Mapping and inventory of the access and use of climate change

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Mapping and inventory of the access and use of climate change
Mapping and inventory of the access and use of
climate change related financing in the Eastern
Southern African - Indian Ocean region
REPORT
February 2012
Table of contents
Acronyms ....................................................................................................................... 5
Executive Summary ...................................................................................................... 8
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 12
2. Objectives of the consultancy................................................................................ 13
3. Methodology ............................................................................................................ 13
4. Analysis of climate change challenges in the IOC countries and Zanzibar ....... 15
4.1 Comoros........................................................................................................................ 15
4.2 Madagascar ................................................................................................................... 16
4.3 Mauritius ....................................................................................................................... 17
4.4 Seychelles ..................................................................................................................... 19
4.5 Zanzibar......................................................................................................................... 20
4.6 La Réunion .................................................................................................................... 22
5. Analysis of the institutional, policy and legal framework .................................... 23
5.1 At international and regional level .............................................................................. 24
5.1.1. The Indian Ocean Commission ............................................................................. 24
5.1.2 Western Indian Ocean Costal Challenge ............................................................... 26
5.1.3 Nairobi Convention ................................................................................................. 27
5.1.4 Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa .............................................. 28
5.1.5 Southern Africa Development Community .......................................................... 30
5.1.6 Alliance of Small Islands States............................................................................. 31
5.1.7Global Island Partnership ........................................................................................ 31
5.1.8 World Trade Organisation ................................................................................................ 31
5.2 At national level ............................................................................................................ 34
5.2.1 Comoros .................................................................................................................. 34
5.2.2 Madagascar ............................................................................................................. 36
5.2.3 Mauritius .................................................................................................................. 38
5.2.4 Seychelles ............................................................................................................... 39
5.2.5 Zanzibar ................................................................................................................... 41
2
5.2.6 La Réunion ............................................................................................................................ 43
6. Recommendations to establish and enabling environment for climate change in
the IOC region and Zanzibar ...................................................................................... 44
7. Analysis of internal sources of funding ................................................................ 46
7.1 National Budget ............................................................................................................ 46
7.2 National dedicated funds ............................................................................................ 50
7.3 National tax and incentives framework ....................................................................... 53
7.4 Barriers to the mobilization of internal sources of funding for climate change...... 55
7.4 Recommendations to increase the mobilisation of internal sources of funding for
climate change.................................................................................................................... 55
8.Analysis of external sources of funding ................................................................ 56
8.1 Climate change dedicated funds ................................................................................. 56
8.2 International Context .................................................................................................... 57
8.3 IOC countries and Zanzibar context ........................................................................... 59
8.2 Clean Development Mechanism ................................................................................. 62
8.3 Other climate change financing mechanisms ........................................................... 64
8.3.1 SIDS Docks .............................................................................................................. 64
8.3.2 Non Governmental organizations/Community Based organizations .................. 64
8.3.3 Regional projects .................................................................................................... 65
8.3.4 Other main national projects contributing to climate change adaptation and
mitigation ................................................................................................................ 67
8.4 Barriers to the mobilization of external sources of funding for climate change ...... 71
8.5 Recommendations to increase the mobilisation of external sources of funding for
climate change..................................................................................................................... 72
9.Analysis of innovative sources of funding ............................................................ 73
9.1 Private sector engagement .......................................................................................... 73
9.2 Payment for ecosystems services .............................................................................. 74
9.3 Compensation measures ............................................................................................. 74
9.4 Recommendations to increase the mobilization of innovative sources of funding for
climate change.................................................................................................................... 75
10. Keys elements of a road map to increase mobilization of sources of funding
for climate change in the IOC countries and Zanzibar............................................. 76
3
11.Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 79
ANNEX 1 Terms of Reference of the consultancy ................................................... 80
ANNEX 2 List of persons met ..................................................................................... 85
ANNEX 3 Terms of reference of the regional workshop climate change finance .. 93
ANNEX 4 List of projects financed in the IOC region and Tanzania by dedicated
climate change funds monitor by Climate Change Funds update org ................... 98
ANNEX 5 list of assistance available under the European Development Regional
Fund ........................................................................................................................... 103
ANNEX 6 Bibliography .............................................................................................. 109
4
Acronyms
AF
Adaptation Fund
AFD
Agence Française pour le Développement
AfDB
African Development Bank
AOIS
Alliance Of Small Islands States
AU
African Union
BPoA
Barbados Plan of Action
CAADP
Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme
CBD
Convention for Biological Diversity
CBO
Community Based Organisation
CCCCC
Caribbean Community Climate Change centre (CCCCC)
CDM
Clean Development Mechanism
CTF
Clean Technology Fund
COMESA
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
COP
Convention of parties
CORDIO
Coral Reef Degradation in the Indian Ocean
CR Réunion Conseil Régional Réunion
CSR
Corporate Social Responsibility
DFID
Department For International Development
DOE
Department Of Environment
EAU
Eastern Africa Union
EDF
European Development Fund
ERDF
European Regional Development Fund
EU
European Union
EEZ
Exclusive Economic Zone
ETF
Environmental Trust Fund
FAO
Food and Agriculture Organization
FFEM
Fond Français pour l‟Environnement Mondial
FIP
Forest Investment Program
5
FCPF
Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
GCCA
Global Climate Change Alliance
GEF
Global Environment Facility
GEEREF
Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund
GHG
Greenhouse Gases
GLISPA
Global Island Partnership
GM
Global Mechanism
GNI
Gross National Income
IDC
Islands Development Company
IFAD
International Fund for Agricultural Development
ICZM
Integrated Coastal Zone management
IOC
Indian Ocean Commission
IPCC
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IUCN
International Union for Conservation of Nature
LBSA
Land Based Sources and Activities
LDCF
Least Developed Countries Fund
MAP
Madagascar Action Plan
MID
Maurice Ile Durable
NAPA
National Action Programme for Adaptation
NBSAP
National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
NCSA
National Capacity Self-Assessment
NCCC
National Climate Change Committee
NIE
National Implementing Entity
NGO
Non-Governmental Organization
PCT
Plan Climat Territoriaux
PES
Payment for Environmental Services
PPCR
Pilot program for climate Resilience
REDD
Reductions of Emissions by Deforestation and Forest Degradation
RIE
Regional Implementing Entity
RISDP
Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan
SADC
Southern Africa Development Community
6
SCF
Strategic Climate change Fund
SCCF
Special Climate Change Fund
SPREP
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme
SIDS
Small Island Developing States
SSDS
Seychelles Sustainability Development Strategy
SR
Seychelles Rupee
UNCBD
United Nations Convention on Biodiversity
UNCCD
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
UNEP
United Nations for Environment Programme
UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNFCCC
United Nations Convention on Climate Change
USD
United States Dollar
WB
World Bank
WCS
Wildlife Conservation Society
WIO-C
Western Indian Ocean Consortium
WIO-CC
Western Indian Ocean Coastal Challenge
WIOMSA
Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association
WHO
World Health Organisation
WTO
World Trade Organisation
WWF
World Wildlife Fund
7
Executive Summary
The countries of the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) region1 and Zanzibar are highly
vulnerable to climate change and variability. The region‟s coastal and marine resources
and the communities that depend on these resources for food, water and livelihoods are
particularly sensitive to climate impacts. Climate impacts are air and sea surface
temperature increases, precipitation changes, increasing frequency and severity of
extreme weather events, as well as sea level rise which already affect the main
economical sector of the islands of the region (agriculture, forestry, fisheries, tourism
and public health). The IOC countries and Zanzibar are already facing numerous
challenges in managing coastal and marine resources because of increasing levels of
pollution, unsustainable and damaging land-use practices, excessive fishing and water
scarcity. These challenges are exacerbated by climate change.
Recognising the crucial importance of these challenges the IOC countries and the
Untied Republic of Tanzania for Zanzibar have ratified the three United Nations
environmental conventions (so-called Rio conventions) the United Nations Framework
Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC), the United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification
(UNCCD) and the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD)) in the
1990s. Action plans and strategies have been produced but their implementation
remains limited due to lack of financial capacity.
In this context, the projects ISLANDS and ACClimate of the IOC and the Global
Mechanism signed a cooperation agreement in order to develop the capacity of the IOC
countries and Zanzibar to mobilise additional climate change funding. The objectives
are to use existing sources and instruments more efficiently and to mobilise new and
additional resources through the creation of an enabling environment.
The mapping of existing internal, external and innovative sources of climate change
funding within the IOC countries and Zanzibar and the analysis of the institutional, policy
and legal framework have highlighted the following main barriers to resource
mobilisation for climate change:
1
Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, France (for Réunion), and the Seychelles
8

The lack of a clear mechanism of coordination for climate change at
regional level

The lack of action plans and investment plans for the climate change
adaptation strategy

The lack of a climate change mitigation strategy

The limited
awareness and information of the key economic players
(public and private) on climate change issues

The limited technical capacity to develop, manage, monitor and evaluate
climate change bankable projects

The limited knowledge on climate change funding mechanisms

The limited technical and financial capacity of the IOC

The limited technical and financial capacity to effectively participate and
negotiate in international and regional climate change fora

The limited use of economic valuation of climate change in developing
national development plans
and the lack of integration of the capital
natural in national account system
The following key elements of a road map to improve the use and access of climate
finance in the IOC countries and Zanzibar are proposed:
Strategic objective 1: Improved regional enabling environment for climate change
 The IOC has a defined area of intervention and a clear role of Western Indian
Ocean-Costal Challenge(WIO-CC)
 A regional platform on climate change is operational based on exchanges of
experiences and sharing of information and expertise based on lessons learned
in the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) and the
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP);
 An action plan and investment plans are developed for the climate change
adaptation strategy in the IOC member countries
9

A Climate change mitigation strategy and action plans are developed
 These strategies are mainstreamed into regional development planning and
budgeting of COMESA-SADC, etc.
Strategic objective 2: Strengthened mobilisation of internal sources of funding
for climate change

Key stakeholders and the public sector are sensitised with respect to climate
change issues using targeted innovative education and awareness techniques

Climate change strategies and action plans are mainstreamed into national
development planning and budgeting

The coordination and implementation framework is strengthened

National taxes and financial incentives policy frameworks for climate change are
developed

A system to track in the national account system the flow of climate change
financing is established

Natural capital is integrated into national account systems

National capacity in terms of environmental economic valuation is strengthened
Strategic objective 3: Strengthened mobilisation of external sources of funding
for climate change

Regional and national capacities of the IOC, government ,NGOs/CBOs ,private
sector in bankable project design, management, monitoring and evaluation are
strengthened

Regional and national capacities of the IOC, government ,NGOs/CBOs ,private
sector in climate change financing mechanisms (adaptation and mitigation) are
strengthened

Regional and national
capacities of
IOC, government ,NGOs/CBOs
in
negotiating skills to participate actively in international climate change fora are
strengthened
10

The national and regional coordination mechanisms in terms of resource
mobilisation are strengthened

The feasibility to establish a regional climate change fund has been determined
in a study

The technical, administrative and financial capacities of the IOC are strengthened

The possibility to combine European Development Fund (EDF) and the
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) on regional climate change
initiative is determined in a study
Strategic objective 4: Strengthened the mobilisation of innovative sources of
funding for climate change

The private sector is sensitised on climate change issues using targeted
innovative education and awareness techniques

Corporate Social Responsibility among the private sector is promoted to
encourage the adoption of sustainable development practices

National governments are assisted to develop appropriate policy frameworks to
encourage investment in climate change adaptation and mitigation measures

The possibility to introduce payment for terrestrial and marine ecosystem
services (carbon sequestration, coral reef services, mangroves and watershed
services, etc.) to contribute to the financing of climate change adaptation and
mitigation is determined in a study

National capacities to evaluate carbon footprint of agricultural and forest land and
their economic value are strengthened

National governments are assisted to develop national legislation to regulate
economic activities so that they do not adversely affect ecosystems. Any impact
on the ecosystem by economic operators is mitigated by a system of
compensation.
11
1. Introduction
The region of the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) is comprising of five countries,
namely Mauritius, Madagascar, Seychelles, Comoros, and La Réunion (France). All
IOC countries and Zanzibar are small islands and are regularly exposed to natural
disasters (tsunamis, cyclones, drought, volcanic eruption), which have an impact on the
population and the islands‟ ecosystems. Degradation of natural resources is caused
both by natural phenomena (storms, tsunamis) and by man-made activities (water
pollution, unsustainable agriculture practices, overexploitation of marine resources).
These islands are also highly vulnerable to climate change impacts and climate
variability such as sea level rise and intensity and frequency of rainfalls. These
phenomena create a degradation of the environment which is further aggravated by
anthropogenic pressure on natural resources which could jeopardise the sustainable
development of these islands.
Recognising the crucial importance of the environment and appreciating the growing
threats to natural resources, all IOC countries and Tanzania for Zanzibar ratified the
three United Nations environmental conventions (so-called Rio conventions): the United
Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC), the United Nations
Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the Convention for Biological
Diversity (CBD)). These Conventions aim to promote effective action to achieve
sustainable development through innovative local programmes and supportive
international partnerships.
The IOC countries and Zanzibar have developed national action plans for these
conventions, but their implementation has been limited due to limited technical and
financial capacity.
In this context, the IOC signed a convention in 2009 with the Global Mechanism (GM),
a specialised body of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification that supports
12
countries to mobilise financial resources and increase investments in sustainable land
management, helping reverse, control and prevent desertification, land degradation and
drought. The GM supports developing countries to position land as an investment
priority at the national and international levels and sees a large potential in the use of
climate change funding to provide additional funding for the implementation of the
UNCCD.
Moreover, the IOC is implementing two projects (ISLANDS and ACClimate) funded
respectively by the European Union and the Fond Français pour l‟Environnement
Mondial (FFEM) which aim, amongst other objectives, to develop the capacity of the
countries to access climate finance mechanisms.
This consultancy is carried out in the framework of cooperation between the IOC, the
GM and the projects ISLANDS and ACClimate.
2. Objectives of the consultancy
The overall objective of the consultancy was the mapping and inventory of the access to
and use of climate change related financing in the IOC region and Zanzibar to promote
the sustainable use of natural resources, and the development of key elements of a
road map to improve the access to climate change finance and the use of related
mechanisms. In particular, the following specific objectives were achieved:
(a) The situation in IOC countries and Zanzibar with regards to the access and use
of climate change related financing was analysed and
(b) The key elements of a road map to improve the access to climate change finance
and the use of related mechanisms for countries in the region with a view to
support the implementation of the Rio Conventions in the IOC region was
developed.
The detailed Terms of Reference can be found in Annex 1.
13
3. Methodology
The first phase of the consultancy was a desk review of existing documents and the
analysis of information collected during a mission to Madagascar and the Comoros
funded by the GM in August 2012.
The second phase of the consultancy was a mission in January 2013, funded by the
ISLANDS project, to collect relevant information and meet relevant stakeholders in
Zanzibar, Mauritius and la Réunion.
The list of the persons met during the consultancy can be found in Annex 2.
The third part of the consultancy is a regional workshop with the following objectives:
1. Presentation of the findings of the consultancy and discussion on the way
forward
2. Participation in the capacity building exercise in climate change financing
organised by the GM
Detailed Terms of Reference of the regional workshop can be found in Annex 3.
The key elements of the road map to improve access to and use of climate change
finance:

