Exemplier Rouen

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Exemplier Rouen
Journée d’étude – « Les propositions en WH-». Rouen. 31.01.04.
1
LES FONCTIONS DE LA PROPOSITION RELATIVE
APPOSITIVE EN DISCOURS1
(5) « Interestingly however, in contrast to the other cases, there does
seem to be a reason here to deny a subordinate status to the sentence
2
part following who. » (Daalder 1989: 204).
R. LOOCK
Université de Lille III – U.F.R. Angellier
U.M.R. 8528 SILEX
[email protected]
(1a) (m FIC240) Zenia herself was present only in spirit, said the lawyer,
and also in the form of her ashes, and they would now proceed to the
Mount Pleasant Cemetery to inter them.
(2a) (mQUAL51) Robinson College asks candidates to complete a
questionnaire on their education background, and it is then used to help
decide whether they are offered a place.
(3a) (mTABL301) She was found face down in the water and airlifted to
hospital, and she died there hours later.
(1b) (mFIC240) Zenia herself was present only in spirit, said the lawyer,
and also in the form of her ashes. They would now proceed to the Mount
Pleasant Cemetery to inter them.
(2b) (mQUAL51) Robinson College asks candidates to complete a
questionnaire on their education background. It is then used to help
decide whether they are offered a place.
(3b) (mTABL301) She was found face down in the water and airlifted to
hospital. She died there hours later.
1.
3
La PRA continuative
1.1. Définition
(1) (FIC240) Zenia herself was present only in spirit, said the lawyer, and also in
the form of her ashes, which they would now proceed to the Mount Pleasant
Cemetery to inter.
(2) (QUAL51) Robinson College asks candidates to complete a questionnaire on
their education background, which is then used to help decide whether they are
offered a place.
(3) (TABL301) She was found face down in the water and airlifted to hospital,
where she died hours later.
événement 1
(1) FIC240
(2) QUAL51
(3) TABL301
be present
ask
be airlifted
événement 2
(6) (FIC239) Luckily she landed on the bag itself, which burst.
(6a) (FIC239) Luckily she landed on the bag itself, which thus/as a
consequence burst.
1.2. Caractéristiques
-
proceed
be used
die
type d’antécédent
fonction de l’antécédent
type de procès et temps du verbe
(4) « Dans ce qu’O. Jespersen appelait “continuative relative clause” et O. Behagel
“ weiterführender Relativsatz”, le relatif, en effet, a tendance à perdre son rôle
fondamental de subordonnant pour acquérir celui, paradoxal, de coordonnant ».
(Kuntsman 1994: 1).
2
1
Je tiens à remercier L. HAEGEMAN, R. HUART, Ph. MILLER et K. O’CONNOR.
3
Daalder traite l’exemple suivant: He gave the letter to the clerk, who then copied it.
La lettre ‘m’ signifie que l’énoncé a été modifié pour notre démonstration.
Journée d’étude – « Les propositions en WH-». Rouen. 31.01.04.
2.
La PRA de pertinence
2.1. Définition
2.1.1. Le principe de pertinence
(7) Condition comparative 1 : un phénomène est d’autant plus pertinent pour un
individu que les effets contextuels que ce phénomène produit lorsqu’il est
optimalement traité sont importants.
Condition comparative 2 : un phénomène est d’autant plus pertinent pour un
individu que l’effort nécessaire pour traiter optimalement ce phénomène est faible.
(Sperber & Wilson 1989 :237)
2
- Nivellement de l’espace cognitif partagé
(11) (QUAL135) It is hard to square his action with the Energy Policy and
Conservation Act, which authorizes the president to tap the reserve.
(12) (QUAL39) The Governor is Bob Taft, fourth generation of a Republican
dynasty founded by his great grandfather, William Howard Taft, who was elected
president in 1908.
(13) When Steven Soderbergh [who has already directed Clooney in Out of Sight]
phoned to tell me he was planning to do a remake of the film, I jumped for joy.
Lorsque Steven Soderbergh (qui a déjà dirigé l’acteur dans Hors d’atteinte, ndlr)
m’a appelé pour me dire qu’il comptait refaire le film, j’ai sauté de joie. (Eurostar
Magazine 49 : 10)
(14) « La loi Gayssot [qui réprime les propos incitant à la haine raciale] a permis à
un type comme LePen (…) de se rendre de plus en plus fréquentable. »
« The contribution should be as informative as is required for the current
purposes of the exchange, and should not be unnecessarily informative. »
(8) (QUAL177) The late Democratic governor of Missouri, Mel Carnahan, who died
in a plane crash three weeks ago, also made history of a kind as the first dead man
to win election to the US Senate.
