enometrics xviii - Vineyard Data Quantification Society VDQS

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enometrics xviii - Vineyard Data Quantification Society VDQS
Enometrics XVIII
VDQS
Scientific Committee
ENOMETRICS XVIII
Angers, France
May 2011, 18—21
Stefania CHIRONI
Marie-Claude PICHERY
Kym ANDERSON
Orley ASCHENFELTER
Nelson BARBER
Isabel BARDAJI Azcárate
Jan BENTZEN
Boris BRAVO-URETA
Joëlle BROUARD
Maurizio CIASCHINI
Pierre COMBRIS
Nathalie CORADE
Silvia GATTI
Théodore GEORGOPOULOS
Eric GIRAUD-HERAUD
Danièle MEULDERS
Jean-François OUTREVILLE
Robert PLASMAN
Henri SERBAT
Michel SERIEYS
Orlando SIMÕES
Costas SIRIOPOULOS
Pavel TOMŠIK
Università di Palermo
Université de Bourgogne
Université d'Adelaïde
U. Princeton
University of New Hampshire
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
U. Aarhus
U Connecticut, USA & U Talca, Chile
ESC - Dijon – IMW
Université de Macerata
INRA
ENITA Bordeaux
Università degli studi di Bologna
Université de Reims
INRA – Paris
U.L.Bruxelles
HEC Montréal – Québec
DULBEA
EuAWE
ISARA-Lyon
ESA de Coimbra
Université de Patras
MUAF in Brno
Local Committee
Université Angers : Granem & LEA. ESA Angers
Krista DUNIACH, Serge BLONDEL, Justin COHEN, Michel DARMON,
Dominique JONCHERAY, Dominique LEMARCHAND, Herve MENOU,
Jean-Michel MONNIER, Dominique SAGOT-DUVAUROUX, Catherine STONA
Coordination
Françoise BOURDON, U. Bourgogne, VDQS General Secretary
FedEco-Service
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General Overview
How to Use
This Booklet of Abstracts?
th
Wednesday May 18 2011
4.45 - 6.00 pm
6.00 - 7.30 pm
8.00 - 9.00 pm
Registration
Public Opening Session
Reception at the Jean Lurçat Museum
You will find in this booklet all the abstracts of the
submissions which were accepted by the scientific
committee.
At the end of this booklet, you can find a complete
alphabetical list of all authors and co-authors with a link
to the page where you can find their abstract.
Unfortunately, some speakers have informed us that they
will be unable to participate in the conference. However,
their abstracts have been included in this booklet.
Please, note also that you can find the full version of
those papers (an some time also the ppt presentation) on
the website of the conference, in the private area
reserved for VDQS - EuAWE –SQG members.
p 5
Thursday May 19th 2011
8.20 -09.00 am
9.00 -10.20 am
10.40 -11.40 am
11.40 -12.20 am
1.30 - 3.00 pm
3.20 - 4.40 pm
5.00 - 6.10 pm
6.30 - 11.30 pm
Registration & Coffee
S1 Sustainable Development
S2 Strategy and International Trade
Opening Ceremony
S3a Consumption 1
S3b Consumption 2
S4a Terroirs & Territories
S4b Grape & Wine Grower
S5 Information & Education
Gala Evening at the “Beaux-Arts” Museum
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p 15
p 19
p 21
p 29
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p.47
www.vdqs.net/2011Angers
Friday May 20st 2011
8.20 -09.40 am
10.00 -11.20 am
11.20 -12.20 am
1.30 - 2.40 pm
3.00 - 4.20 pm
4.30 - 6.00 pm
S6 Œnotourism
S7 Wine & Law
S8 Poster Session
S9 Value of the Wine
S10 Gastronomy
Prize Awards & Cocktail offred by the LEA Dpt
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p 57
p.61
p.73
p.79
You have to wait our next Confe rence
for 2012, it will be in Coïmbra (Portugal)
Expecting this event, please do not forget
to consult our web site.
to participate in our facebook page
and
to send our work to publish in Enometrica
Saturday May 21nd 2011
Tourism
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Wednesday May 18th 2011
6.30 pm
Public Opening Session
Welcome Address
Didier LEGALL
Doyen de la Faculté des Lettres, Langues et Sciences Humaines
Université d'Angers
Keynote Speeches
"French Paradox"
mythe ou réalité
Ramaroson ANDRIANTSITOHAINA
Directeur de Recherche, Inserm U694
Université Angers, UFR Sciences
"Vin en Chine"
Robert TINLOT
Directeur Général Honoraire de l'OIV
Président de l'Académie Amorim
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Le «French Paradox» : mythe ou réalité
ANDRIANTSITOHAINA Ramaroson
Epidemiological studies report an inverse association between moderate red wine
consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases especially in the southwest of
France. This phenomenon has been termed “French Paradox”. Red wine contains a wide
variety of polyphenols and exerts numerous effects including antioxidant and free radical
properties, anti-platelet aggregating and anti-thrombotic activities. Moreover, red wine
polyphenols are powerful vasodilators via the production of nitric oxide by endothelial cells
lining the inner surface of blood vessels. Evidences have been provided that these polyphenols
activate the alpha isoform of the oestrogene receptor. Although the available data indicate
that red wine might be of benefit for cardiovascular protection, prospective controlled clinical
trials are still lacking.
Des nombreuses études épidémiologiques s’accordent sur une réduction du risque de
maladies cardiovasculaires pour les consommateurs « modérés » de vin rouge. Le phénomène
a été baptisé « French Paradox », essentiellement parce que dans le Sud-Ouest de la France,
de façon assez surprenante, il y a relativement peu d’accidents cardiovasculaires malgré une
alimentation riche en graisses saturées et en vin. Une des explications du mécanisme
moléculaire de cette protection provient des polyphénols du vin qui exercent de nombreux
effets, y compris de propriétés antioxydants, et des activités antiagrégants plaquettaires et
anti-thrombotiques. En outre, les polyphénols du vin rouge sont responsables d'un effet
vasodilatateur, via la production de monoxyde d’azote, par les cellules "endothéliales" qui
tapissent la paroi interne des vaisseaux. Le mécanisme élucidé passe par l'un des récepteurs
des hormones naturelles, les œstrogènes, des cellules de la paroi vasculaire. Bien que le vin
rouge pourrait avoir un bénéfice thérapeutique dans les maladies cardiovasculaires, la
prospective des études cliniques contrôlées fait encore défaut.
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"Vin en Chine"
Robert TINLOT
A market for wine consumption is growing higher and extends day by day, a wine culture
that is constantly developing in terms of quantity and quality, the influx of Chinese experts in
making wine, all provides excellent conditions for a prodigious expansion of the wine industry
in this country. In recent years, with the continued growth of wine consumption in China, the
acreage of vineyards has grown rapidly and continuously in this country. The wine culture of
quality has undergone constant development in some areas. All this puts a solid foundation
for the rapid growth of Chinese vineyards.
It must be innate talent to be able to really reach the summit of world vineyards and
countries that are really strong in this area each have a long traditional past and a great wine
tradition. In fact, most Chinese have little knowledge about wine and the vineyard. Therefore
we must ensure that consumers can make Chinese wine personally experience the fascination
of wine culture. And this is actually a process imperceptible. For this purpose it is necessary
for Chinese enterprises to make wine together to achieve this goal.
Un marché de consommation de vin supérieur qui s'agrandit et s'étend de jour en jour,
une culture viticole qui se développe constamment sur le plan de la quantité et de la qualité,
l'afflux en Chine des experts en vinification, tout cela constitue d'excellentes conditions à un
essor prodigieux de l'industrie vinicole dans ce pays.Ces dernières années, avec la croissance
continuelle de la consommation du vin en Chine, la surface cultivée de vignes a augmenté
rapidement et sans cesse dans ce pays. La culture viticole de qualité a connu un
développement constant dans certaines régions. Tout cela jette une base solide à la
croissance rapide du vignoble chinois.
Il faut être inné et doué pour pouvoir atteindre vraiment le sommet du vignoble mondial
et les pays qui sont réellement forts dans ce domaine ont chacun un long passé traditionnel et
une excellente tradition vinicole. En réalité, la plupart des Chinois ont peu de connaissances
sur le vin et sur le vignoble. C'est pourquoi il faut faire en sorte que les consommateurs
chinois du vin puissent faire personnellement l'expérience de la fascination de la culture du
vin. Et cela est en fait un processus imperceptible. A cet effet, il faut que les entreprises
chinoises de fabrication du vin conjuguent leurs efforts pour atteindre cet objectif.
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Une évaluation expérimentale
des incitations aux pratiques respectueuses
de l'environnement dans le vin
Joëlle BROUARD, Emilie GINON, Angela SUTAN
Thursday May 19th 2011
IMV, LESSAC, Burgundy School of Business, ESC Dijon
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
9.00 -10.20 am
Session 1
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Chaired by Nelson BARBER
Une évaluation expérimentale des incitations aux pratiques
respectueuses de l'environnement dans le vin
Joëlle BROUARD, Ange la SUTAN, Emilie GINON
Institut du Manageme nt du Vin & LESSAC, ESC Dijon FR
p. 12
Carbon Footprint, Food Miles and the International Wine
Trade : Some Implications
Graziella BENEDETTO
Dipt. di Economia e Sistemi Arbore i, Università di Sassari , IT
p.13
Reducing Pesticides in Viticulture Requires a Wine Grower’s
Behavior Change: Studying Constraints of Implementation of
Pesticides Reduction Use
Adeline UGAGLIA, Bernard DEL’HOMME
USC INRA GAIA / ENITA Bordeaux, FR
p.14
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Si la vigne ne couvre actuellement que 3% de la surface agricole utile en France, elle
représente pourtant 20% des consommations de pesticides (Aubertot et al, 2005); en outre,
les niveaux de contamination observés dans le vin sont considérablement plus élevés que
Concentrations Maximales Admissibles (PAN, 2008). Lors de l'annonce du plan de réduction
de l'utilisation des pesticides, les syndicats professionnels ont indiqué que "la mesure fixée ne
pouvait pas être atteignable en l’état, et que cette réduction devait être conditionnée au
développement de méthodes alternatives sous réserve de leur mise au point" (MDRGF, 2007).
Ce projet repose sur l'hypothèse que la performance d'une exploitation viticole peut être
envisagée sous d'autres angles que celui du rendement de la vigne, mais cela passe par des
incitations ciblées pour les producteurs et les consommateurs de vin : en particulier, une vigne
performante est aussi une vigne qui a une performance environnementale. Se pose alors la
question de la manière dont ces incitations fonctionnent, par qui et comment devraient-elles
être mises en œuvre? Nous pouvons partager cette question générale en deux questions
spécifiques : d'une part, comment inciter les producteurs à s'impliquer durablement dans la
réduction de l'utilisation des pesticides? Puisque l'utilisation des pesticides équivaut à une
assurance de coût très faible, et qui garantit un rendement certain, plus on monte dans la
gamme des appellations, moins le producteur a intérêt à réduire son utilisation de pesticides
car les risques de perte de la production seraient trop importants. Ainsi, le producteur devra
avoir la certitude que les consommateurs ou les pouvoir publics fourniraient une assurance
alternative : soit les consommateurs acceptent de payer une prime pour les vins sans
pesticides, soit les pouvoirs publics concèdent des aides importantes à la mise en place de
productions respectueuses de l'environnement.
Quelles sont les informations qui ont un effet sur le comportement du producteur, qui
l'incitent à le modifier dans le sens de la réduction de l'utilisation des pesticides, et à croire
que cela sera suivi d'une valorisation par les consommateurs ou d'un appui par les pouvoirs
publics ? Nous répondons à ce volet à travers des jeux expérimentaux de type bien public avec
assurance, à travers lesquels nous déterminons le cycle des consentements des producteurs à
s'engager dans une telle démarche. Nous mettons en place ces expériences avec des
véritables producteurs. D'autre part, comment sont incités les consommateurs à prendre en
compte la réduction des pesticides dans la production du vin? Comment valorisent-ils
l'engagement environnemental d'un producteur? Nous avons pour but de mieux connaître les
attentes des consommateurs en termes de vins sans pesticides. Il s’agira de valider les
caractéristiques souhaitées par les consommateurs par des méthodes implicatives, et de
révéler les cycles de consentement des consommateurs autour des vins sans pesticides, sur la
base de leur perception de l'utilisation des pesticides dans la production du vin. Enfin, nous
formulons des recommandations à l'usage des acteurs de la filière.
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Carbon Footprint, Food Miles and the International Wine Trade
Some Implications
Graziella BENEDETTO
Università di Sassari
[email protected]
Food production and consumption is one of the most resource and energy demanding
activities of households in the developed world. Throughout the life cycle of foods, the
provision and use of materials and energy result in contributions to a wide range of
environmental impacts. Wine industries have significant impact on vineyard microclimates
alteration, and they also incur costs that are passed on to society. These externalized costs
include non-product output such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission, chemical effluent, and
other wastes that contributed to the global tragedy of commons. Understanding the type and
magnitude of these externalities helps prepare companies and industries for potential impacts
from regulation on such externalities, helps to promote accountability to consumers, and
helps to identify opportunities for innovation and cost-savings. The environmental
performance of products and processes has become a key issue, so that some retailers took
position in relation to imported wines: eg the British TESCO since january 2007, announced
that every product sold would have a carbon rate or the “carbon footprint” displayed on its
label (Rigby et al, 2007); Wal-Mart, has recently introduced a ‘Global Sustainable Sourcing
Initiative’, committing it to prefer suppliers that aggressively reduce CO2 emissions and use
recycled or recyclable packaging, which is why some research centres and companies are
investigating ways to minimize their effects on the environment. Wine is a widely consumed
product and has an important role in world trade, with the United States and the United
Kingdom being the largest importing countries, so this could also lead to implications for the
Italian market.
By directly or indirectly encouraging discrimination against products originating in
geographically distant markets, however, importing states risk breaching the Marrakesh
Agreement and in particular the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the TBT
Agreement. Although the objective of sustainable development has been embedded within
the World Trade Organization framework, under these Agreements environmental measures
must be WTO compliant and must not constitute disguised restrictions on international trade.
Arguably, discriminating against food products on the basis of food miles without scientific
evidence, establishing a link between long distance transport and negative impact on
sustainability amounts to a disguised restriction on international trade.
In the food miles debate, several authors have calculated the consumption of CO2
associated with the distance traveled by the wine to reach the target markets and means of
transport used: It seems that the distance travelled may not be as important as the
transportation method. Nigel Greening of Felton Road Vineyard in New Zealand has calculated
that shipping a case of his wine by container vessel to London uses 4.048kg of CO2 which is
equivalent to 1,150km by truck, giving a bottle a 337g carbon count.
That could mean it's better to buy wine from New Zealand than it is from southern
France, Italy or Spain where it comes by truck to the UK. But this area is under-researched and
more reliable data is needed. Alternatively, adopting a mandatory carbon footprinting
framework which imposes significant cost upon exporters in distant markets discriminates
unnecessarily against those exporters and creates a substantial impediment to international
trade. The embrace of carbon footprinting and local food sourcing as environmental measures
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designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions poses a potential threat to Italian wine export
industries which are geographically distant to importing market and vice versa. Food transport
costs can add considerably to a product’s carbon footprint and detrimentally affect sales. The
raison d’être of carbon footprinting is to encourage responsible environmental production
methods. However, the author questions whether this aim can be effectively fulfilled and
whether carbon footprinting and local food sourcing policies are instruments of antiglobalisation sentiment and thus can be challenged under the World Trade Organization
framework.
So, the aim of this paper is to reasoning around these demands: Does Food Miles
Labelling or Carbon Footprinting Lead to Discrimination against Imported wines? What
solutions are proposed to reduce the cost of transportation of wine and what impact it can
have on the final consumer? And so on
Reducing Pesticides in Viticulture
Requires a Wine Grower’s Behavior Change
Studying Constraints of Implementation
of Pesticides Reduction Use
UGAGLIA Adeline, DEL’HOMME Bernard
Université de Bordeaux, ISVV – ENITAB USC INRA GAIA
[email protected], [email protected]
Following the French governmental program “Grenelle de l’environnement”, Ministry of
Agriculture has adopted a plan “Ecophyto 2018” planning a 50 % reduction of pesticides use
before 2018. To attempt this goal in viticulture, particularly concerned by pesticides use (20 %
of pesticides consumption for 3 % of agricultural utilized area), new strategies for vineyards
protection are requested. Once some technical way has been found, it has to be implemented
in a significant number of farms to produce a real effect in pesticides reduction. A new plant
protection solution has to be tested towards wine growers, to evaluate from economical and
sociological point of view, their acceptability for adopting such innovation.
In Aquitaine, such an innovation does exist, through POD mildium, a process created by
INRA 3 years ago and already experimented. This process is an help decision method for 2
main diseases, powdery and downy mildew, which represent 70 % of fungicides used in
viticulture. In 2009, a survey has been leaded through wine estates participating to the
experimental network. Its goal was to estimate constraints in implementing POD mildium at
estate level. Starting on plant protection practices, the survey has studied difficulties found by
wine growers when adopting POD on a plot, and which problems could remain when using
POD on all estate. Main results of this survey are presented, showing mainly that a new
technology in plant protection requires new behavior for succeeding.
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Improvement of the Performance of the Wine-Cooperatives
The Solution of the Benchmarking
Frédéric COURET
Thursday May 19th 2011
Laboratoire GAIA - E.N.I.T.A de Bordeaux
[email protected]
10.40 - 11.40 am
Session 2
STRATEGY & INTERNATIONAL
Chaired by Maurizio CIASCHINI
Improvement of the Performance of the Wine Cooperatives:
the Solution of the Benchmarking
Frédéric COURET
Laboratoire GAIA - E.N.I.T.A de Borde aux - FR
p. 16
Modelizacion de los intercambios comerciales en el mercado
del vino de la Union Europea
Juan Se bastian CASTIL LO VALERO, Maria Carmen GARCIA
CORTIJO
Instituto Desarrollo Regional , Universidad Castilla La Mancha - ES p. 17
Norwegian Wine Imports: a Gravity Model Approach
Maria Bonaria LAI, Ivan ETZO, Carla MASSID DA
Economics Department, University of Cagliari - IT
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The wine-producing cooperatives are confronted with requierements of competiveness
because of several factors: the fall in prices, the power of the large distribution, the
intensification of the international competition, the behaviour of the consumer, the
environmental protection.
To adapt itself, the wine-producing cooperatives have to find new strategic options and
to set up news tools of management. The benchmarking is one of them. It aims to observe the
partners, to measure the differences of performance between the cooperatives, to bring to
light the factors which explain these differences and then to adopt practices and methods
considered better
In 2008, 16 wine-producing cooperatives had participated in an operation of
benchmarking. The benchmarking consisted first to define a comparable performance
indicator and then to identifying the key factors of performance which are marks for the
future strategy and activity. 30 analyzed factors of performance are presented in the paper
among which the size of the cooperative, the control of the costs, the conquest of the short
circuits, the process of concentration, etc.
The paper deals then with 2 fundamental and convergent questions:
- How can performance be modelled? In other words, are there winning strategies for
cooperatives?
- How to take into account the not measurable factors such as the manager skills?
p. 18
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Modelización de los Intercambios Comerciales
en el Mercado del Vino de la Unión Europea.
Juan Sebastián CASTILLO VALERO, Maria Carmen GARCÍA CORTIJO
Instituto de Desarrollo Regional (Universidad de Castilla La Mancha).-ESPAÑA
[email protected]
El mundo del vino es cada vez más competitivo y requiere ampliar sus mercados a los
internacionales para mantener un crecimiento; así, es necesario conocer sus características,
necesidades y posición. A modo de ejemplo, en el caso español, en 2010, las exportaciones de
vino crecieron un 17,4%, hasta los 1.275 millones de litros, frente a los 1.085 millones
obtenidos en 2009, según datos del Observatorio Español del Mercado del Vino (OeMv). Estos
datos muestran una dinámica tendencia de las exportaciones españolas de vino, que parece
consolidarse con el paso de los meses, no sólo en volumen, sino también en valor,
recuperando los mercados de Italia y Francia en la UE y los de Rusia y China fuera de la UE.
