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Tinspora cordifolia: Guduchi
Tinospora cordifolia is a well known medicinal plant for indigenous medicine. The entire plant is regarded
as a valuable alternative and tonic. This plant is a glabrous, succulent, climbing shrub, often growing very
Macroscopic: Stem terete, sparcely lenticellate and often producing filiform aerial roots. Young stem
green with a smooth surface: older one have a warty surface due to the presence of circular lenticels.
Fracture is fibrous. Taste intensely bitter and odourless.
Microscopic: Cork cells 2-3 layered followed by 2-3 layers of collenchyma cortex and 4-6 layers of
parenchyma cortex, consisting of circular to isodiametric type of cells. beneath the cortex a ring of
continuous pericycle composed of 4-6 layers of slightly thick walled, lignified fibres; caping the vascular
bundle and medullary rays. Fibres lignified, long with blunt ends. Tracheids with bordered pits, hotizontal
perforations. Tracheid fibres are longer than the tracheids Xylem vessels cylindrical and bear bordered pits.
Starch gains are present in parenchymatous cells.
Distribution: the plant occurs throughout tropical regions of India, extending from Kumaon to Assam and
Myanmar and from Bihar and Konkan to Srilanka. It is a large climber which grows over the forests and
throws out aerial roots which reach the length of 10 meters, though not thicker than peak-thread. The plant
seems to be particularly fond of climbing up the trunks of large neem trees in the Uttar Pradesh.
Parts used: Stem and root each part has a different therapeutic value and must be prepared in its own way
for maximum benefits.
It contains clerodane furano diterpenes viz, Columbin tinosporaside; a lignan 3,4-bis-(4-hydroxy-3methoxy benzyl) tetrahydrofuran; alkaloids viz., jatrorhizine, palmatine berberine, tempbeterine; a
sesquiterpene glucoside, tinocordifoliside A & B; Other include choline, tinosporic acid, tinosporal,
TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL USES:
In Ayurveda, Tinospora cordifolia is considered the best herb for clearing the microcirculatory system and
other bodily channels (Shrotas). It is especially effective and unique in its ability to remove both exogenous
and endogenous toxins (from external and internal sources). It is very often included in comprehensive
Ayurvedic formulas, since such toxins interfere with all bodily functions and are a factor in almost all
diseases. It clears out brain toxins that hinder mental activity.
Guduchi also has a direct Medhya Rasayana effct, which means that it enhances all aspects of mind power,
including comprehension (Dhi), memory (Dhriti) and recollection (Smriti).
Because of its ability to cleanse the channels, it aids delivery of nutrients from your foods and from the
herbs in a formula.
Guduchi balances and purifies fat tissue. To make fats easier to break down. Fats are an important raw
material for building healthy bones.
Guduchi also aids all other aspects of healthy metabolism (the 13 Agnis). It aids digestion, assimilation and
proper formation of all the bodily tissues(7 Dhatus).
It helps balance liver function and aids proper assimilation.
It aids purification of the urinary tract and intestines, by balancing lubrication (Shleshaka Kapha) and the
downward energy of the body (Apana Vata).
By supporting proper function of Shleshaka Kapha, Guduchi also aids proper communication and
coordination between all the various cells and their many related functions for better overall health. This
has the added benefit of nourishing the mind-body connection and enhances the psyconeuro immune
Guduchi is also a powerful Rasayana (longevity enhancer) even by itself, but especially when combined
with complementary herbs. It increases the quality and quantity of Ojas, the master coordinator between
mind and body. It helps consciousness slide into the physiology and aids development of full potential.
Guduchi has another rare effect it balances all three laws of the physiology (Vata, pitta, Kapha) at the same
Guduchi has now been research to verify its powerful immunomodulatory effects, meaning that it enhances
overall immune function.
Bile vomiting: Take 200g climber of Tinospora cordifolia. Cut it into several pieces. Then pound it in a
mortar and boil with 4 liter of water for sometimes till half liter of water remains in the pot. Divide the
decoction into 6 parts. Drink one part with 10ml honey once daily in the morning til-oil it cures. (or) pound
the entire plant of Tinopora cordifolia and extract the juice after filtration. Add in it powdery dried ginger
root juice of Cissampelos parier and entire plant of juice of Andrographic pamiculata. Prepare a tonic. Take
the tonic of 10ml twice daily for 2 to 3 days.
Dropsy: Boil the stem of Tinspora cordifolia in water and take bathe with this warm water once daily for
three days. Note: Do not wash or bathe the face with this water.