Identified potential barriers to resource allocation and disbursement and highlight
aspects in the policy, fiscal, legal, institutional and human resource environments
that may impede the implementation of specific actions related to resource
mobilisation or programme execution at national and regional level

Recommended actions at regional level for overcoming these barriers and create an
enabling environment for climate change resource mobilisation at regional level

Identified and review the different climate change financing sources including
bilateral
and
multilateral
funding,
national
budgets
NGOs/communities and private sector entities

Recommended actions to increase resource mobilisation
14
and
investments
by
4. Analysis of climate change challenges in the IOC
countries and Zanzibar
Small islands of the Indian Ocean and Eastern Africa Region have many features in
common: small size, small populations, lack of substantial natural resources,
remoteness, vulnerability to natural disasters, excessive dependence upon imports,
limited number of economic sectors, inaccessibility to economies of scale, high cost of
transportation and communication.
These islands are especially vulnerable to climate change and the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)2 indicates with a high level of confidence that small
islands will be affected by global sea level rise, which could increase coastal
inundations and erosion and magnify the impact of storm surges and affect coastal
agriculture. Climate change impacts on reefs and fisheries, through warming of the
ocean and ocean acidification, are threats that would undermine food security and
livelihoods in small islands in the region of the IOC. Changes in precipitation will also
affect the availability of water which will affect the population, key economic sectors
such as tourism and agriculture, and biodiversity. Climate change will also have a direct
impact on human health.
4.1 Comoros
The Union of
Comoros
consists of the three islands Grande Comore(1148 km2),
Anjouan(424km)and Moheli(290km2,) covering an area of
18623 km² . The distance
between the islands is between 30-40 km.These islands are separated by deep
trenchThe total population is 753 9004 with a density of 300 habitants per km² . Most
agglomerations and 41% of the population of the country lie on the coastal area.
Comoros is a least developed country with a GNI per capita of 1,079 USD5 in 2011.
2
IPPC, 2007
Mayotte ,French department forms part of the archipelago of Comoros but it is not cover by this study
4
World Bank statistics, 2011
5
UNDP Human Development Index, Gross National Income in PPP terms (Constant 2005),2011
3
15
Comoros is vulnerable to climate change. Preliminary findings indicate that the
temperature has risen by 1°C since 1960, rainfall has diminished, the sea level has
risen by 0.4 mm per year and the frequency of cyclones has increased.
The most important factors of climate change vulnerability are the following6: (i) most of
the population lives in towns in coastal areas; (ii) most of the infrastructure is located in
areas with less than 6m of elevation; (iii) the traditional habitat made of straw and daub
does not resist well to extreme weather events; (iv) the country is dependant on the
agricultural and fishery sectors; and (v) food insecurity exists and access to drinking
water is problematic.
Climate change impacts are currently being seen. The combination of intense and
irregular rainfall, pronounced dry seasons and high temperatures have already a
negative impact on agricultural production and are responsible for the degradation of
agricultural land. The change in rainfall patterns has exacerbated the water scarcity in
Comoros. Climate change also has a negative impact on the artisanal fishing sector
because of bleaching of the coral reef sensitive to sea temperature rise. The increase in
temperature will multiply the occurrence of malaria and other vector-borne diseases in
the highlands.
The inventory of the country‟s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions7 showed that the
annual emission volume (all direct greenhouse gas emissions combined) were 1.3
million teCO2 in 1994. 58.9% of emissions are due to change of land use and 35% to
agriculture. The contribution of energy in this emission is only 5%.
4.2 Madagascar
Madagascar covers an area of 600 000 km² and has 5 000 kilometres of coastline with
a population of 21.3 million inhabitants8. It is a least developed country with a GNI per
capita of 824 USD9 .
6
Communication nationale initiale, Convention Cadre des Nations Unies des Changements Climatiques 2002
Communication nationale initiale, Convention Cadre des Nations Unies des Changements Climatiques 2002
8
World Bank Statistics ,2011
9
UNDP Gross National Income in PPP terms (Constant 2005),2011
7
16
Madagascar is highly vulnerable to climate change. This vulnerability affects especially
the agricultural sector, the public health, water resources, forestry, fisheries and the
coastal zones. Climate change varies from region to region. Climate change studies10
indicate that there is an increase in temperatures which is more important in the south
of Madagascar, the dry season is longer on the east coast and the central highlands
and rainfalls are more intense in the western part of Madagascar. The number of
extremes events (cyclones, droughts, floods) has increased during the period 1994 –
2005.
This climatic variability has an important impact on the agriculture sector (change of the
agricultural calendar, change of varieties cultivated). There is also a reduction of the
production because of the late start of the rainy season, periods of drought during the
rainy season, and hail fall which can damage the crops in certain regions.
Further, there is an impact on public health with the increase of diseases such malaria,
dengue fever, chikungunia, respiratory diseases, diarrheic diseases etc. during extreme
climatic events.
Madagascar‟s annual direct GHG emissions are estimated at 58 million tteCO211. CO2
emission from soils represent 70%, land use change (forest and grassland) contributing
27%. The volume of GHG emitted by energy production represents only 1.6% of
national emissions.
4.3 Mauritius
The Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius) consists of two main islands, namely Mauritius
and Rodrigues, and groups of islands called St. Brandon and Agalega, covering of total
area of 2 045 km². The population is 1.286 million inhabitants12, with a density of 654
habitants per km². Mauritius is an industrialised upper middle income country with a GNI
per capita of 12,918 USD13.
10
Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Rapport sur l’état de l’environnement à Madagascar 2012
Ministry of Environment and Forestry Rapport sur l’état de l’environnement de Madagascar, 2012
12
World Bank Statistics,2012
13
UNDP , Gross National Income in PPP terms (Constant 2005),2011
11
17
In Mauritius, the impacts of climate change are already apparent through rising sea
levels (3.5mm per year)14, beach erosion, an increase in the frequency and intensity of
extreme weather events, as well as recurrent floods and droughts. The principal areas
of economic and environmental vulnerability to climate change include tourism,
agriculture, fisheries, health and freshwater resources. The coastal zone also faces
much pressure with impacts on strategic infrastructure such as hotels, restaurants,
residential buildings, roads and public utilities, especially during cyclones and sea
surges. The rich biodiversity of the island, especially in the coastal and marine areas, is
most threatened by climate change (coral bleaching and mangrove destruction) and this
is further accentuated by human-induced pressures. Increasing CO2 emissions cause
ocean acidification, thus altering the diversity of marine ecosystems.
Rainfall is the primary source of water supply for Mauritius. A decrease of 8% in rainfall,
along with more frequent and severe droughts, has been noted during the period 1905 –
2007, which makes Mauritius water stressed as a result of climate change.
The agricultural sector is being impacted by climate change through altered rainfall
patterns, prolonged droughts or flash floods, extreme weather events such as cyclones,
decreased water availability and the increased incidence of agricultural pests and crop
diseases.
Climate change is also impacting the fisheries sector with modified fisheries productivity
and availability. In two occasions, between 1997 and 2008, the tuna catch declined in
the Western Indian Ocean due to above average sea surface temperatures, a deeper
than average thermocline and low chlorophyll concentrations.
Elderly persons, children and infants are the most vulnerable groups to be affected by
increases in temperature (0.74C° between 1961 and 1990)15 coupled with high levels of
humidity. Moreover, Mauritius‟ tropical climate and rising temperatures multiplies the
proliferation and transmission of tropical vector borne diseases, while flash floods favour
outbreaks of water borne diseases (e.g. Chikungunya).
14
15
Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Mauritius Environment outlook, 2012
Mauritius Meteorological Services
18
Greenhouse gas emissions for Mauritius amount to 3.5 million teCO2 in 200916. Energy
production is the largest contributor with 60%.
4.4 Seychelles
The Republic of Seychelles has a total land area of 455 km² spread across an Exclusive
Economic Zone (EEZ) of around 1.4 million km². There are 115 islands listed in the
Constitution of the Seychelles. The total population is 89 70017. Mahe where 80% of the
population live, has a high population density with 434 habitants per km². The country is
an upper middle income country with a GNI per capita of USD 16 72918. Most of the
economic activity and the population are concentrated on the narrow coastal area of
Mahe.
The Seychelles is vulnerable to the effects of climate change and associated extreme
events. Vulnerability characteristics such as concentration of development on narrow
costal zones with an average elevation of 2m above sea level, non-resilient ecosystems
and populations unprepared for such events make Seychelles sensitive to climate
change impacts. Preliminary findings19 indicate that rainfall will decrease during the dry
southeast monsoon which will reduce stream flows, groundwater recharge and
therefore water supply; the surface air temperatures will increase the rates of evapotranspiration and consequently reduce stream flow, ground water recharge and further
exacerbate the water supply problem; the increase of the rainfall intensity will result in
greater surface runoff, increased frequency of landslides and reduced water capture in
existing storage facilities. During periods of extended drought, forest fires will be more
frequent, posing a risk to the infrastructure and biodiversity of the islands.
The sea level rise, rising sea surface temperatures, increased tropical cyclone intensity
and ocean acidification will have a negative impact on the health of the coral reef
16
Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development Mauritius Environment outlook, 2012
Seychelles National Bureau of Statistics, 2011.
18
UNDP, Gross National Income in PPP terms (Constant 2005),2011
19
Seychelles national Climate Change Strategy ,2009
17
19
systems which is important to the fisheries and conservation of biodiversity (biodiversity
is also a major tourist attraction).
Seychelles‟ annual GHG emissions are estimated at 0.237 million teCO2 in 200020.
They are primarily due to electricity production (57%), transport (25%) and industrial
and commercial activities (11%).
4.5 Zanzibar
Tanganyikan State became a republic in 1962 and the People‟s Republic of Zanzibar
was established in 1964. The two foreign states formed the United Republic of Tanzania
in 1964.
Zanzibar is composed of the islands of Unguja and Pema. The Population of Zanzibar is
around 1.3 million and the archipelago is densely populated, with about 518 habitants
per km²21, on a total area of 2 654 km² (Unguja 1 666 km², Pema 988 km²). The United
Republic of Tanzania is a least developed country with a GNI per capita of USD 1 328
in 201122. Zanzibar‟s economy is very dependent on the climate and a large proportion
of GDP, employment and livelihoods are associated with climate sensitive activities.
The population and the economic activities are concentrated in the costal zones. These
areas are at risk from future sea-level rise and storm surge, as well as from coastal
erosion. The coastal areas of Zanzibar are already vulnerable to coastal erosion,
flooding and salt water intrusion in water supplies. Strategic infrastructure such as major
new port developments, hospitals, tourism establishments etc. may be at risk from
climate variability23.
Coastal and marine ecosystems are the backbone of Zanzibar‟s economy and support a
very large number of livelihoods on the islands. Sea level rise, rising sea surface
temperatures, extreme weather events and ocean acidification will have a negative
impact on the health of the coral reef, sea grasses bed and mangroves which are
20
Seychelles National Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options report, 2008
Tanzania in figure , National Bureau of Statistics of Tanzania,2012
22
UNDP , United Republic of Tanzania, Gross National Income in PPP terms (Constant 2005),2011
23
Revolutionary government of Zanzibar, Socio economic data and climate screening of programmes and
development plans. technical report ,volume 3 The economics of climate change in Zanzibar,2012
21
20
important to the fisheries, seaweed harvesting and the conservation of biodiversity, the
latter being important for the tourism sector. There was mass bleaching of many of
Zanzibar‟s coral reefs during the 1998 El Niño event, which was reported to have led to
a large economic loss for the tourism industry. Shallow seaweed harvesting is an
important activity in Zanzibar, supporting livelihoods. Seaweeds are dying off along the
coast of Tanzania, including Zanzibar, because of the sea surface temperature rise.
The agriculture sector is also very climate-sensitive. The agricultural production (e.g.
clove production) is at risk from greater climate variability such as temperature increase
(estimates indicate that temperatures will increase by 1.5-2°C by 205024, change of
rainfall frequency (trends indicated an increase of rainfall during the wet season and a
decrease of rainfall during the dry season) and an intensification of extreme events.
Climate change has an effect on public health with periodic outbreaks of diseases
(malaria and cholera) during extreme weather events (floods and droughts).
The climate variability with change in rainfall patterns with more frequent droughts has
intensified, the water scarcity.
Zanzibar‟s annual GHG emission was estimated in 2010 at 0.763 million teCO2. They
are due to electricity production (39%), agriculture (28%), forestry ( 29%) and waste
(4%).25
4.6 La Réunion
La Réunion is a French department and an European Union ultra-peripheral territory. La
Réunion covers a total area of 2 512 km2 with a population of 839 480 inhabitants26 and
has a density of 312 habitants per km2. It has a high level of economic development
24
Revolutionary government of Zanzibar, Projection of climate change and sea level rise for Zanzibar ,volume I The
economics of climate change in Zanzibar,2012
25
Revolutionary government of Zanzibar ,The economics of climate change in Zanzibar , draft final summary
report ,2012
26
Institut National des Statistiques et des Eudes Economiques, 2011,
21
with France having a GNI per capita of USD 30 462 in 201127. 82%of the population and
the majority of economic activities are concentrated in the coastal zones.
An analysis of historical climate data28 indicates that during the next century:
• The rainfall will vary from - 2 to +20% with more extreme events and dryer winter
months
• The sea level will rise from 20 to 60cm by 2100
• The Mascareignes anticyclone will be strengthened which will generate stronger
wind during the austral winter and
• Cyclones might become less frequent but more intense with associate rainfalls.
The disasters and risks are the major challenge for la Réunion concerning climate
change29. Landslides will need special attention and monitoring in the mountains.
Flooding and sea surges will be more frequent in coastal areas and infrastructure might
be at risk during extremes events.
The diminution of rainfall during the winter will exacerbate the existing water scarcity
situation in specific areas and will have an impact on the hydropower sector.
The sugar cane is the main agriculture production.The sugar cane is more resilient to
climate change being less sensitive to the increase of the atmospheric CO2 .It is as
well relatively easy to create varieties adaptated to different climate conditions.
Coral reefs will be highly vulnerable to sea temperature rise and ocean acidification.
These will have an impact on traditional fisheries, beach protection, tourism and marine
biodiversity.
Climate change in la Réunion will also have an impact on public health with more
frequent outbreaks of diseases such as the chikungunya. Such outbreaks might also
have a major impact on the tourism sector.
27
UNDP , France Gross National Income in PPP terms (Constant 2005),2011
Météo France, 2008
29
ACClimate, Etude de vulnérabilité aux changements climatiques, Etude qualitative,2011
28
22
In la Réunion, the GHG emissions were estimated at 4.3 million teCO2 in 2008. They
mainly come from electricity production (44%) and land transport( 29%)30. France and la
Réunion are committed to reduce GHG emissions by 75% by 2050.
Despite different situations among the IOC countries and Zanzibar (different level of
development, different size of population and territory), all IOC countries are already
feeling the impacts of climate change and share common threats related to climate
change. Climate change will severely affect the marine and coastal ecosystems of the
Western Indian Ocean States. Coral reefs will be affected by rising sea temperature, the
mangroves by flooding, sedimentation and a rising sea level, and water resources by
rainfall change and rising temperatures. These ecosystems provide invaluable goods
and services for communities living in coastal areas. The agriculture, fisheries and
tourism sectors, which are the pillars of the economy of the IOC countries and Zanzibar,
will be severely affected.
5. Analysis of the Institutional, Policy and Legal
Framework
The countries of the IOC and Zanzibar are members of several international and
regional organisations which have developed policies and strategies related to climate
change and natural resources management.
5.1 International and regional level
5.1.1 The Indian Ocean Commission
The IOC is an intergovernmental organisation founded in 1984 and based in Mauritius.
The five member countries are France (La Réunion), Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius
and Seychelles. Its mission is to strengthen links between the peoples of its member
states and improve their standard of living, promoting cooperation in a number of areas:
diplomacy, economy, trade, agriculture, fishing, the conservation of resources and
30
Revue Economique de la Réunion no 11 Hors série, Juin 2012
23
ecosystems, culture, science and education. The IOC is defending the interest of island
states in regional and international fora.
The IOC has limited internal financial resources (EUR 541 170 in 2011). The five
member countries contribute to the budget of the IOC as follow: Comoros 6%,
Seychelles 5%, Madagascar 29%, Mauritius 20%, France (La Réunion) 40%. The IOC
manages a portfolio of ten regional cooperation and development programmes. The
financial resources mobilised in 2011 were EUR 12 million for a total amount of EUR 83
million over a period of several years.
The IOC is currently implementing five regional projects related to climate change and
sustainable land management as indicated in table 1 below.
Project title
Period
Source of
funding
Climate Change Adaptation
(ACClimate)
2008-2012
FFEM
MAEE
CR REUNION
IFAD
Amount in
Million Euro
3.6
Agro ecology regional initiative
2009-2012
0.75
climate change (IRACC)
ISLANDS : Small Island developing
2011-2013
EU
10
states (SIDS)
Risks and disasters management,
2012-2015
AFD
2
management of the biodiversity in
2013-2017
EU
15
islands, marine and coastal areas in
coastal states of Eastern Africa and
Indian Ocean (Comoros, Madagascar,
Maurice, Seychelles, Tanzania,
Kenya)
Renewable energy development and
2013-2017
EU
15
energy efficiency improvements in
Indian Ocean Commission Member
States
Table 1. Programme related to climate change implemented by the IOC
The project ACClimate carried out a vulnerability study to climate change for the IOC
countries and developed a framework for a regional climate change adaptation strategy
24
in the IOC countries 2012 – 2020 (which not include Zanzibar). The main
recommendations are the following31:

To set up an regional climate change adaptation observatory which would have
the objective to capitalise, harmonise and disseminate the data and information
to allow a better understanding of climate change forecasting models at regional
and national level

To set up a regional resource centre for climate change adaptation based on
national services which aims at promoting the use of existing or emerging
resources through synergies with the projects and actions taking place within the
IOC region. The main mission would be :
 Information and communication
 Communication and awareness campaign
 Training and education
 Advice and expertise for public and private policy makers
 Capitalisation and distribution, dissemination
 Scientific monitoring of
innovation and experimentation of alternative
solutions

To ensure the regional coordination and governance by the IOC
The framework for a regional climate change adaptation strategy in the IOC countries
2012 – 2020 was approved by the Council of Ministers of the IOC in January 2013.
The European Union is the main funding agency of the IOC with 68% of the total
financial resources for projects. The IOC has also developed partnerships with
international
and regional organisation like l'Agence Française de Développement
(AfD), the African Development Bank, the World Bank, La Réunion, several United
Nations agencies (UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, IFAD).
31
IndianOcean Commission, Framework for the regional climate change adaptation strategy in the IOC members
countries 2012-2020,2012
25
However, due to its limited internal financial resources, the IOC has often difficulties to
find co-financing required by some funding agencies for the development of regional
projects.
The IOC would like to put in place specialised units for priority areas identified by
member countries to insure the sustainability and the efficiency of actions. However,
this will require more financial resources from member countries.
It is important to note that the IOC is in the process of improving its administrative and
financial procedures to meet international standards in order to improve the
management and the monitoring of its projects. At present, the IOC has follow the
administrative and financial procedures of each donor agencies as its internal
procedures do not meet international requirements.
The IOC is playing a key role in international and regional fora (COMESA, SADC etc.),
to create an enabling environment for increased investments in the region to combat
land degradation, adapt to climate change, protect agriculture production and, more in
general, promote the protection of the environment and natural resources. The IOC has
recently obtained the status of observer in the UNFCCC and two Memoranda of
Understanding were signed at the Sustainable Development Conference Rio+20 in
2012 between the IOC, The Caribbean Community Climate Change centre (CCCCC),
the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP; one of their
main objectives being the enhancement of SIDS‟ access to the international climate
finance).
5.1.2 Western Indian Ocean Coastal Challenge (WIO-CC)
The Governments of the Indian Ocean islands and coastal eastern and southern Africa
(Comoros, France-Réunion, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles,
and Zanzibar) have signed a range of international and regional agreements, projects
and activities that address issues including climate change, biological diversity
conservation, desertification and sustainable development. The Western Indian Ocean
Coastal Challenge (WIO-CC) launched in October 2012 will build on this to ensure that
momentum is created for implementation of these agreements over a long time scale.
26
The WIO countries have developed a 20 year vision for the WIO-CC and a strategy to
achieve this vision. The outline of the strategy was presented for consideration by
contracting parties during COP732.
The WIO-CC is a mechanism based on exchange of experiences to coordinate and
align regional projects and programmes which aim to secure coastal economies in the
face of climate change. The WIO-CC will work in close collaboration with the IOC, the
Nairobi Convention and the consortium for the Conservation of Coastal and Marine
Ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO-C; see below).
It will develop a communication strategy and address the need for a resource
mobilisation and sustainable finance strategy including private sector engagement. The
WIO-CC will be initially supported financially by the project ISLANDS implemented by
the IOC.
5.1.3 The Nairobi Convention
The Nairobi Convention regroups ten countries of southern and eastern Africa. All IOC
countries and the United Republic of Tanzania are signatories of the Convention. The
Nairobi Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and
Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region constitutes the current regional legal
framework for the protection of marine and coastal resources. The protocol on Land
Based Sources and Activities (LBSA) was adopted in 2010 and a protocol on Integrated
Coastal Zone management (ICZM) was adopted in 2012.
In this framework, the Consortium for the Conservation of Coastal and Marine
Ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO-C) was launched in 2007 with the
mission to achieve a healthy marine and coastal environment which sustainably
supports people‟s livelihoods in the WIO-region. Founding members of the WIO-C
include International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Wildlife Conservation
Society ( WCS), Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association (WIOMSA), World
Wildlife Fund( WWF), Coral Reef Degradation in the Indian Ocean (CORDIO), Indian
Ocean Commission( IOC), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United
32
th
Declaration Western Indian Ocean coastal Challenge, 26 October 2012
27
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation( IOC-UNESCO), New
Partenrship for Africa‟s Development Coastal and Marine Sub Programme ( NEPAD
COSMAR).
5.1.4 The Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA)
Founded in 1994, COMESA is group of 19 countries (including all the IOC countries but
without the United Republic of Tanzania). Its mission is to “achieve sustainable
economic and social progress in all Member States through increased co-operation and
integration in all fields of development particularly in trade, customs and monetary
affairs, transport, communication and information, technology, industry and energy,
gender, agriculture, environment and natural resources”.
COMESA is implementing the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development
Programme (CAADP), which is an initiative of the African Union (AU) and the New
Partnership for Africa‟s Development (NEPAD).
CAADP has five strategic components and fully integrates climate change issues:

Land and water management

Market access

Food supply and hunger

Agriculture research
CAADP is mobilising external funding channelled through a multi donor Trust Fund
hosted at the World Bank and aims to increase the mobilisation of public financial
resources for the agriculture sector by 10% based on results of national round table.
In 2011, of all IOC countries only Seychelles signed the CAADP country compact
agreement. Seychelles is now in the process of preparing its investment plan.
Comoros and Madagascar are in the process of developing the CAADP country
compact agreement. The United Republic of Tanzania signed this agreement in 2010
and developed investment plans and a post CAADP country compact agreement road
map.
28
COMESA is implementing a programme entitled “Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation in the Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA-EAC-SADC) Region”. The
Programme Management Unit is composed of the Tripartite Coordination Secretariat
and the Climate Change Unit in COMESA, East African Community (EAC) and SADC.
The programme‟s objective is to address impacts of climate change in the COMESAEAC-SADC region through successful adaptation and mitigation actions which also
build economic and social resilience for present and future generations.
The purpose is to enable COMESA-EAC-SADC member states to increase
investments in climate resilient and carbon efficient agriculture and its linkages to
forestry, land use and energy practices by 2016.
The specific objectives are:

To contribute to the adoption of key elements of the African Climate Solution
and mainstreaming of climate change in national planning

To support member states
to access adaptation funds and other
climate
change financing sources and mechanisms through national investment
frameworks for climate adaptation in agriculture, forestry and other land uses

To enhance the adoption of climate-smart conservation agriculture in the
COMESA-EAC-SADC region

To strengthen the capacity of national research and training institutions and the
implementation of research programmes

To implement climate vulnerability assessments and analyses

To apply mitigation solutions in the COMESA-EAC-SADC region with carbon
trading benefits

To establish a regional catalytic facility to support investments in national
climate-smart agriculture programs.
The Global Mechanism is assisting COMESA to mobilise financial resources for the
programme.
29
Several partners have contributed financial support to the programme. The EU
committed EUR 4 million, Norway signed a grant agreement with COMESA of USD 20
million and DFID (UK) committed GBP 38 million.
5.1.5 Southern African Development Community (SADC)
SADC has 15 member countries. The United Republic of Tanzania and all IOC
countries except Comoros are members. The SADC mission is to promote sustainable
and equitable economic growth and socio-economic development through efficient
productive systems, deeper co-operation and integration, good governance and
durable peace and security, so that the region emerges as a competitive and effective
player in international relations and the world economy.
The strategic sectors of intervention are:

Trade, industries, finance

Infrastructure and services

Food security, agriculture, natural resources

Human and social development
SADC has developed a Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP) which
is designed to develop harmonised policy and regulatory frameworks to promote
regional cooperation on all environmental issues and natural resources management
including
trans-boundary ecosystems.
SADC
is
also
developing
a
Regional
Infrastructure Development Master Plan, RIDMP (2013 – 2027). Climate change is an
important issue for SADC which is implementing the regional programme described in
the above section.
5.1.6 The Alliance Of Small Islands States (AOSIS)
The Alliance Of Small Islands States (AOSIS) was founded in 1992 and has taken a
leading role in promoting the interests of small island states with regard to global climate
change. AOSIS was also instrumental in the organisation of two Global Conferences on
the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, the first held in
30
Barbados in 1994 and the second in Mauritius in 2005. AOSIS is a lobby group within
the Group of 77.
5.1.7 The Global Island Partnership
The Global Island Partnership (GLISPA) assists islands in addressing one of the world‟s
greatest challenges, namely to conserve and sustainably utilise the invaluable islands‟
natural resources that support people, cultures and livelihoods in their island homes
around the world. It brings together island nations and nations with islands (small and
large), developing and developed, to mobilise leadership, increase resources and share
skills, knowledge, technologies and innovations in a cost-effective and sustainable way
that will catalyse action for conservation and sustainable livelihoods on islands. In this
framework, GLISPA is supporting the Western Indian Ocean Coastal Challenge (WIOCC), which is proposed as a platform to galvanise political, financial and technical
commitments and actions at regional and national levels on climate change adaptation,
promoting resilient ecosystems (marine and coastal resources) and sustainable
livelihoods and human security.
5.1.8 World Trade Organisation (WTO)
Madagascar, Mauritius and the United Republic of Tanzania are members of WTO
since 1995. Comoros and Seychelles are observers. With respect to trade and the
environment, members can adopt trade-related measures aimed at protecting the
environment.
The strategic sectors of intervention are:

Trade, industries, finance

Infrastructure and services

Food security, agriculture, natural resources

Human and social development
31
It is important to mention the Enhanced Integrated Framework, a multi donor
programme which helps least developed countries play a more active role in the global
trading system. The programme has a wider goal of promoting economic growth and
sustainable development and helping to lift more people out of poverty. One of the
objectives is to mainstream trade into national development strategies.
Comoros is implementing a project since 2008 that aims to enhance the capacities of
trade and investment support services, in order to create a conductive environment for
private sector development especially in the tourism sector.
Madagascar is implementing two projects: “Enhancement of trade capacity” and “Export
development support”. Trade priorities have been mainstreamed into the Poverty
Reduction Strategy Paper and in the Madagascar Action Plan.
The United Republic of Tanzania has integrated all recommendations of the Diagnostic
Trade Integration Study in the 2005 – 2010 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and the
National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty. A Trade Integration Strategy
2009 – 2013 Framework Programme was developed and a road map of implementation
is being developed for Zanzibar.
The regional organisations IOC, the Nairobi Convention, COMESA and SADC provide a
policy and institutional framework which gives an opportunity to enhance regional
cooperation and increase regional, national technical and financial capacity for climate
change adaptation (mitigation) and sustainable management of natural resources.
Lobbying groups such as AOSIS and GLISPA for small islands states are important
global initiatives. Global and regional initiatives should complement and strengthen
national programmes for climate change adaptation (mitigation) and sustainable
management of natural resources.
However, it is important to note that technical and financial partners are now starting to
work with larger regional groups of countries such as COMESA-SADC-EAU where
greater numbers of people are affected and potentially larger results achieved. In this
context, island states of the WIO are disadvantaged relative to continental countries. To
32
overcome this barrier, WIO countries will need to demonstrate that climate impacts have
important consequences for the region. The IOC countries and Zanzibar must quickly
position themselves in this regional architecture if they do not want to be marginalised.
At the moment, regional programmes in the IOC countries and Zanzibar are often
limited because:
 The IOC countries and Zanzibar have specific characteristics of small islands
states and have difficulties to be integrated in the problematic of larger African
countries
 The IOC countries and Zanzibar have limited financial and technical capacities to
participate actively in the different processes of negotiations in the international
and regional fora
 The IOC has a limited capacity in terms of coordination, management
monitoring and formulation of programmes
 The situation in IOC Countries and Zanzibar is heterogeneous (land areas,
population and level of economic development) and it is difficult to find a synergy
between the countries even if all countries are vulnerable to climate change
Small Islands States and Least Developed Countries are now granted special
international status in terms of mobilisation of funding for climate change (adaptation
and mitigation) .This is a real opportunity for the IOC countries and Zanzibar in terms of
resources mobilisation at regional and national level.
It is important that a common regional vision and position can be developed and
presented to potential donors. The recent launch of the WIO-CC will allow enhancing
regional coordination and cooperation. Moreover, the development of the framework for
the regional climate change adaptation strategy in the IOC countries (2012 – 2020)
takes into account the specificity of small islands in order to respond to climate change
impacts and ensure a better utilisation of technical and financial capacity where it is
necessary. The development of a regional financing strategy for climate change will
complement these initiatives and help to mobilise additional financial resources.
.
33
5.2 National level
5.2.1 Comoros
Between 1994 and 1998, Comoros ratified the United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the
United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).
In accordance with the UNFCCC and with the support of the Global Environment Fund
and UNDP, the first national communication was prepared in 2003 and a National
Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation was prepared in 2006. The second national
communication is currently being developed. Comoros has integrated climate change
adaptation into the National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction (2010 – 2014) .
A strategic programme framework 2011 – 2016 Climate Change-Natural EnvironmentDisasters and Risks Reduction was elaborated.
The main programmatic components under climate change are:

Sustainable land management

Integrated water resources management

Integrated costal zones management

Establishment of an enabling environment for resources mobilization

Strengthening of national capacities at all levels

Integrated waste management

Development of clean energy

Climate change adaptation for agriculture

Public health and climate change
The UNFCCC focal point is based in the Ministry of the Production, Environment,
Energy, Industry and Handicraft.
The Government of Comoros has recently created the National Commission for
Sustainable Development which will prepare the sustainable development strategy. The
34
commission will strengthen the coordination mechanisms and the processes of intersectoral consultations and will be responsible for resources mobilisation.
However, despite the existence of a policy, legal and institutional framework, the
implementation of environmental strategies and programmes remain limited. The
National Capacity Self-Assessment (NSCA) was conducted in 2009 and assessed
national capacity for implementing Comoros obligations under the UNFCCC, CBD and
UNCCD.
The main constraints identified to implement the UNFCCC and the other Rio
conventions were33:

National plan and national strategies are often not updates and do not reflect the
evolution of the needs

Sectoral policies do not integrate enough the environmental issues

The legal framework is incomplete and does not take into consideration
international obligations

There is a lack of high level coordination and consultation mechanisms

Poverty is putting pressure on the environment

Institutions are not efficient

There are limited financial and human resources

Scientific research is not integrated into development priorities

There is lack of reliable data

There is lack of awareness and information of the key economical players on
climate change and environmental issues

There is limited knowledge on climate change funding mechanisms
5.2.2 Madagascar
Madagascar ratified the CBD in 1993, the UNCCD 1997, the UNFCCC in 1998 and the
Kyoto protocol in 2003.
33
Gouvernement of Comoros , Le livre de l’environnement, 2012
35
In accordance with the UNFCCC, the Government of Madagascar prepared34 :

The Initial Communication in 2003, the Second Communication in 2010 and is
now in the process of preparing the Third Communication

A national action plan for climate change adaptation in 2006 with 15 priority
programmes

A national strategy for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
In 2011, the national climate change policy identified five strategic components: (1)
strengthen climate change adaptation actions based on real needs of the country; (2)
implement mitigation climate change actions which contribute to the development of the
country; (3) integrate climate change at all levels; (4) develop sustainable financing
mechanisms; and (5) promote the research, technology development and transfer and
adaptive management.
In 2010, a climate change division was created within the Ministry of Environment and
Forestry. The designated authority for CDM is also based in the climate change division.
A climate change thematic group was as well formed.
For the period 2006 – 2012, the Madagascar Action Plan (MAP) is the document of
reference for all development initiatives programmed by the Government of
Madagascar. The sectoral policies and strategies such as agriculture, fisheries,
livestock and environment were elaborated and formulated based on the orientations
defined within the MAP.
The National Programme for Rural Development, formulated in 2008, is the reference
document for rural development and analyses the factors of rural poverty.
The Government of Madagascar has as well adopted the environment programme III in
2008 which includes the followings strategic programmes:
34

Implementation of the sustainable development programme

Sustainable management of forestry resources
Gouvernement of Madagasca,r rapport sur l’état de l’environnement ,2012
36

Conservation and valorisation of the biodiversity in protected areas

Integrated management of costal and marine areas

Change of behaviour concerning the environment

Sustainable financing mechanism

Improve of environmental governance
Madagascar has also developed a national strategy for the Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM) and has identified five priorities sectors, namely renewable energy,
biocarburants, energy efficiency, waste and forestry.
Within the existing policy, legal and institutional framework, the implementation of
environmental strategies and programmes remain limited in Madagascar.
The main constraints to implement the UNFCCC and the other Rio conventions are the
following:

The political crisis is the main constraint to financial resources mobilisation. Many
partners have suspended their assistance programmes

There is a stagnation of overseas development assistance due to the
international economic crisis

There is lack of exchange and coordination at national and regional levels

The institutional framework is not integrated and decentralised enough to
respond to environment challenges

The legislation is not adapted to reality

The administrative procedures of financial partners are slow and complex

The limited internal financial capacity of the government does not allow a control
of national environmental policies

It is difficult to prioritize in period of crisis

There is limited capacity in terms of management, monitoring and evaluation of
projects

There is a lack of technical capacity to negotiate in international fora

There is a lack of financial capacity to participate in international conferences
37

There is a lack of valorisation of the results of research

There is a lack of awareness and information on climate change issues of the
key economical players

There is limited knowledge of climate change financing mechanisms
5.2.3 Mauritius
The Republic of Mauritius ratified the three Rio Conventions (CBD 1992, UNFCCC
1992, UNCCD 1994) and signed the Kyoto Protocol in 2001.
The first Climate Change Action Plan was developed in 1998 35, detailing sectoral
responses for water resources, waste management, agriculture and forestry, fisheries,
coastal zone management, energy planning and transportation. This was followed by
the publication of the Initial National Communication under the UNFCCC in 1999. The
Second National Communication is being finalised.
The National Climate Committee was set up under the aegis of the Prime Minister‟s
Office in June 1991. Co-chaired by the Mauritius Meteorological Services, the National
Climate Committee is responsible for developing national GHG inventories, evaluating
climate change impacts, formulating climate change mitigation and adaptation
programmes and promoting research, education and awareness on climate change.
A Climate Change Division has been set up at the Ministry of Environment and
Sustainable Development in 2010.
The Designated National Authority for the CDM is hosted by the Ministry of Environment
and Sustainable Development and CDM procedures have been promulgated in 2010.
In 2007, The Republic of Mauritius has adopted, as the long term vision for promoting
sustainable development, the “Maurice Ile Durable (MID)” concept. The government is
in the process of developing a MID policy, a 10 year strategy and an Action Plan to
pave the way for sustainable development in Mauritius. A MID fund was also
35
Government of Mauritius, Mauritius Environment outlook, 2012
38
established for the preservation of natural resources and for the promotion of renewable
energy, energy efficiency and conservation.
Mauritius has a policy, institutional and legal framework for climate change but the
implementation of actions remains limited36 .
The main constraints identified were:

Limited national studies on climate change impacts, vulnerability and risk
assessment

Lack of assessment of economic risks posed by climate change

Lack of comprehensive and dedicated legislation to climate change

Limited coordination to implement the Climate Change Action Plan

Lack of technical and financial capacity for climate change adaptation and
mitigation

Lack of awareness of climate change issues in the public and private sector

Lack of knowledge of financing mechanism for climate change

Lack of a sustainable financing strategy for climate change
5.2.4 Seychelles
Seychelles ratified the UNFCC in 1992, the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, the UNCCD in
1997 and the CBD in 1992. A National Climate Change Committee was set up in 1992.
In 2000, Seychelles submitted its Initial National Communications as a Non-Annex 1
country, with the support of the GEF. The Seychelles‟ Second National Communication
was completed and submitted in 2011. In 2009, Seychelles launched its National
Climate Change Strategy (NCCS).
The strategic priority objectives proposed are37:

To advance the understanding of climate change, its impacts and appropriate
responses
36
37
Government of Maurtius ,National synthesis report RIO+20, 2012
Government of Seychelles , National Climate Change Strategy ,2009.
39

To put in place measures to adapt, build resilience and minimise their
vulnerability to the impacts of climate change

To achieve sustainable energy security through reduction of greenhouse gas
emissions

To mainstream climate change considerations into national policies, strategies
and plans

To build capacity and social empowerment at all levels to adequately respond to
climate change
The Department of Environment (DoE), under the Ministry for Environment and Energy
(MEE), has the primary responsibility for environmental management and sustainable
development processes. The DoE is the focal point for all three Rio Conventions. The
DoE consists of three divisions, each headed by a Director General: (i) Climate Affairs,
Adaptation and Information; (ii) Wildlife Enforcements and Permits; and (iii) Disaster
Risk Management.
The Government of Seychelles has developed the Seychelles Sustainable Development
Strategy (SSDS) 2012 – 2020 and is in the process of establishing the sustainable
development division which will be responsible to manage, monitor all sustainable
development programmes in Seychelles, including climate change. This division will
also be responsible to mobilise financial resources required to implement the SSDS.
The National Capacity Self-Assessment (NSCA) was conducted in 2005 and assessed
the national capacity for implementing Seychelles‟ obligations under the UNFCCC, CBD
and UNCCD. The main conclusion of the NSCA is that the obligations to the UNFCCC
were partially addressed by national plans and programmes. The main constraints
identified in addressing these obligations are:

Weak national coordination and communication mechanisms

Lack of scientific data on climate change

An outdated legislation that does not reflect international obligations and the
current situation

No economic valuation of potential climate change
economy
40
impacts
on Seychelles‟

Lack of technical capacity to develop and manage climate change projects

Lack of technical and financial capacity to effectively participate and negotiate in
international and regional climate change fora

Lack of awareness and information of the key economic players, the public and
the private sector on climate change issues

Lack of technical expertise and training opportunities on climate change

Lack of knowledge on climate change funding mechanisms
5.2.5 Zanzibar
The United Republic of Tanzania is a signatory to the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol
and has produced the Initial National Communication on climate change in 2003 and a
National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2007 to meet UNFCCC
requirements. Activities identified in the NAPA include:

Strengthening of early warning Systems

Disaster Preparedness in various sectors such as agriculture, water and energy

Improving food security in drought prone areas (need to be done regardless of
the climate change)

Improving water availability to water stressed communities

Shifting of shallow water wells affected by inundation in the coastal regions of
Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar

Climate change adaptation through participatory reforestation

Combating malaria epidemic in mosquito infested areas
The NAPA covers also Zanzibar as a member of the Union of Tanzania. There is
however a widespread recognition by Zanzibari stakeholders that a more detailed
climate plan of action is required for Zanzibar, as many issues depicted in the
Tanzanian NAPA are too general for Zanzibar and some are only relevant for the
highlands or dry lands in the mainland.
41
Climate change does not yet feature in Tanzania‟s National Strategy for Growth and
Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) and the Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Reduction of
Poverty, even though it does include references to environmental issues. Climate
change is also absent from Tanzania‟s overall development framework and long-term
social and economic development goals which are set out in the National Vision 2025
and the Zanzibar Vision 2020. In 2012, Zanzibar has developed an environmental policy
which makes limited reference to climate change.
The Department of Environment (DoE) in the Vice President‟s Office (VPO) is the
government co-ordinating agency for climate change. The National Focal Point for the
UNFCCC is the DoE in Dar es Salam. A National Climate Change Steering Committee
has been established within the DoE. Zanzibar has recently established a Zanzibar
Climate Change Steering Committee supported by a Technical Committee. Usually,
climate change projects in Zanzibar are carried out by the First Vice President's Office
of Zanzibar. There is little coordination and exchange between the National Climate
Change Committee in Tanzania mainland and the national climate change committee in
Zanzibar.
The main constraints identified for the implementation of the UNFCCC are:

Climate change not mainstreamed into national policies and strategies

Lack of national climate change strategy

Lack of climate change institutional governance framework

Lack of reporting framework on climate change

Lack of coordination and involvement mechanisms of climate change
stakeholders

Lack of awareness and information on climate change issues

Lack of knowledge on climate change funding mechanisms

Limited technical and financial capacity
42
5.2.6 La Réunion
Following the signature of the Kyoto Protocol, France has elaborated its first “Plan
Climat” in 2000 which is updated every two years. An national climate change
adaptation plan has been prepared in 2011. The Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable
Development, Transport and Housing is responsible for climate change and a
specialised climate and energy unit was set up in 2010 in it.
In la Réunion, the Agency of Environment and Energy Management is responsible and
in the process to develop a local climate change adaptation plan called “Plan Climat
Territoriaux” (PCT).
La Réunion has been working on a climate change mitigation plan since 2000 with the
objective to be energy self-sufficientby 2030. Three main programmes have been
implemented:

Plan Régional des Energies Renouvelables et d'Utilisation Rationnelle de
l'Energie

Stratégie d'Autosuffisance Énergétique pour la Relance et la Transition de
l'Economique Réunionnaise

Grenelle de l‟Environnement à la Réunion Réussir l‟Innovation
A strong partnership has been developed between public institutions (Préfecture, la
Région, communautés territoriales), research institutions (Centre de Coopération
Internationale
en
Recherche
Agronomique,
l‟Institut
de
Recherche
pour
le
Développement, l‟Université de la Réunion), the private sector (Cluster Energie
Temergie, GIP-GERRI, Agence de développement de la Réunion) and the financial
sector (Caisse des dépôts, Agence Française Développement) to implement the “Plan
Climat” and climat change programmes.
The French Government, the European Union and the private sector are the main
funding entities for climate change programmes in la Réunion. There are no other
international financial partners supporting La Réunion as it is the case in the other
43
countries of the IOC. However, La Réunion has the capacity to tackle climate change
due to its high level of socio economic development.
6. Recommendations to establish an enabling
environment for climate change in the IOC countries
and Zanzibar
The region of the IOC countries and Zanzibar is already suffering from pressing
development issues such as poverty, overfishing, food security, water scarcity and
environmental degradation, which threaten the main economic sectors of the region
(agriculture, fisheries, and tourism) and the livelihoods of its population. Climate change
will exacerbate existing social and environmental issues and present an additional
challenge for the sustainable development of the region. Some of the climate change
impacts already taking place in the region and its consequences are:

Sea level rise, which threatens the very existence of low lying islands, coastal
zones and its populations

Sea temperature increases and coral bleaching affecting coral reef systems and
the livelihoods of coastal communities which depend on local fisheries for food
security, and the tourism sector and fisheries industries

Seawater intrusion into fresh water sources will present major challenges for the
agriculture sector and availability of fresh water resources for the populations

Change of rainfalls patterns affecting the agricultural production, fresh water
resources and hydropower generation

Intensification of extreme events will threaten the existence of populations of the
IOC countries and Zanzibar
In this context, the IOC countries and Zanzibar have expressed the interest to develop a
regional vision on the issues on climate change adaptation because the reality of the
functioning of the ecosystems is regional and because a regional grouping gives the
44
IOC countries and Zanzibar opportunities to mobilise additional sources of funding for
climate change.
However, the analysis of the national, regional and international context have
highlighted some constraints to establish and enabling environment for climate change
financing at the regional level that which can be overcome following the following
recommendations:

The IOC will need to define its zone of intervention especially in the context of
the recently approved Regional Climate Adaptation Strategy in the IOC countries
2012 – 2020 (which does not include Zanzibar) and the newly launched WIO-CC,
supported by the project ISLANDS and GLISPA, which provides an interesting
platform for climate change initiatives in the WIO region but includes a larger
group a countries than the IOC countries and Zanzibar.

The development of bankable climate change projects will require reliable data
and expertise to better understand climate change within the region. This could
be achieved through the establishment of a Regional Climate Change Adaption
Observatory and a regional centre for climate change adaptation as
recommended in the framework for the Regional Climate Change Adaptation
Strategy 2012 – 2020 for the IOC member countries (based on lessons learned
in the Caribbean Community Climate Change centre (CCCCC) and the
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)).

Investment plans for priority areas identified in the framework for the Regional
Climate Change Adaptation Strategy 2012 – 2020 for the IOC member countries
need to be developed.
A regional climate change mitigation strategy and investment plans need to be
developed.