Pero, ¿qué influye en las relaciones comerciales?.En esta investigación intentaremos
responder a esta cuestión por la importancia de conocer el comportamiento comercial entre
España y los países con los que mantiene un mayor nivel de exportaciones (Italia y Francia),
importaciones (Alemania, Reino Unido y EE.UU), así como con mercados emergentes (China y
Rusia) y determinar hasta qué punto variables como: el precio, la calidad del vino, la distancia,
la segmentación, entre otros factores, pueden afectar a sus flujos comerciales.
Así, y con diferentes modelos econométricos, primero, estudiaremos el nivel de
integración del mercado de cada uno de los países productores principales, Italia, Francia y
España, en los mercados internacionales. Después, identificaremos y mediremos el peso de
diferentes variables, económicas, sociales, políticas, que influyen en los intercambios
internacionales de vinos, tanto en los mercados consolidados como en los emergentes.
Teniendo en cuenta el objetivo de nuestro estudio y los datos disponibles, los modelos
econométricos más aptos son los «Modelos de Vectores Autorregresivos» y los «Modelos
Gravitacionales». Los primeros son idóneos para el estudio de la integración de mercados y
nos permite deducir, a través de las series de precios, el comportamiento de los mercados, su
evolución según campañas, el grado de dispersión y variación en el tiempo y el espacio de los
precios, informar sobre los rasgos estructurales y coyunturales de cada mercado en particular.
Dicho conocimiento es necesario a priori, para revelar las similitudes y diferencias entre los
mercados y la diferente situación de partida para entrar en ellos y plantear en los segundos
modelos, los modelos gravitacionales. La principal novedad de la investigación, es que estos
modelos, será aplicados por vez primera al mercado del vino y con ellos avanzaremos en
perfilar los requisitos que están latentes para mantener intercambios comerciales en
mercados ya consolidados y cuáles atraen y consolidan a los mercados emergentes.
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Norwegian Wine Imports: a Gravity Model Approach
ETZO Ivan, LAI Maria Bonaria, MASSIDDA Carla
Economics Department University of Cagliari
[email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]
Over the last decades, Norwegian wine consumption has strongly increased. The great
part of this consumption is satisfied by import flows which exhibit an increasing trend as well.
Many countries are involved in this process, traditional exporters, as well as new world wine
producers, interested in the potentials offered by the recent expansion of the Norwegian wine
market. The aim of this paper is to investigate the main determinants of wine imports in
Norway. At this scope we implement a gravity model, duly augmented, that considers
unilateral wine import flows from the major exporting countries as dependent variable and a
set of five determinants. According to our preliminary results, distance exerts a, unexpected,
statistically significant positive role, together with the lagged dependent variable. Conversely,
relative prices report an high and significant negative elasticity meaning that Norwegians are
strongly affected by price differentials across the countries of origin. For the other variables
considered in the analysis, i.e. Norwegian outbound tourism flows and the number of
foreigners currently living in Norway, we have not found strong statistical significance levels.
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Thursday June 10th 2010
11.40 - 12.20 am
Opening Ceremony
Welcome Address
Daniel MARTINA
Président de l'Université d'Angers
Presentation of Wines
of the Val de Loire
By Jean-Michel MONNIER
Oenologue, UFR ITBS-ESTHUA Angers University
"Au printemps de chaque nouvelle année, profitez des beaux jours pour flâner dans les
vignes qui bourgeonnent et aller déguster le nouveau millésime récolté quelques mois plus
tôt... Vous découvrirez alors des rouges souples et friands possédant une robe délicate aux
nuances rubis et framboises de leur tendre jeunesse." …
"In the spring of each year, enjoy the fine weather to stroll through the vines bud and go
enjoy the new vintage harvested a few months earlier. You will discover flexible and fond of
red dress with a delicate nuances of ruby red raspberries and their tender youth." …
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Wine label Design as Marketing Tool
to Attract Consumers ‘Attention
A Marketing Study to Know Wine Product Positioning.
Stefania CHIRONI, Marzia INGRASSIA
Thursday May 19th 2011
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Palermo, Department DEMETRA (Section Economics)
[email protected], [email protected]
1.30 - 3.00 pm
Session 3a
CONSUMPTION 1
Chaired by Serge BLONDEL
Wine label Design as Marketing Tool to Attract Consumers
Attention. A Marketing Study to Know Wine Product Positioning
Stefania CHIRONI, Marzia INGRASSIA
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Palermo – IT
p.22
Consumer Perceptions and Acceptance of Innovation in Wine
Packaging: An International Approach
Krista DUNIACH, Caroline MILTGEN, Gae lle P ANTIN-SOHIER,
Alice SOHIER
Granem – Université d’Angers – FR
p.23
Modeling the Impact of Social Interactions on Wine Purchasing
Behavior
Tatiana BOUZD INE–CHAMEEVA, Serge GALAM
BEM - Bordeaux Management School, École Polytechnique and
CNRS, CREA – FR
p.24
Evaluation of the Effects of Changes in Regulatory Policies on
Consumers Perception
Emilio CHIODO, André a FANTINI, Nicola CASOLANI
University of Teramo – IT
p.25
An Explorative Study of Wine Marketing from 2000 to 2010:
the Status of the Research by Themes treated and Countries
Involved
Emmanuel CAMERON, Johanne BRUNET, Justin COHEN
HEC Montreal – CA, Groupe ESA - FR
p.26
Analyse du marché des boissons alcoolisées au VietNam
Françoise SEYTE, Thai Quang NGUYEN
UFR ECONOMIE Montpellier – FR
www.EuAWE.org
Angers 2011
VDQS
Wine sector encountered lots of changes over the last two decades and these changes
influenced wine consumption habits. In fact, more and more consumers buy wine not as a
common drink but as a product of quality. In this evolution it is important for producers to
focus both on product quality (a basic element for wine) and on innovation, research and
marketing. Among the elements that play an important role for wine product, today
producers pay more attention to packaging, because it provides to consumers information on
the product and, at the same time, it communicates company’s value prepositions with
modern or classic designs, colors and pictures. Certainly it’s not easy to express with a small
wine label all that a producer wants to say about a wine and about itself. But the important
thing for producers is to create the wine identity for each product because wine is a product
that needs to be recognized by consumers, also thanks to its label.
So wine producers use labels as a differentiator in the market, choosing colors, pictures
and other elements that give to consumer basic information about the wine ( year and
territory of production, type of grape used, denomination of origin, etc. ) but at the same time
are recognized as elements of distinction. Besides, wine label has a very ancient past, in fact
both Greeks and Romans used it to describe label the content of the jars where the wine was
stored.
Today, wine labels also became collector’s items, so much that in Italy, wine label
collectors created the Italian Association of Collectors Wine Labels (AICEV). Therefore, with
this study, we wanted to know how wine label can be a promotion tool for producers and the
importance that consumers give to it when they buy a wine. So we submitted to three
samples of consumers with different type of expertise and expectation a sample of wine labels
of Sicilian wines that we classified in four types (classic, modern-classic, with references to
territory, with modern colours and design), asking them to provide information about the
visual impact of each label (first without the brand and then with the brand) and the price
they were willing to pay for a bottle of wine based on each label. We also wanted to know
how wine label influence each type of consumer in choosing a wine.
We calculated the relative price variability for each label and for type of consumer. Then
we calculated the statistic media dependence between the types of label and the prices, for
each category of consumer (correlation and dependence, Tschuprow coefficient and other
similar indexes). Finally we wanted to evaluate the market positioning for each label also with
a comparison between the prices given by consumers and the ones chosen by producers
(Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient). Results obtained give information on positioning
strategies of chosen brands and help us to understand if wine label is an important element
for consumers while they are choosing a wine.
p. 27
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Enometrics XVIII
Consumer Perceptions and Acceptance of Innovation
in Wine Packaging: an International Approach
Krista DUNIACH, Caroline MILTGEN,
Gaëlle PANTIN-SOHIER, Alice SOHIER
Modeling the Impact of Social Interactions
in Wine purchasing Behavior
Tatiana BOUZDINE–CHAMEEVA, Serge GALAM
BEM - Bordeaux Management School, École Polytechnique and CNRS, CREA
[email protected], [email protected]
GRANEM, University of Angers (France)
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
Despite numerous innovations in the global wine industry in recent years, many
marketers around the world have underscored limited acceptance of change by consumers.
Previous research has even suggested that wine drinkers give more importance to tradition
than to innovation when selecting a bottle of wine.
Many of the innovations launched in the past decade have concerned packaging (bottle
shape and size, labels, closures, formats). Given harsh competition and overwhelmingly
numerous options facing consumers during the decision-making process, wine marketers
attempt to make their products noticeable and attractive to both novice and experienced
wine drinkers. New packaging has thus appeared in many international wine markets.
The purpose of this paper is to examine how consumers perceive and perhaps accept this
innovation in wine packaging by studying the case of the wine-in-tube (WIT). This innovative
packaging, originally created to simplify the shipment of samples and to respond to growing
demands of sustainable development, has recently appeared in various consumer markets.
Many questions arise concerning this type of innovation: How are wines packaged in this tube
perceived by consumers? Does this packaging influence perceived product quality? What is
the impact on both cognitive and affective involvement in the wine purchase? Is acceptance of
innovation greater in some consumption contexts that in others? How does the country-oforigin of the wine influence perceptions and acceptance of wine bottled in a tube?
The goal of this research is to explore these different questions by conducting an on-line
experiment on groups of young wine consumers. The respondents are first faced with a visual
document allowing them to discover the innovative product. Country-of-origin is tested as
some consumers are exposed to a French wine while others are exposed to an identical
Australian wine. Consumers are then asked to evaluate the product and to share their
perceptions and initial reactions in regards to this innovation. Involvement, consumption
context and intent are investigated in the research protocol. Data obtained is analyzed from
both cultural and marketing perspectives and suggests limited initial acceptance of innovation
in wine packaging. However, some variations appear in terms of the country-of-origin of the
wine. Insight from this research can lead marketers to a better understanding of perceptions
and acceptance of innovation by young wine consumers and guide them in the way they
communicate with this important segment of consumers.
www.EuAWE.org
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23
Our work focuses on the impact of wine expert judgments versus the word-to-mouth
effect on the dynamics of wine purchasing behavior. We assume the phenomenon is identical
to others problems of individual social choices. Therefore, it can be mapped onto a problem of
opinion dynamics among agents who have to make a choice about which bottle of wine they
are going to buy.
To investigate the question we apply the differential version of the Galam model of
opinion dynamics, which is developed in the framework of sociophysics. The model addresses
the choice dynamics of a population of agents under social interactions and experts
influences. Application to the wine market provides with a novel understanding on how social
interactions and expert judgments affect individual wine purchasing behavior. We also study
the impact of wine reputation in the process of choice dynamic. The implications of the
practical implementation of these results are discussed. In particular it is found that sample
distribution of bottles could be drastically reduced from the usual levels practiced by
producers.
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
Evaluation of the Effects of Changes
in Regulatory Policies on Consumers Perception.
Emilio CHIODO, Andréa FANTINI, Nicola CASOLANI
An Explorative Study of Wine Marketing from 2000 to 2010:
the Status of the Research
by Themes treated and Countries Involved
Emmanuel CAMERON, Johanne BRUNET, Justin COHEN
University of Teramo
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
The paper analyses how different aspects connected with regulations can influence
consumers’ quality perception and the value that consumers attribute to wine sector
products. In particular, aspects concerning labelling and presentation, which, in turn, mirror
different regulations of production methods, are considered. Consumers’ preference can
allow enterprises to comply with more restrictive rules and sustain higher costs to
differentiate their products and achieve higher quality.
In the study, we consider different elements linked to regulation provisions that can be
used by enterprises as means of differentiation in product labelling and presentation: the
discipline of organic farming; the possibility of using additional producer organization brands;
the indication of the name of the producer and the bottler, and other specific indications
about production methods; the content of sulphur dioxide in wines and the rules concerning
its indication on the labels.
When choosing a product, consumers do not evaluate each single quality factor but the
product as a whole, therefore the analysis has to be done with a methodology considering
both the combination of all characteristics of the product, and the contribution of every factor
to the creation of value for consumers. For this reason the value that consumers attribute to
different characteristics linked to regulation aspects will be evaluated through an
experimental economic analysis applying the method of the Conjoint analysis.
Conjoint analysis is a marketing technique that researchers use to determinate the
importance of some aspects of a product/service. It assumes that consumers may be able to
evaluate a range of products/services along some key dimensions, called attributes. With the
Conjoint analysis we construct different series of product profiles (concepts) that represent a
possible product or service, in our case a different combination of information on wine labels
(different scenarios). The aim of the research is to estimate the importance of each attribute
of the plan. For categorical attributes, the utility function consists of part-worth estimate for
each level of the attribute. The market simulation models use this information to predict how
each respondent would choose among alternative products.
Conjoint analysis is usually used for guiding enterprises in their marketing choices; in this
paper we use this technique to evaluate how regulations and provisions in wine labelling and
presentation can condition consumers quality perception.
The experiment was realized evaluating different labels of a protected designation of
origin “Montepulciano d’Abruzzo DOC” wine, with two very different groups of consumers.
The first one was composed by inhabitants of the Abruzzi Region, the region of origin of the
wine, in Italy, a country with strong tradition in wine consumption and familiarity with the EU
wine regulation. The second group was composed by wine consumers of a new consumer
country, Brazil, where consumption and production are strongly increasing. The interviewed
are inhabitants of Florianopolis, capital of the State of Santa Catarina, in the South of the
country.
www.EuAWE.org
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25
HEC Montreal, Canada, Groupe ESA France
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
The field of research on wine marketing has grown exponentially in the last 20 years. It is
now constituted of a vast literature going as far back as the debut of the International Journal
of Wine Marketing in 1989, which has just been re-launched under the International Journal
of Wine Business Research in 2007. Even though the wine industry has now been covered
from pretty much all angles, this mass of information has yet been organized to facilitate its
classification or its understanding for new or actual practitioners and academicians alike. In
fact, this observation has first been brought by Lockshin and Hall (2003: 1) who asked: “What
do we know empirically about wine marketing?”
Therefore, a meta-study is required to assess qualitatively the actual state of the wine
marketing field, since this method of analysis is usually used to remap the cognitive status of a
changing field of research (Zhao, 1991). In addition, indicators of scientific activity are also
needed in order to describe quantitatively the evolution of the wine marketing subfields of
research and their related theories (King, 1987).
Based on 530 wine marketing articles going from 2000 to 2010 exclusively, the first
purpose of this exploratory paper is to attempt to give an actualized overview of all the main
themes treated in the wine marketing discipline in the form of a meta-theory. It is done by
using a grounded theory approach to categorize the main and secondary wine marketing
fields, subfields and their concepts. It has lead us to the construction of a “wine marketing
mix”, which is used as a taxonomic tool to map all the themes present in the discipline as well
as to expose the gaps left to investigate. 8 P’s (Product, Price, Place, Promotion, Packaging,
People, Planning, Positioning) and 1 C (Channel of distribution) are found at first to be internal
factors to the mix, whit Product, Price and Planning being the most important. What is
interesting is the discovery of three external factors (Wine tourism, Clusters and Wine 2.0)
which respectively represent 5%, 3% and 5%, of all the articles used and which can be
integrated to the wine marketing mix internal factors because of their relatively new
importance in the literature.
Secondly, the main point of the present working paper consists of a bibliometric
approach used to identify the dimensions and tendencies of the wine marketing publications,
by making an inventory of the dates, the countries where the studies are originating from and
the countries on which the studies are done. In the results, the Top 3 countries which are the
most involved in the research (the most research coming from and the most research done
on) are USA (147; 131), Australia (149; 131;) and France (82; 74). The evolution of the
discipline has known a steady rise from 16 papers in 2000 to 46 in 2005, to finally end up in
2010 with 56 papers for the year.
Lastly, this study provides evidences of the wine marketing discipline structure and utility
for practitioners and researchers alike. It also attempts to improve the maturity and
coherence of this field of research to reinforce its recognition as a formal area within
marketing or business.
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
VDQS
Analyse du marché des boissons alcoolisées au Vietnam
Françoise SEYTE, Thai Quang NGUYEN
UFR ECONOMIE Montpellier
[email protected], [email protected]
Le marché des boissons alcoolisées au VietNam existe depuis des siècles comme dans
tous les pays. Mais avant les années 1990, ce marché reste local, donc très peu de produits. A
l’époque, le produit le plus consommé est l’alcool de riz qui occupe toujours la première
place. En deuxième position se trouve la bière qui peut prendre la première place dans les
années à venir. Le mode de consommation change avec la nouvelle génération qui préfère les
boissons plus douces.
De nos jours, le marché a beaucoup plus de variétés autres que les produits locaux; nous
trouvons une petite part de produits importés comme les vins français, australiens,
californiens, de l’alcool fort comme le whisky, le cognac … mais qui deviennent les boissons à
la mode avec un taux de croissance important.
Le but de cette communication est de faire une étude approfondie du marché des
boissons alcoolisées au VietNam afin de mieux comprendre les caractéristiques du marché
ainsi que son évolution. Nous voulons analyser l’efficience de ce marché. Nous disposons de
sept catégories de produits les plus consommés de 1960 à 2010: l’alcool de riz à 35°, l’alcool
de riz LUA MOI 40°, le vin Thang Long, la bière en vrac Ha Noi, la bière en bouteille Ha Noi, la
bière Tiger 330 ml, et la Heineken.
L’hypothèse d’efficience des marchés sera testée à partir des modèles de marche au
hasard ou de martingale. Nous utiliserons pour vérifier ou rejeter cette hypothèse une
méthodologie rassemblant des techniques éprouvées issues de l’analyse des processus
aléatoires.
www.EuAWE.org
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
Applicati on of the Duplication of Purchase Law on Wine
Attributes in the French Retail Wine Market
Justi n COHEN, Dorin T ATARU
Thursday May 19th 2011
Groupe ESA - Ecole Supérieure d'Agriculture d'Angers
[email protected]
1.30 - 3.00 pm
Session 3b
CONSUMPTION 2
Chaired by Eric GIRAUD-HERAUD
Application of the Duplication of Purchase Law on Wine
Attributes in the French Retail Wine Market
Justin COHEN, Dorin TATARU
Groupe ESA - Ecole Supérieure d'Agriculture d'Angers – FR
p.30
Biodynamic Wine and the Millennial Generation
Elvis QENANI, Michael MCCULLOUGH
California Polytechnic S U – San Luis Obispo - US
p.31
How do Values Influence the Consumer Utility for Wine and
the other Alcoholic Beverages? A Focus on Generation
Preferences and Consumption Situations
Lara AGNOLI, Die go BEGALLI, Robe rta CAP ITELLO
Università de gli Studi di Ve rona – IT
p.31
Happy Drinking Habits? Analyzing Relationships between Life
Satisfaction Indices and the Level of and Structural Changes in
the Consumption of Alcohol in OECD Countries
Jan BENTZEN, Valdemar SMITH
Department of Econo mics, The Aarhus Scho ol of Business,
Aarhus University – DK
p.32
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This research explores buying patterns in the French retail wine market, a complex and
potentially highly fragmented product category. There is much wine marketing research
focused on buyer behaviour emanating from ‘new world’ wine countries, specifically Australia.
There are a host of methods that have been validated for application on wine attributes
through the analysis of panel data. ‘New world’ wine markets are navigated by consumers
using those attributes, making these studies attractive. In France, the ‘old word’ terroir-based
system is primarily used to reach the consumer. There is a gap in the understanding of how
French consumers behave over a period of time across multiple purchase occasions. The
duplication of purchase law was utilised to describe how consumers share their purchases
across the levels of each principal attribute. The process of extrinsic attribute exploration
applied by Cohen (2010) using panel data in the Australian retail wine market was applied for
the duplication of purchase method. The method of retrospective recall was applied based on
the research of Romaniuk and Dawes (2005) and Murphy (2006). A price-based survey
designed by Murphy (2006) was adapted into French and modified to encompass all key wine
attributes in the French wine market as well as investigating consumer’s perceptions of
terroir. Due to the inability of French consumers to clearly define the concept of terroir as
demonstrated by Wilson and Jourjon (2010) and confirmed by this study, a decision was made
to test whether French wine consumers were aware of the attributes, variety and region of
origin, that were generally encompassed in each specific terroir name. In addition, the
structure of the wine market based upon price as well as the role brand plays in buyer
behaviour were of interest.