Fever: Grind all the followings into a paste: the roots of Tinspora cordifolia seeds of coriander seeds of
black cumin seeds one chili and leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana. Boil the paste in water. Give the decoction
of 5ml in each time daily to pediatrics age group till cure.
Fits: Grind the whole plant of Tinspora cordifolia and mix with water and stir thoroughly for sometimes.
Filter the water and keep the filtrate for sometime to settle. Take the decoction of 10ml twice daily with
equal amount of honey for a day.
Gastric: Grind together the roots of Tinspora cordifolia and Kaubodha into a paste. Prepare tablets from
the paste. Take one tablet in each time twice daily for a week.
Menstrual disorders: the process which is written for spermatorrhoea is which is written for
spermatorrhoea is same for menstrual disorder.
Spermatorrhoea: Grind the entire crops of a Tinospora cordifolia and extract the juice Take one
teaspoonful juice with one teaspoonful honey for a single dose once daily till cure.
Warm infection: Grind and extract the leaf juice of Tinspora cordifolia. Take 5ml of the juice in each time
once daily for 1 to 2 days with honey.
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL TRAILS:
Tinospora cordifolia was tested for its ability to modulate the changes occurring in the phagocytic activity
of peritoneal macrophages after exposure of rats to either carbon tetrachloride or horse serum. It was found
to normalize the phagocytic function irrespective to the direction of change, complying to the definition of
an adaptogen. The plant drugs were found to be safe in both acute and subacute toxicity studies. Studies on
the mechanisms of action of the plant revealed that they all produced immunostimulation. The protection
offered by Tinospora cordifolia against stress induced gastric mucosal damage was lost if macrophage
activity was blocked. Recent data obtained with Tinospora cordifolia suggest that it may induce genotypic
adaptation, further opening the arena for more research and experimentation.
Alteration of lethal effects of gamma rays
Tinospora cordifolia is widely used in Ayurvedic medicines. It is known for its immunomodulatory,
antihepatotoxic, antistress and antioxidant properties. It has been used in combination with other plant
products to prepare a number of Ayurvedic preparations. To evaluate the radioprotective effect of an
aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) against (60) Co gamma radiation. Oral administration of TC 5
mg/kg body wt to Swiss albino mice 1 h and 15 days prior to whole body radiation exposure (8 Gy) there
was no mortality until day 13 and 50% of the animals survived until day 30. Mice exposed to radiation (8
Gy) without TC pretreatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness such as anorexia, lethargy, ruffled hair,
diarrhoea and these animals died within 14 days of irradiation. The results suggest that Tinospora cordifolia
has a radioprotective effect in Swiss albino mice, thereby enhancing the survival of mice against a sublethal
dose of gamma radiation.
The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica was studied. In the
traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It
comprises of five medicinal herbs, namely Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia,
Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted in ethanol
together and individually. In vitro amoebicidal activity was studied to determine the minimal inhibitory
concentration (MIC) values of all the constituent extracts as well as the whole formulation. The formulation
had a MIC of 1000 micrograms/ml as compared with 10 micrograms/ml for metronidozole. In experimental
caecal amoebiasis in rats the formulation had a curative rate of 89% with the average degree of infection
(ADI) reduced to 0.4 in a group dosed with 500 mg/kg per day as compared with ADI of 3.8 for the shamtreated control group of rats. Metronidazole had a cure rate of 89% (ADI = 0.4) at a dose of 100 mg/kg per
day and cured the infection completely (ADI = 0) when the dosage was doubled to 200 mg/kg per day.
There were varying degrees of inhibition of the following enzyme activities of crude extracts of axenically
cultured amoebae: DNase, RNase, aldolase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alpha amylase and
The antiatherogenic effect of a herbal formulation, Caps HT2 was evealuated as antioxidant, anticoagulant,
platelet antoiaggregatory, lipoprotein lipase releasing anti-inflammaatory and hypolipidaemic activity in
rats. The formulation contained the methanolic extracts of selected parts of several plants including
Tinospora cordifolia the formulation, Caps HT2 was found to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals;
the IC50 required being 55.0 and 610.0 microg/ml respectively. The lipid peroxidation was found inhibited
(50%) by 48.5 microg/ml of Caps HT2. The intravenous administration of the formulations (5 mg/kg)
delayed the plasma recalcfication time in rabbits and enhanced the release of lipoprotein lipase enzyme
significantly (p < 0.001). The formulation also inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation in vitro, which
was comparable to commercial heparin. The anti-inflammatory action of the formulation was significant (p
< 0.001) with acute and chronic inflammations induced by carrageenan and formalin respectively in rats.
