDIES
•
"The Market ~or a Canadian Software Engineering Center to Serve the
Aerospace and Defence Industries - Needs and Opportunities", June 20, 1990.
•
"The Market for a Canadian Software Engineering Center to Serve the
Aerospace and Defence Industries - Needs, opportunities and Options",
Presentation to the Steering Committee, August 30,1990.
•
"Canadian Software Engineering Consortium - Business Plan", revised January
15, 1991.
Dataquest
•
"CASE Vendon~' Handbook", prepared for the Software Technology for
Adaptable Reliable Systems (STARS) Program, July 1991.
Business Week
•
"Can the U.S. Stay ahead in Software?", March 11, 1991
BYTE
•
Leonard Lee, "Computers Out of Control", February 1992.
Info-Log
•
Jean Patenaude, "Le génie logiciel: remplacer l'art par l'ingénierie?", Info-Log,
vol. 6, n° 7, January 1992.
xi
Appendix V:
UST OF CONTACTS AND PARTICIPANTS IN THE ROUND TABLE..
Contacts
Denis Bistodeau
Responsable sectoriel
Direction générale des technologies de l'information
Ministère des Communications
François Chassé
Vice-président principal
Groupe CGI
Claude Frasson
Professeur
Université de Montréal
Participants in the round tàble
Major Claude Laporte
Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean
et Centre de génie logiciel appliqué
Jean-Marc Proulx
Vice-président, R-D
Groupe DMR
Amine Soundardjee
Division des Systèmes de reconnaissance
Canadair
Pierre Robillard
Qépartement de génie électrique-génie informatique
Ecole Polytechnique
François Coaillier
Assurance qualité
Bell Canada
xiii
Appendix VI:
Sorne Key Players ...
The following organizations participated in the SEI workshop heId at
th
l'École polytechnique on June 12 , 1990.
Department of National Defence of Canada
Naval Engineering Test Establishment
La Confédération des caisses populaires
et d'économie Desjardins du Québec *
Canadian Marconi Company *
Avionics Division
Centre de recherche Val-Cartier
Groupe Systèmes expérimentaux
Alex Informatique Inc.*
Société de microélectronique industrielle
de Sherbrooke inc.
CAE Electronics Ltd. *
Support Software
ADGA
Computer Software Division
Groupe DMR inc. *
Cadre Technologies inc. *
Société d'électrolyse et de chimie Alcan Ltée *
Service informatique de gestion
Conseillers en gestion et informatique CGI *
Technologie La Laurentienne inc. *
Montréal Trust *
Systèmes et services de soutien
Canadair *
Military Aircraft Division
xv
-----------------------------------------------.
Appendix VI:
Sorne Key Players ...
Ministère des Communications du Québec
. Direction des logiciels d'application
Keops Informatique inc.
Computing Deviees
Info-Electronics
Centre de recherche ,en informatique de Montréal
(CRIM) *
DY-4 Systems Inc.
Virtual Prototypes Inc. *
Oerlikon Aerospace,lnc. *
Information Systems
Les Consultants Genicom inc. *
Bombardier inc. *
Support technique intégré
Schemacode International
SPAR Aerospace Ltd. *
MATROX Ltd. *
APG
EH Industries Canada Inc.
DOT (Department of Transport)
DSS (Department of Supply & Services)
ARRAY SYSTEMS COMPUTING Inc.
Thomson - CSf Systems Canada
xvi
Appendix VI:
Sorne Key Players ...
. BOMBARDIER Inc.
Surveillance Systems Division *
MacDonald Dettwiter and Associates Ltd.
Ericsson Communications 1
nc. *
Litton Systems Canada Ltd.
Bell-Northern Research *
Hydra-Québec *
Paramax Electronics Inc. *
Raytheon Canada
Hughes Aircraft of Canada Ltd.
Boeing de Havilland
Aastra Aeraspace
Atkinson Tremblay Associés *
Martin Marietta Canada Ltd.
Rockwell International of Canada Ltd.
*
Indicates companies based in the Montreal region.
xvii