A call centre of a University marketing research institute contacted a representative
sample of 300 wine buyers. The data was not usable for brand buying behaviour. This was due
to inability of respondents to effectively recall brand. This is an interesting finding in itself. The
sample size ranged between 240-260 respondents for each attribute after the data had been
appropriately handled and cleaned.
This research focused on three issues for the French wine market: establishing if
retrospective recall is an appropriate data collection technique, verifying if the duplication of
purchase law holds and demonstrating the potential value of taking attribute-based approach
to understanding market structure. Whilst is clear that there are limitations of retrospective
recall and prior research in Australia has suggested the superiority of panel data, the value of
using this data collection method as a prospecting technique is clear. The duplication of
purchase law does hold for variety, region of origin and price. The duplication of purchase law
does not hold for brand. The sharing of purchases among variety and region of origin provide
valuable marketing insights. There are partitions in both of these attributes that appear to
indicate the effect of terroir in purchase behaviour and taste preferences. This study proves
that there is value in extending this stream of research in France. Application of additional
methods of deciphering buyer behaviour on the current data set is planned. Obtaining panel
data in order to work with a more significant sample size and mitigate some of the limitations
that exist from the currently applied data collection methods is advised.
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
Biodynamic Wine and the Millennial Generation
Eivis QENANI, Michael MCCULLOUGH
Happy drinking habits?
Analyzing Relationships between Life Satisfaction Indices
and the Level of and Structural Changes
in the Consumption of Alcohol in OECD Countries
Jan BENTZEN, Valdemar SMITH
California Polytechnic State University – San Luis Obispo
[email protected], [email protected]
Biodynamic viticulture is emerging in the United States as a new niche area of
wine production. Biodynamic farming, which evolved from organic farming, emphasizes
creating a self-sufficient, sustainable and healthy ecosystem. Like organically grown grapes,
biodynamic farming has a certification process conducted by the Demeter USA
Association. While a substantial body of research exists on conventional wine
production and consumer demand, biodynamic viticulture and wine production,
perhaps due to its small scale and niche nature of production, has not yet received
much attention.
The objectives of this study are twofold, to understand the rationale of those converting
to biodynamic production and to assess the understanding of biodynamic production in the
marketplace and to survey the millennial generation consumers in California regarding their
perceptions, preferences of marketing and advertising methods of eco-label wines. Findings
from these surveys suggest a generally uninformed millennial generation that could
potentially be targeted as new customers to the growing industry and biodynamic
viticulturists producing biodynamic grapes and wine because of their desire for a connection
to nature, the need to improve the quality of wine grapes and the soil used for growing.
How do Values Influence the Consumer Utility
for Wine and the other Alcoholic Beverages?
A Focus on Generation Y Preferences and Consumption Situations
Lara AGNOLI, Dieg o BEGALLI, Roberta CAPI TELLO
Università degli Studi di Verona
[email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]
The purpose of this paper is to understand how values influence the choice behaviour for
wine and the other alcoholic beverages in the different consumption situations, by focusing
on young consumers. The study applied the Multinomial Logit Model (MNL) to the
consumption situation of wine and the other alcoholic beverages and to the sociopsychological values obtained from the Rokeach Value Survey to determine their influence on
utility perception. A survey has been conducted by a sample of young Italian consumers of
alcoholic beverages.
This research proposes an advance in the implementation of the personal identity and
the moral concern in the utility function. They play an explicative role in the utility model,
especially when sociality is highly involved. The results show that the choice of wine is not
only determined by the different product attributes, but also by the context in which it is
consumed and the competition with the other alcoholic beverages.
The inclusion of subjective and emotional values of young consumers in the analysis could
enlarge the managerial perspectives, by improving the approach towards the young
generations and by helping to identify the most appropriate communication channels and
contents.
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VDQS
Department of Economics, The Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University - DK
[email protected], [email protected]
The purpose of the present analysis is to investigate for relationships between alcohol
consumption and happiness – where the latter is represented by the so-called ‘life satisfaction
indices’ which have been applied and used in various connections. Obviously, the increase
during the last decades in the intake of alcohol must be assumed to have had some positive
influences concerning utility levels or ‘happiness’ – assuming some degree of rational
behavior. Usually, the level of alcohol consumption is defined or measured as the simple sum
of the per capita consumption of the respective beverages, i.e. beer, wine and spirits,
measured in liters of pure alcohol.
An obvious problem with this definition of ‘total alcohol consumption’ is the adding
together of the specific beverages as though these were perfect substitutes. Therefore, the
present analysis takes an alternative point of departure with the purpose of analyzing both
trends in levels as well as structural effects related to alcohol consumption.
The basic idea is to let total alcohol consumption be represented by a 3-element vector
including beer, wine and spirits and the length of this vector in Euclidian space is perceived as
the alternative measurement of ‘total consumption’ and differences in the angles among
these vectors for the countries involved represent structural deviations concerning the
consumption pattern of beer, wine and spirit.
These measures of alcohol consumption levels and drinking patterns are analyzed in
relation to life satisfaction indices – and including data for most of the OECD countries
covering the time span from 1961 to 2005 gives a panel data set of reasonable size (N=20,
T=45).
Additional to these data we include information on cultural dimensions, e.g. dummy
variables representing religion, in the panel data set. The overall conclusions from the
econometric analysis of these data do not seem to give much support to a hypothesis of a
positive relationship from the alcohol consumption (level/drinking pattern) to the level of
happiness or ‘life satisfaction’.
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
VDQS
Typicitometer:
Tool to Measure and Analyse the Typicity of Foods
Andrea GIOMO
Thursday May 19th 2011
QUALIS Eurofins, Torino (Italy)
[email protected]
3.20 - 4.40 pm
Session 4a
TERROIRS & TERRITORIES
Chaired by Krista DUNIACH
Typicitometer : Tool to Measure and Analyse the Typicity of
Foods
Andrea GIOMO
QUALIS Eurofins, Torino - IT
p.34
Le vignoble d'Irouléguy : du lieu gourmand à la destination
touristique gourmande ?
Olivier ETCHEVERRIA
Université d'Angers UFR ITBS-ESTHUA – FR
p.35
The role of sectorial strategies in the case of French PDO wines:
Successes and failures
Jean-Guillaume DITTER, Christian BARRERE, Joelle BROUARD
OMI, Université de Reims, Groupe ESC Dijon Bourgogne – FR
p.36
Typical foods or beverages are the outcome of a historic process of collective and
localized contextual accumulation of knowledge. This is founded on a combination of specific
territorial resources, both physical and anthropogenic, that gives rise to a strong bond, unique
with the territory of origin.
The factors of typicality are:
specific local resources used in the production process;
the history and the productive tradition;
the presence of shared knowledge on the products;
the link with the geographical environment;
The territory is as something of active and in continuous transformation. The typicality
may not be a pre-requisite system but It is a result of the processes operating in a specific
place within the territory. Typicality is a dynamic concept link to the variation of the territory,
the variation of knowledge and mainly: variations in humans perceptions maps. Nowadays
different market operators need to define, to quantify and to control the levels of typicality of
foods and beverages products (i.e. thinks to private labels management). Typicitometer is an
hypothesis of tool of methods to measure, through standardized methodology (ISO 13299:03),
the degree of satisfaction of the requirements of "typicality" of food products.
Also it can highlight the specific factors linked both the typicality legally recognized
(disciplinary of production), and to the perceived "typicality" by the consumer, which not
always coincide, for purposes purely of marketing actions.
1
0.75
L'appellation Sauternes : Une appellation sans territoire ?
Nathalie CORADE
UMR 5185 ADES-Unive rsité de Bordeaux-CNRS – FR
Sample D
0.5
Compliance with type
Authenticity/Naturaln.
Sample F
p.38
0.25
Sample B
t2
Sample E
Quality of Color judgem.
0
Flavour persistence
Direction of Typicality
Astringent Technical judge
-0.25
Caloric feeling
Flowery
-0.5
Sample C
Sample A
Bitter
-0.75
Sour
Finesse
Fruity
Woody
Olfactory intensity
Vanille intensity
-1
-1
-0.75
-0.5
-0.25
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
t1
In this pls-map it is possible to highlight the direction of “typicality” of the sensory
descriptors (blue) of the well known DOP/DOCG wine “Chianti Classico” by means the
typicality judgement (green), and the projection of the analyzed samples (red).
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
Le vignoble d’Irouléguy :
du lieu gourmand à la destination touristique gourmande?
Olivier ETCHEVERRIA
The role of sectorial strategies
in the case of French PDO wines:
Successes and failures
Jean-Guillaume DITTER, Christian BARRERE, Joëlle BROUARD
UFR ITBS-ESTHUA - Université d'Angers
[email protected]
Le vin d’Irouléguy a récemment connu une évolution qualitative notable. Elle s’explique
par des facteurs internes qui sont à mettre en relation avec la sortie de la coopération d’une
dizaine de jeunes viticulteurs qui ont fait le choix d’une production à objectif qualitatif.
Elle s’explique aussi par des facteurs extérieurs, à l’échelle du Pays Basque, régionale
voire nationale. Le premier concerne le changement d’image du vin et, plus largement, du
vignoble, largement diffusée par les acteurs endogènes, les viticulteurs au premier chef, mais
aussi des acteurs exogènes, notamment ceux du monde du goût et les touristes (au premier
rang desquels les oenotouristes). Le second concerne le changement du discours sur le vin. En
effet, une nouvelle «gastronomie» du vin d’Irouléguy, nourrie par les acteurs de la cuisine, du
restaurant (nouveaux accords mets et vins) et de la dégustation (guides gastronomiques,
journalistes spécialisés…), émerge et se diffuse aussi bien au Pays Basque qu’au-delà,
notamment à Paris. Ainsi, un discours gastronomique à deux pôles se construit
progressivement.
Le vignoble d’Irouléguy est donc récemment devenu un lieu «gourmand».
Dans quelles mesures peut-il devenir une destination touristique gourmande ?
A quelles conditions des formes oenotouristiques peuvent-elles émerger?
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OMI, Université de Reims, Groupe ESC Dijon Bourgogne
[email protected], [email protected],
joë[email protected]
Today wine markets are global. Nevertheless wines are produced on territories, with
varying degrees of relation to them. It is usual to distinguish an “old world” terroir model,
based on protected designations of origin (PDO) and a new world models, building on wine
varieties, brands and clusters.
Each model is supposed to draw from specific assets and produce information and
reputation that allow consumers to decide and markets to work. Nevertheless this binary
distinction has to be questioned. Clusters and, mainly, terroirs are not homogeneous. On the
one hand some terroirs are incredibly successful (obviously the main case is the Champagne
one), on the other hand some others lead to poor results (who, today, knows the Blanquette
de Limoux which is the oldest sparkling wine in the world?).
This heterogeneity does not primarily derives from natural but social conditions, among
which the strategies of the actors. Moreover, at the beginning of their development, some
terroir wines were facing similar conditions but their development paths have been very
diverse. So, comparative history allows us to understand the conditions of successes and
failures and to see that, despite the legal protection ensured by the PDO, the typicality of a
vineyard is not a sufficient condition of success.
For that the paper addresses the conditions of competitiveness of terroirs related to their
"differentiated quality". An evolutionary model that considers wine markets as strategic
games between mutually dependant players the issue of which gives a well-defined level of
quality constitutes our theoretical starting point. The working of the play leads to diverse
dynamics and to specific path development dependences. Then we can observe how the
institutional conditions (number and heterogeneity of the producers, types of associations,
relations to the political area and so on) act upon types of management and governance and,
finally, define the conditions of the strategic choices and determine the path development. On
this basis we compare the success story of the Champagne wine with the failures of other
vineyards (Clairette de Die, Blanquette de Limoux, Cahors). The comparative history of these
vineyards shows that competitiveness does not only result from natural conditions. In some
circumstances the behaviours of the economic actors and, peculiarly, their ability to define
wining strategies are decisive. In the case of Champagne the Maisons played a decisive role.
Their power allowed them to anticipate and to define a long-term policy; to use some
situations (the Big crisis of the Champagne) to organize a general agreement on development
path; and to enforce it. When the expansion path took effect it gave profits to the whole
sector and, so, became self-enforcing. The possibility of collective action also depended on
distribution conditions. The necessary consensus derived from the belief that the common
strategy favoured almost all the actors: to convince vine growers to accept the high quality
strategy the Maisons had to accept a new distribution of earnings by paying more the grape
and by increasing the price of grape when the price of bottles increased.
36
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Enometrics XVIII
On the contrary, in the other vineyards, the absence of leaders institutionalized
opportunistic behaviours that created a lock-in situation. The history of French vineyards also
shows the advantage of the leader position on the followers’ ones. In spite of voluntarist
policies in the recent period, the emergence of a new image able to modify the consumers’
choices is very difficult. It obviously is the case for sparkling wines when the iconic image of
Champagne stands up: the recognition by consumers of the typicality of the Champagne wine
and the classification of this typicality as a superiority over other wines tends to rigidify the
competition among lots of more or less typical wines. Finally, the last but not the least
teaching given by the comparative history of terroir wines is that the most important within
the specific resources is not generally the quality of natural ones but the quality of human and
social ones, that is to say the human and social creativity.
VDQS
L’appellation Sauternes : une appellation sans territoire?
Nathalie CORADE
UMR 5185 ADES-Université de Bordeaux-CNRS
[email protected]
Le contexte
Localisée sur 5 communes de la rive Gauche de la Garonne (Barsac, Bommes, Preignac,
Sauternes, Fargues) l’appellation Sauternes est l’une des appellations les plus réputées du
Bordelais en raison, notamment, de la typicité de ses vins liquoreux. 27 grands crus du
classement de 1855 y sont localisés et l’appellation compte aujourd’hui environ 220
viticulteurs. En 2009 les surfaces déclarées s’élèvent à 1 767 ha pour une production de
33 954 hl.
Epargnée par la crise viticole à ses débuts (fin des années 90), elle connait aujourd’hui de
nombreux problèmes dont celui de la valorisation de ses produits mais aussi des problèmes
de vente.
De plus de nombreux changements territoriaux sont en cours dont on ne connaît pas très
bien la portée aujourd’hui :
La pression foncière y est relativement importante, (or le prix de foncier agricole est bien
plus faible encore que celui de terrain à bâtir) et les rapports avec les élus ne laissent pas
présager un revirement
Le nombre de domaines se réduit
L’appellation est marquée par des rachats par de grands groupes de certains domaines
(bien que 50% des grands crus soient encore détenus par des groupes familiaux). Ces rachats
entraînent des changements qu’il faut comprendre et analyser
Certains viticulteurs, malgré une appellation qui se tient face à la crise, connaissent des
difficultés
Les vins de l’appellation sont, à ce point, typiques qu’ils se boivent peu….
Au final un certain nombre d’indicateurs laisse supposer que des difficultés existent dès
aujourd’hui et qu’elles sont en voie de se renforcer en en entraînant peut-être d’autres.
La problématique
Le travail s’intéresse aux fondements territoriaux qui semblent être au cœur des
difficultés actuelles de cette appellation pourtant renommée. Nous montrerons qu’il y a bien
dans les problèmes de l’appellation des problèmes territoriaux de fond conduisant à devoir
s’interroger sur son fonctionnement.
La méthode
Le travail repose sur une analyse de données économiques et structurelles ainsi que sur
des interviews réalisés auprès d’acteurs différents (Une quarantaine de viticulteurs, les élus
des 5 communes de l’appellation, le président de l’ODG Sauternes Barsac, les 2 principaux
négociants de cette appellation, 2 grands crus, ….)
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Formation of Regional Associations of Wine Producers
in the Czech Republic
Martin PROKEŠ
Thursday May 19th 2011
Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno, Czech Republic
[email protected]
3.20 - 4.40 pm
Session 4b
GRAPE & WINE GROWER
Chaired by Michel DARMON
New Regional Associations of Winemakers in the Cech
Republic
Martin PROKES
p.40
Faculty Business & Economics, Mendel University Brno- CZ
Understanding the Performance of Sardinian Wineries
with a Post-DEA Double Bootstrap
Marco VANNINI, Maria Giovanna BRANDANO, Claudio DETOTTO
University of Sassari – IT
p.41
A Preliminary Analysis of Investing in Wine Grape Production:
Evidence from the State of Connecticut, USA
Jeremy JELLIFFE, Boris BRAVO-URETA
The University of Connecticut – US
p.42
Monetary Equilibrium and Mutuality Analysis of Italian Wine
Cooperatives
Victoria BRUNO BOSSIO, Sandro SILLANI
Dept Food Sciences, Università de gli Studi di Udine – IT
p.43
Wine environment in the Czech Republic
Sylvie GURSKA, Helena CHLADKOVA, Pavel TOMSIK
Mendel University in Brno – CZ
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39
This paper describes the main reasons for the formation of new regional association of
wineries, based on a different origin for wines in the wine region of Moravia in the southeast part of
the Czech Republic.
This research aim is to create a plan for new development of such associations on the basis of
results of localization factors. There coefficient of localization is used for identification of cluster,
macro-analytical tool recommends by Porter (1994). New method is to use a concentration factor,
which is concentration of potential vineyards for certification in the associations and compared with
concentration of vineyards in the region. Results are compared with already operating on
associations for the appellation in Austria DAC.
Viticulture and wine industry in the Czech Republic has undergone over the last twenty years
extensive reform and has experienced a significant shift from the quantitative orientation of
production towards high quality. Cooperation winemakers and wineries eminently contributed to
positive changes and the overall transformation. They were traced changes in consumer
preferences in the Czech wine market. Consumers are placing more emphasis on the selection of
wine on its descent from a particular area, growing community and the individual grower. The
dynamic development of the wine category, major changes in market and consumer demand are
the main causes for the formation of associations of small and medium-sized wineries.
There is new system for appellations wine “Vína Originální Certifikace – VOC”, which means
wines of original certification. The paper specifically introduces two new associations for appellation
system: VOC Znojmo and VOC Modré Hory. These alliances are described in the context of the
establishment, operation, development and expansion, respectively the possibility of involvement
of additional organizations suppliers and research institutions. There are seven regional associations
with the DAC title, DAC means “Districtus Austrae Controllatus” and it is appelation system for
certification wine in certain wine-producing regions in Austria.
For all researched regional associations were calculated localization factors and concentration
factors of vineyards. When comparing these results, coefficients were observed in approximately
similar values for both the DAC associations in Austria, as well as associations of VOCs in the Czech
Republic. Based on the experience of newly emerging VOC system of appellations was setting up a
plan of formation association with the proposed methodological approach.
Open cooperation between associations VOC appellation and other entities involving
suppliers, customers, research institutions and universities has the possibility of creating an
institutionalized wine cluster. The observed association of the DAC, which was founded as the first,
already used by some elements of cooperation specific to cluster together in the form, such as joint
marketing, research and education. The forming new associations working together on a common
VOC presentation and marketing, and expect further expansion of joint activities, such as
education, research, and joint sales activities.
Some practical experience of the new members of wine associations mentioned in this paper
may find applications in other wine regions.
40
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Enometrics XVIII
Understanding the Performance of Sardinian Wineries
with a Post-DEA Double Bootstrap
Marco. VANNINI, Maria giovanna. BRANDANO, Claudio DETOTTO
VDQS
Table 3 – Descripive statistics
University of Sassari
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
The island of Sardinia, internationally known mainly for its shepherds and cheeses, now
boasts dozens of wines among the pride of its agricultural sector. Although the production of
wine dates back at least to Phoenician times, a modern wine industry started to develop much
later, toward the end of the 19th century, and reached its quantitative peak in the early
1980’s. Since then, the quantity of land devoted to wine-growing has been shrinking along
with the total harvest and wine production. Not surprisingly, the quality of wine has
significantly improved and in just about three decades Sardinian wines have gained an
enviable reputation for quality both at home and abroad.