The hypolipidaemic effect of Caps HT2 was significant (p < 0.001) with the administration of the
formulation in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia of rats for a period of 30 days. Oral administration of the
formulation, caps HT2 (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg) significantly raised HDL cholesterol levels. The
atherogenic index and the reduction in body weight were significant indicating the effectiveness against
against hyperlipidaemia and obesity. All these results revealed the therapeutic potential of Caps HT2
against vascular intimal damage and atherogenesis leading to various types od cardiovascular problems.
In Malaysia, an aqueous extract of Tinospora crispa stems is taken orally to treat diabetes mellitus. Normal
and alloxan-diabetic rats were used to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties of the extract. A
hypoglycaemic effect was observed in moderately diabetic rats with concomitant improvement in
insulinaemia. After a 2-week treatment with the extract (4 g/l in the drinking water), these rats also showed
improvement in glucose tolerance. Moreover, acute intravenous treatment with the extract (50 mg/kg)
caused an increase in plasma insulin levels. The data support the traditional belief that T. crispa extract
could improve diabetic conditions by virtue of its action on the endocrine pancreas.
To investigate the effects of daily oral feeding Momordica charantia (MC) (200 mg/kg) Eugenia jambolana
(EJ) (200 mg/kg) Mucuna pruriens(MP) (200 mg/kg) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) extracts for 40 days on
blood glucose concentrations and kidney functions in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Plasma glucose
levels, body weight urine volume and urinary albumin levels were monitored on every 10th day over a 40day period while plasma creatinine levels were assessed at the beginning and end of experiment. Renal
hypertrophy was assessed as the ratio between the kidney weight and total body weight. Plasma glucose
concentrations in STZ-diabetic mice were reduced by the administration of extracts of MC, EJ, TC and MP
by 24.4, 20.84, 7.45 and 9.07%, respectively (P<0.0005 for MC, EJ, MP and P<0.05 for TC). Urine volume
was significantly higher (P<0.005) in diabetic controls and MC, EJ, MP and TC treatment prevented
polyuria (P<0.001, 0.0001, 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). After 10 days of STZ administration urinary
albumin levels (UAE) were over 6 fold higher in diabetic controls as compared to normal controls.
Treatment with MC, EJ, MP and TC significantly prevented the rise in UAE levels from day 0 to 40 in
comparison to diabetic controls as compared to non-diabetic controls. MC and EJ partially but significantly
(P < 0.05) prevented renal hypertrophy as compared to diabetic controls. TC and MP failed to modify renal
Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. ayurveda and other Indian
literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant
species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research
conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes
have shown anti-diabetic property. Tinospora cordifolia have shown hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic
The efficacy of Momordica charantia (MC), Eugenia jambolana (EJ), Tinospora cordifolia (TC) and
Mucuna pruriens (MP) was assessed in the prevention of murine alloxan diabetic cataract. Alloxan (120
mg/kg) was used as the diabetogenic agent. While controls and diabetic controls did not receive any plant
extract, treated rats received lyophilized aqueous extract of MC and EJ (200 mg/kg p.o.), alcohol extract of
TC (400 mg/kg) and MP (200 mg/kg p.o.) every day until 4 months. Serum glucose concentration was
assessed and cataracts examined with both the naked eye and through a slit lamp. Of the eight animals in
the diabetic control group, four developed cortical cataract (stage IV) by day 90 while the remaining four
developed it by day 100. The incidence rate of cataract in MC, EJ, TC and MP treated groups at 120 days
was only 0,0,1 and 2. Oral feeding of MC, EJ, TC and MP extracts for 1 month produced a fall of 64.33%,
55.62%, 38.01% and 40.71%, respectively in the serum glucose levels in comparison with the 48 h level.
After 2 months of treatment the respective values were 66.96%, 59.85%, 40.41% and 45.63%. MC and EJ
prevented the development of cataract while the protective effect was less with TC and MP along with a
significant reduction of plasma glucose levels (p < 0.001).
The aqueous, alcoholic and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Tinospora cordifolia were administered in
doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight to normol and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. The blood
glucose and total lipid levels were estimated before and 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours after administration of the
extract. The extract exerted a significant (P less than 0.5) hypoglycaemic effect in normal as well as in
alloxan-treated rabbits. The extracts however had no significant (P greater than 0.05) effect on total lipid
levels in normal as well as in alloxan-treated diabetic rabbits. The doses used did not show acute toxicity or
result in behavioural changes. From this study, it may be concluded that extracts of the leaves of Tinospora
cordifolia have an insulin-like action and can significantly reduce the blood glucose but not the total lipid
levels in normal rabbits and in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.