(8a) #(mQUAL177) The late Democratic governor of Missouri, Mel Carnahan, who
also made history of a kind as the first dead man to win election to the US Senate,
died in a plane crash three weeks ago.
(9) (QUAL28) Venezuela, which currently holds the presidency of Opec, is at the
forefront of the reluctant faction.
(9a) (mQUAL28) Venezuela, which currently holds the presidency of Opec, is not at
the forefront of the reluctant faction.
2.1.2. Définition de la PRA de pertinence et stratégies discursives
(10)
La PRA de pertinence vient rendre pertinent l’antécédent ou le prédicat dans lequel celui-ci
s’inscrit au sein de la phrase. Si l’antécédent est stable du point de vue référentiel, il n’est
peut-être pas suffisamment déterminé pour au moins une partie du lectorat. La PRA de
pertinence est donc une stratégie préventive ou réparatrice opérée dans les textes
journalistiques, majoritairement afin de ne pas être non pertinent pour le lecteur non initié,
tout en restant de l’information d’arrière-plan pour ne pas être non pertinent pour le lecteur
initié. C’est en cela qu’elle représente un compromis.
-
Explication, justification, concession:
(8b) (mQUAL177) The governor of Missouri, Mel Carnahan, as/since/because he
died in a plane crash three weeks ago, also made history of a kind as the first dead
man to win election to the US Senate.
(12a) #(12) (mQUAL39) The Governor is Bob Taft, fourth generation of a
Republican dynasty founded by his great grandfather, William Howard Taft,
as/since/because he was elected president in 1908.
(15) (TABL364) On a pitch like that, where there is absolutely nothing for fast
bowlers, it is imperative to show some aggression, and that is what I shall continue
to do.
= EXPLICATION PAR RÉPARATION
(16) (QUAL142) During the course of the 11th century, Sicily was unique in being a
Christian kingdom in which Muslims, who had previously ruled the island, continued
to hold important positions.
= EXPLICATION PAR ANTICIPATION
(17) (QUAL112) Camelot, which has run the National Lottery for the past six years
and has been criticised for profiteering, has won the right to be considered for the
next seven-year-licence.
(17a) (mQUAL112) Camelot, although/while it has run the National Lottery for the
past six years and has been criticised for profiteering, has won the right to be
considered for the next seven-year-licence.
Journée d’étude – « Les propositions en WH-». Rouen. 31.01.04.
- La légitimité de l’antécédent:
(18) (QUAL9) Tony Sewell, who has just finished an inquiry into soaring levels of
exclusions among black pupils from a London school, claimed that too much
concern with money and consumer goods was almost as damaging to black pupils’
chances as racism.
(19) (QUAL106) The story of genetic research on humans, which took 10 years to
uncover, is likely to shake the world of anthropology to its core, according to
professor Terry Turner of Cornell University, who has read the proofs.
(20) (QUAL48) C. Dyas (...) confirmed that the blood donated by the seven vCJD
victims was taken before 1999, when the authority introduced new safety
procedures designed to remove prions, the infectious proteins thought to transmit
vCJD.
2.2. De la pertinence à la politesse
(21) Shirin Ebadi, who (as you know) won the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize, has just
arrived in Norway.
(21a) # Shirin Ebadi has just arrived in Norway. You know, she’s the 2003 Nobel
Peace Prize winner.
3
(22) (QUAL552) This incredible spirit  which Chelsea so clearly lack  is
summed up beautifully by Gemmill, who has been unable to command a regular
plane and has also been a target for some of the fans on his rare appearances.
(23) (QUAL117) The men’s 4 x 100m team, who might not have qualified anyway,
went out in the heats when they bungled a change-over, straying out of the
prescribed area.
(24) (QUAL113) After Atlanta, where southern hospitality was killed off by
incompetence and corporate greed, the movement desperately needed a feel-good
Olympics.
(25) (QUAL78) Such defensive reactions are, in part, a response to the growing
problem of litigation, which is creating a culture of punishment.
(22a) (mQUAL552) This incredible spirit  which to me Chelsea so clearly lack 
is summed up beautifully by Gemmill, who has been unable to command a regular
plane and has also been a target for some of the fans on his rare appearances.
(23a) (mQUAL117) The men’s 4 x 100m team, who I think might not have
qualified anyway, went out in the heats when they bungled a change-over, straying
out of the prescribed area.
(26) La conversation revient inéluctablement sur l’interpellation de Frédéric
Ramette, « qui n’était pas un étranger ».