What explain this performance? To address this questions, we first measure the
performance of a large subset of Sardinian wine producing companies observed over the
period 2004-2008. As a central indicator of performance we use the technical efficiency score
from a DEA application, based on straightforward inputs and outputs, concerning a sample of
thirty-nine DMUs (roughly 60% the total wineries). Subsequently, we regress the DEA scores
on a set of covariates that are expected to impact the efficiency level of Sardinian wineries.
As is well known DEA allows to measure the efficiency of a given DMU comparing it to the
estimated production frontier. Unlike the parametric approach, that requires an a priori
specification of the functional form of the production function and its disturbance term, DEA
is a flexible technique that, in a multiple input-output framework, focuses on a virtual singleinput-output structure. In the first step of our study we measure technical efficiency using
three inputs [Labour cost (L), physical capital (K) and land (T)] and two outputs [sales revenue
(S) and earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)].
In the second step, we investigate which factors affect the measured technical efficiency.
Code
Step
Min
Median
Mean
Max
S.D.
DCOOP
PostD
0.0
1.0
0.52
1.0
0.50
DGUIDE
PostD
0.0
0.0
0.37
1.0
0.48
KM
PostD
4.3
38.3
51.1
129.0
38.5
VISIB
PostD
0.0
7,280
28,530
271,000
52,994.7
By using Algorithm #2 of Simar and Wilson (2007), a double bootstrap procedure is employed.
The results of the analysis are shown in table 4. We observe that DCOOP and DGUIDE are
highly significant. On average, the cooperative wineries are more technically efficient (-7.297)
than private wineries. Tasting scores by AIS and GR increases the efficiency of the wineries (4.910). Finally, KM and VISIB have the expected sign, but the coefficients are not significant.
Table 4 – Double bootstrap regression
β
-7.297***
DGUIDE
-4.910***
KM
1.402
VISIB
-0.569
Constant
6.715***
Number of iteration = 2,500
A Preliminary Analysis of Investing in Wine Grape Production:
Evidence from the State of Connecticut,USA
Jeremy JELLIFFE, Boris BRAVO-URETA
The estimated DEA scores θˆ it become the dependent variables of a pooled truncated
maximum likelihood regression with the following specification
θˆ it = DCOOP it β1 + DGUIDE it β2 + KM it β3 + VISIB it β4 + DY 04 t β5 + DY 05 t β6 + DY 06 t β7 + DY 07 t β8 + ε it
DCOOP
Variables
University of Connecticut
[email protected], [email protected]
DCOOPit and DGUIDEit are two dummy variables equal to one when a firm has a co-op
ownership structure and features in the previous year wine tasting guides Associazione
Italiana Sommelier (AIS) and Gambero Rosso (GR).
KMit measure the distance of a winery from the closest airports (the gate of incoming
tourism)
VISIBit represents the number of Google results associated to each winery: a proxy of the
market visibility of the firms.
The Connecticut Wine and Vineyard industry has grown at a steady 3.9% per year over
the past decade (ATTB, 2009). Programs to support and foster further growth of the industry
and CT farm vineyard culture include the Department of Agriculture’s CT Wine Trail and the
annual CT Wine festival (DOAG, 2010). Vineyard development is also supported by farmland
preservation groups since grape growing tends to secure tracts of farmland for long periods of
time. Programs like FarmLink help prospective vineyard owners find affordable land to farm.
With high state property values the need for affordable land is a driving factor for vineyard
establishment. The Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) are calculated
for both vinifera and French American hybrid varieties over a 20 year period. Sensitivity
analysis for NPV is done by varying the baseline discount rate. Preliminary IRRs for vinifera and
hybrid varieties over the 20 year period are estimated at 13% and 8%, respectively. Thus, the
investment analysis suggests that growing vinifera varieties of wine grapes in Connecticut is
more profitable than growing French American hybrid varieties.
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42
Where θˆ it = z it β + ε it ≥1
zit is a vector of variables assumed to affect the choice and use of y and x and the level of
technology employed, β is a vector of parameters and εit is a continuous iid random variable
distributed
N(0,σε2 ) with left-truncation at 1 − zit β for each i.
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Monetary Equilibrium and Mutuality
Analysis of Italian Wine Cooperatives.
Victoria BRUNO BOSSIO, Sandro SILLANI
Wine Environment in the Czech Republic
Sylvie Gurská, Helena Chládková, Pavel Tomšík
Mendel University in Brno
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
Department of Food Sciences, Università degli Studi di Udine
[email protected]; [email protected]
The organization into cooperatives especially in the agricultural sector have always been of great
importance for protection and benefit of small rural realities that alone wouldn’t be able to survive
and compete on the market..
In Italy, according to the existing legislation, to favour the development of cooperative initiatives,
there are specific tax and law facilitations, in relation with the fact that cooperatives shouldn’t have as
their main aim to maximise profit but to favour members and indirectly bring benefits to the entire
community (Romano, 1991).Cooperation is present in many business sectors; in the agriculture sector,
cooperatives accomplish tasks such as picking, processing, transformation and selling of agricultural
goods brought-in by producers-members. Economically speaking, they have many differences
compared to joint-stock companies, both regarding structural aspects and objectives. They transform
goods produced by members that are remunerated depending on product’s quantity and quality.
According to the italian law (D.lgs.n.6/2003), there are two types of mutuality: prevalent when the
cooperative firms stipulates contracts mostly with members (>50% of the total goods, in quantity or
value, come from members) and the business is carried out to achieve benefits for members
exclusively; non prevalent when the business is open also to others rather than only members (<50%
of total goods come from members). By law, profits obtained during the exercise of the business have
to be in most part reinvested within the company, or go to mutuality funds settled for promotion and
development of new cooperatives (Law n.59/1992). The assets are not simply result of difference
between proceeds and explicit costs, but from a subjective attribution of the profit to members’
brought in goods. This value is recorded as part of the production costs. The objective of this work was
to analyze the performance trough years (2003-2008) of 28 wine cooperatives of different Italian
regions, together with their mutuality approach, for a total of 168 balance sheets. A problem faced
during the development of this work regarded availability of exact data of quantities and costs of
brought-in by members’ goods and purchased by third-parties, since the italian law doesn’t oblige
cooperatives to declare this. Main financial indexes were calculated and a cluster analysis was carried
out on the results. For year 2008, cooperatives were divided into highly exposed (46%), precarious
(46%) and firm (8%), with an unvaried trend during the years for 75% while 25% worsen. The study
underlines the strength of the phenomenon of prevalent mutuality in the Italian wine cooperatives
(none of the cooperatives taken into consideration is non prevalent, they declare that over 50% of
quantity or value of products transformed come from members) and there is no change during the
years. The asset result doesn’t give us information about the positive or negative performance of the
cooperative, since the objective is not to maximise profit but to sustain members and maximise the
payment of their goods. The fulfillment of this objective goes in the production costs items, but still it
gives us indications on the way mutuality is conceived. The 75% of balance sheets break even, mostly
almost perfectly, as if it was calculated perfectly to maximise the payment of members goods.
Trough the development of a Gamma coefficient, a significant relation was measured between
monetary equilibrium and the mutuality policies. We still need further analysis to understand how the
two phenomenons are connected and main reasons.
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Wine branch is one of the dynamically developing industries in the Czech Republic.
Market changes in this branch came before the EU entry in the year 2004 when many new
vineyards were plant out, mostly with the state subvention. The entry to the European Union
led to tighter legislative conditions and orders which many winegrowers had to adapt to. In
conjunction with this situation, variety composition, which ensures the production quality and
competitiveness of our wines, has changed. All these proceedings have certainly positive
influence on the wine consumption because the Czech consumer prefers the traditional taste
of domestic wines. The market size could be viewed from different points of view. One of
them is the character of wine production development. The total amount of production in the
Czech Republic was 570 thousand hectoliters in the year 2009/2010, thereof 380.000 hl of
white wine and 190.000 hl of red wine. The decrease of domestic production against the year
2008/2009 was caused by the weather influence. Import to the Czech Republic has an
increasing trend and in the year 2009/2010 was 150 million liters (according to the Ministry of
Agriculture). For the estimation of future supply development in the Czech Republic the
realized data in the tracking period were extended with the trend line (Figure 1) which is in
form y = 135,88x + 1822,7. The parameters of the trend line b0, b1 come from the equation
system:
∑y − nb − b ∑t
∑y t − b ∑t − b ∑t
t
o
0
t
1
1
2
= 0
= 0
where
n=9
∑ y = 22519
∑ y * t = 120748
∑ t = 45
∑ t = 285
t
t
⇒
b0
= 1822,7
b1
= 135,88
⇒
y = 135,88 x + 1822,7
2
Except of production and import, consumption is the basic aspect of market size. The
grape and wine consumption development has been increasing. According to the Ministry of
Agriculture data the consumption reached the level of 200 million liters in the year 2009/10.
For the next development of wine consumption in the Czech Republic the data were extended
with the trend line (Figure 1) in the form y = 49,183x +1540,1.
Evidently from this wine consumption development the Czech Republic will be able to
reach the consumption of c. 250 million liters. It is obvious that the Czech Republic won’t drive
up to the European average (30 liters per capita) in near future but in spite of it, it is possible
to evaluate this development as positive for the developing market.
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Figure 1 Prediction of the development of production and consumption to 2015 (million liters)
Source: Czech Statistical Office, own work
The correlation coefficient will be used to determine the relationship between supply and
consumption, supply and final wine stock, supply and import, consumption and final wine
stock.
r=
[n∑ x
n∑ x i y i − ∑ x i ∑ y i
2
i
][
− (∑ x i ) 2 n ∑ y i2 − (∑ y i ) 2
]
=
∑ ( xi − x )( y i − y )
∑ ( x i − x ) 2 ∑ ( yi − y) 2
Between total wine supply and consumption the correlation coefficient is r = 0,88,
between total supply and the amount of the wine stock r = 0,94 and also between total
supply and import reached the coefficient high number r = 0,80. That’s why it is possible to
talk about high dependence among monitored values. The relationship between wine
consumption and total wine stock can be indicated as medium because r = 0,68.
According to realized information it is possible to say that the wine industry is a positively
developing market which inheres in the stage of growth in the life cycle. We can see it from
the development of increasing domestic wine production and from the increasing amount of
wine imported in context of increasing annual consumption. There is a positive fact in the
increasing wine demand and consumption – producers focuses on quality which documents
significant awarding of our wines in several world expositions and competition, and on
production of specialties typical for domestic conditions like e.g. Saint Martin’s Wine, Ice
wines, the stum. The quality of production is awarded also by consumers which according to
several surveys prefer domestic wines. Managerial proceedings leading to increasing quality of
wine production lead to increasing consumption. So the Czech Republic contributes to use of
EU overproduction.
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Enometrics XVIII
Wine Education in the Wine Country
Gildas L’HOSTIS
Thursday May 19th 2011
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce. Dijon
[email protected]
5.00 - 6.10 pm
Session 5
INFORMATION & EDUCATION
Chaired by Dominique JONCHERAY
Wine Education in the Wine Country
Gildas L’HOSTIS
Ecole Supérie ure de Commerce, Dijon – FR
p.48
Jonathan Nossiter contre Robert Parker. Tradicion vs Alta
expression
Joël BRÉMOND
Université de Nante s, LEA & CRINI – FR
p.49
The teaching of the wine in catering school: a plural approach
Kilien STENGEL
Université François Rabelais de Tours, IEHCA – FR
p.50
Information, manga et cartes de similitudes
Angela SUTAN, Joëlle BROUARD, Emilie GINON, Damien WILSON
IMV, LESSAC, Burgundy School of Business, Dijon – FR
VDQS
p.51
France history is intimately related to wine history and as a wine producing country, wine
education has always played a strong social part. Being a “connoisseur” has often been a way
to express a strong social position and mastering a complex wine semantic a way to prove
that you are knowledgeable, wine tasting belonging more to art than science.
Nowadays wine is at the core of an economic issue and it is crucial to demystify this
beverage and help the consumers to better understand it. Giving readable clues for wine
drinkers can avoid a social risk for the customers while ordering wine. Therefore, a good wine
education background is an important step for vocational students to reach the clients’
aspirations
In France the public education system relies on a strong curriculum also giving standards
for wine education, offering a lot of different streams for vocational education.
The main goal of this study is to compare the French wine’s educational system with
some other countries around the world (US, UK, Switzerland and Australia). This research also
tries to find out whether it is possible or not to derive some positive aspects from these others
countries and transpose them into the French system scheme.
A quick summary of the different levels of vocational diplomas in France including wine
education in their program will be done. Are these programs in France relevant and reflective
of the employers and consumers’ needs?
Regarding the other countries, do they follow the same qualification framework? What
can we learn from their wine education system?
The study is mainly conducted through quantitative research(es): communication with
professionals linked to the wine education sector in France and foreign countries; literature
search(es); web data.
International Digital Wine Writing : What Is Really at Stakes
for the Wine Industry ?
Joëlle BROUARD, Evely ne RESNICK
Institut Management Vin Groupe Esc Dijon Bourgogne – FR p.52
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
Jonathan Nossiter contre Robert Parker.
Tradición vs Alta expresión.
Joël BRÉMOND
The teaching of the wine in catering school: a plural approach
Kilien STENGEL
Université François Rabelais de Tours, IEHCA
[email protected]
Université de Nantes, LEA– Civilisation de l’Espagne contemporaine & CRINI
[email protected]
La Denominación de Origen Calificada Rioja est la première zone espagnole pour la
production de vins fins, avec 40 % du total espagnol des ventes de vin d’appellations d’origine
contrôlée, tant à l’exportation que sur le marché domestique.
Le contexte national est contrasté : l’Espagne reste le premier pays au monde pour la
surface plantée de vignes, et le deuxième ou le troisième (selon les années) pour la production
de vin, par contre, la consommation intérieure y est relativement faible (17 litres par an et par
habitant), la plus faible en tout cas parmi les grands pays producteurs, et en baisse constante.
La filière vitivinicole espagnole en général se tourne donc logiquement vers les marchés
d’exportation pour y trouver des débouchés conséquents et durables.
C’est également le cas des grandes sociétés qui dominent le secteur en Rioja, dont plus
d’un tiers des ventes en volume, et davantage en valeur, est commercialisé hors des frontières
espagnoles.
Dans le même temps, fleurissent et se multiplient en Rioja des vins qualifiés
explicitement de « modernes », qui correspondent globalement aux goûts dominants sur les
marchés du nouveau monde et, il faut bien le dire, aux critères et aux préférences du critique
états-unien Robert M. Parker.
Après une phase où les bodegas ont été catégorisées en « modernes » ou «
traditionnelles », on assiste, de la part de la majorité des grands opérateurs, à des adaptations
stratégiques les menant à produire de front à la fois des vins modernes et des vins
traditionnels. L’objectif est de multiplier les cibles et de placer ces vins sur des créneaux plus
variés et par conséquent d’accroître leurs ventes.
Cela dit, il semble clair que la « tendance Parker » domine largement dans l’offre actuelle
des vins de Rioja, y compris sur le marché espagnol.
Nous tenterons de montrer quelle est l’influence de Parker, mais aussi de ses émules
locaux, José Peñín, Víctor de la Serna (El Mundo)…, sur les vins proposés à la vente et sur les
réactions de la clientèle.
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There is a lot of tools and methodologies of teaching of the wine, based or not on a main
table, and multiple books explain what the French society wishes to pass on of its wine
heritage.
Nevertheless, the question today could be: how do we teach the wine? Considering the
globalization, the economic policies, considering regional valuation, considering the french
paradox and considering the educational politics, what future do we offer to this cultural
capital, knowing that the food practices change status in every generation? And what is the
wine teaching in the country neighbors?
We know that technical vocabularies, intended for the commercial argumentations, can
indicated wine products. We know that cities or regions try to communicate an identity with
the aid of the wine.
But how spread the approaches varied by some wine with the teenagers of catering
schools, students of universities, and adults of the workshops of tastings, so that these actors
know how to sell it?
So many questions which indicate a narrow report enter the will to preserve and that to
pass on which passes by the custom of the multidisciplinary.
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Information, manga et cartes de similitudes
Angela SUTAN, Joëlle BROUARD, Emilie GINON, Damien WILSON
VDQS
International Digital Wine Writing:
What Is Really at Stakes for the Wine Industry?
Joelle BROUARD, Evelyne RESNICK
IMV, LESSAC, Burgundy School of Business, Dijon
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected],
[email protected]
Institut du Management du Vin Groupe Esc Dijon Bourgogne
[email protected], [email protected]
Si nous assumons l'existence d'individus dotés de capacités cognitives différentes, dans
des situationsdans lesquelles les fondamentaux économiques sont publiquement révélés, de
manière à ce que l'information sur l'environnement est complète, parfaite et symétrique,
chaque individu est susceptible de traiter l'information qu'il reçoit de manière différente, en
fonction de sa capacité de raisonnement. En particulier, les capacités de raisonnement
différentes des individus sont associées à leurs coûts (cognitifs) de traitement de l'information
; chacun réalise donc un arbitrage avantages-coûts du raisonnement, qui détermine les limites
des efforts cognitifs mis en œuvre.
Ce papier fait état de deux expériences connexes sur les différences entre information
disponible et information utile et la manière de l'assimiler dans le cas du vin par des
consommateurs jeunes. Nous faisons l'hypothèse que le processus de construction des
inférences qui constituent le raisonnement est caractérisé par une sensibilité élevée au
contexte : une même information disponible peut conduire à des assimilations très différentes
dans des contextes différents. L'explication est qu'à travers le raisonnement un individu ne
traite pas l'information disponible, mais seulement l'information la plus relevante (Sperber
and Wilson, 1995) dans la situation en question, et, de manière à ce que cette information
devienne utile, il la contextualise de manière à maximiser sa relevance.
Ainsi, nous avons mis en place deux expériences de terrain dans lesquelles : nous avons
mesuré l'impact de la transmission de l'information à travers les mangas ("Les goutes de
Dieu") par rapport à une formation académique auprès d'un public jeune, nous avons
demandé à ce public de nous construire des cartes de similitudes des vins.
International Digital Wine Writing started around 1995-1996 when journalists and wine
lovers launched discussion forums open to anybody who wanted to share their tastes,
opinions or knowledge. Those forums were the first platforms where consumers and
professionals from all over the world could meet virtually before – sometimes- meeting “off
line”. Technology evolving and helping, at the turn of the new century, blogs became part of
the digital landscape. At a time when top-down messaging had already become obsolete for
wine brands, peer-to-peer conversations and consumer-to-blogger conversations took
precedence over the traditional monolog of the wine experts and “gurus”. Nowadays, even
Facebook and Twitter are part of the digital wine writing.
Forums, blogs, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube and other social networks and
digital tools are now part of the digital landscape and are challenging the wine industry
worldwide. What is really at stakes in 2011 and for the next 5 years for the wine industry?
To answer this question, the mastère de Vins de Dijon and its counterpart Wine Master
program launched a study of digital wine writing in the US and in Asia (China, Korea and India).
Why those countries? An overview of the context of the digital world in the US and in Asia
showed the importance of researching the characteristics and main features of a mature
market (the US) vs. a few emerging markets in Asia, mostly China, Korea and India.
Our research focuses on wine blogs and digital writing through a corpus of about 450
blogs selected and evaluated by our 45 students from various European countries, the US,
Australia, Korea, mainland China and India. We worked very closely with our students who are
important contributors to the project.
Our methodology is based on two steps:
Evaluating several critical points: design, topics, links to social media, monetization,
audience, influence, among others ;
Collecting information on a corpus of American and Asian blogs.
The evaluation chart will be presented in detail since it will lead to a classification of the
blogs to determine which ones are the most affluent and strategic to the wine industry.