Diabetes mellitus was induced in male CF strain rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and hyperglycaemia and
superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of pancreatic islet cells was assessed on days 7,14,21 and 28. STZ
induced significant hyperglycaemia and a concomitant decrease in islet cell SOD activity. transina (TR)
and Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Eclipta alba,
Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa and shilajit had little per se effect on blood sugar concentrations and
islet SOD activity in euglycaemic rats in the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. administered once daily for
28 days. However these doses of TR induced a dose related decrease in STZ hyperglycaemia and
attenuation of STZ induced decrease in islet SOD activity. the results indicate that the earlier reported antihyperglycaemic effect of TR may be due to pancreatic islet free radical scavenging activity the
hyperglycaemic activity of STZ being the consequence of decrease in islet SOD activity leading to the
accumulation of degenerative oxidative free radicals in islet beta-cells.
The efficacy of Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) extract for the treatment of diabetes has previously
been verified in animal models. In order to substantiate the antidiabetic effect it is characterised the
antihyperglycaemic properties by studying its effect on intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake
into adipocytes. It is also performed experiments to characterise in mire detail the mechanism of T. crispaevoked insulin release by challenging it with insulin secretory antagonists viz. adrenaline, somatostatin,
verapamil anf nifedipine. In addition, also performed experiments to determine the effect of the extract on
cAMP content. The results clearly showed that the antihyperglycaemic effect is not due to interference with
intestinal glucose uptake or uptake of the sugar into the peripheral cells. rather, the antihyperglycaemic
effect of T. crispa is probably due to stimulation of insulin release via modulation of beta-cell Ca2
concentration. That the insulinotropic effect of T.crispa is physical suggests that the extract contains
compounds which could be purified for use in the treatment of type II diabetes.
Tinospora cordifolia is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for treating diabetes mellitus. Oral
administration of an aqueous T. cordifolia root extract (TCREt) to alloxan diabetic rats caused a significant
reduction in blood glucose and brain lipids. The extract caused an increase in body weight, total
haemoglobin and hepatic hexokinase. The root extract also lowers hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and
serum acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in diabetic rats. Thus TCREt has
hypoglycaemic and hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect.
In India, the decoction of kernels of Eugenia jambolana (EJ) and extracts of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) are
used as a household remedy for diabetes. These also form constituents of many herbal formulations for
diabetes that are marketed in this country. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts
as well as lyophilized powder of these two plants was evaluated in diabetic animals using different doses
of diabetogenic agents for varying duration (21-120 days) so as to assess their effect in mild (plasma
sugar>180 mg/dl, duration 21 days), moderate (plasma sugar>280 mg/dl, duration 120 days) and severe
(plasma sugar>400 mg/dl, duration 60 days) diabetes mellitus. In the pilot study (mild diabetes), maximum
reduction of 73.51 and 70.37% in glucose levels was seen in animals receiving 200 mg/kg per day of
lyophilized powder of EJ and 400 mg/kg per day of aqueous extract of TC after 3 and 15 weeks of
treatment, respectively. There percent reduction in glucose decreased significantly in the moderate and
severe diabetes; 55.62 and 17.72% for EJ and 48.81 and 0% for TC at the similar time intervals. The
alteration in hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content and hepatic glucokinase, hexokinase, glucose-6phosphate and phosphofructokinase levels in diabetic mice were partially restored by EJ but not by TC. The
mechanism of action of EJ and TC. The mechanism of action of EJ and TC is discussed.
In experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have been selected for
thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In
all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), difinite blood
glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose
values are brought down close to normal fasting level using herbal samples at a dose of 250 mg/kg once,
twice or thrice daily as needed. While evaluating comparative hupoglycaemic activity of the experimental
herbal samples, significant blood glucose lowering activities are observed in decreasing order in the
following 24 samples Coccinia indica, Tragia involucrata, G. sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, T.
foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Eugenia jambolana, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirayita,
Momordica charantia, Ficus glomerata, Ficus benghalensis, vinca rosea, Premna integrifolia, Mucuna
prurita, Terminalia bellirica, Sesbenia aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Zingiber
officinale, Aegle marmelos, Cinnamomum tamala, Trichosanthes cucumerina and Ocimum sanctum.
Present studies besides confirming hypoglycaemic activities of the experimental herbal samples, help
identify more potent indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs (in crude ethanolic extract) from the comparative
study of the reported experimental results.