This strategy and investments plans should be mainstreamed into regional
climate change strategies of COMESA and SADC and presented at the
Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC.
45
7. Analysis of internal sources of funding
Internal sources are the financial sources that are raised from the national budget.
7.1 National Budget
In the IOC countries (except La Réunion) and Zanzibar, the national budget related to
environmental issues and climate change remains limited. Climate change is a crosssectoral issue and it is very difficult to track climate change financial flows in the national
accounting systems; in fact, there is no system in place in the different national
accounting systems of the IOC countries and Zanzibar to track climate change
financing. Some countries are highly dependent on external sources of funding to
implement climate change adaptation and mitigation activities.
La Réunion has the financial capacity to tackle climate change due to its high level of
socioeconomic development and has put in place public specialised agencies to support
for example the development of renewable energy, energy efficiency and sustainable
development, such as the Agency of Environment and Energy Management which has
an annual budget around EUR 20 million, la Caisse des Dépôts and the Agence
Française Développement which support communities and the private sector by
subsidising loans for a total amount of EUR 900 million and 105 million Euro in 2012
respectively.
The Table 2 below shows indicative national budgets related to environmental issues
Countries/Ministries
Indicative
Budget in USD
million
Comoros38
Vice - Presidence in charge of the Ministry of Production,
Environment, Energy, Industry and Handicraft
38
Based on national budget 2012
46
0.708
Vice - Presidence, in charge of Ministry of physical planning and
housing
0.247
Indicative national budget related to environmental issues
0.955
Total national budget
54.631
% of national budget related to environmental issues
1.74%
Madagascar39
Ministry of Agriculture
19.880
Ministry of Environment and Forestry
5.229
Vice primature in charge of development and physical planning
20.609
Indicative internal National Budget related to environmental issues
45.718
Total national budget
944.939
% of national budget related to environmental issues
4.8%
Mauritius40
Ministry of Agro Industries and Food security
65
Ministry of fisheries
7.3
Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development
21.8
Ministry energy public utilities water resources
34.9
Ministry public infrastructure land drainage
16.7
Indicative internal National Budget related to environmental issues
145.7
Total national budget
2,947.8
% of national budget related to environmental issues
4.9%
39
40
Based on national budget 2012
Based on national budget 2012
47
Seychelles41
Ministry of Environment and Energy. Seychelles national parks
authority
19.88
Ministry of natural resources and industries
Seychelles Agriculture Agency
3.06
Others (La Digue and Praslin Development Fund, fire brigade
2.46
Indicative internal National Budget related to environmental issues
25.41
Total national budget
457.8
% of national budget related to environmental issues
5.5%
Zanzibar42
Ministry of Agriculture livestock and environment
3.888
Ministry of water ,construction ,land and energy
3.212
Indicative internal National Budget related to environmental issues
7.450
Total national budget
101.247
% of national budget related to environmental issues
7.3 %
Table 2: Indicative national budgets related to environmental issues in the IOC
countries and Zanzibar
41
42
Based on national budget 2012
Based on national budget 2008/2009
48
7.2 National dedicated funds for climate change
In the IOC countries and Zanzibar region, there is no specific national climate change
fund. However, the single governments of the countries have established national or
regional funds and foundations for the environment, agricultural and rural development,
contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation programmes such as:
Madagascar

The Foundation Tany Meva was created in 1995 to manage financial resources
to promote sustainable management of the environment in Madagascar. The
foundation has an annual budget of USD 500 000. Only the interest of the
invested capital can be used. The total capital of the foundation is USD 16
million.

The Foundation of Protected Areas and Biodiversity of Madagascar was created
in 2007 by the Government of Madagascar, Conservation International and the
World Fund for Nature. Its mission is to support the conservation of biodiversity in
Madagascar and finance the expansion and creation of protected areas. The
foundation has a capital of USD 50 million and provides an annual budget of
USD 3 million.

Regional funds have also been established to promote rural development in the
different regions of Madagascar
Mauritius

The government has established the “Maurice île Durable Fund” (MIDF) with a
total budget of USD 6.4 million in 2012 and USD 9.7 million in 2013 Mauritian
rupees to fund climate change mitigation and adaption projects of public interest.
The fund can be accessed by the government, NGOS and private entities. Table
3 below present the different projects funded by the MIDF.
49
Project
Project description
Cost (USD.)
Solar water heater
(SWH) scheme 20082012
24,000 households
Compact Fluorescent
Lamps 2009
Grants of 10,000
rupees for every solar
water heater
purchased.
Sale of 1 Million CFL at
a subsidized price (Rs.
40 for 3 lamps)
Energy audits in 4
government buildings June 2009
Replacement of
conventional lightings in
public buildings,
schools, hospitals by
CFLs.
Replacement of
conventional lights for
traffic signal equipment
by 1,450 LED lights
Installation of 2 micro
hydro power plants of
375 kW each. One
plant was
commissioned in 2010,
92 schools equipped
12.6 M
Distribute hotel water
saving device for
testing
Promote compost
production at
communities level
Install rainwater
harvesting system on 4
markets
0.04 M
Energy Audits in
Government
Buildings 2009
Lighting in public
buildings and SWH in
hospitals 2009
Light Emitting Diode
(LED) for Traffic
Signal Equipment
2009
Midlands Dam/La
Nicolière Feeder
Canal micro hydro
Installation and
purchase of
Photovoltaic system
for catholic and
public school
Testing water saving
device
Compost production
Rainwater harvesting
0.6 M
0.04 M
0.16 M
0.4 M
0.9 M
1M
0.38M
0.05 M
Table 3: Projects funded by “Maurice île Durable Fund” in 2012

A Food security fund managed by the Ministry of Agro Industries and Food
Security with a total budget of USD 33 Million has been set up to increase food
self-sufficiency by increasing local production and partnering with neighbouring
countries to produce and import agricultural products. The fund also finances
climate change adaptation activities such as food crop insurance scheme and
sheltered farming.
50
Seychelles
The government has set up an environment trust fund which is managed by a
board composed of private sector and government representatives. The board is
chaired by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The fund has total budget of
USD 0.5 million per year and can be used by public and private institutions and
NGOs to implement climate change adaptation and mitigation programmes with
the following scopes:

Prevent or reduce pollution

Promote environmental education and research

Clean and beautify Seychelles

Protect, preserve and improve the environment
There is also a development fund for Praslin and la Digue with a respective annual
budget of USD 0.7 million and USD 0.11 million in 2012. The funds are managed by
a board which is appointed by the President of Seychelles and contribute to climate
change adaptation activities.
Foundations have been set up on islands (Aplhonse, Desroches, Silhouette),
managed by
the parastatal institution Island Development Company (IDC) to
implement environmental and conservation activities contributing to climate change
adaptation. IDC has partnered with the NGO Island Conservation Society to
implement these activities. These foundations are financed and managed by
different operators present on these islands.
Comoros and Zanzibar
In Comoros, an environment fund has been set up but it is not operational because
of the lack of interest from the private sector. In Zanzibar, no national fund has been
set up.
51
7.3 National tax and incentives framework
Mauritius
The government of Mauritius has developed a tax and incentives framework to promote
the shift from imported fossil fuel to local renewable sources.
 A fee of USD 0.9 cents/L on all petroleum products and USD 0.9 cents/kg on
LPG and USD 0.9 cents/kg of coal. These levies are currently being paid into the
MID fund for the financing of sustainable development projects43.
 In 2008, excise duties, road tax and registration fees on hybrid vehicles have
been halved by the government. Similarly, customs duty on all tyres with energy
saving and emission reducing certification have been eliminated.
 A carbon tax on motor cars has been introduced in 2011.

A framework is being developed for the production of ethanol from bagasse (a
by‐product of sugarcane) and the use of ethanol (5% or 10%) in motor cars
blended with mogas (95% or 90%).
 Incentives have been introduced to promote the installation of photovoltaic
systems such as feed-in tariffs and soft loans.
Seychelles

Seychelles is in the process of developing an incentives framework to promote
renewable energy. A new energy act has been endorsed by the government in
2012, authorising independent power producers to operate. The Government of
Seychelles has removed the goods and services tax on imports of equipment for
renewable energy.

There is an environmental levy of USD 2 per month on water bill. This levy
finances the Environment Trust Fund.
43
Gouvernment of Mauritius, Mauritius Environment outlook ,2012
52
Comoros, Madagascar, Zanzibar
There is no incentives and national tax framework contributing directly to climate
change challenges.
La Réunion

La Réunion has put in place a comprehensive incentives framework to support
investment in renewable energy and to adopt energy efficiency standards for
buildings, appliances and equipment. These incentives include:

A subvention for the installation and the purchase of equipment for
renewable energy connected to the grid

A subvention to adopt energy efficiency standards for buildings based on
the deliverance of a certificate of energy savings by a local authority.

A subvention to purchase solar water heaters and solar air conditioning

A subvention to carry out a feasibility study for a project in renewable
energy


A subvention to develop innovative technology

Attractive feed in tariffs for renewable energy connected to the grid

Tax incentives for investors based in France.
Electricité De France (EDF), the main electricity provider of la Réunion is
engaged in a strategy of energy efficiency endorsed by the local authority.
Isolated territories like la Réunion have a small electricity production system and
the production cost of electricity is in average twice as high as the electricity
production cost in France. To insure that electricity consumers in la Réunion pay
the same prize as the electricity consumers in France, a compensation fund has
been established which is paid by all French electricity consumers. This
53
compensation fund can be used by EDF to finance energy efficiency projects
based on the number of kilowatt saved.
7.4 Barriers to the mobilisation of internal sources of funding
for climate change
The main barriers identified by the different stakeholders are:

The limited financial capacity of some countries in the IOC region because of the
political and economic situation

Climate change issues not mainstreamed enough into national policies,
strategies and plans

The lack of information and awareness of the key economic players on climate
change and international obligations

The limited capacity of state agencies to define priorities, to plan financial needs
and to negotiate

The necessity to improve the governance of environmental programme in some
countries

The lack of tools to track climate change finance into national accounting
systems

The lack of economic valuation of climate change impacts

The necessity to develop appropriate tax and incentives frameworks for climate
change adaptation and mitigation
7.5 Recommendations to increase the mobilisation of internal
sources of funding for climate change
The following recommendations to be implemented at regional level are proposed to
overcome the main barriers identified to the mobilisation of internal sources of funding.
The IOC could play an important role by organising workshops based on exchange of
experiences on the following topics:
54
1. Mainstream climate change into national planning and budgeting processes
2. Effective resource mobilisation will require the involvement of all stakeholders
(public and private sector, NGOs, CBOs) which could be achieved by strategic,
targeted and innovative information and awareness campaigns on climate
change issues
3. Establish a system to track climate change financial flows in national accounting
systems and build capacity in using the Rio markers Governement could monitor
the implementation of the RIO conventions by
screening and marking every
activity as either (i) targeting the Conventions as a 'principal objective' or a
'significant objective', or (ii) not targeting the objective.The OECD has
developped
Rio markers on climate change mitigation and adaptation in close
collaboration with the UNFCCC to track resource flows on climate change.
4. Prepare economic valuations of climate change impacts, natural resources and
ecosystems services and their integration into national economic policies and
strategies
5. Integrate the natural capital into the national account system based on
methodologies such as the Wealth Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem
Services (Waves) of the World Bank
6. Develop appropriate tax and incentives frameworks for climate change
adaptation and mitigation
8. External sources of funding
8.1 Dedicated climate change finance funds
The global climate finance architecture is complex: finance is channelled through
multilateral funds such as the Global Environment facility (GEF) and the Climate
Investment Funds and as well increasingly through bilateral channels. Climate finance is
additional to development assistance to cover the incremental costs of responding to
climate change.
55
The GEF serves as an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC.
GEF resources are allocated into thematic areas such as biodiversity, climate change
and sustainable land management. The GEF also administers the Least Developed
Countries Funds (LDCF) and the Special Climate change Fund (SCCF).
The Climate Investment Funds are administered by the World Bank in partnership with
regional banks such as the African Development Bank. It includes the Clean
Technology Fund (CTF), the Strategic Climate Fund (SCF) (which in turn includes the
Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR), the Forest Investment Program (FIP) and
the Scaling up Renewable Energy Program for Low Income Countries (SREP)).
The Adaption Fund (AF) of the Kyoto protocol is financed through a 2% levy on sales of
emission credits from the Clean Development Mechanism.
The UN–REDD Programme helps countries with large forests to reduce emissions from
deforestation and degradation.
Multilateral development banks have incorporates climate change into their core
operations as well. For instance, the World Bank has established the Forest Carbon
Partnership Facility (FCPF), the African Development Bank (AfDB) administers the
Congo Basin Forest Fund (CBFF) and the European Investment Bank the EU Global
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund (GEEREF).
Some countries have established dedicated climate finance initiatives (e.g. Japan‟s Fast
Track, the UK‟s International Climate Fund, Norway‟s the International Forest Climate
Initiative, Germany‟s International Climate Initiative, France‟s Fond Français pour
l‟Environnement Mondial et l‟Agence Française de Développement etc.).
8.1.1 International context
Sub-Saharan Africa is both the region least responsible for global climate change and
most vulnerable to its impacts. A variety of actors provide climate finance to the region,
both to mitigate and adapt to these impacts. Since 2003, USD 2.094 billion has been
56
approved for over 350 projects and programmes throughout the region44. 19 funds are
active in the region as indicated in Table 4 below. The largest contributions are from the
CTF which has approved a total of USD 577.5 million and Japan‟s Fast Start Fund
which has approved USD 478.04 million. South Africa has received over 25% of the
total of funding approved for climate change for the Sub-Saharan Africa Region since
200345.
Fund
Amount approved Amount disbursed No projects
(USD million)
(USD million)
approved
AF
42.17
8.5
6
CTF
577.5
unknown
6
CBFF
72.79
11.35
27
FCPF-RF
12
3.03
12
FIP
5.94
0.13
12
GEF4 (and SPA)
148.24
120.89
55
GEF 5
7.18
2.45
4
Germany‟s ICI
75.70
unknown
28
GCCA
136.74
24.73
13
GEEREF
26.96
unknown
2
Japan‟s FSF
478.04
unknown
34
LDCF
191.94
84.82
80
MDG AF
20
20
4
Norway‟s ICFI
33.24
31.22
2
PPCR
142.50
1.87
20
SREP
33.51
0
10
SCCF
23.85
18.2
10
UK‟s ICF
41.7
unknown
19
UN-REDD
24.17
19.13
5
Table 4: Climate change funds active in the sub-Sahara Africa Region46
As indicated in Table 5 below, the majority of climate finance is directed to mitigation
activities even though adaptation is the priority within the region because of the extreme
vulnerability of many sub-Saharan countries to the impacts of climate change.
44
Web site, www.climate fundsupdate.org,2013
45
Website,www.climatefundsupdate.org,2013
Website, www.climatefundsupdate.org,2013
46
57
Theme
Adaptation
Mitigation
REDD
Multiple foci
Amount Approved Amount Disbursed Projects Approved
( USD million)
( USD million)
( USD million)
958.28
137.33
164
1181.98
110.71
93
235.79
68.86
73
79
29.42
20
Table 5: Climate change funding per thematic area47
8.1.2 IOC Region and Zanzibar context
During the period 2003 – 2012, USD 176 million have been approved for climate
change for the IOC countries and the United Republic of Tanzania as indicated Table 6
below. The United Republic of Tanzania has received around 75 % of the approved
funding since 2003. However, Zanzibar did not benefit from most of these initiatives and
has only participated in two projects (“Developing Core Capacity to Address Adaptation
to Climate Change in Productive Coastal Zones” and UNDP REDD).
The remaining funds are spread quite thinly amongst IOC countries (especially
Madagascar), which receive only 6% of the total amount approved for the IOC region
and Zanzibar.
Country
Climate change funds
Climate change funds
approved 2003-2012
disbursed 2003-2012
million USD
million USD
Comoros
12.59
3.6
Madagascar
10.64
1.51
Mauritius
17.391
7.84
Seychelles
4.42
3.88
47
Website,www.climatefundsupdate.org,2013
58
Tanzania
131.287
50.32
TOTAL
176.328
67.15
Table 6 : Climate change funds disbursed in the IOC region 2003-201248
As indicated in Table 7, climate finance mobilised is largely for mitigation activities, with
65% of the total amount approved for it, compared to 26 % for adaptation activities
(national priorities within the IOC region).
Country
Mitigation
Adaptation
Multi
foci REDD
million USD
million USD
million USD
TOTAL
million
USD
Comoros
12.59
12.59
Madagascar
10.64
10.64
Mauritius
4.191
9.12
4.08
17.391
Seychelles
1.16
0.54
2.72
4.42
Tanzania
66.14
13.31
7.81
44.027
131.287
TOTAL
71.491
46.2
14.61
44.027
176.328
Table 7: Climate change financing approved per thematic areas 2003-201249
Ten funds are active in the IOC region, as indicated in Table 8, with a total of 31
projects approved. A list of approved projects can be found in Annex 1.
The largest funds are

The Japan Fast Start Fund with USD 53.13 million approved. Most of it is
directed to Tanzania with one single project (“Iringa-Shinyanga Backbone
Transmission Investment Project”) for a total amount of USD 52.59 million.
48
Website, www.climatefundsupdate.org,2013
Adapted from data from www.climatefundsupdate.org,2013
49
59

The Norway International Climate and Forest Initiative with one mitigation- REDD
project of USD 36.49 million for Tanzania.