Our research is still a work in progress as we will continue the work on several years. Its
objectives are to give a good image of digital writing through blogs as of now in 2011 in the
wine industry, to see over the next five years how it is evolving in mature and emerging
markets and to give recognition to a new form of communications helping the wine industry
to reach new markets through new influencers and trendsetters.
As far as today, we have a corpus of about 300 American blogs and 100 Asian blogs. This
study will allow us to evaluate which digital wine writers are the most affluent and important
as well as how they can affect the international wine industry.
www.EuAWE.org
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Tourism Marketing Strategies
Between Wineries Based on Size or Location
Janis R. DONOVAN, Nelson A. BARBER
Friday May 20th 2011
University of New Hampshir
[email protected], [email protected]
8.20 - 9.40 am
Session 6
ŒNOTOURISM
Chaired by Stefania CHIRONI
Tourism Marketing Strategies Between Wineries Based on Size
or Location
Janis R. DONOVAN, Ne lson A. BARBER
University of New Hampshire – US
p.54
Wine Festivals Tourism: How important is Recycling to
Attendees?
Nelson BARBER
University of New Hampshire – US
p.54
L’analyse des profils d'œnotouristes bordelais et des nouvelles
pratiques de l’œnotourisme mise en place en région.
Tatiana BOUZD INE – CHAMEEVA
BEM - Bordeaux Management School – FR
p.55
A Literary Ride through Bacchus’ Landscapes
Ana LAVRADOR , Ana Cristina TAVARES
Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas – Universidade Nova
de Lisboa, IELT - PT
p.56
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While the number of United States wineries has doubled and wine production tripled,
only three states represent the majority of wineries and wine production. Yet, small wineries
must contend with similar production issues that larger wineries face: cultivation of grapes,
fermentation of juice and finally bottling of the product.
By comparison small wineries face an even tougher challenge - attracting consumers’
attention to their products, much of which must be sold directly to consumers at the winery.
These cellar door sales account for substantial dollar and case volume and are particularly
lucrative.
This study examined the relationship in off-site and on-site marketing strategies based
upon winery size and location. The results indicated differences in tourism marketing
strategies particularly with wine education at rural wineries and food/wine pairing techniques
at larger wineries.
Wine Festivals Tourism: How important is Recycling to Attendees?
Nelson BARBER
University of New Hampshire
[email protected]
In this consumer driven economy tourism marketers often seek effective ways to market
destinations. Sustainable development and marketing are applied across the tourism
spectrum, yet a need exists to make them relevant to specific forms of tourism, such as
festival tourism. Festivals may be more inclusive of all groups in a community, offering the
most effective setting in which to teach certain ideas. Thus, festivals can be great educational
settings to understand environmental behavior and attitudes and are likely to attract people
who might not take part in a seminar or workshop.
The very nature of the wine industry lends itself to a marriage with tourism. Wine is a
beverage that is associated with relaxation, communing with others, complementary to food
consumption, learning about new things, and hospitality. Wine tourism is a form of specialinterest tourism and like different forms of tourism; wine tourism is also gaining significant
momentum all over the world. Several countries are promoting wine tourism and are also
organizing wine festivals for the wine lovers. Wine tourism may comprise visits to different
wine festivals, vineyards, wineries and restaurants that offer distinct vintages.
The purpose of this study was to establish a valid and reliable consumer assessment tool
regarding recycling behaviors and attitudes when visiting a wine festival tourist destination
and to assess and segment the respondents by gender and age using their statements about
their personal and social norms, awareness of consequences, environmental and attitudes
and behavioral intentions. The goal is to suggest to wine festival managers and promoters that
environmental tourism, behaviors and attitudes, such as recycling, could improve festival
attendance, increase revenue, and build a better connection to the local community.
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L’analyse des profils d'œnotouristes bordelais
et des nouvelles pratiques de l’œnotourisme
mise en place en région.
Tatiana BOUZDINE - CHAMEEVA
A Literary Ride through Bacchus’ Landscapes
Ana LAVRADOR, Ana Cristina TAVARES
Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas – Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IELT
[email protected], [email protected]
BEM - Bordeaux Management School
[email protected]
L’œnotourisme, autrement dit, tourisme vitivinicole, correspond à la découverte par des
consommateurs de prestations touristiques et de vins régionaux. Il ne s’agit pas uniquement
de la visite de caves mais également de la découverte des routes de vins, de stages
d’œnologie ou encore de la visite de musées portant sur le vin.
A cela il faut ajoute la "mise en tourisme" des sites et patrimoines liés au vin et à sa
production. Cette nouvelle forme de tourisme est apparue dans l’optique de répondre à
l’attente des touristes voulant allier découverte et art de vivre. Au niveau européen,
l’œnotourisme est considéré comme un secteur en devenir car il répond à une nouvelle
demande de la part de la population - visiter des régions avec une activité spécifique où l’on
peut trouver des produits de qualité ainsi que découvrir d’une nouvelle culture, se détendre
et participer à des activités culturelles variées et innovantes en lien avec ces lieux.
Une étude internationale sur le tourisme vitivinicole a été lancée il y a quelques années
par des collègues allemands (Orth et al, 2005). 129 questions diverses et variées élaborées ont
permis de mieux comprendre le profil d'œnotouriste en Allemagne, et en Australie, en
Autriche et en Espagne, aux Etats Unis et en Italie; en Suisse et en région bourguignon. Dans
cette étude nous exposerons les nouvelles pratiques d'œnotourisme mises en place dans le
bordelais ainsi que nous présenterons le profil d'oenotouriste bordelais en se basant sur
l'analyse de 450 questionnaires.
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This paper focuses on the landscape of Portuguese wine regions, their particular wines
and gastronomy as represented in literary excerpts, from the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries. Our aim is to improve the knowledge, the differentiation and the promotion of the
Portuguese wine regions and their wines, useful for the wine market and the promotion of the
tourism. Combining the mutual appreciation of the literary excerpts and the landscapes,
heritage values (natural and cultural) of the winegrowing regions could also be underlined.
This wine trip results of the "Atlas of the Literary Landscapes of Portugal Continental"
(ALLPC) Project, started in June 2010 and be coordinated by the IELT, FCSH, Lisbon. It is
defined as an interdisciplinary research Project, with three main applications: education,
promotion and territorial planning management.
As theoretical guidelines, the ALLPC Project fits the ecocriticism framework, being
sustained by the authors’ PhD thesis, and those from other team collaborators, in order to
give credibility to the registers and observation notes linked to the landscape themes selected
in the literature. The use of a GIS is a key element to the geographical referencing of the
literary landscapes.
As methodological procedures, the Portugal Continental landscapes represented in the
literary excerpts are registered in a data basis, for which are associated geographical
descriptors (geomorphology, land use, material and immaterial heritage values, economical
activities) and ecological descriptors (species of fauna and flora of the regions). The excerpts
collection involves students, graduate students and academics in Humanities and
Environmental Sciences, there being assumed three levels of collaboration :a) the “readers”,
those who intervene only in the compilation of literary excerpts and their classification; b) the
“researchers”, who contribute to the compilation process, supervise the readings and are
responsible for ecocritical analysis; c) the“web designers”, involved in the implementation and
maintenance of the data basis and the interactive website of the literary landscapes. The
website will allow us to search the literary excerpts using a map of Portugal Continental.
In the future, the website could be useful in the preparation of literary tours in the
winegrowing regions, as well as being an important didactical framework in the research of
landscapes values and singularities, a toolbar for those who are involved in the wine or
tourism marketing, or even interested in the wines and gastronomy consumption.
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La protection des appellations
d’origine viticoles européennes aux Etats-Unis
Caroline LE GOFFIC
Friday May 20th 2011
Université Paris Descartes
[email protected]
10.00 - 11.20 am
Session 7
WINE & LAW
Chaired by Theodore GEORGOPLOULOS
La protection des appellations d’origine viticoles européennes
aux Etats-Unis
Caroline LE GOFFIC
Université Paris Descartes - FR
p.58
Quelques gouttes de droit dans un océan de vin : exemple
(très) prospectif de l’accord appelé par les articles 22 à 24
ADPIC sur les indications géographiques
Jean-Denis DUPUY-MANAUD
Avocat à la Co ur de To ulouse – FR
p.59
EU Public Policy in the Wine Sector: a Matter of Coherence
Theodore GEORGOPOULOS
The Wine & Law Program - University of Reims - FR
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Le présent projet de communication vise à analyser et à évaluer l’étendue de la
protection juridique des appellations viticoles européennes sur le territoire des Etats-Unis.
En vertu du principe de territorialité, c’est le droit américain, tel qu’appliqué par les
tribunaux des Etats-Unis, qui détermine si une appellation d’origine bénéficie ou non d’une
protection. Or, les règles américaines en la matière (droit des marques et réglementation
administrative du Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau) sont moins protectrices que les
droits français et européen. Cela s’explique, d’une part, par la moins grande réception aux
Etats-Unis du concept de terroir, qui fonde la protection accordée en Europe aux appellations
d’origine ; et, d’autre part, par l’histoire du peuplement américain, qui a vu les immigrants
européens s’installer et continuer à utiliser les dénominations de leurs pays d’origine. En
conséquence, les appellations viticoles européennes se sont vu à plusieurs reprises refuser
une protection aux Etats-Unis, en particulier sur la base de leur qualification de
dénominations génériques ou semi-génériques (voir notamment l’affaire « Chablis with a
twist »).
Devant cet obstacle, les négociateurs européens ont tenté d’obtenir à la table de l’OMC la
« récupération » d’une série d’appellations prestigieuses (Champagne, Chianti, Jerez…). Cette
tentative s’étant soldée par un échec, les négociations ont emprunté la voie bilatérale. Un
accord commercial a ainsi été signé le 20 mars 2006 entre l’Union européenne et les EtatsUnis. On en présentera les principaux apports en matière de reconnaissance mutuelle
d’indications géographiques viticole. On montrera que cet accord – ainsi que la législation
américaine consécutive – constituent une étape déterminante dans l’abandon des usages
génériques des appellations européennes sur le territoire américain. Cet instrument juridique
comporte cependant d’importantes limites, qui seront soulignées. Elles tiennent notamment à
une clause permettant, à certaines conditions, la poursuites d’usages antérieurs.
En conclusion, on insistera sur l’importance des solutions alternatives non juridiques,
telles que la publicité et l’éducation des consommateurs, dans la protection des appellations
d’origine viticoles aux Etats-Unis.
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Quelques gouttes de droit dans un océan de vin :
exemple (très) prospectif de l’accord appelé 22 à 24 ADPIC
sur les indications géographiques
Jean-Denis DUPUY-MANAUD
EU Public Policy in the Wine Sector: a Matter of Coherence
Theodore GEORGOPOULOS
Avocat à la Cour de Toulouse – FR
The paper offers an overview of the public policy of the European Union with regard to
wine making and wine consuming. Especially, the affirmation of common environmental
standards in wine-making, the controversial question of organic wines as well the protection
of consumers and actions against alcohol abuse are not simply issues that need to be taken
into account by European institutions in the field of wine regulations.
The paper argues that these issues are nowadays distinct objectives integrated in the EU
wine legislation. The paper scrutinizes the main points and especially the legal methods
applied in order to achieve these public policy goals. It also tries to identify the means that
should ensure coherence between these objectives and the need to assert the
competitiveness of the European wine business.
The Wine & Law Program - University of Reims
[email protected]
Les accords ADPIC ouvrent bien des voies de réflexion, en général assez complexes, et on
le sait, il arrive qu’ils peinent à les refermer sur des solutions stables : ce processus ne peut
que mûrir lentement. Or c’est le cas des indications géographiques.
a) l'utilisation, dans la désignation ou la présentation d'un produit, de tout moyen qui
indique ou suggère que le produit en question est originaire d'une région géographique autre
que le véritable lieu d'origine d'une manière qui induit le public en erreur quant à l'origine
géographique du produit;
b) toute utilisation qui constitue un acte de concurrence déloyale au sens de l'article
10bis de la Convention de Paris (1967).
Que signifie : « bénéficier d’une protection dans les pays Membres participant au
système » ? Cela a certainement trait à une opposabilité multilatérale, proposée pour remplir
l’objectif de 22§2, qui lui, pourtant, vise explicitement l’ordre juridique interne. Voilà une
première articulation, riche. Et à quoi s’applique cette protection ? Voici une de ces
magnifiques ambiguïtés, si révélatrices d’un trouble dans la rédaction : « des indications
géographiques pour les vins susceptibles de bénéficier …» : sont-ce les vins qui sont «
susceptibles de bénéficier d’une protection » ? ou les IG ? Comme la première interprétation
n’a pas grand sens, choisissons bien sûr la seconde: l’expression « des IG susceptibles de
bénéficier d’une protection multilatérale » signifie bien que d’autres IG peuvent ne pas en
bénéficier. La phrase correctement ordonnée devient maintenant : « un système multilatéral
de notification et d'enregistrement des indications géographiques susceptibles de bénéficier
d'une protection dans les Membres participant au système, pour les vins. »
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Friday May 20th 2011
11.20 - 12.20 am
Session 8
POSTER SESSION
Chaired by Françoise BOURDON
Presentation of the Wines of the Loire Valley: Economic and
Statistical Elements
Fanny GILLET, Christian VITAL
INTERLOIRE - FR
p.62
"Excellent" or "Author's" Wineries in Landscapes of
Sustainability
Alessandra MICCOLI, Sandro SILLANI, Roberto ZIRONI
Dipt. Scienze degli Alimenti, Universita degli Studi Udine - IT
p.63
Grappa Industry in Sicily
Nicoletti GIUL IA, Gian Gaspare FARDELLA
Universita di Palermo – IT
p.64
La consommation modérée de vin
Delphin NGANDU, Mireille TSHIALA
Institut de Reche rche et Development, Katfo undation –
Kinshasa – CD
p.65
La femme et le vin dans la société d’aujourd’hui
Joe T DECROSTA
Dorcas foundatio n, Kinshasa – CD
p.66
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Urban sprawl and vineyards: land-use conflicts.
Françoise BOURDON, Marie-Claude PICHERY
Laboratoire d'Eco nomie et Gestion - UMR CNRS 5118 Université de Bourgogne – FR
p.68
Quel avenir pour le vignoble malgache ?
Harivola ANDRIAMANANJARA RAMBELOSON
Département de Géo graphie, Fac. Lettres et Sciences
Humaines, U. d’Antananarivo – MG
p.69
L’utilisation des souches bactériennes contre maladies de
vigne et leur influence sur la qualité de vinification
Sofia VELIKSAR, Elena SCORBANOVA, Natalia LEMANOVA
Institut génétique & physiologie des plantes Académie de Sciences
p.70
Institut horticulture & technologie alimentaire-MD
Sustainability of the Top Ranked Restaurants in France. An
Analysis of Gault-Millau from 1974 to 2010
J. François OUTREVILL E
HEC Montréal , Qué be c – CA
p.70
Eno-Cultural and Emotional Surplus Value
Alessandra MICCOLI
Dipartimento di Scie nze degli Alimenti, Univ ersita degli Studi
di Udine – IT
p.71
Presentation of the Wines of the Loire Valley:
Economic and Statistical Elements
Fanny GILLET, Christian VITAL
L’effet du complex des micronutriments Microcom-V sur la
qualité du jus de raisin
Sofia VELIKSAR, Tatiana DAVID, Natalia LEMANOVA, Va lentina
BUSUIOC, Andrei COM ANIUC
Institut de gé nétique et physiolo gie des plantes à l’Académie
de Scie nce – MD
p.67
INTERLOIRE - FR
« … des vins décomplexés qui se boivent sans prise de tête. Le vin fait peur, en particulier
aux jeunes. Le Val de Loire est capable de lever cette intimidation et démystifier la
dégustation au caveau» …
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"Excellent" or "author's" wineries in landscapes of sustainability
Alessandra MICCOLI, Sandro SILLANI, Roberto ZIRONI
Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Università degli Studi di Udine
[email protected]
The rural landscape is the product of the interaction between cultural and environmental
factors and, as such, is an unequivocal demonstration of human action exerted over the
centuries by human societies, which have changed - up to shape - the environment.
If the term environment includes its own system of relationships that develop between
the physical space and human space, well, the rural world in itself sums up a set of cultural
values of great importance, linked to a variety of aspects related to cultivation techniques,
traditional crafts, architectural styles, construction techniques, the agricultural food
production (traditional and otherwise), forms of control and environmental management. The
rediscovery of the countryside - and with it of its landscape - is a necessary step for the
development of historical and cultural routes, but also the progress of civilization and the
evolution of the economy towards growth patterns inspired by sustainable development, and
this is what proponents say the most innovative marketing strategies and local wine.
The approach to the wine world and its increasingly reveals its cultural dimension.
Generally, favorable economic conditions and increased per capita income are factors that
have influenced the growing demand for quality wines. The phenomenon is most obvious
innovation in the architecture of the wineries and the resulting innovation landscapes. This is
a result of management policies and planning responsive to the needs of environmental
sustainability. The investigation on the processes of fermentation of wine production is very
functional in order to understand the extent to which technology has affected the production
of man-made space and relevance, but is not returning a complete view of the realities of
production. The quality products have never deviated too much from the traditional model of
the cellar, improved through the introduction of innovative technologies and trying to
organize the space according to changing requirements.
It was huge the surprise to realize that exceptional wines could be produced outside the
restricted circle of favorable regions for tradition.The new sites of world enology are the result
of a process of enhancing the product in close harmony with the land of origin. Undoubtedly,
the benefits of the heritage area is not limited to sponsoring companies, having been
extended to all producers in the regions involved and having triggered a general turn towards
quality. Given that wine is the product of the earth, it is important that the architecture and
landscapes copyright, facilities and advanced technologies will be integrated with the image
quality and naturalness, in full respect of the territory. In new projects, large reception and
meeting space is reserved for: communication is key to spreading the culture of good wine,
leading to appreciate the qualitative component, but also cultural.
It should be noted that, in viticulture, the architecture is, first, in the vineyard (which
becomes the garden) and in the appearance of technology and know-how needed for the
design of a good wine. For this reason, the architecture and landscapes of copyright royalties
in addition to responding to specific aesthetic and sensory function should search the place of
production, ensuring that the final cost of the wine to be burdened by high costs "incidental."
Here the author is associated inextricably cellar of the vineyard copyright: a new type of
design in wine cellars and vineyards which are part of a unique, creating landscapes author
with multiple functions, diversified, but not necessarily separate.
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A new way to approach it in a conscious and responsible to the territory and innovative
content in full respect of traditional vocations and, above all, the harmony of the landscape.
Behind this, which aims to promote the production, safeguarding and enhancing the local
identity and encourage economic and cultural processes broader, not least the wine tourism.
An exciting wine, produced in a cellar of the author and placed in a landscape page, can
only be an advantage for the producer and for the entire territory, thus increasing the
attractiveness and potential of tourism development.
L’INDUSTRIA DELLA GRAPPA IN SICILIA
Nicoletti GIULIA,Gian Gaspare FARDELLA
Università di Palermo (Italy)
[email protected]
The characteristic of the Sicilian wine-growing regions and areas make production of wine
and related by-products of the island unique, at a worldwide level, due to the quality and
variety of products, offering a wide and diverse range in terms of sensory traits, distinctive
attributes and price. In this context, it is strength to have an extensive range of products of
excellence. Over the last fifteen years the grappa sector, previously almost exclusively the
prerogative of wine producers in the North of Italy, has established itself and today forms part
of the Sicilian wine scene.
This research-based on past study about the structure of the production dynamics and
export trends and destination markets for Sicilian-produced grappa - is aimed at studying the
structure and competitiveness of the Sicilian grappa within the wine sector.
Therefore, moving from the origins of the grappa production in Sicily, we will first study
the production processes, analysing both the most recent technological innovations related to
the storage systems for raw materials as well as the different distillation methods.