The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycaemic effects of an alcohol extract of Tinospora
cordifolia roots, an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic medicine in India. Oral administration of the extract
of Tinospora cordifolia (TCREt) roots for 6 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in blood and urine
glucose and in lipids in serum and tissues in alloxan diabetic rats. The extract also prevented a decreae in
body weight. Thus the study clearly shows that an alcohol TCREt has a hypoglycaemic action.
To evaluate the hypolipidaemic effect of an aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots, an indigenous
plant used in Ayurvedic medicine in India. Administration of the extract of T. cordifolia roots (2.5 and 5.0
g/kg body weight) for 6 weeks resulted in a singificant reduction in serum and tissue cholesterol,
phospholipids and free fatty acids in alloxan diabetic rats. The root extract at a dose of 5.0 g/kg body
weight showed highest hypolipidaemic effect. The effect of T. cordifolia roots at 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg body
weight was better than glibenclamide. Insulin restored all the parameters to near normal values.
To evaluate the hypolipidaemic effects of an alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots, an indigenous
plant used in Ayurvedic medicine in India. Oral adminitration of the extract of Tinospora cordifolia
(TCREt) roots for 6 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in blood and urine glucose and in lipids in
serum and tissues in alloxan diabetic rats. The extract also prevented a decrease in body weight. Thus the
study clearly shows that an alcohol TCREt has a hypolipidaemic action.
Studies on induced oedema and arthritis and on human arthritis proved the anti-inflammatory potency of
the water extract of the water extract of this plant Phase I and Phase II of adjuvant induced arthritis were
also inhibited. The anti-inflammatory activity of this plant resembles that of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
Exposure of HeLa cells to 0, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml of guduchi extracts (methanol, aqueous and
methylene chloride) resulted in a dose-deopendent but significant increase in cell killing when compared to
non-drug-treated controls. The effects of methanol and aqueous extracts were almost identical. However,
methylene chloride extract enhanced the cell killing effect by 2.8- and 6.8- fold when compared either to
methanol or aqueous extract at 50 and 100 microg/ml, respectively. conversely the frequency of
micronuclei increased in a concentration dependent manner in guduchi-treated groups and this increase in
the frequency of micronuclei was significantly higher than the non-drug-treated control cultures and also
with respect to 5 microg/ml guduchi extract treated cultures, at the rest of the concentrations evaluated.
Furthermore the micronuclie formation was higher in the methylene chloride extract-treated groups. The
dose response relationship for all three extracts evaluated was linear quadratic. The effect of guduchi
extracts was comparable or better than doxorubicin treatment. The micronuclei induction was correlated
with the surviving fraction of cells and the correlation between cell survival and micronuclei induction was
found to be linear quadratic. The results demonstrate that guduchi killed the cells very effectively in vitro
and deserves attention as an antineoplastic agent.
Extract of Tinospora cordifolia has been shown to inhibit the lipid peroxidation and superoxide and
hydroxyl radicals in vitro. Concentration needed for 50% inhibition was 6 mg and 12.5 mg/ml,
respectively. the extract was also found to reduce the toxic side effects of cyclophosphamide administration
(25 mg/kg b. wt, 10 days) in mice hematological system by the free radical formation as seen from total
white blood cell count, bone marrow celllularity and alpha-esterase positive cells. moreover administration
of the extract partially reduced the elevated lipid peroxides in serum and liver as well as alkaline
phosphatase and glutamine pyruvate transaminase. This indicates the use of Tinospora extract in reducing
the chemotoxicity induced by free radical forming chemicals.
To study the antioxidant properties of Tinospora cordifolia roots, an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic
medicine in India in alloxan diabetic rats. Oral administration of an aqueous T. cordifolia root extract
(TCREt) (2.5 and 5.0 g/kg) for 6 weeks resulted in a decrease in the levels of plasma thiobarbituric acid
reactive substances, ceruloplasmin and alpha-tocopherol in alloxan diabetic rats. The root extract also
causes an increase in the levels of gluthathione and vitamin C in alloxan diabetes. The root extract at a dose
of 5.0 g/kg showed the highest effect. The effect of TCREt was more effective than glibenclamide. Insulin
restored all the parameters to near normal levels.
Tinospora cordifolia is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Oral administration of 2.5 g and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of the roots for 6 weeks
resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase in
reduced gluththione (GSH) catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in alloxan diabetic rats. The
effect of Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCREt) was most prominently seen in the case of rats given 5.0
g/kg body weight. The effect of TCREt was more effective than glibenclamide. Thus the study shows that
TCREt exhibits antioxidant action in alloxan diabetes.