2.3. Caractéristiques
-
3.
fonction de l’antécédent
statut informationnel du référent de l’antécédent
nature du procès
suppressibilité
La PRA de subjectivité
3.1. Définition
3.1.1. Décrochage entre deux niveaux:
-
la proposition principale : le niveau référentiel
la proposition subordonnée : le niveau commentatif (terminologie de
Mélis 2000)
3.1.2. Subjectivité et texte de fiction
(27) (FIC216) He had been to see two films with his mum, Home Alone 2, which
wasn’t as good as Home Alone 1, and Honey, I Blew Up the Kid, which wasn’t as
good as Honey, I Shrunk the Kids, and his mum had said that modern films were
too commercial, and that when she was his age...
(28) (FIC221-5) Frances introduced him to each of them : Sally and Moira, who
looked tough, ignored him completely, helped themselves to a paper cupful of
white wine and disappeared off to the further corner of the room (Moira, Will noted
with interest, was wearing a Lorena Bobbit T-shirt); Lizzie, who was small, sweet
and scatty; Helen and Susannah, who obviously regarded SPAT as beneath their
dignity, and made rude comments about the wine and the location; Saskia, who
was ten years younger than anybody else in the room, and looked more like
somebody’s daughter than somebody’s mother; and Suzie, who was tall, blond,
pale, nervy-looking and beautiful. She would do, he thought, and stopped looking
at anyone else who came in.
Journée d’étude – « Les propositions en WH-». Rouen. 31.01.04.
3.2. Stratégies discursives
- commentaire/jugement:
(29) (QUAL26) Leaving aside the pashmina palaver of two years ago, which was
more of a fad than an interest in Indian fashion.
(30) (SPECSR401) In response to the tone, the autistic children exhibited slight
acceleration above baseline, which was not significant.
(29a) (QUAL26) Leaving aside the pashmina palaver of two years ago, which I
think/to me was more of a fad than an interest in Indian fashion.
(30a) (SPECSR401) In response to the tone, the autistic children exhibited slight
acceleration above baseline, which I think/it seems/to us was not significant.
4
3.3. Décrochage et humour
(36) The princess gave birth to her baby daughter. They decided to call her Little
Red Riding Hood.
(36a) (FIC201) The princess  who after nine months of pregnancy had swollen
ankles, post-natal depression and a figure completely shot to hell and had turned
into just another tired old queen  gave birth to her baby daughter.
(36b) (FIC202) They decided to call her Little Red Riding Hood, which was
something they found in a book of baby names between ‘Letitia’ and ‘Lola’.
3.4. Caractéristiques
-
- correction:
(31) (QUAL22) He took my ticket (which I meekly gave him), returned triumphant...
(32) (FIC313) Smiling though he wasn’t smiling, so that she was obliged to offer
back a great, snarling flash of her teeth (which were not her own) and to feel stupid
for her afterwards.
(33) West was taking Modern History  which wasn’t modern history at all, it was
simply not Ancient History, which ended with the fall of Rome  because he was
interested in folk songs and ballads (...).
(31a) (QUAL22) He took my ticket (which actually/in fact/to tell the truth I
meekly gave him), returned triumphant...
(32a) (FIC313) Smiling though he wasn’t smiling, so that she was obliged to offer
back a great, snarling flash of her teeth (which in fact/actually were not her own)
and to feel stupid for her afterwards.
(33a) West was taking Modern History  which in fact wasn’t modern history at
all, it was simply not Ancient History, which ended with the fall of Rome  because
he was interested in folk songs and ballads (...).
- valeur de bilan:
(34) (QUALSR3) GM is offering other carmakers the chance to fit OnStar, which
suggests the firm will soon look to float off this business.
(35) (FICSR205) Macaulay Culkin probably got three hundred and fifty pounds a
week, maybe even more, which meant that if he were Macaulay Culkin he could
pay his mum to teach him.
4.
typographie
type de relative
position
statut informationnel
De la pertinence à la subjectivité
(37) (QUAL169) Mr Blair, whose son attends a selective school, complained that
too many comprehensives had a “one-size-fits-all” mentality...
(38) (TABL538) Christopher, who was decorated for his service in Ulster, was
arrested for breach of the peace outside a hospital where he had been taken after
being hit in a scuffle.
(37a) Mr Blair complained about the “one-size-fits-all” mentality of too many
comprehensive schools, but his son does not have to face this problem because he
attends a selective school.
(38a) (mTABL538) Christopher was arrested for breach of the peace outside a
hospital where he had been taken after being hit in a scuffle and this is very
surprising because it does not match with the fact that he was decorated for his
service in Ulster.
Journée d’étude – « Les propositions en WH-». Rouen. 31.01.04.
5.
« En guise de conclusion »
5
6.
Bibliographie
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