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La consommation modérée de vin
Delphin NGANDU, Mireille TSHIALA
Institut de Recherche et Development, Katfoundation – Kinshasa / RD Congo
[email protected]
Effets cardioprotecteurs d’une consommation modérée de vin : arguments soutenant le
paradoxe français Ludovic Drouet, Service d’hématologie biologique, hôpital Lariboisière, 2
rue Ambroise-Paré, 75010 Paris L’ensemble des données épidémiologiques sont concordantes
pour montrer qu’une consommation de vin modérée (un à deux verres par jour), régulière, au
cours des repas, dans les conditions nutritionnelles et de mode vie habituelles des pays
producteurs de vins de la zone méditerranéenne, est associée à une réduction des
événements cardiovasculaires et de la mortalité (de l’ordre de 20 à 30%). Cependant, de
nombreux points demandent à être éclaircis, pour lesquels nous sommes loin d’avoir toutes
les données : - Cet effet provient-il de l’alcool contenu dans le vin, ou est-ce le vin qui a un
effet supérieur aux autres boissons alcooliques ? - Le vin exerce-t-il un effet comparable chez
les hommes et chez les femmes ? - Est-ce un effet du vin ou des conditions socioéconomicoculturo-nutritionnelles accompagnant sa consommation régulière qui influent ?
Quelle est la part de la composante génétique et des conditions socio-environnementales sur
l’effet préventif ?
Si une consommation régulière et modérée de vin s’accompagne d’une incidence réduite
d’accidents cardiovasculaires, le vin pourrait-il avoir un effet en prévention secondaire ? Pour
répondre à toutes ces questions, il faudrait des études cliniques d’intervention qui n’existent
pas et qui ont peu de chance d’être mises en place. Ces études cliniques devraient s’étendre
sur plusieurs années et devraient permettre de répondre à beaucoup de questions que nous
nous posons, que ce soit sur les modes d’action sur les facteurs de risque (dyslipidémie et
hypertension artérielle principalement), sur les modes d’action différentiels de la survenue et
du développement des lésions d’athérosclérose, ou sur leurs conséquences ischémiques, en
particulier d’origine thrombotique. Après que les études se soient penchées sur les effets
métaboliques de l’alcool et du vin, en particulier sur le métabolisme du cholestérol (par
exemple l’élévation de certaines fractions HDL induite par l’alcool), l’intérêt principal s’est
porté sur le stress oxydatif. En effet, le stress oxydatif joue un rôle particulièrement important
dans la physiopathogénie de ces événements et les composants (en particulier phénoliques)
du vin ayant un effet antioxydant, ce mode d’action a été largement évoqué. Mais à côté de
ces effets " classiques " du vin et de ses composants, l’on s’intéresse maintenant de plus en
plus à des effets directs : au niveau de la paroi vasculaire, en particulier les effets
vasorelaxants; au niveau des cellules circulantes, en particulier sur les plaquettes par un effet
antithrombotique.
Voici quelques-uns des effets potentiellement bénéfiques du vin. Devant l’absence de
données formelles et définitives, cette revue de Giovanni de Gaetano et de ses collaborateurs
fait un point actuel et critique de l’ensemble des évidences épidémiologiques et
expérimentales (tant in vitro qu’ in vivo, chez l’animal comme chez l’homme) qui existent
aujourd’hui. L’ensemble de ces données permet de spéculer qu’un effet à long terme sur les
différents mécanismes (métaboliques, oxydatifs, thrombotiques, antihypertenseurs...) induits
par une consommation régulière et modérée de vin dans un contexte de modération,
d’éducation, de nutrition raisonnée, puissent retarder le développement de la pathologie
artérielle et/ou prévenir les réactions ischémiques et thrombotiques, causes des accidents
cardiovasculaires. Peut-être est-il illusoire de rechercher un seul mode d’action à la
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consommation du vin : il est possible que les multiples effets mineurs de plusieurs de ses
composants puissent conduire à l’effet protecteur globalement noté dans le cadre d’une
consommation modérée et d’une prise en charge des facteurs de risque et des conditions de
vie, en particulier de la nutrition raisonnée. D’un point de vue " perspectives de santé
publique ", il est évident que la consommation de vin doit être interdite lorsqu’elle présente
un risque pour l’individu et/ou d’autres personnes : pendant la grossesse par exemple, ou
pour des activités demandant un niveau de conscience élevée, comme la conduite
automobile. La charge pour la société des pathologies induites ou aggravées par l’alcool et de
la mortalité et la morbidité, en particulier par accident, en rapport avec l’alcool, ne peut en
aucun cas être mise en balance avec l’hypothèse qu’une consommation modérée de vin
puisse avoir un effet préventif dans la survenue des accidents cardiovasculaires.
La femme et le vin dans la société d’aujourd’hui
Joe T DECROSTA
Dorcas foundation, Kinshasa, DR Congo
[email protected]
La relation, parfois gourmande mais souvent conflictuelle, qui s’est établie entre les
femmes et le vin depuis l’antiquité jusqu’à nos jours est très ambivalente, alternativement
noire et blanche. Demander à un homme, médecin gynécologue-accoucheur et périnéologue
de surcroit, d’en parler est une idée bien saugrenue ! Il ne suffit pas d’être, à titre privé, grand
amateur des produits de la vigne. Mon éthique professionnelle va m’imposer des
considérations pour le moins délicates ou hésitantes dont je prie mes amis oenologues de
bien vouloir m’excuser par avance.
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
L’effet du complex des micronutriments Microcom-V
sur la qualité du jus de raisin
VELIKSAR Sofia, DAVID Tatiana, LEMANOVA Natalia,
BUSUIOC Valentina, COMANIUC Andrei
Urban Sprawl and Vineyards: Land-Use
Françoise BOURDON, Marie-Claude PICHERY
Laboratoire d'Économie et Gestion - UMR CNRS 5118 - Université de Bourgogne
[email protected], [email protected]
Institut de génétique et physiologie des plantes à l’ Académie de Science, Moldova
[email protected], [email protected],
Il est connu que la quantité suffisante des formes disponibles de micronutriments est la
condition principale pour le développement optimal des plantes. Il est important d'optimiser
leur contenu, puisque le manque et l'excès l'un des engrais peut influencer à la qualité des
raisins pour le vin. En cette liaison le complexe des micronutriments Microcom-V a été créé
pour les vignes qu’ils se trouvent dans les terrains avec la teneur faible d’oligoéléments pour
les plantes. Cette préparation contient 6 micro éléments nécessaires pour le plante du vigne
in relation optimal. Il est recommandée pour les traitements foliaires des plantes du vigne
pendent les phases critiques la saison: jusqu'à la floraison, après la floraison, et pendent la
croissance intensive des pousses et des raisins.
Dans les années 2004-2010 l’utilisation de la préparation Microcom-V pour le traitement
foliaire des souches de vigne pour le vin (Aligoté, Shardone, Codrinschii) et pour la table
(Surucenschi blanc, Moldova) a montré l’effet positif sur la quantité de baies et la résistance
des plantes aux températures basses en hiver.
Influence des engrais sur la qualité du jus de raisin présente d'intérêt spécial. Pendant la
véraison l'acidité, teneur de sucre, acides aminés, anthocyanes dans les variétés rouges ont
été déterminés. La quantité du sucre après le traitement a été plus grande que le témoin sur
0,8-1,4 %, l'acidité plus basse sur 0,5-0,8%. L’accumulation plus intensive d'acides aminés
libres et d’amides telles comme l'asparagine, glutamine, arginine, l'histidine, qu’ils sont très
importantes pour la formation du goût des baies et du vin a été remarque. Il est également
important que la quantité des matières colorantes a augmenté aussi. Ainsi par exemple, des
anthocyanes aux baies de cépage Codrinschii (Cabernet x, Rara noir) ont augmenté jusqu'au
1088 ml/dm3 (in témoin -562 ml/dm3).
Ainsi l’utilisation le complexe spécial des micronutriments dans la viticulture est une
pratique importante agricole, nécessaire non seulement pour réglementer la productivité et la
viabilité des plantes, mais aussi comme la technique importante pour l’amélioration le goût et
les qualités nutritives des produits de la vigne, et en particulier le jus du vin.
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The recent urban development, the high prices of land and housing in the centres of town,
encourage the populations to migrate and to go to live in the peripheral zones, formerly rural villages.
The choice of localization of a household and the size of its dwelling place are determined by the
residential services offered by the urban area. Compromises are then considered between the cost of
housing (ground purchase, lease, tax on land,…), the distance to the centre town, incomes of
households, transport costs associated with the commutings residence-work, the accessibility
(outdistances some but undoubtedly more and more in time) in the workplace or in the centre town,…
The rural villages concerned have seen their economy changing like their landscapes. In some
cases, the agricultural lands become grounds to build or business parks, industrial parks, …. This
encroachment on the agricultural lands implies specific problems when perennial cultivations (as the
orchards or the vineyards) are concerned. In the case of the vine growing, resistances appear on behalf
of the wine circle, with an intensity which depends on quality, reputation and hierarchical level of the
products resulting from the vineyards or the category of wines proposed: vines for table grapes, grape
for ordinary wine, grape for "vins d'appellation". Resistance also goes through the price of land and its
growth rate since projects expansion of residential, commercial, artisanal or industrial zones are
suspected.
If the expansion of "central towns" gradually included the villages of first then of second
periphery, additional constraints were imposed on all after promulgation of various laws and in
particular the SRU law ("Solidarité et Renouvellement Urbains", December 13, 2000) which obliges the
municipalities to integrate 20% of social housing in their residential park. Still, for the wine
municipalities, the decisions taken to put itself in conformity with the law have different consequences
according to the categories of produced wines.
The theoretical references (the models of localization - Alonso, 1964 – as the works of
geographical economy and urban economy - Camagni, 2007) are mobilized in order to release from
the general behaviors around the ground rent; they constitute a framework for research. In addition,
according to Cavailhès (2002, 2004) and Fathers (2007), the empirical observation reveals that the
profitability released by the arable lands is often lower than the amount of the profits expected by the
sale of the lands which can be urbanized. Consequently, only the agricultural activities which could
carry out an important benefit could be maintained in peri-urban area. There are generally monetary
benefits; but, other dimensions can appear consequently if this concern wine lands for which
phenomena of reputation can be higher than the monetary aspects. It remains that the intensity of
the land pressure and the existence or not of land reserves increases the land-use conflicts.
However, this "desurbanization" of housing, often space swallow up, is constrained by the recent
strategies which want to avoid the wasting; this leads to imagine the urban renewal with a thickening
of the cities. Old districts, in limit of healthiness, are destroyed and restructured with buildings in
conformity with the standards in terms of energy savings, ecology… Public buildings (barracks,
administrative premises…) are rehabilitated and reallocated. After their transfers in the industrial
parks, industrial buildings are recovered to become estate program. This possible return towards the
city is partly justified by a will (of the households like people in charge of the communities) to limit
transfers that product pollution and time wasted during the rush hours in the traffic jam at the entries
and exits of city.
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
L’utilisation des souches bactériennes contre maladies de vigne
et leur influence sur la qualité de vinification
Sofia VELIKSAR, Elena SCORBANOVA, Natalia LEMANOVA
Lastly, the existence of protections can disturb economic mechanisms by acting like constraints: it
is the case through procedures of public regulation such as POS ("Plan d'Occupation des Sols"), PLU
("Plan Local d'Urbanisme"), SCoT ("Schéma de Cohérence Territoriale"), some aspects of DTR law
("Développement des Territoires Ruraux") or with possibilities of protection of the landscapes through
the 1930's law, the "Chartre de Fontevraud" specific to the wine landscapes, or through a possible
inscription on the Unesco World Heritage List.
Quel avenir pour le vignoble malgache?
Harivola ANDRIAMANANJARA RAMBELOSON
Département de Géographie, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Université d’Antananarivo
[email protected]
Il semble opportun de signaler que dans la géographie actuelle des vignobles, il est un espace qui
subit aussi les contrecoups de la crise mondiale des vins. Cet espace, tout en faisant partie de la
planète des vins est assez peu connu. Il se compose d’abord des vignobles dits nationaux des régions
tropicales (SALOMON J.N., 2005), ensuite des vignobles de l’extrême, enfin des vignobles insolites. Ce
genre de vignobles en général est marginal, n’étant ni dans le vieux ni dans le nouveau mondes des
vins. Ces vignobles réagissent à l’exemple de celui de Madagascar face à la crise mondiale des vins.
Dans une première partie, l’article répondra à la question suivante: peut-on parler d’un vignoble
malgache ? Une question dont la réponse est difficile quand on sait que ce vignoble est d’abord
d’introduction, ensuite il est petit (600ha), enfin il est original (c’est un défi agricole et culturel à la fois
dans un milieu peu favorable à priori à son développement). Deux logiques différentes semblent
structurer ce vignoble : la logique des grandes propriétés et celle des paysans. Mais nous pensons
qu’une seule logique demeure, celui des grandes propriétés, car le vignoble paysan fonctionne comme
une coopérative, dirigé par une société anonyme dénommé Lazan’i Betsileo, du nom de la principale
région de production vitivinicole malgache. Le vignoble malgache est en crise actuellement.
Ensuite, il dégagera les impacts de la mondialisation des vins en termes de marché, en
l’occurrence celui du marché national. Etant donné qu’à Madagascar, l’offre de vins est inférieure à la
demande, le problème de marché découle plutôt de la multiplication de la diversité et de la qualité des
vins venant de l’extérieur alors que le prix quoique à la hausse, reste accessible. La part de marché des
vins cachetés malgaches diminue de ce fait. Mais parallèlement, le vin en vrac continue à se vendre,
segmentation de marché aidant. Une question se pose: la crise mondiale des vins est-elle l’origine
profonde de la crise vitivinicole de Madagascar?
Il parlera enfin d’un frémissement d’espoir qui se dessine pour ce vignoble, une tendance
quoique à ses débuts mais une tendance quand même. Des essais de cépages nobles, cachés pour les
uns, à la face du monde pour les autres, sont entamés depuis peu. Il semblerait que le vignoble
malgache, n’ayant pas réussi à créer un vignoble typiquement malgache, longtemps protégé par un
régime socialiste (1975-91), livré à lui-même depuis l’ajustement structurel, ait choisi de se positionner
du côté des vins de terroir. Mais le chemin, pour y parvenir sera long.
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Institut de génétique et physiologie des plantes à l’Académie de Sciences
Institut d’horticulture et technologie alimentaire - République de Moldova.
[email protected]
La lutte contre les maladies de la vigne est nécessaire à cause de leur influence défavorable sur le
raisin ainsi que sur la qualité du vin. La mycoflore des baies modifient l’intensité colorante du vin et
rendent le vin inconsommable. Trois souches de bactéries, appartenant à genre Pseudomonas: putida,
fluorescents, aureofaciens avec titre 107 KOE /ML ont été utilisés pour la pulvérisation de vigne cépage
Sauvignon pendent la végétation. On détermine le développent l’Oïdium et la quantité des
saprophytes au surface des baies. Les métabolites des bactéries diminuent la développent de la
maladie in trois fois (12,8 – 12,1 %) par rapport au témoin sans traitement (39,7 %); le nombre des
genres des champignons saprophytes - in deux fois.
L’analyse organoleptique des vins du témoin et des échantillons d’essai a montré qu’ils se
distinguent par un caractère variétal. Pourtant on voit l’influence des suspensions bactériaux dans les
goûts plus équilibré et extractif des échantillons par rapport au témoin, à l’exception du traitement Ps.
putida ayant un goût verdelet. L’analyse la composition chimique du vin a déterminé la teneur
différente des certains composants. Les échantillons d’essai ont plus de polyalcools de 35-40 % en
moyenne d’où vient un goût plus équilibre par rapport au témoin. La teneur l’acide succinique et
malique détermine l’équilibre du goût et la valeur biologique du vin. Les échantillons d’essai ont plus
d’acide succenique de 30% en moyenne par rapport au témoin, la teneure en acide malique est
beaucoup plus basse. Une haute teneur en aldéhyde- acétique et en acide acétique des vins de base
des échantillons d’essai et pour grand pouvoir fixant le SO2 par rapport au témoin prouvent de la
tendance des échantillons d’essai à l’ocidification.
Sustainability of the top ranked restaurants in France
An analysis of Gault-Millau from 1974 to 2010
J. François OUTREVILLE
HEC Montréal, Québec, Canada
[email protected]
Since 1973, the Gault-Millau Guide is publishing each year a ranking of the best
restaurants based on “toques”.
During more than 25 years, on a scale of 20, the best restaurants were awarded 19 or 20
(4 toques), followed by restaurants graded 17 or 18 (3 toques). Out of 1600 restaurants listed
in the Guide in 1974, only 27 (less than 2%) had at least 3 toques.
The notation was changed in 2010 to allow 5 and 4 toques to the best restaurants but
basically the scale remains equivalent to the previous one. In 2010, out of the 5140
restaurants listed in the Guide, only 64 were ranked in the top categories (less than 1.3%).
The objective of this short note is to review the list of the top ranked restaurants from
1974 to 2010 and examine the sustainability of the grades of these restaurants over time.
The migration and default rates are presented for selected years over the period under
study. It is shown that these rates are relatively stable over time.
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
Eno-Cultural and Emotional Surplus Value
Alessandra MICCOLI
Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Università degli Studi di Udine
[email protected]
Tourism is a crucial phenomenon in contemporary society. From the theoretical point of
view, the environmental determinism has influenced the development of tourism and
phenomena closely linked to it. The concept of tourism takes on a new connotation: a tourist
destination cannot be determined solely by the presence of an attractive single, it seems that
is being developed for the search of places with a concentration of references interconnected,
but different. In this context fits fully in the food and wine tourism, which represents a
growing trend in the expansion areas with a distinct vocation food, rich cultural resources
that, properly exploited, exert their attractiveness to potential users. The food and wine
tourism is a new type of tourism based on the culinary heritage of the place and includes the
artistic and scenic routes as well as purely gastronomic. The essential role of restaurants, a
real showcase of local products, these niche products that fall crafts food and wine. The
turnover from the bustling food and wine tourism is going through a phase of ascent, in fact,
this phenomenon affects a growing number of enthusiasts and experts.
The value attributed to food is crucial: “We are what we eat”: the experience of eating is
understood as a complex phenomenon, the sum of different elements involving both the
sensory sphere that the intellectual: to eat, as the action, becomes a cultural experience.
In terms of food and wine culture of the eighties were to mark the bottom in the fall of
taste. And 1989 the birth of Slow Food, which took place in Paris, as if the French capital had
seemed the only suitable location to begin the “process of counter-taste”.
Failed model metropolis brought by Westerners after the two world wars, the campaign
has proved to be the only port for the modern man in search of a new communion with his
own human substance. The return movement to the campaign was largely led by the
intellectual class, sensitive to the appeal of art and culture. The word organic has become the
order, and they all began to know food very tasty and valuable: raw milk cheeses and aged in
caves, and “culatelli” goose salami, wines and those born from the sands of heroic viticulture.
The recovery of traditional foods and products of the countryside has given man the
possibility of reconciliation with mainland itself. Eating a real food, not packaged, not
manipulated by machines and not contaminated with preservatives has established a process
of self-identification.
Consider that tourists and wine, in most cases, have a high level of education, are usually
educated, often professionals or at least hold positions of importance. They are men and
women in the pursuit of pleasure, in the philosophical sense of the term, and have a good selfimage. Unconsciously know that, along with the product purchased in one place, taking home
a piece of history and culture. In fact, if we analyze the performance of different forms of
tourism, coupled with the dynamics of different markets can explain the results in terms of
expenditure and value added. In terms of motivation and destination, must be reported to the
strengthening of the more traditional segments and the consolidation and rising expenditure
profile of those children. In particular, those who stated specific reasons (such as food and
wine), shows a more selective profile, characterized by a high level of daily spending per
capita.
The food and wine tourism, as was stated above, has proved one of the most promising
segments of the tourism sector. The relationship between rural areas and the demand for
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leisure and culture have intensified even more. The tourists / consumers decide to spend
more time discovering the area, with particular attention to small areas and destinations socalled minor. The typical production being strongly imbued with the characteristic features of
the area becomes the instrument for the promotion of the area.