The antioxidant activity of an arabinogalactan polysaccharide (TSP) isolated from Tinospora cordifolia, an
Indian medicinal plant was studied. The polysaccharide showed good protection against iron-mediated lipid
peroxidation of rat brain homogenate as revealed by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)
and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) assays. TSP also provided significant protection to protein against
gamma-ray induced damage. The protective action can possibly be explained by its very high reactivity
towards DPPH, superoxide radicals and the most damaging of radicals, the hydroxyl radical.
Free radical scavenging and metal chelation
Aqueous extract of T. cordifolia inhibited Fenton (FeSO4) reaction and radiation mediated 2-deoxyribose
degradation in a dose dependent fashion with an IC50 value of 700 microg/ml for both Fenton and radiation
mediated 2-DR degradation. Similarly it showed a moderate but dose dependent inhibition of chemically
generated superoxide anion at 500 microg/ml concentration and above with an IC50 value of 2000
microg/ml. Aqueous extract inhibited the formation of Fe2+-bipiridyl complex and formation of comet tail
by chelating Fe2+ ions in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 150 microg/ml for Fe2+bipirydy
formation and maximally 200 microg/ml for comet tail formation, respectively. The extract inhibited
ferrous sulphate mediated lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 1300
microg/ml and maximally (70%) at 2000 microg/ml. The results reveal that the direct and indirect
antioxidant actions of T. cordifolia probably act in corroboration to manifest the overall radioprotective
The aim of this study is to appreciate hepatoprotective properties of lyophilized aqueous extract of
Tinospora bakis roots. It is used hepatocytes isolated from rats and intoxicated by CC14. Before and after
intoxication cells were treated with different concentrations of Tinospora bakis extract. (1 mg to 4 mg/ml).
Protection of cells was evaluated by the decrease of intracellular enzymes release (LDH and ASAT). The
impact of time on the cytoprotection was also studied. From each rat, isolated 185.4 millions 71.5
hepatocytes. The percent of ASAT an LDH release was significatively decreased when compared treated
and no treated hepatocytes suggesting cells protection. This cytoprotection is dose independent but is more
effective for long course treatment. These results show the direct protection of isolated hepatocytes by
Tinospora bakis extract.
The effect of commonly used indigenous drugs for hepatic disorders i.e. Tinospora cordifolia,
(Guduchi/Amrita), Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha), Picrorhiza kurroa (Kutki), Phyllantus niruri
(Bhoomyamalaki) and Berberis aristataa (Daruharidra) was tested on the hydraulic permeability of water in
the presence of bile salt through a transport cell model. The data on hydraulic permeability were calculated
as t (time). JV = Lp × AP, where Lp = hydraulic conductivity and AP is the pressure difference. It was
observed that the value of controlled hydraulic permeability (0.49 × 10(-8) M3 S(-1) N(-1) decreased in the
presence of indigenous drugs and bile salt. The results suggest that these drugs might have the cell
membrane stabilizing property which may lead to prevention of the toxic effect of bile salts in various
Effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract on modulation of hepatoprotective and immunostimulatory functions
in carbon tetrachloride (CC14 (0.7 ml/kg body weight for 7 days) produces damage in the liver as evident
by estimatinon of enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transminase (SGOT), serum glutamate
pyruvate transminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as serum bilirubin level, CC14
administration also causes immunosuppressive effects as indicated by phagocytic capacity, chemotactic
migration and cell adhesiveness of rat peritoneal macrophages. However, treatment with T. cordifolia
extract (100 mg/kg body weight for 15 days) in CC14 intoxicated rats was found to protect the liver, as
indicated by enzyme level in serum. A significant reduction in serum levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP,
bilirubin were observed following T. cordifolia treatment during CC14 intoxication. Treatment with T.
cordifolia extract also deleted the immunosuppressive effect of CC14, since a significant increment in the
functional capacities of rat peritoneal macrophages (PM phi) was observed following T. cordifolia
treatment. The results of the experiment suggest that treatment by T. cordifolia extract may be the critical
remedy for the adverse effect of CC14 in liver function as well as immune functions.
The immunomodulating activity was investigated of certain medicinal plants widely used in the Ayurvedic
and Unani systems of medicine for treatment if chronic infections and immunological disorders. The effect
of an ethanolic extract of each drug was studied on delayed type hypersensitivity, humoral responses to
sheep red blood cells, skin allograft rejection and phagocytic activity of the reticuloendithelial system in
mice. Picrorhiza kurroa was found to be a potent immunostimulant, stimulating both cell mediated and
humoral immunity. Tylophora indica, Aconitum heterophyllum and Holarrhena antidysenterica appeared to
stimulate phagocytic function while inhibiting the humoral component of the immune system. Tinospora
cordifolia and Ocimum gratissimum appeared to improve the phagocytic function without affecting the
humoral or cell-mediated immune system. Hemidesmus indicus suppressed both the cell-mediated and
humoral components of the immune system.