The Least Developed Countries Fund with a total amount approved of USD
25.43 million for eight projects in Comoros, Madagascar and Tanzania for
adaptation activities.
Amount
approved
(USD million)
8.47
Amount
disbursed
(USD million)
0
Least Developed
Countries Fund
(LDCF)
25.43
7.1
3 Comoros
2 Madagascar
3 Tanzania
Adaptation Fund
(AF)50
19.23
2.92
1 Mauritius
1 Madagascar
1 Tanzania
International
Climate Initiative
(ICI)
4.528
0
1 Mauritius
1 Tanzania
Global Climate
Change Alliance
(GCCA)51
9.84
6.88
1 Mauritius
1 Seychelles
1 Tanzania
GEF Trust Fund
(GEF 4)
13.93
13.93
Japan's Fast Start
Finance
53.13
0
2 Mauritius
1 Seychelles
2 Tanzania
1 Seychelles
1 Tanzania
Special Climate
Change Fund
(SCCF)
1
1
Fund
UK's International
Climate Fund
50
No projects
approved
5 Tanzania
1 Tanzania
Seychelles has one project in the process of being approved for a total amount of 6.5 million USD Ecosystem
based adaptation to climate change
51
Comoros is in the process of developing a project with GCCA
60
Norway's
International
Climate and Forest
Initiative
36.49
31.04
1 Tanzania
UN-REDD
4.28
4.28
1 Tanzania
Table 8: Sources of climate change finance in the IOC countries and Zanzibar 2003-201252
8.2 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
The CDM allows emission-reduction projects in developing countries to earn Certified
Emission Reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO 2. These CERs
can be traded and sold, and used by industrialised countries to a meet a part of their
emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol.
The mechanism stimulates sustainable development and emission reductions, while
giving industrialised countries some flexibility in how they meet their emission reduction
limitation targets.
The CDM is the main source of income for the UNFCCC Adaptation Fund, which was
established to finance adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries.
Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of
climate change. The Adaptation Fund is financed by a 2% levy on CERs issued by the
CDM. Table 9 below provides a list of projects within IOC region and Zanzibar which
have been registered under the CDM.
Registered
Project title
Host Country
Reductions
tCO2
annum
28 Aug 10
52
Small-Scale
Hydropower
Madagascar
Project Sahanivotry
in Madagascar
Adapted from data available on website www.climatechangeupdates.org,,2013
61
44196
17 Dec 11
Tsiazompaniry
Hydropower
Project in
Madagascar
Madagascar
14675
09 Aug 12
Tough Stuff Solar
Panel and Lamp
Sales Madagascar
Project
Madagascar
25704
14 Sep 11
Plaine Des Roches
Wind Farm
Mauritius
32039
30 Mar 12
Mare Chicose
Mauritius
Landfill Gas Project
81601
02 Jun 07
Landfill gas
recovery and
electricity
generation at
“Mtoni Dumpsite”,
Dar Es Salaam,
Tanzania
United Republic of
Tanzania
202271
Table 9: Project within the IOC region accredited by the CDM53
Madagascar has also developed five pilot projects for REDD+ since 2001 (Makira
project, Fandriana-Vondozo corridor, ankeniheny-zahamena, FORECA REDD project,
holistic forest conservation programme).These projects cover a total forest area of
1,762,400 ha with a potential of carbon credit for a period of 30 years of around 40-45
million teCO2.
Seychelles, Comoros and Zanzibar do currently not participate in the CDM.
It is important to note that there is no regional climate mitigation strategy at the moment
even though countries of the IOC and Zanzibar have a potential for the development of
53
Website, :www.cdm.org,2013
62
renewable energy and need to develop and implement energy efficiency standards and
measures.
It is difficult for some countries to identify suitable projects because of their small size
compared to the costs involved to access the carbon market. This constraint can be
overcome by using for example the COMESA Carbon Facility
which gives
the
possibility to aggregate several small projects.
8.3 Other climate change financing mechanisms
8.3.1 SIDS Dock
The SIDS Dock is an initiative among member countries of the AOSIS to provide SIDS
with a collective institutional mechanism to assist them in transforming their national
energy sectors into a catalyst for sustainable economic development and help generate
financial resources to address adaptation to climate change. Mauritius and Seychelles
have signed the SIDS Dock memorandum of understanding in 2009 and are now
implementing projects in one of the four areas of biofuels production, energy
conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energy generation.
8.3.2 Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) /Community-based
Organisations (CBOs)
International environmental NGOs, members of the WIO consortium (IUCN, WCS,
WIOMSA, WWF, and CORDIO) and others are able to mobilise funds to implement
climate change programmes within the region. Sources of funding vary from private
donations, memberships fees, bilateral and multilateral grant programmes. These
NGOs are implementing mostly a number of research oriented projects on marine and
coastal ecosystems within the IOC countries and Zanzibar.
The Red Cross is also implementing a project entitled “Preparing for climate change in
Seychelles and Madagascar”.
63
Local NGOs and CBOs within the IOC region have access to the GEF Small Grants
Programme which has a climate change thematic area and offer grants up to USD
50,000.
Mangroves For the Future (MFF), which is only active in Seychelles, finances climate
change projects for NGOs and CBOs within coastal areas. The main funding agency of
MFF are IUCN, NORAD, SIDA, UNDP and UNEP. MFF offers grants from USD 50,000
to 100,000.
The United Republic of Tanzania has established the Foundation for Civil Society which
is financed by the EU, SIDA and NORAD. It offers grants up to USD 200, 000 for threeyear projects. NGOs from Zanzibar have applied for funding through this mechanism to
implement projects such as mangroves and forest rehabilitation contributing to climate
change adaptation.
8.3.3 Regional projects
The table 10 below presents regional projects related to climate change within the IOC
region
Donors Agency
Project tiltle
Location
Denmark, UNDP,UNEP
Development and Adaptation
Initiative to Climate Change”
(CC-CARE) (2008-2011)
Seychelles,
Tanzania
Mozambique
DFID, Sida
Climate Change Program in
Southern Africa (2009 – 2014)
Madagascar,
Mauritius,
Seychelles,
Tanzania,
Mozambique
Canada, UK , Switzerland
and the European
Commission
Capacity Building to Adapt to
Climate Change” (ACCA
Kenya, Tanzania
and Madagascar.
64
EU, Norway and DFID
Climate Change Adaptation
and Mitigation in Eastern and
Southern Africa (COMESAEAC-SADC) Region
COMESA-EACSADC Region
FFEM, France, la Réunion
Climate Change Adaption
(ACClimate)
IOC countries
IFAD
agro ecology initiative
programme for the IOC
region.
IOC countries
European Union
ISLANDS for small island
developing states
IOC countries and
Zanzibar
European Union
Management of the
biodiversity in islands, marine
and coastal areas in coastal
states of Eastern Africa and
Indian Ocean
Comoros,
Madagascar,
Mauritius,
Seychelles,
Tanzania, Kenya
European Union
Renewable energy
development and energy
efficiency improvements in
Indian Ocean Commission
Member States
IOC countries
AFD
Risk and disaster
management project in the
IOC region
IOC countries
UNDP
Strength capacities for the CDM
Sub-Saharan African
in sub-Saharan African countries, region
an integrated approach to
climate change adaptation in
Africa
65
World Bank, African
Development Bank,
European Investment Bank
and AFD
Integrated water management
plan
IOC countries
Table 10 : Regional related climate change projects
.
8.3.4 Other main national projects contributing to climate change
adaptation and mitigation
Comoros
The Global Climate Change Alliance is in the process of developing a programme in
Comoros.
The Agence Française de Développement is financing infrastructure projects for the
water sector (EUR 8.4 million) and sustainable management of forests ( EUR 750 000)
The AfDB is financing a project in the water sector (USD 15.9 million) and one in the
energy sector (USD 19.5 million).
The World Bank is financing a project for the co-management of resources in coastal
areas (USD 2.73 million).
IFAD is financing the project “Sustainable Human Development” (2007 – 2013), which
contributes to climate change adaptation with activities in reforestation, soil control etc.
The total budget of the project is USD 4.3 million.
Madagascar
Due to the political situation, the European Union has not be able to disburse the
allocation under the 10th EDF(EUR 567 million) for the period 2008 – 2013.
The AFD has financed the Foundation for Protected Areas with a total amount of EUR
16 million and supports sustainable rural development in partnership with the AfDB, the
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the World Bank for a total amount
of EUR 41.5 million.
66
The AfDB is financing a project in the water and sanitation sector (USD 90 million) the
transport sector (USD 49.5 million) and the agriculture sector (USD 32 million). The
AfDB is implementing only a short term strategy because of the political situation in
Madagascar.
Madagascar has profited from the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (USD 70,000) of
the World Bank. The World Bank is also supporting the Foundation for Protected Areas
(USD 10 million) and supports the Programme de l‟ Environement III (PEIII ) (USD 42
million).
The United Nations System(GEF,FAO,UNIDO,UNEP,UNDP) finances a portfolio of
project for a total budget of USD 12.2 million which includes projects contributing to
climate change adaptation and mitigation, such as:

Support to the sustainable production of bio carburants

Support to the water and environment sector

Support to the protected areas network

Sustainable land management project to stabilise rural population

Develop rural electricity with
the United Nations
Industrial Development
Organisation(UNIDO)

IFAD is in the process of developing its strategy for the period 2013 – 2018.

The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

The third Climate Change Communication(UNFCCC0
Mauritius
The Chinese government is financing through a loan and a grant agreement an
integrated
water
resources
management
instrastructures and a new dam.
67
plan,
the
maintenance
of
water
The Africa Adaptation Programme to climate change is funded by the Government of
Japan under its climate change
financial mechanism “Cool Earth
Partnership”
launched in 2008. Mauritius has received in this framework USD 3 million to mainstream
climate change adaptation into its institutional framework.
A technology needs assessment is implemented by the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) and aims at identifying appropriate technologies to reduce GHG
emissions and support adaptation to climate change. The project is funded by GEF for a
total amount of USD 120 000.
Mauritius will use its USD 2 million allocation from GEF 5 Star to develop an appropriate
mitigation strategy and actions plans.
The World Bank is financing an initiative to produce energy from the biomass of sugar
cane (USD 25.67 million).
Seychelles
IFAD is funding the programme “Climate Smart Small Holder Agricultural Support”
(CLISSA) for a total of USD 3 million in Seychelles.
Investments from Abu Dhabi have funded a wind farm of 6 MGW in Seychelles for a
total amount of USD 28 million.
Japan has developed a programme supporting coastal zone management and
adaptation to climate change, for approximately USD 3 million over several years in
Seychelles.
Seychelles is in the process of developing a project which will be funded by the
Adaptation Fund for a total amount of USD 6.5 million, entitled “Ecosystem based
adaptation to climate change in Seychelles” .
The World Bank is supporting the development of photovoltaic systems in Seychelles
for a total amount of USD 250 000 and assists Seychelles through its Global Facility for
Disaster Risk Reduction (GFDRR) for a total amount of USD 900 000.
68
USAID is financing a project of coral reef restoration and coastal protection.
AUSAID has a small grant programme for NGOs and is financing land restoration projects.
Zanzibar
UNDP is financing the project “Strengthening environment and climate change
governance for Zanzibar through capacity building and mainstreaming of adaptation
actions in development plans” (2012 – 2015) for a total budget of USD 2.8 million.
“Piloting REDD in Zanzibar through community forest management” (2009 – 2013) is
financed by the Norwegian Government for a total budget of approx. USD 5 million and
implemented by Care International.
“Marine and Costal Environment Management”, a seven year project started in 2005, is
funded by the World Bank and the GEF for a total amount of USD 61 million.
DFID is financing a consultancy to analyse options for a Climate Finance Mechanism
and Institutional Framework for Climate Change Governance in Zanzibar (2012-2013).
La Réunion
La Réunion is a ultra-peripheral region of the European Union and in this context can
have access to the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). Founded in 1975,
the ERDF supports the reduction of regional disparities and the balanced development
of European regions. It operates in the following areas: productive investment to create
and safeguard sustainable jobs, strengthening of infrastructure related to regional
development, support local development initiatives, especially for small and mediumsized enterprises, promotion of research, technological development and innovation,
environmental protection,
infrastructure
support,
education and
health,
urban
rehabilitation and tourism and cultural development. In Annex 5, a list of assistance
69
available under the ERDF mechanism can be found54. Mayotte will have access to this
financing mechanism in 2014.
La Réunion, being part of France, cannot be a beneficiary of the European
Development Fund (EDF) which is only accessible by developing countries. It is
important to establish a framework which will study the possibility to combine the EDF
and the ERDF for regional programme.
La Réunion has developed bilateral cooperation frameworks with the IOC countries
which include activities in the renewable energy and energy efficiency sector, notably in
Mauritius and Seychelles.
8.4 Barriers to the mobilisation of external sources of
funding for climate change
The main barriers to the mobilisation of external climate change sources of funding
identified by stakeholders in the IOC countries and Zanzibar are:

The weak regional and national coordination mechanisms for resource
mobilisation for climate change

The absence of a regional investment plan for the regional adaptation strategy
for climate change

The lack of a regional strategy on climate change mitigation

The limited capacity in terms of design of bankable climate change projects
within the IOC region

The limited knowledge of climate change funding mechanisms

The limited capacity in terms of negotiation skills to participate actively in
international climate change fora

54
The difficulty to track climate change finance
Website,www.Reunion-Europe.org,2013
70

The difficulty to combine the ERDF and development funds for developing
countries
8.5 Recommendations to increase the mobilisation of
external sources of funding for climate change
The following recommendations could be proposed at regional level to overcome
barriers identified to the mobilisation of external financial resources:

Develop investment plans for priorities areas identified in the framework for the
Regional Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the IOC member countries 2012
– 2020. This strategy and investment plans should be integrated into regional
climate change strategies of COMESA and SADC and presented at the
Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC.