Food and wine has become crucial for moving and often appears as a voice among the
reasons. Consider that food tourism is not intended as pure research products and typical
food, but must be educated to the extent that offers the opportunity to get in touch with the
territory, know the people and traditions and feel the feelings that evokes.
Wine tourism is the best summary of the phenomenon, and this is confirmed by the large
group of fans who choose to venture through the territories of the wine to get closer to local
products and local cuisine.
The international tourism market is in a phase of profound transformation, due to:
- Changes in demand individual and collective;
- Globalization of markets worldwide and the effects of the European Union;
- Structural changes in the tourism system and the interactions of the application.
Each of these elements has had a different way on the tourist market and its
components, with the result of making the market more competitive and easily accessible to
the entry of new destinations and difficult to maintain their positions already acquired.
Food and wine, which segment of the emerging international tourism market, is
becoming very important, going hiking and carving out space optics and a set timetable. In
these cases, the motivation to explore food and wine alongside the wider cultural and
environmental resources of the territory.
Compared to the evolution over time, is not recognized five evolutionary phases: 1- Initial
phase: the search for good wines and cheap to buy and friendly reception in the basement; 2Phase selective choice of names and most prestigious wineries. Birth of guides and publication
of articles in specialized press, 3- Phase outsourcing: the tourist requires specific services,
which may be the tastings, the presence of wine bars, to restaurants, etc. 4- Phase
experiential: the tourist wants to be the center of moments in which to participate (emotional
marketing) 5- Phase of surprise and the surprise of falling in research, waste places known,
predictable, and crowded “specially constructed” for tourists.
The demand for wine tourism shall register the following situation: Wine tourists bycase, Wine tourists, Talent Scout, Luxury lovers. Wine tourism industry shows that it has
received a strong impulse has made the transition from a culture of exclusively agricultural
matrix to a more open, print management, focused on upgrading the tourism product.
According to the characteristics and development trends of the market, as well as the
skills and entrepreneurial skills, have outlined the content and guidelines for services.
Planning winning bid also implies the achievement of loyalty by the consumer, who must be
given to knowledge through integrated pathways to develop tourism and agriculture and
production. As regards the question, however, are emerging new segments and new
opportunities for networking with other sectors such as rural tourism and cultural tourism in
compliance with new standards of quality, highly specialized professionals are required. The
consumer-tourists are becoming increasingly knowledgeable and demanding and this is
reflected not only on the choice of products and services, but also (and especially) on one of
the operators who provide them.
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
Does the bottle size matter?
The market is pricing the wine not the bottle
J. François OUTREVILLE
Friday May 20th 2011
1.30 - 2.40 pm
Session 9
HEC Montréal, Québec, Canada
[email protected]
VALUE OF WINE
Chaired by Marie-Claude PICHERY
Does the Bottle Size Matter? The Market is Pricing the Wine
not the Bottle
J. François OUTREVILL E
HEC Montreal, Qué bec – CA
p.74
Parker, Wine Spectator and Retail Prices of Bordeaux Wines in
Switzerland: Results from Panel Data 1995-2000
Peter KUGLER, Claudio KUGLER
WWZ - Universitat Basel – CH
p.75
Price Determinants of Bordeaux Wine
Johanna BRUNNEDER, Benoit LECAT, Marcel PAULSSEN
University of Geneva, University of Dijon – FR
p.76
Raise your Glass : Wine Investment and the Financial Crisis
Philippe MASSET, Jean Philippe WEISSKOPF
Ecole hôtelière de Lausanne , Université de Fribourg - CH
p.77
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What determines wine prices? The question is obviously not new and there is more than
the price of wine in a bottle. Several factors intervene in the intersection of image and pricing.
Scarcity, or the perceived rarity of a wine, can be one, because motivated consumers are
willing to pay for the prestige associated with small-production bottling from renowned
appellations. The decision to market wine in a different bottle size is considered to have more
to do with the judgment of taste and the feeling of pleasure than other factors... bigger is
better. Is it true? Does size matter?
To our knowledge, no investigation of the possible effects of bottle size on supply or
demand of liquid products has ever been made with the exception of Brunke et al. (2009). In
their empirical analysis, based on wines offered at auction markets in Germany, they find a
negative correlation between price and bottle size. When controlling for vintage and quality,
they find that the bottle size generally does have very little or no effect on the price sold at
auction. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the price effect with bigger bottles for
Champagne and Bordeaux wines.
The results of our investigation show a major difference between prices posted for
bottles of champagne and auction prices for Bordeaux wines. In the case of Champagne, the
price of wine increases more than proportionally with the size of the bottle. We show that the
relative scaled price of the marketed bottle may vary from 1.0 for a standard bottle (0.75l) to
a factor of 2.1 when the size of the bottle increases. According to Walras, value is an
increasing function of scarcity. We show in this paper that this hypothesis may be explaining
the increasing relationship between the posted prices of larger bottles of Champagne and the
size of a bottle independently of the perceived quality of the wine or the region of production.
However, further investigation based on prices determined at auctions for Bordeaux wines
mitigates these results as the premium for larger bottles is much smaller than for posted
prices.
The paper is organized as follows. First we provide some background on bottle sizes. In
the next section, we suggest a measure of the relative scaled price index to compare the price
of different bottle sizes on the same scale, i.e. a standard bottle of 0.75l and then we show
that its value is an increasing function of the size of bottles. We suggest that the hypothesis of
scarcity may be explaining this increasing relationship. In the following section we verify that
this hypothesis does not hold with a sample of wines for which auction “hammer prices” are
available. The last section discusses the results and concludes the paper.
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
Parker, Wine Spectator and Retail Prices of Bordeaux Wines
in Switzerland: Results from Panel Data 1995-2000
Peter KUGLER, Claudio KUGLER
Price Determinants of Bordeaux Wine
Johanna BRUNNEDER, Benoit LECAT, Marcel PAULSSEN
University of Geneva, University of Dijon
[email protected],[email protected], [email protected]
WWZ / Universität Basel
[email protected]
This paper considers the effect of Parker and Wine Spectator ratings on Swiss retail prices
of the grand cru classé of Médoc, Graves and St Emilion as well as the most renowned wines
of Pomerol in a panel data setting.
The application of a two-way fixed effects regression model to data of the vintages 1995
to 2000 of 121 wines leads to the following conclusions: There is clear evidence that WS
ratings do not provide additional information for retail prices when we take into account the
fixed effects and the Parker ratings. The evidence of a marginal effect of Parker ratings on
Bordeaux prices is mixed.
We find it for five of the nine appellations, in particular for Paulliac and Pomerol where a
one Parker point increase is estimated to lead to a 6-7% price increase. This “only” partial
price influence of Parker is confirmed by comparing the estimated “chateau” fixed effects for
the Médoc estates with their standing in the “old” 1855 classification and the most recent
Parker classification of 2008.
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Several studies have examined the determinants of wine price and have proven that
sensorial characteristics of wine only possess a minor to no impact on price (Combris et al.,
1997 and 2000; Lecoq & Vissier, 2006; Benfratello et al., 2009). However other variables such
as vintage, age, primeur price, rankings, expert ratings and weather have been discussed in
the previous literature as significant determinants of prices of bottled wine (e.g. Di Vittorio &
Ginsburgh, 1994; Jones & Storchmann, 2001; Ashenfelter, 2008). The purpose of this study is
to simultaneously examine these key determinants of wine price. Additionally variables that
are indicators of rarity such as the number of dealers that sell the wine and the production
volume are studied. The present study further adds to existing research on the role of expert
ratings on wine price. While previous research has confirmed that expert ratings in general
have influence on wine price e.g. Ginsburgh et al. (1994), Di Vittorio & Ginsburgh (1996) and
Landon and Smith, Jones and Storchmann (2001), we investigate which expert has a particular
strong impact on the price of bottled wine.
The editions of Vinfox between 1997 and 2008 provide the dataset ranges for our
empirical analysis. The Vinfox database includes prices for all major dealers in Switzerland for
wines of 88 estates from the Bordeaux region and vintages ranging from 1945 to 2008.
We show that primeur price represents an important significant determinant of price for
bottled wine and confirm findings from previous research (Hadj & Nauges, 2007). Further we
address the issue of rankings and analyze the Bettane ranking and the ranking based on the
classification of 1855. Since previous research has shown contradicting results (Combris et
al.,1997; Hadj & Nauges, 2007) the question whether the classification of 1855 is still
appropriate, is of high relevance. We also investigate which expert rating best predict wine
price and compare the relative impact of different wine critics (e.g. Robert Parker, Coates,
Gabriel; Wine Spectator etc.) Our results provide empirical support that the impact of ratings
from wine expert varies considerably and some wine expert’s ratings clearly outperform
others in terms of their predictive validity. Further we address the issue of rarity, a subject
that has received limited attention in previous research. Catry (2003 and 2007) discusses this
issue with focus on luxury goods explaining the importance and different facets of rarity to
enhance the perceived value of products. Only Miller et al. (2007) and Jones and Storchmann
(2001) study this topic in relation to the wine industry, by showing that the number of cases
produced has negative influence on ratings (Miller et al. 2007) and that size of the estate plays
a role in the determination of price (Jones & Storchmann, 2001).
Results show that rarity has a statistically significant impact on price formation in the
wine industry. Further results indicate that the number of dealers offering the wine has a
negative impact on price, thus the more dealers offer the wine the lower the price. We
further discover that the classification according to the ranking of 1855 that allows classifying
wine into fine wine (Haut Brion, Lafitte, Latour, Mouton, Margaux and Yquem) versus non fine
wine has a particularly strong impact on wine price.
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Raise your Glass: Wine Investment and the Financial Crisis
Philippe MASSET, Jean Philippe WEISSKOPF
Ecole hôtelière de Lausanne, Université de Fribourg (Suisse)
[email protected], [email protected]
This paper uses auction hammer prices over the period 1996-2009, with a special
emphasis on periods of economic downturns, to examine risk, return and diversification
benefits of fine wine. We show evidence that the wine market is heterogeneous with wine
regions and price categories evolving differently.
We construct wine indices for various wine regions and prices and find that wine yields
higher returns and has a lower volatility compared to stocks especially in times of economic
crises. Results from the CAPM show that alpha is significantly positive while showing a low
beta coefficient. The use of a conditional CAPM model allows us to clarify the time variance of
alphas and betas depending on the economic environment.
The time-varying dynamics of alphas and betas are best explained by the spread between
BAA- and AAA-rated bonds and the USD/EUR exchange rate. Our findings confirm that wine
returns are primarily related to economic conditions and not to the market risk.
Forming portfolios for typical investors with different financial assets and various wine
indices we confirm that the addition of wine to a portfolio is beneficial for private investors.
Not only are returns favourably impacted and risk being minimised but skewness and kurtosis
are also positively affected.
Particularly, during the recent financial crisis these effects are most pronounced and
improve portfolio diversification when it is most needed. Most importantly, balancing a
portfolio with fine wine has resulted in added return while reducing volatility with the most
prestigious and expensive vintages and estates outperforming the General Wine Index (GWI).
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Le restaurant gastronomique :
un outil de développement territorial ?
L’exemple de Régis Marcon à Saint-Bonnet-le-Froid
Vincent MARCILHAC
Friday May 20th 2011
3.00 - 4.20 pm
Session 10
ENeC – UMR 8185 CNRS - Université Paris IV-Sorbonne, Institut Géographique de Paris
[email protected]
GASTRONOMY
Chaired by Joëlle BROUARD
Le restaurant gastronomique : un outil de développement
terrirorial ? L'exemple de Régis Marcon à Saint-Bonnet-leFroid
Vince nt MARCILHAC
ATER à l’université Paris-Sorbonne – FR
p.80
Les accords des vins et des mets, l'art de construire un plat
autour d'un vin
Jean-Miche l MONNIER
Oenologue, UFR ITBS-ESTHUA Angers University – FR
p.80
La Gastronomie Lyonnaise : 1960-2010
Quentin BONNARD
Université de Re ims - Champagne - Ardenne – FR
VDQS
For twenty years, the fame of chef Régis Marcon has impulsed dynamism about food
tourism in Saint-Bonnet-le-Froid, a village at the border of Haute-Loire and Ardèche in France.
Regis Marcon chose deliberately to stay in his native village and to cook in a local and regional
fashion. This enhances the relative inaccessibility of the place where the restaurant is located.
He built his gourmet reputation through a local food system and through regional products,
developing the local economy through familial and social networks.
"Les accords des vins et des mets, l'art de construire un plat autour
d'un vin l'exemple de l'AOC Cabernet d'Anjou"
Jean-Michel MONNIER
Maître de conférences associé à l’ITBS
ESTHUA - [email protected]
La complicité des chefs de cuisine et des vignerons ne fait que croître. Le rêve des consommateurs ne
passent plus uniquement par les AOC prestigieuses ou les propriétés classées au firmament des guides.
p.81
Food, Gastronomy and Cultural Commons
Christian BARRERE, Quentin BONNARD, Véronique CHOSSAT
OMI, University of Reims – FR
p.82
Creativity in Gastronomy : Create or Die! The Cook’s Dilemma
Véronique CHOSSAT, Christian BARRERE
OMI (E.A. 2065) - Université de Re ims - FR
p.84
Les clients recherchent maintenant de grands plaisirs sensoriels avec des produits issus de la terre
cultivés avec un respect environnemental, mais surtout avec des caractéristiques olfacto - gustatives
nettes, propres, typiques qui réveilleront leurs sens en évoquant sans artifices les souvenirs d'enfance
d'une cuisine familiale simple et gourmande.
De ce fait les repères classiques ancestraux des accords mets - vins ont changé. Il faut raconter une
histoire aux clients du restaurant, et le faire voyager. La première évasion va commencer avec la bouteille
de vin, à la découverte d'un paysage, d'une histoire, d'un patrimoine, d'un savoir faire... et de saveurs,
puis dans l'assiette si le chef a su comprendre le travail du vigneron, il sublimera le vin avec une cuisine en
parfaite adéquation tant visuelle, qu'olfactive et surtout gustative. On part de plus en plus en plus du vin
pour créer le mets et non l'inverse comme depuis des générations.
Mon intervention va s'appuyer sur le renouveau de l'A.O.C Cabernet d'Anjou et la création culinaire
autour de ses sensations multi sensorielles: une robe rose violine, un nez charmeur, juvénile de petits
fruits rouges, de bonbons acidulés et de fleurs bleues, et une bouche douce et suave, ce qui est unique
dans les AOC françaises (les rosés demi secs sont uniquement produits en Anjou).
Je mettrais en valeur les différentes recherches faites pour valoriser cette AOC tant sur une cuisine de
terroir (Gogue segréenne, Rillauds d'Anjou, Crémets d'Anjou...), qu'une cuisine gastronomique avec des
chefs étoilés, sans oublier les cuisines épicées du monde (la cuisine Thaie, la cuisine Chinoise du Sichuan,
la cuisine épicée créole...).
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La Gastronomie Lyonnaise: 1960-2010
Quentin BONNARD
Food, Gastronomy and Cultural Commons
Christian BARRERE, Quentin BONNARD, Véronique CHOSSAT
Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, U.F.R. de Sciences Economiques et de Gestion
[email protected]
OMI, University of Reims
[email protected], [email protected],
[email protected]
L'Ile-de-France compte 15 027 établissements de restauration commerciale avec service à
table, le Rhône-Alpes en a 11 502 en 2010. Ces deux régions sont les régions françaises les
plus représentées en termes de nombre de restaurants, mais aussi en nombre d'étoiles
Michelin (116 contre 94). Les villes de Paris et de Lyon ne sont pas étrangères à cette
domination, car elles comptent respectivement 6639 (44,2 % des restaurants de la région) et
1367 restaurants (12 %) ; et 97 (83,6 % des étoiles de la région) et 17 étoiles (18,1 %). Lyon
abrite 12 restaurants étoilées au Guide Michelin 2010. C'est la plus forte concentration de
récompenses gastronomiques en province. A titre indicatif, Toulouse ne compte que 5
établissements étoilés et Bordeaux seulement 4. Ainsi, la région lyonnaise offre une des plus
importantes gastronomies régionales françaises. L'objet de ce papier est d'étudier la
gastronomie lyonnaise sur un période allant de 1960 à 2010 afin de mettre en lumière ses
caractéristiques propres, son organisation, son mode de fonctionnement et son modèle de
développement.
Dans un premier temps, nous menons une étude statistique descriptive des
établissements gastronomiques lyonnais. Nous constatons que leur nombre a fortement
augmenté sur notre période d'étude (+ 63,4 %). Si nous observons les récompenses attribuées
par le Guide Michelin, nous voyons qu'elles sont plus nombreuses en 2010 qu'en 1960 (+ 57
%). Cependant, le nombre d’étoiles a diminué avec l'apparition des Bibs Gourmandsy. Est-ce
que cela correspond à une baisse de qualité de la cuisine lyonnaise ?
Pour répondre a ceƩe interrogaƟon, il nous faut aller plus loin dans l'analyse staƟsƟque.
C'est ainsi que dans un second temps, nous menons deux Analyses des Correspondances
Multiples (ACM) sur la gastronomie sélectionnée lyonnaise en 1960 et en 2010, afin d'étudier
plus particulièrement les relations entre la qualité de la cuisine, le cadre et les prix pratiqués
par ces restaurants. Nous voyons que la sélection lyonnaise est marquée par une
segmentation par la qualité de la cuisine, et que cette segmentation a changé aujourd'hui.
Dans un troisième temps, nous en fournissons quelques explications. La première
explication relève de la massification du marché gastronomique. La grande cuisine connaît
actuellement une période de démocratisation, de nombreux chefs ouvrant des restaurants de
« second ordre » à côté de leurs établissements renommés, comme des brasseries ou des
auberges, élargissant ainsi le domaine gastronomique naguère réservé à de luxueux
établissements. La deuxième explication nous provient de la dimension patrimoniale de la
grande cuisine lyonnaise, le patrimoine gastronomique lyonnais étant l'un des plus riches de
France, les chefs l'exploitent en toute simplicité afin de se démarquer de la sophistication de
la gastronomie parisienne.
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From the beginning of humanity people seem living in a social context: family, horde,
clan, or tribe. The reproduction of the group implies food and the earlier collective institutions
emerge from the necessity of supporting life. Food has to be prepared; the invention of fire
allows cooking foodstuffs and develops cultural constructions as Levi-Strauss (1964) shown.
Transforming natural resources into foodstuffs is a cultural and collective process, which
constitutes a cultural commons in all the societies: they include a lot of resources (recipes,
ways of using natural resources and so on) and then constitute common-pool resources as all
the commons. But some (at least) culinary commons are not only common-pool resources, i.e.
a simple collection of resources. They are related to the identity of the group (Fischler, 1993),
they are structured by norms (Rappaport, 1984), they result from a social and cultural building
and they pass through time, by a process of cultural transmission. Then they become
heritages.
The culinary creation has been for a long time mainly collective, traditional and modest.
Nevertheless, gastronomy, which differs from nutrition, appeared when people or groups
could separate the nutritive function of food and its pleasure dimension. Then, in some
countries (China, Japan, France, Italy and so on) or some areas (corresponding to regional or
local cuisines), culinary commons were developed up to constitute gastronomic cultural
commons. On one hand, local cuisines evolved towards gastronomic services. On the basis of
regional resources (truffles, fishes or mushrooms for instance), of regional selection and
elaboration (goose or duck confit, smoked or marinated fish), they defined regional recipes,
for standard cuisine but also for ceremonies and feasts cuisine. On the second hand, some
countries gave birth to aristocratic cuisines. The society of the Louis XIV’s Grand Siècle played
an exceptional role in the building, the normalization and the export of the aristocratic model.
It constituted the basis of a gastronomic heritage (type of dishes, recipes, modes of
presentation, crockery, ornamentation of the table ...).