The protective effects of Asparagus racemosus (AR) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) against
myelosuppression induced by single doses of cyclophosphamide (CP) have been previously reported.
Presented here are the results of a comparative study between AR, TC, glucan and lithium carbonate
against the myelosuppressive effects of single and multiple doses of cyclophosphamide in mice.
Cyclophosphamide was administered as a single dose 200 mg/kg subcutanaeously to one group of mice,
while a second group received 3 doses of 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Both groups received AR, TC and
lithium orally for 15 days before CP, Glucan was administered intravenously in 3 doses, before
cyclophosphamide in the second group. In both groups peripheral and differential WBC counts were done
before and after drug treatment and serially after cyclophosphamide injection. All four drugs produced
leucocytosis with neutrophilia. When compared to control group, all 4 drugs prevented to varying degrees
leucopenia produced by cyclophosphamide. It is conclude, therefore, that both indigenous plants AR and
TC are potent immunostimulants with effects comparable to lithium and glucan. They need further
evaluation in patients receiving cytotoxic drugs.
A clinical study was undertaken to determine the immune status of patients with obstructive jaundice.
Screening of 16 patients for phagocytic and microbicidal activity of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)
revealed a significant depression (21.2 3.7% phagocytosis and 20.85 4.5% intracellular killing) of these
functions, as compared to normal values (30.37 5.1% and 26.41 4.3% respectively). An animal model of
cholestasis was also established using rats, in which a significant depression of activity of PMN and
peritoneal macrophages was observed. These cellular abnormalities were found to precede and predispose
to infection. The rats also showed an increased susceptibility to Escherichia coli infection (mortality rate
77.78%). A defect was detected in their serum responsible for depressing the function of phagocytic cells.
an attempt was made to improve this immunosuppression by treating the rats with water extract of T.
cordifolia 100 mg/kg for 7 days, following development of cholestasis. The extract improved the cellular
immune functions. Mortality rate following Esch. Coli infection was significantly reduced to 16.67 per
cent. This study showed that cholestasis results in immunosuppression and therefore indicates the need for
an immunomodulator in management of obstructive jaundice. The plant T. cordifolia seems to meet this
need by consolidating host defence mechanism.
The protective effects of an Indian medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia as compared to gentamicin in E.
coli induced peritonitis. Pretreatment with tinospora cordifolia or gentamicin reduced mortality in mice
injected with 1 × 10(8) E. coli intraperitoneally from 100% in controls to 17.8% and 11.1% respctively.
This was associated with significantly improved phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal capacities of
neutrophilis in the Tinospora cordifolia treated group. In the gentamicin treated mice although bacterial
clearance was rapid, polymorph phagocytosis was depressed. Tinospora cordifolia did not possess in vitro
bactericidal activity. The results demonstrate that a "prohost approach" may be beneficial in the therapy of
Effect of alkaloidal fraction of aqueous extract of T. malabarica (Tm) was studied on humoral antibody
responses in rats and guneapigs. The anti-SRBC haemagglutination titre was found to be enhanced in rats
pretreated with Tm (2.5 mg/kg). passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats was also increased in Tm
treated group. In vitro experiments with sensitized rat peritoneal mast cells showed a significant decrease in
antigen-induced various spasmogens on isolated guineapig ileum.
Immunosuppression associated with deranged hepatic function and sepsis results in poor surgical outcome
in extrathepatic obstructive jaundice. The effect of an ayurvedic agent, Tinospora cordifolia (TC) which has
been shown to have hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties in experimental studies, on
surgical outcome in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice was evaluated. Thirty patients were
randomly divided into two groups, matched with respect to clinical features, impairment of hepatic function
(as judges by liver function tests including antipyrine elimination) and immunosuppression (phagocytic and
killing capacities of neutrophils). Group I received conventional management, ie vitamin K, antibiotics and
biliary drainage; group II received Tinospora cordifolia (16mg/kg/day orally) in addition, during the period
of biliary drainage. Hepatic function remained comparable in the two groups after drainage. However, the
phagocytic and killing capacities of neutrophils normalized only in patients receiving Tinospora cordifolia
(28.2 5.5% and 29.47 6.5% respectively). post-drainage bactobilia was observed in 8 patients in Group I
and 7 in Group II, but clinical evidance of septicemia was observed in 50% of patients in Group I as against
none in Group II (p < 0.05). post-operative survival in Groups I and II was 40% and 92.4% respectively (p
< 0.011). Tinospora cordifolia appears to improve surgical outcome by strenghtening host defenses.
Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) is an Indian medicinal plant with proven immunomodulatory activity. this study
was performed to elucidate its possible mechanism of action. It is measured CFU-GM Cotony forming
units of the granulocyte macrophage series in serum of mice treated with Tc. It is found that 10 days
treatment with Tc (100 mg/kg/d) induced a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the number of CFU-GM (255
49.32 vs 38.51 9.98) this suggests that activation of macrophages by Tc leads to increase in GM-CSF
which leads to leucocytosis and improved neutrophil function.
The activity of a crude extract formulation was evaluated in experimental amoebic liver abscess in golden
hamsters and in immunomodulation studies. The formulation comprises the following five plantsBoerhavia diffusa, Tinospora cordifolia, Berberis aristata, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The
formulation had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day in hepatic amoebiasis reducing
the average degree of infection (ADI) to 1.3 as compared to 4.2 for sham-treated controls. In
immunomodulation studies humoral immunity was enhanced as evidenced by the haemagglutination titre.
The T-cell counts remained unaffected in the animals treated with the formulation but cell mediated
immune response was stimulated as observed in the leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) tests.
The active principles of Tinospora cordifolia a traditional Indian plant were found to possess
anticomplementary and immunomodulatory activities. Syringin (TC-4) and cordiol (TC-7) inhibited the in
vitro immunohaemolysis of antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes by guinea pig serum. The reduced
immunohaemolysis was found to be due to inhibition of the C3-convertase of the classical complement
pathway. However, higher concentrations showed constant inhibitory effects. The compounds also gave
rise to significant increases in lgG antibodies in serum. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity were also
dose dependently enhanced. Macrophage activation was reported for cordioside (TC-2) cordiofoliside A
(TC-5) and cordiol (TC-7) and this activation was more pronounced with increasing incubation times.
An arabinogalactan of mean M(r) 2.2 × 10(6) has been isolated from the dried stems of Tinospora
cordifolia and examined by methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis and carboxyl reduction. Purified
polysaccharide showed polyclonal mitogenic activity against B-cells, their proliferation did not require
The water and ethanol extracts of stems of Tinospora cordifolia and T. sinensis inhibit immunosuppression
produced by cyclophosphamide. Ethanol extracta of stems of both the plants inhibit cyclophosphamide
sinensis is found to be more potent than the other extracts.
Modulation of Kupffer cell activity
Kupffer cells are major determinants of outcome of liver injury. Their activity was therefore studied in a
model of chronic liver disease. The effect of Tinospora cordifolia, an indigenous agent with proven
hepatoprotective activity, was evaluated on Kupffer cell function, using carbon clearance test as a
parameter. Rats were divided into two major groups. In Gp I which served as normal control t1/2 of carbon
was 9.48 4.14 min. Gpll received horse-serum in a dose of 0.5 ml/100 gm b.w. i.p. for a period of 12 weeks
and was divided into three sub-groups. In Gp IIA at the end of 12 weeks half-life of carbon was found to be
significantly increased to 19.86 7.95 min (p < 0.01). indicating suppressed Kupffer cell function in chronic
liver damage. In Gp IIB treated with vehicle for 4 more weeks there was significant prolongation of halflife to 38.32 10.61 min (p < 0.01), indicating prepetuation of damage in absence of damaging agent.
Whereas in Gp IIc, treated with Tinospora cordifolia t 1/2 was decreased to 14.24 7.74 min (p < .01), as
compared to vehicle control indicating a significant improvement in Kupffer cell function and a trend
Protective effect against mutagenicity
To evaluate the effects of a polyherbal formulation, Immu-21, against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced
chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) in mice. CP alone (40 mg/kg, i.p.) produced classical
as well as non-classical chromosomal aberrations in mice and the incidence of CA was significantly more
in the CP treated group when compared with that of the control group. Immu-21, which contains extracts of
Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis and Tinospora cordifolia, was given at 100
mg/kg daily over 7 days and 30 mg/kg daily over 14 and non-classical chromosomal aberrations
(approximately 40%-60% of control). A singnificant increase in MN was also observed in bone marrow
erythrocytes of mice treated with CP and pretretment with Immu-21 also significantly reduced these.
Cytotoxicity was evaluated by estimating the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) to
normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs). The present results indicate that chronic treatment with Immu-21
prevented CP-induced genotoxicity in mice.