Then commons and heritages cannot be identified and the specificity of food and
gastronomy commons has to be respected, according to the observation of Ostrom (1990):
“the devil is in the details”. For natural resource commons, solutions are various and highly
contextual. In the case of cultural commons, as the use of cultural resources is generally non
rival, the problem is even more complex because the issue at stake is not to exploit natural
resources avoiding waste and overuse but to produce and develop them (Madison,
Frischmann and Strandburg, 2010). Culinary and gastronomic heritages are defined on two
dimensions: a temporal one and a spatial one.
In the first dimension heritages are the product of the past (a historical and not a
chronological one), through a building and a selection process. They are also subject to
reproduction; present time can add them new resources, for instance new recipes and new
ways of cooking. The spatial dimension of heritages derives from the connection between
heritages and communities. If there is a world common pool of gastronomic resources a large
part of them are linked to local cultures and belong to specific heritages, to regional or local
ways of cooking, largely dictating the way to make dishes, to associate flavors, to combine
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textures, and so on. As already seen that implies competition between particular heritages but
has some implications on the access rights. Although almost resources are in open access,
cultural barriers put a brake on their use. Nevertheless, now, the circulation and the use of
culinary heritages become easier with the globalization and extend the global character of
each local culinary culture.
In the same time gastronomy is an industry that works according to market principles:
chefs and owners off the restaurants seek money and profit. Some superstar chefs win a lot of
money and, as Alain Ducasse, Joël Robuchon and Paul Bocuse, build gastronomic groups. They
develop innovation and creation. Thus, gastronomy is simultaneously ruled by private and
public properties. The aim of the paper is to consider the consequences of cultural
gastronomic commons for the path development of gastronomy. What are the uses of
gastronomic commons? How is determined their evolution? How are mixed private creativity
and collective heritage? What about property rights on the creation?
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Creativity in Gastronomy: Create or Die! The Cook’s Dilemma
Véronique CHOSSAT, Christian BARRERE
OMI (E.A. 2065), Université de Reims
[email protected], [email protected]
Generally speaking the notions of creation and creativity have changed through time:
from God’s hand that guided the creative genius of Michel-Angelo and Raphael to the birth of
cultural industries and the introduction of rational production methods allowing reproduction
as serigraphy for instance.
For about fifteen years cooking and more specifically gastronomy are invaded by
discourses related to creativity. Creativity is everywhere: in the ingredients chosen by chefs, in
the preparation of dishes, in their name, in their presentation, in the look of the venue, in the
location, in the management, and so on. It has been established as a supreme value and then
plays a key role to define production in order to justify and incite consumption of gastronomic
goods and services. It is however clear that creativity has marked out the history of
gastronomy: from quarrels opposing LSR to La Varenne in the 17th century France to the
advent of the nouvelle cuisine and more recently to the emergence of Fusion food and of the
Slow Food movement, creativity has always played a significant role in the running of the
gastronomic market. What is new is the domination of creativity on other inputs.
This paper aims to understand first the reasons of mutations toward more and more
creative inputs in gastronomy. Most of the time mutations derive from crises. Is it the case for
gastronomy? Then the nature of creativity has to be explored and finally this paper tries to
present the principal issues of the advent of the creative dimension of gastronomy. It is clear
that creativity alters the running of the gastronomic market. It implies mutations of the actors.
Designers, scientists have penetrated in the kitchen to help chefs to develop new ways of
cooking, new dishes, new techniques and so on. International luxury groups have also
developed their activity in luxury hotels and aim to attract more and more Michelin starred
chefs. It implies also a mutation in the experts’ advices who take more and more into account
creativity to evaluate chefs. These evolutions tend to re-configure the market for gastronomy
toward a new business model.
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The Impact of Price Promotions in Markets
with Information & Choice Overload
Luca A. PANZONE
VIRTUAL SESSION
Scientific papers given to the Conference by people not present in Angers
Full paper is available on our website
The Impact of Price Promotions in Markets with Information
and Choice Overload
Luca A. PANZONE
University of Manchester – GB
p.86
La mesure de la performance dans les filières françaises de vin AOC
Aurélie DELUZE
Université de Re ims - Champagne - Ardenne – FR
p.86
The Influence of Michelin Stars on the Rise of Vegetables
in haute cuisine.
Marie-Léandre GOMEZ, Isabelle BOUTY
ESSEC Business School , Université Paris Ouest Nanterre – FR
p.87
Women or Wine ? Monogamy and Alcohol
Mara SQUICCIARINI, Jo SWINNEN
LICOS, Ce ntre for Institutions and Economic Performance,
University of Leuven KUL – BE
p.88
Analysis of the Importance of Several Aspects before the Purchase
of a Wine Bottle for Comunidad Valenciana (Spain) Consumers
David Bernardo LOPEZ LLUCH, Fe rnando VID AL JIMENEZ,
Francisco Jose Del CAMPO GOMISDepartemento de Eco nomia Agroambiantal,
Universisdat Miguel Hernandez – ES
p.88
University of Manchester
[email protected]
The UK wine market is characterised by a large amount of product selection, where the
heterogeneity of the production is generally due to the high level of product differentiation. There
is a general argument in favour of product differentiation, as this can be an useful and effective tool
to accommodate the needs of different consumers. This would imply an increase in consumer
loyalty towards the product that maximises the utility function. On the other hand, an increasing
number of options has been shown to have negative effects on the cognitive ability of consumers,
who tend to reduce market participation. This problem is exacerbated when quality is not
observable before purchase.
This article tests whether a large portfolio of products is beneficial to consumers. Applying
Gupta's (1988) framework to the wine market, the paper tests what is the main effect of
discounting on consumer behaviour. Expectations are that if producers benefit (high fidelisation),
discounts would favour a stockpiling behaviour (i.e. purchasing more) in consumers, with a
negligible brand-switching effect. On the other hand, a brand-switching might favour consumers
and retailers over producers, particularly when costs of information are high, since consumers
could engage a trial-and-error strategy that reduces loyalty toward product and producers.
Results show that discounts do not appear to have an impact on market incidence in the case
of wine, while playing a determinant role in directing both the choice of segment and quantity
purchased, with brand choice accounting for more than 45% of the total effect. From the results
presented in this paper, it would appear that while producers and consumers do not necessarily
benefit from discounts, retailers increase their revenues due to an increase in trading volumes.
La mesure de la performance
dans les filières françaises de vin à AOC
Aurélie DELUZE
Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, OMI EA 2065
[email protected]
Elaboration et tarification d’un contrat à terme sur les grands
crus bordelais
Antoine ACLOQUE
HEC Montreal – CA
p.89
Nous étudions la performance économique au niveau des filières françaises de production de vins
à AOC. L’originalité de l’étude vient du niveau méso-économique auquel est appréhendée la
performance, habituellement étudiée du point de vue des entreprises. A notre connaissance très peu
d’études se sont intéressées à la performance au niveau de filières d’activité, qu’il s’agisse du secteur
vitivinicole ou de tout autre secteur économique, d’où la dimension originale de notre analyse. Nous
montrons que la détermination d’indicateurs permet de mesurer la performance au niveau de filières
est possible, et qu’elle présente un intérêt en termes de gouvernance collective. A cette fin, nous
discutons dans un premier temps des éléments fournis par la littérature au sujet de la performance et
de sa mesure, avant de réaliser une analyse de données quantitatives appliquée aux filières françaises
de vins à appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC). Nous avons notamment recours à l’analyse en
composantes principales (ACP), qui permet de classer les filières françaises de vins à AOC selon quatre
groupes en fonction de leurs performances économiques, appréhendées en termes d’évolution des
ventes en volume et de valorisation.
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The Influence of Michelin Stars
on the Rise of Vegetables in haute cuisine.
Marie-Léandre GOMEZ, Isabelle BOUTY
Women or Wine? Monogamy and Alcohol
Mara SQUICCIARINI, Jo SWINNEN
LICOS, Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, University of Leuven KUL
[email protected], [email protected]
ESSEC Business School, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre
[email protected], [email protected]
We build on an institutional approach to assess the influence of Michelin stars on the rise
of vegetables in haute cuisine. Institutional theory suggests that organizations do compete
and survive in a field on the ground of consensus over how the actor's world should be and
that in institutionalized fields, taken for granted interpretive schemes, and organizational
archetypes spread through isomorphism. We define haute cuisine as the field composed of
agents and organizations engaged in the world of gourmet restaurants: the restaurants
awarded with stars, their employees and clients, gastronomic critics and journalists,
specialized journals, suppliers and contractors, some cooking schools and, last but not least,
guidebooks.
In order to examine the influence of Michelin stars on the rise of vegetables in haute
cuisine, we empirically analyze the place of vegetables in haute cuisine on the ground of a
longitudinal study of French gourmet restaurants between 1997 and 2007. We draw on
multiple sources of data: a database that includes the signature dishes of all starred French
chefs on the ground of annual directories issued by the Guide Michelin, interviews with elite
chefs, observations at gourmet restaurants, and secondary data.
We show that the status of vegetables has quantitatively and qualitatively changed in
French haute cuisine. We highlight the leading role of elite three-star restaurants and follower
position of others (one and two stars) in the process of institutional change. Our study
contributes to a better understanding of the evolution and influence of haute cuisine, with the
description of both new institutional rules and the role of three-star restaurants. In particular,
whereas some studies are dedicated to the advancement of institutional theory and limit their
use of gastronomy to that of an empirical field (e.g. Durand, Rao, and Monin 2007; Rao,
Monin and Durand 2003; Svejenova, Planellas, and Mazza 2007), our aim here is to contribute
to the understanding of haute cuisine, gastronomy and the restaurant industry with an
institutional perspective.
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Intriguingly, across the world the main social groups which practice polygyny do not
consume alcohol. We investigate whether there is a correlation between alcohol consumption
and polygynous/monogamous arrangements, both over time and across cultures. Historically,
we find a correlation between the shift from polygyny to monogamy and the growth of
alcohol consumption. Cross-culturally we also find that monogamous societies consume more
alcohol than polygynous societies in the preindustrial world. We provide a series of possible
explanations to explain the positive correlation between monogamy and alcohol consumption
over time and across societies
Analysis of the Importance of several Aspects before the Purchase
of a wine Bottle for Comunidad Valenciana Consumers
David Bernardo López Lluch, Fernando Vidal Jiménez;
Francisco José del Campo Gomis
Departamento de Economía Agroambiental, Universidad Miguel Hernández
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
This paper analyses the importance of several aspects that consumers in the Comunidad
Valenciana take into account when getting a wine bottle from a shelf.
These aspects are:
The designation of origin,
The price,
Design and information on the label
Design and information on the back label
The point of sale,
The seller advice,
Friends and family recommendations.
The information has been obtained through survey with 400 interviews throughout
Comunidad Valenciana (Spain): These interviews were based on asking to answer a
questionnaire with closed questions.
It has been seen how the most valuated aspect is the Designation of Origin. The second
aspect in the rank is Friends and family recommendations. Price is the third most valuated
aspect. The less valuated aspects are the seller advice and the point of sale. The design and
information of the label is more valuated than the design and information of the back label.
Results seem to show how consumers want to reduce risk before buying a wine bottle
looking for aspect they can rely on. They give more importance to family and friends
recommendations than to the seller advice.
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Élaboration et tarification d’un contrat à terme
sur les grands crus bordelais.
ACLOQUE Antoine
HEC Montreal
[email protected]
Depuis le début des années 1990, l'intérêt envers les grands vins français, en particulier
pour les bouteilles les plus rares et les plus prestigieuses, s'est fortement accru. Acquérir des
grands crus et les conserver en cave pour qu'ils se bonifient sont des moyens d'investissement
alternatifs pour les amateurs de vin. Les prix de ces flacons ont atteint des records absolus et
ont permis la naissance d'un marché secondaire très dynamique. Il existe désormais une
bourse des vins à Londres : le Liv-ex.
Plusieurs fonds d'investissement ont vu le jour, profitant de ce placement très attractif.
Cependant, mis à part l'achat direct dans les bouteilles, il n'existe pas encore de produit dérivé
lié à ce sous-jacent. Un contrat à terme sur les grands vins permettrait un éclaircissement de
ce marché encore opaque. Il s'agirait d'un contrat à terme sur un indice boursier, le Liv-ex 50,
qui standardise le marché secondaire des cinq 1er Crus Classés. En effet, l'amateur averti
pourrait se couvrir afin d'obtenir des flacons à des prix plus abordables pour des millésimes de
grande qualité. Le commerçant aurait le choix de fixer le prix de son approvisionnement et
l'investisseur celui de prendre des positions de manière plus fluide. Il existe donc un besoin à
combler entre l'envergure du marché secondaire, l'utilité des agents et de leurs transactions
comme il existe une forte corrélation entre le marché des primeurs et les transactions liées au
marché secondaire. Ce projet n'est pas nouveau puisqu'en 2001, le Winefex, un contrat à
terme sur les vins de Bordeaux, fut transigé sur le marché de l'Euronext. Cependant, il ne fut
négocié que pendant trois mois, pour diverses raisons qui seront soulignées par la suite.
L'objectif de ce papier est de comparer différentes méthodes de tarification qui seraient
des candidates à l'évaluation d'un tel contrat à terme. Björk (1998) et sa tarification d'un droit
contingent non transigeable sera un axe étudié. En second lieu, la tarification basée sur le VIX,
un contrat à terme dont le sous-jacent n'est pas directement transigeable, semble concorder
avec l'indice sur les grands vins. Enfin, une analyse numérique des données grâce à la
méthode des noyaux et au modèle Log-normal sera conduite. Dans cette même section seront
analysés les modèles avec sauts : le modèle de Merton ainsi que celui de Kou pour finaliser les
comparaisons. En second lieu, l'objectif moral de ce projet est de rendre, grâce à ce contrat à
terme, un marché plus “ liquide ” entre les grands châteaux et les acheteurs.
L'effet des critiques du vin (Parker, Wine Spectator...) est le même que celui des agences
de notation (Moody's, Standard & Poor), elles définissent la qualité du vin. Cependant ces
critiques sont basées sur des critères gustatifs subjectifs qui peuvent très bien emporter au
sommet le prix de certains vins de moyenne qualité et en descendre d'autres qui pourtant
sont exceptionnels
www.EuAWE.org
Angers 2011
89
90
Angers 2011
www.vdqs.net
Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
AUTHOR's INDEX
Name of author or co-author
firstname
session
page
ACLOQUE
Antoine
VS
89
AGNOLI
Lara
3b
31
ANDRIAMANANJARA RAMBELOSON
Harivola
Poster Session 8
69
ANDRIANTSITOHAINA
Ramaroson
Public Opening Session
7
BARBER
Nelson
6
54
BARBER
Nelson
6
54
BARRERE
Christian
4a
36
BARRERE
Christian
10
82
BARRERE
Christian
10
84
BEGALLI
Diego
3b
31
BENEDETTO
Graziella
1
13
BENTZEN
Jan
3b
32
BONNARD
Quentin
10
81
BONNARD
Quentin
10
82
BOURDON
Françoise
Poster Session 8
68
BOUTY
Isabelle
VS
87
BOUZDINE–CHAMEEVA
Tatiana
3a
24
BOUZDINE–CHAMEEVA
Tatiana
6
55
BRANDANO
Maria-Giovanna
4b
41
BRAVO-URETA
Boris
4b
42
BRÉMOND
Joël
5
49
BROUARD
Joëlle
1
12
BROUARD
Joelle
4a
36
BROUARD
Joëlle
5
51
BROUARD
Joëlle
5
52
BRUNET
Johanne
3a
26
BRUNNEDER
Johanna
9
76
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Angers 2011
91
VDQS
BRUNO-BOSSIO
Victoria
4b
43
BUSUIOC
Valentina
Poster Session 8
67
CAMERON
Emmanuel
3a
26
CAPITELLO
Roberta
3b
31
CASOLANI
Nicola
3a
25
CASTILLO-VALERO
Juan-Sebastian
2
17
CHIODO
Emilio
3a
25
CHIRONI
Stefania
3a
22
CHLADKOVA
Helena
4b
44
CHOSSAT
Véronique
10
82
COHEN
Justin
3a
26
COHEN
Justin
3b
30
COMANIUC
Andrei
Poster Session 8
67
CORADE
Nathalie
4a
38
COURET
Frédéric
2
16
DAVID
Tatiana
Poster Session 8
67
DECROSTA
Joe-T
Poster Session 8
66
Del CAMPO-GOMIS
Francisco-Jose
VS
88
DEL’HOMME
Bernard
1
14
DELUZE
Aurélie
VS
86
DETOTTO
Claudio
4b
41
DITTER
Jean-Guillaume
4a
36
DONOVAN
Janis
6
54
DUNIACH
Krista
3a
23
DUPUY-MANAUD
Jean-Denis
7
59
ETCHEVERRIA
Olivier
4a
35
ETZO
Ivan
2
18
FANTINI
Andréa
3a
25
FARDELLA
Gian-Gaspare
Poster Session 8
64
92
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
VDQS
GALAM
Serge
3a
24
NGANDU
Delphin
Poster Session 8
GARCIA-CORTIJO
Maria-Carmen
2
17
NGUYEN
Thai-Quang
3a
65
27
GEORGOPOULOS
Theodore
7
60
OUTREVILLE
Jean-François
Poster Session 8
70
GINON
Emilie
1
12
OUTREVILLE
Jean-François
9
74
GINON
Emilie
5
51
PANTIN-SOHIER
Gaelle
3a
23
GIOMO
Andrea
4a
34
PANZONE
Luca
VS
86
GIULIA
Nicoletti
Poster Session 8
64
PAULSSEN
Marcel
9
76
GOMEZ
Marie-Léandre
VS
87
PICHERY
Marie-Claude
Poster Session 8
68
GURSKA
Sylvie
4b
44
PROKES
Martin
4b
40
INGRASSIA
Marzia
3a
22
QENANI
Elvis
3b
31
JELLIFFE
Jeremy
4b
42
RESNICK
Evelyne
5
52
KUGLER
Peter
9
75
SCORBANOVA
Elena
Poster Session 8
70
27
KUGLER
Claudio
9
75
SEYTE
Françoise
3a
L’HOSTIS
Gildas
5
48
SILLANI
Sandro
4b
43
LAI
Maria-Bonaria
2
18
SILLANI
Sandro
Poster Session 8
63
LAVRADOR
Ana
6
56
SMITH
Valdemar
3b
32
LECAT
Benoit
9
76
SOHIER
Alice
3a
23
LE-GOFFIC
Caroline
7
58
SQUICCIARINI
Mara
VS
88
LEMANOVA
Natalia
Poster Session 8
67
STENGEL
Kilien
5
50
12
LEMANOVA
Natalia
Poster Session 8
70
SUTAN
Angela
1
LOPEZ-LLUCH
David-Bernardo
VS
88
SUTAN
Angela
5
51
MARCILHAC
Vincent
10
80
SWINNEN
Jo
VS
88
MASSET
Philippe
9
77
TATARU
Dorin
3b
30
MASSIDDA
Carla
2
18
TAVARES
Ana-Cristina
6
56
MCCULLOUGH
Michael
3b
31
TINLOT
Robert
Public Opening Session
9
MICCOLI
Alessandra
Poster Session 8
63
TOMSIK
Pavel
4b
44
MICCOLI
Alessandra
Poster Session 8
71
TSHIALA
Mireille
Poster Session 8
65
MILTGEN
Caroline
3a
23
UGAGLIA
Adeline
1
14
MONNIER
Jean-Michel
Opening Ceremony
19
VANNINI
Marco
4b
41
MONNIER
Jean-Michel
10
80
VELIKSAR
Sofia
Poster Session 8
67
www.EuAWE.org
Angers 2011
93
94
Angers 2011
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Enometrics XVIII
Enometrics XVIII
VELIKSAR
Sofia
Poster Session 8
70
VIDAL-JIMENEZ
Fernando
VS
88
WEISSKOPF
Jean-Philippe
9
77
WILSON
Damien
5
51
ZIRONI
Roberto
Poster Session 8
63
VDQS
A SPECIAL Thanks to our Partners
for Pr oviding Support to this Event
aanndd
www.EuAWE.org
Angers 2011
95
96
Angers 2011
www.vdqs.net