Strength the management , the administrative and financial capacity of the IOC
with the objective to establish a regional climate change fund which will improve
coordination among climate change stakeholders and facilitate administrative
procedure to access and disburse climate change funding .Build on lessons
learnt by the Caribbean Community Climate Change centre (CCCCC), and the
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) to access
international climate change finance.

Strengthen regional and national capacities in bankable project design,
knowledge of climate change funding mechanisms (templates, criteria etc.) and
negotiation skills to participate actively in international climate change fora.

Assist the IOC, the IOC countries and Zanzibar in the accreditation process for
their national implementing entities (NIE) and regional implementing entities
(RIE) under the CDM for dedicated climate change funds.

Demonstrate that climate change impacts are economically important to islands
states in the IOC region and Zanzibar. This will improve the IOC countries‟
71
chances to access funding compared to countries with large populations affected
on the African continent. It will require to build regional capacity in terms of
environmental economic valuation of climate change impacts.

Study the possibility to combine the EDF and the ERDF for regional initiatives.
9. Innovative sources of funding
Innovative sources of funding are non-traditional sources of financing. They could
represent a potential sustainable alternative form of financing for climate change.
9.1 Private sector engagement
Private sector investment is an important driver of development and infrastructure
change to achieve low-carbon, climate-resilient growth. It is important to encourage the
private sector engagement in adaptation to climate change and as well in adopting low
carbon emission technologies through a well-designed domestic policy framework.
Mauritius has introduced a 2% corporate responsibility tax on business profit which is
used for social and environment programmes. Seychelles is also studying the possibility
to introduce a 0.5% corporate responsibility tax on turn over.
However, in the region usually only large international companies (tourism, banking,
communication
sector)
have
developed
corporate
responsibility
policies.
In
Madagascar, there is a need to engage the private mining sector. In Comoros, there is
very limited private sector engagement in environmental issues. The private sector has
usually limited knowledge on climate change issues.
In 2012, Seychelles has launched the Seychelles Sustainable Tourism Label (SSTL)
which provides sustainability standards for the tourism industry. The label seeks to
promote the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable management of natural
resources and the reduction of GHG emissions which are line with the UNCCD, CBD
and UNFCCC. The themes of SSTL are management, waste, water, energy, staff,
conservation and community. This initiative will encourage the tourism sector to play a
proactive role in raising awareness on environmental issues by involving visitors and the
72
local communities in the preservation of marine and terrestrial ecosystems. A similar
initiative is being developed in Zanzibar by the tourism industry.
IMauritius and La Réunion have introduced incentives to promote investment in
renewable energy. It includes tax rebates on capital investment, concessionary loans
and feed–in tariffs for renewable energy production. Seychelles is as well in the process
of introducing such measures.
It is important to encourage the private sector to develop corporate responsibility
policies and to inform them on climate change issues through targeted climate change
education awareness education programmes, in order to be able to leverage private
sector funding for climate change.
9.2 Payment for Environmental Services (PES)
The basic principle behind Payments for Environmental Services (PES) is that resource
users and communities which are in a position to provide environmental services should
be compensated for the costs of their provision, and that those who benefit from these
services should pay for them. Ecosystems provide a large variety of services such as
carbon sequestration through agriculture, on forest land and in the sea, regulation of the
quantity and quality of water in the watershed and coral reefs provide a habitat for fish
and protect beach and land erosion etc.
The different types of payments for environmental services existing in the IOC region
and Zanzibar are entrance fees to national protected areas (Madagascar, Mauritius,
Seychelles and Zanzibar) and carbon sequestration in forest land in Madagascar and
Tanzania. Studies have been carried out in Madagascar to introduce a water levy for
watershed management.
However, there is a limited use of this financial mechanism which is often difficult to
establish and requires an environmental socio economic valuation of the ecosystem
services to be able to elaborate a sustainable financing plan.
73
9.3 Compensation measures
These measures try to compensate the negative impacts on the environment of a
project when it fails to mitigate or eliminate the negative impacts.
These compensations can be for example:

Restoration work on a specific area or species

Awareness rising for concerned stakeholders

Conservation work
This system of compensation is in place in la Réunion and could form part of an
exchange of experiences within the IOC region.
9.5 Recommendations
The following recommendations could be proposed at regional level to overcome
barriers identified to the mobilisation of innovative financial resources:

Develop targeted education and awareness campaigns to encourage private
sector engagement in climate change mitigation and adaptation

Promote Corporate Social Responsibility among the private sector to encourage
them to adopt sustainable development practices

Assist national governments to develop appropriate policy frameworks to
encourage investment in climate change adaptation and mitigation (e.g.
investment in renewable energy; developing policy frameworks for low-carbon,
climate-resilient infrastructure investment, a climate-friendly investment policy
framework, green labels on agriculture products and tourism sector)

Strengthen national capacity to develop sustainable financing strategies for
national parks (terrestrial and marine), watersheds (e.g. training on
environmental economic valuation) to insure proper level of funding for climate
change adaption activities

Study the possibility of introducing payments for marine ecosystem services
(carbon sequestration, coral reef services etc.)

Strengthen national capacities to evaluate carbon footprints of agricultural and
forest land and their economic value
74

Assist national governments develop national legislation to regulate economic
activities so that they do not adversely affect ecosystems. Any impact on the
ecosystem by economic operators should be mitigated by a system of
compensation.
10. Key elements of a road map to increase resources
mobilisation for climate change in the IOC countries
and Zanzibar
The analysis of the recommendations to overcome the barriers to the mobilisation of
financial resources for climate change has identified the four strategic objectives and
key elements for a road map to improve access and the use of climate finance in the
IOC region and Zanzibar.
Strategic objective 1: Improved regional enabling
environment for climate change
The objective is to strengthen a regional cooperation on climate change within the IOC
region and Zanzibar based on the exchange of experiences and sharing of information
to assist countries in implementing their respective national strategies for climate
change. This regional cooperation will give the opportunity to present the specificity of
small islands of the IOC region in international fora and increase the visibility and the
level of financing of climate change programmes in the region. The key elements to
achieve this objective are:
 The IOC will need to define its area of intervention and the role of WIO-CC
 A regional platform on climate change needs to be made operational based on
exchanges of experiences and sharing of information and expertise based on
lessons learned in the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC)
and the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP).
75
 An action plan and investment plans need to be developed for the climate
change adaptation strategy in the IOC member countries.
 Climate change mitigation strategies and action plans need to be developed.
 These strategies need to be mainstreamed into the regional development
planning and budgeting of COMESA-SADC etc.
Strategic objective 2: The mobilisation of internal sources of
funding for climate change is strengthened
The objective is to strengthen the mobilisation of internal sources of funding which
remain limited in the IOC countries. It will contribute to the sustainable financing of
climate change and will strengthen national capacities. The key elements to achieve this
objective are:

Keys Stakeholders and the public sector are sensitised on climate change issues
using targeted innovative education and awareness techniques.

Climate change strategies and action plans are mainstreamed into national
development planning and budgeting.

Coordination and implementation frameworks are strengthened.

National tax and financial incentives policy frameworks for climate change are
developed.

A system to track in the national accounting systems the flow of climate change
financing is developed.

Integrate the natural capital into the national account system

Strength the capacity in terms of environmental economic valuation
Strategic objective 3: The mobilisation of external sources of
funding for climate change is strengthened
The objective is to strength the capacities to mobilise external sources of funding at
national and regional level. The IOC has an important role to play in the international
and regional fora in defending and lobbying for the interests of small islands. The
76
countries of the IOC need to strengthen their capacity to develop bankable projects The
key elements to achieve this objectives are:

Strengthen national and regional capacities in bankable
project design,
management, monitoring and evaluation

Strengthen national and regional capacities in adaptation and mitigation climate
change financing mechanisms

Strengthen national and regional capacities in negotiation skills to participate
actively in international climate change fora

Strengthen national and regional coordination mechanisms in terms of resource
mobilisation

Study the feasibility of establishing a regional climate change fund

Strengthen the technical, administrative and financial capacities of the IOC

Study the possibility of combining ERDF and EDF for regional climate change
initiatives
Strategic Objective 4: The mobilisation of innovative sources
of funding for climate change is strengthened
The objective is to strengthen the mobilisation of innovative sources of funding by
engaging the private sector in the process. This can be done by developing payments
for ecosystems services schemes and appropriate tax and incentives frameworks for
climate change. The key elements to achieving this objective are:

The private sector is sensitised on climate change issues using targeted
innovative education and awareness techniques

Corporate Social Responsibility among the private sector is promoted to
encourage them to adopt sustainable development practices

National governments are assisted to develop appropriate policy frameworks to
encourage investment in climate change adaptation and mitigation

The possibilities to introduce payments for terrestrial and marine ecosystem
services (carbon sequestration, coral reef services, mangroves and watershed
77
services etc.) to contribute to the financing of climate change adaptation and
mitigation are explored

National capacities to evaluate carbon footprints of agricultural and forest land
and their economic value are strengthened

National governments are assisted in developing national legislation to regulate
economic activities so that they do not adversely affect ecosystems. Any impact
on the ecosystem by economic operators should be mitigated by a system of
compensation.
11. Conclusion
Climate change is an important factor to take into consideration for the sustainable
development of the IOC countries and Zanzibar. Different financial mechanisms
(internal, external and innovative) and barriers to the mobilisation of financial resources
for climate change have been identified. A regional cooperation based on exchanges of
information and sharing of knowledge will engage the different stakeholders on climate
change and ensure a better coordination and utilisation of human, financial and
technical resources. It will provide reliable data, information and expertise to the
member countries on climate change issues.
The strengthening of the administrative, financial and management capacity of the IOC
will help the IOC countries to be fully integrated in larger regional frameworks
(COMESA-SADC-EAC) and benefit from complementary sources of financing for
climate change.
The IOC will support the mobilisation of internal sources of funding for climate change
by providing training on mainstreaming climate change into national development
planning and budgeting and integrating natural capital and ecosystems services into
national accounting systems.
The IOC will support the mobilisation of external sources of services by strengthening
national capacities in designing, managing, monitoring and evaluating bankable climate
change projects. It will provide and collect information on available climate change
78
funding mechanisms established in the framework of the UNFCCC and others to
facilitate the access to the IOC countries and Zanzibar.
It will support the mobilisation of innovative sources of funding by involving the private
sector on climate change issues and assist the development of payment for ecosystems
services.
79
ANNEX 1
Terms of Reference
Mapping and inventory of the access and use of climate change
related financing in the region
Targeted Result
KR3 – Activity 3.2
Targeted Activity
Climate Financing and Capacity Building Expert
Location
Country of Origin of the STE
Trips in the beneficiary countries of ISLANDS (Plus France
La Réunion)
Programme Description
Background
The Barbados Programme of Action (BPoA) for the Sustainable Development of Small
Island Developing States (SIDS) was adopted by 129 countries and territories in the
global conference held in Mauritius, January 2005.
It addresses the unique development problems of SIDS and sets out the basic
principles and specific actions required at the national, regional and international levels
to support sustainable development. It covers various economic, social and
environment sectors in 20 thematic chapters, and recognizes the need for building
capacity to implement sustainable development policies.
Whilst MS sets out clearly the strategic objectives, accompanied by well-defined
vehicles for accomplishing change and well-articulated adaptive mechanisms to
respond to each of the thematic issues delineated in its 20 thematic Chapters, it has
shed less light on the tools and mechanisms for its implementation.
This programme seeks to bridge these gaps by:

providing a coherent process at national and regional levels towards sustainable
development by contextualizing the 20 themes;
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clearly identifying key actions required, and the amount of resources required to
achieve the expected results; and
formulating a Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) mechanism for countries to
gauge their performances towards the implementation of MS.
Innovative pillars of the programme are: regional cooperation and integration, SIDSSIDS knowledge exchanges, and a methodology to deal with the large asymmetries
between the developmental stages of the beneficiary countries.
Objectives
Overall:
To contribute to an increased level of social, economic and environmental
development and deeper regional integration in the ESA-IO region through the
sustainable development of SIDS.
Specific:
To accelerate the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy in the ESA-IO region.
Expected results
Four flagship projects contributing to the mitigation of SIDS vulnerabilities are
supported
Result 1:
A Monitoring and Evaluation system for the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy
(MS) is developed and operational at national, regional and international level
Result 2:
Four flagship projects contributing to the mitigation of SIDS vulnerabilities are
supported
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A Regional Coral Reefs Facility (CRF) is operational
Capacities for Risk Financing Mechanisms against natural and climatic disasters
adapted to the Region are assessed and the setting-up of identified
mechanisms is supported;
The development of National Sustainable Development Strategies is supported
The WIO Coastal Challenge (WIO-CC) is operational
Result 3:
ESA-IO SIDS are supported in the development and consolidation of their capacities to
leverage investments and other commitments for the support of national and regional
programmes and interventions in four thematic areas, e.g. Coral Reef Rehabilitation,
81
Risk Financing Instruments, National Sustainable Development (SD) Strategies, and a
Regional Coastal Challenge Initiative.
Result 4:
International partnerships and increased international investments and other
programme support for the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy in the ESA-IO
SIDS are strengthened.
Mission and Activities Description
Background of the consultancy
This consultancy is carried out in the framework of a cooperation between the Global
Mechanism (GM) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
and IOC/ISLANDS and ACClimate projects.
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The region of the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) is comprising five countries,
namely Mauritius, Madagascar, Seychelles, Comoros, and France through
Réunion. The ISLANDS project also includes Zanzibar of the Union of Tanzania.
Currently, all IOC countries and Zanzibar face problems caused by their
insularity, such as environmental vulnerability and a strong exposure to natural
disasters. Degradation of natural resources is caused both by natural
phenomena (storms, tsunamis) and by man-made activities (water pollution,
unsustainable agriculture practices, overexploitation of marine resources).
The IOC plays a key role in coordinating and promoting sustainable development
and safeguarding the environment. In partnership with other regional
stakeholders, it develops financing strategies to create an enabling environment
for increased investments in the region to combat land degradation, adapt to
climate change, protect agriculture production and, more in general, promote the
protection of the environment and natural resources. ISLANDS aims amongst
other objective in developing the capacity of the countries to access climate
finance mechanisms.
The GM sees a large potential in the use of climate change adaptation and
mitigation related funding as well as carbon finance to provide additional, new
funding for the implementation of the UNCCD while at the same time promoting
local sustainable development and land management to halt further land
degradation. In particular, Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) countries are still in
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the process of developing and implementing clear greenhouse gas (GHG)
mitigation and climate change adaptation strategies. IOC countries do require
more awareness raising and capacity building about the potentials and
possibilities in the field of carbon finance or the development of adaptation
programmes and projects.
The region holds considerable potential for climate change adaptation activities
yet inventories of potential sites or programme designs are either incomplete or
preliminary and vary from country to country with regards to the level of
development and quality of the concepts or proposals. To date, IOC countries
have hardly used their potential and could receive much more investment
especially with respect to adaptation activities to support the implementation of
the Rio Conventions (UNFCCC, UNCCD, CBD) and beyond. There is an
abundance of largely untapped renewable resources and a lack of internal
capacity to realize this potential. Information on opportunities, or the existence
and progress of any existing activities is scarce and difficult to collect.
Objectives of the consultancy
The overall objective of the consultancy is the mapping and inventory of the access and
use of climate change related financing in the IOC region and Zanzibar) to promote the
sustainable use of natural resources, and the development of key elements of a road
map to improve the access to climate change finance and the use of related
mechanisms. In particular, the following specific objectives will be achieved:
(c) The situation in IOC countries and Zanzibar with regards to the access and use
of climate change related financing is analysed ;
(d) The key elements of a road map to improve the access to climate change finance
and the use of related mechanisms for countries in the region with a view to
support the implementation of the Rio Conventions in the IOC region is
developed.
Description of tasks
Under the overall supervision of the Economist of ISLANDS and in cooperation with the
ACLIMATE project managers and the GM‟s coordinator for West and Central Africa
(WCA), the consultant will perform the following specific tasks:
(a) Develop a brief work plan for the implementation of the consultancy
83
(b) Prepare an inventory of/map CC related institutional frameworks, programmes
and other activities (adaptation and mitigation) relevant for activities related to
natural resource management in the countries under study (desk study)
(c) Develop key elements of a road map to improve the access to climate change
finance and the use of related mechanisms for the countries of the region with a
view to support the implementation of the Rio Conventions and related Treaties
and policies in the IOC region
(d) Carry out a mission to IOC member countries to collect the necessary
information
(e) Present the key findings of the report during a regional workshop
(f) Draft workshop report and amend CC mapping report based on the outcomes of
the workshop
Expected outputs
The project„s outputs shall include:
(a) A report, containing an inventory and mapping of the climate change related
institutional frameworks, programmes and adaptation (as well as mitigation)
activities, and key elements of a road map to improve the access to climate
change finance and the use of related mechanisms for the countries in the region
with a view to support the implementation of the Rio Conventions and related
treaties and policies in the IOC region
(b) A presentation of above report presented at a regional workshop
(c) Workshop report
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ANNEX 2
Persons met
Comoros
Ben Houssen, Point focal CNULCD, Gouvernment des Comores
Aboudacar Allaoui, Directeur National de l‟Environnement, Gouvernment des
Comores
Ismael Balhirom, Ministère de l‟Environnement, point focal adjoint CCNUCC,
Gouvernment des Comores
Nobatene, Coordinateur du projet Programme National pour le Développement Humain
Durable(PNDHD)
Annllaouddine Abou Responsable FEM du projet PNDHD
Mariame Anthoy Ben Bacar, Directrice Nationale des Stratégies Agricoles et
l‟Elevage, Gouvernment des Comores
Bicarima Ali, Chargée de projets, Agence Française de Développement
Karim Ali Ahmed, Associé au Programme, PNUD
Marie Ange de Lespinois , Chargé de Coopération, Union Européenne
Fatuma Abdallah, Coordinatrice, Stratégie nationale du développement durable,
Gouvernment des Comores
Said Mohammed Nassir, Directeur General Energie et Eau, Gouvernment des
Comores Gouvernment des Comores
Said Ahmies Othman, Chef de Service Ressource en Eau,
Mahad Boinalt, Ingénieur hydrologue, Projet PAEPA
Charaf- Eddine Msaide, Coordinateur national du projet Adaptation de la gestion des
ressources en Eau aux Changements climatiques(ACCE)
Said Hamada Mdziani, Adaptation de la gestion des ressources en Eau aux
Changements climatiques
85
Youssoufa Mohamed Ali , Coordinateur du projet GDT (PNUD/FME)
Soalihy Hamadi , Directeur de la Coordination des Projets, Commissariat du plan,
Gouvernment des Comores
Dr Ouledi Ahmed, Gestionnaire et Coordonnateur de la recherche, Université des
Comores et ULANGA Ngazidya (ONG)
Said Mhamadi, Ministère des finances, du Budget et des investissements, Directeur
Général du budget, Gouvernment des Comores
Sitti Attoumani, Directrice nationale du tourisme et de l‟hôtellerie, Ministère des
transports et du tourisme, Gouvernment des Comores
Col Ismael Mogne Daho, Directeur général de la sécurité civile, Gestion des risques et
des catastrophes naturelles, Gouvernment des Comores
Mohammed Ali Mlazouhahé, Coordinateur projet aires protégées , point focal
Ramar,PNUD/FM
Madagascar
Ralalarimanana Hervilolona , Point focal CNULCD, Ministère de l‟Environnement et
des Forêts,
Randrianarisoa Pierre Manganirina , Secrétaire Général , Ministère de
l‟Environnement et des Forêts,
Beatrice Mahasahy, Officier Permanent de liaison de la COI, Ministère des Affaires
Etrangères, Directrice général de la coopération et du développement
Marc Maminiaina Marc, Agent diplomatique et consulaire, chef de service des affaires
Environnementales, Ministère des affaires étrangères
Rakotoson Philibert , Secrétaire Général, Ministère de l‟Agriculture
Dr Razafindravonona Jean, Directeur Général du Budget, Ministère des Finances et
du Budget
Rakotomanana Andrianaivo Régis Chef de service du cadrage
Macro-économique, Ministère des Finances et du Budget
86
Bienvenu Rajaonson, Spécialiste Principal Environnement, Banque Mondiale
Abdelkrim Bendjebbour, Représentant Résident, Banque Africaine de Développement
Hajavola Rakotondrazaka, Senior Private Sector officer, Banque Africaine de
Developpement
Patricia Aubras, Directrice Adjointe, Agence Française de développement
Florence Armitano-Grivel , Chargée de projets, Agence Française Développement
Delphin Randriamiharisoa, Chargé de programme Développement local et
environnement, Union Européenne
Germain Randriasandratana, Directeur Changement Climatique, Ministère de
l‟Environnement et des forêts
Ladislas Adrian Rakotondrazaka, Directeur général, , Ministère de l‟eau
Haingo Rakotondratsima , Chargé des opérations, FIDA
Frenosoa Andriamahenina, Directeur Executif, Tany Meva
Monique Andriamanadro, Manager Département Programme de Financement, Tany
Meva
Vololoniaina Rasoarimanana, Coordinatrice nationale GEF SGP Madagascar
Fanomezant Soa Rakotoarisoa Andrianaivoarivony, Team Leader water ,
Environment and Poverty Eradication ,UNDP
Mauritius
Premhans Jhugroo, Permanent Secretary ,Ministry of Environment and Sustainable
Development
Jugeeswar Seewoobaduth, Divisional Environment Officer, climate change division,
Department of Environment
Vincent Chan How, Project Manager, Maurice Ile Durable Fund
Hurburgs M, Divisional Scientific officer, Ministry of Fisheries
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Sookharea R, Scientific officer, NPCS
BM Heetun, Divisional Meteorologist
J Sookdeb , Manager claims Sugar industries fund board
C.P Aubechick, Tourism Planner, Ministry of Tourism
Mungroo, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development
R.Coopamootoo, Second secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Aruna Ramasala, Deputy Director, general ports authority
Ashley Purmanund , Environmental officer, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable
Development
Vstajlingum ,Environmental officer, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable
development,
T,Abdool, Environmental officer, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development
D. Bhagintty, Senior development officer, Development Bank Mauritius
S. Seemttum, Ministry of Agro Industries
Roshan Sultoo, Chargé de projets, Agence Française de Développement
N Mihdidin, Analyst ,Bank of Mauritius
C Ciceron , Principal Heatlh engineering officer,Miniitry of Health
Kamiri Beedaree Programme assistant, GEF SGP UNDP
Pamela Bapoo-Dundoo, National Coordinator, GEF SGP UNDP
Y. Dimba, Inspector of police
Dr B Seetanah, University of Mauritius
P Khurum, DCF Forestry service
Christophe Legrand, Team leader, projet ISLANDS,Indian Ocean Commission
Gina Bonne, Chargé de mission, Indian Ocean Commission
Seychelles
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Wills Agricole, Permanent Secretary, UNFCCC focal point, Ministry of Environment
and Energy
Alain de Commarmond, Director general, Climate Affairs, Adaptation and Information,
UNCCD focal point, Ministry of Environment and Energy
Andrew Jean Louis, Commissioner, Seychelles Energy Commission
Michel Martin, Climate change education awareness specialist, Sustainability for
Seychelles
La Réunion
Bertrand Lavezzari, Conseiller Diplomatique, OPL, Préfecture de la Réunion
Michel Espallargas , Point focal ISLANDS, Ministère de l‟écologie , du développement
durable ,du transport et du logement,
Joël Siong, , Adjoint de l‟unité Climat Energie, Service Aménagement durable énergie
climat Ministère de l‟écologie, du développement durable, du transport et du logement
Samuel Laslandes, Chargé de mission Energie, Ministère de l‟écologie, du
développement durable, du transport et du logement
Philippe Beutin, directeur régional, Agence de l‟Environnement et de la Maitrise de
l‟Energie
Etienne Plasteig ,Chargé de Développement Territorial ,Caisse des Dépôts
Jismy Souprayenmestry, Directeur Général, Agence de Développement de la
Réunion
Taina Trochon , Chargée de mission Environnement-Energie, Agence de
Développement de la Réunion
Jean-Claude Futhazar, Directeur Général Adjoint du développement durable, Région
Réunion
Pierre Tessier, Reponsable service géographique, Région Réunion
Michel Aldon , Référent, technique ISLAND-ACClimate
Rebecca Pleignet, Point focal suppléante ISLANDS
Anthony Rosa, Secrétaire Général, TEMERGIE
89
Didier Guillaume,Chargé de mission,GIP-GERRI
Beatrice Pillu, Chargée de mission, GIP -GERRI
Julie Couriaut, Chargée d‟études coopération régionale et communication, Agence
Française de Développement
Zanzibar
Dr Aboud S. Jumbe, Head, Policy, Planning and Research, Department of
Environment
Fauzia M. Haji, Director Planning Policy and Research, Department of Environment
Ahmed Makame Haji, Commissioner, Planning Commission, President‟s office
Finance, Economy and Development Planning
Bihindi Nassor Khatib, Commissioner for External Finance, President‟s office
Finance,Economy and Development Planning
Helen Josie Newcombe, Economist, Department for National Planning and Poverty
Reduction, President‟s office Finance, Economy and development Planning
Gerard Hendriksen, Consultant rural development energy
Sheha Mjaja Juma, Director, Department of Environment, First Vice President office
Nel Hamilton, Research Scientist and Environmental Educator, Sustainable East
Africa, Research
Sheha Idrissa Hamdan, Director, Department of Forestry and Non Renewable
Resources, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Amina 0.Saleh, Head of Planning, Department of Forestry and Non Renewable
Resources, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Aziza Y. Nchimbi, Head of Publicity and Extension, Department of Forestry and Non
Renewable Resources ,Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Sielewi M Ramadhan , Assistant Accountant, Department of Forestry and Non
Renewable Resources ,Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Salim Ali Khamis, Department of Forestry and Non renewable Resources, Ministry of
Agriculture and Natural Resources
90
Rahika H Suleiman, Department of Forestry and Non Renewable Resources, Ministry
of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Ali Abdullah Ali, Department of Forestry and Non Renewable Resources ,Ministry of
Agriculture and Natural Resources
Badru K Mwamuna, Commercial Crops, Department of Forestry and Non Renewable
Resources, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Tamini Atly Said, Forestry Officer, Department of Forestry and Non Renewable
Resources , Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Muriujuma Saleh, Forestry officer, Department of Forestry and Non Renewable
Resources, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Rashid Juma, Head of Administration, Department of Forestry and Non Renewable
resources , Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Bobby McKenna, Vice Chairman, ZATI , Tourism Businesses Community
Julia Bishop, Director, ZATI, Tourism Businesses Community
Uli Kloiber, Conservation and Education Manager,Chumbe Island Coral Park
Mr Saleh, Ramadhan Ferouz, Executive secretary, Zanzibar Commission for Tourism
Garry Greg, One Ocean,Dive Center
Salhina Mwita Ameir, Director, Planning Policy and Research, Ministry of
Lands,Housing ,Water and Energy
Dandi Haji Pandu, Assistant Coordinator MCU, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
Omar Halum Foum, Coordinator MCU, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
Ali S. Mkarafun, Representative Director, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
Hamel M. Ah , Planning Officer, ,Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
Shaaban S. Jaber, Director Administration and Human Resources, Ministry of
Livestock and Fisheries
Mohamed Soud, Director Marine Resources, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
Muumn Iddi, Marine Resources, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
Hamad Khatib, Marine Resources, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
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Dr Yusouf Hati Khamis, Veterinary Department, ,Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
Annex 3
92
DRAFT
Terms of reference regional workshop climate change finance
Note conceptuelle
Atelier sur la mobilisation des investissements pour la gestion durable des ressources naturelles
grâce aux mécanismes de financement associés au changement climatique dans les pays de la
Commission de l’Océan Indien
Atelier d’échange de connaissances et de renforcement des capacités
INTRODUCTION
Le changement climatique (CC), qui constitue un danger pour la planète, aura des incidences sur
l’ensemble du continent africain, notamment pour la région de l’Océan Indien. Selon le Groupe
d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat (GIEC), l’Afrique, y inclut la région de l’Océan
Indien est l’un des continents les plus vulnérables aux fluctuations climatiques et souffrira
inévitablement d’un certain nombre de facteurs de stress environnemental.
L’espace de la Commission de l’Océan Indien (COI) est fortement exposé à des risques naturels qui
menacent de façon récurrente les populations et l’environnement. Ces risques proviennent souvent de
phénomènes naturels (séismes, cyclones, éruptions volcaniques, inondations, glissements de terrain,
tsunamis, etc.), d’autres résultent de l’activité humaine, ou sont encore accentués par cette dernière
(dégradation de l’environnement, déforestation, pollution du sol, de l'eau ou de l'air, brûlage de
biomasse, pollution à l’ozone, etc.). La COI se heurte donc à des difficultés causées par l'insularité,
comme l'isolement, l'étroitesse des marchés, la fragilité environnementale ou encore l'exposition aux
catastrophes naturelles. Il présente en outre un contexte économique très particulier, à l’interface de
pays développés, émergents et en voie de développement.
Les approches intégrées de lutte contre le CCen faveur d’une gestion durable des ressources naturelles
présentent de multiples avantages, particulièrement pour les populations défavorisées des zones les
plus touchées par ces réalités.Les mécanismes de financement relatifs au CC sont considérés comme des
ressources financières novatrices qui pourraient contribuer au financement de ces cadres
d’investissement. En effet, les pays de la COI ne capturent qu’une part infime de ces ressources
financières. Par conséquent, cette région a fortement besoin d’améliorer son potentiel pour bénéficier
des opportunités de financement pour l’adaptation (et l’atténuation) au CC fourni par la Convention
Cadre des Nations Unies pour le Changement Climatique (CCNUCC) de manière à soutenir, entre autres,
l’exécution des autres Conventions de Rio (la Convention des Nations Unies sur la lutte contre la
désertification,CNULCD et la Convention pour la Biodiversité, CBD) et des Accords Environnementaux
Multilatéraux. Cela signifie accéder aux sources de financement disponibles dans le court terme et aussi
influencer le processus politique actuel au niveau international.
93
Par ailleurs, un autre domaine à fortes potentialités pour ces pays est celui de REDD (Réduction des
émissions générées par la déforestation et la dégradation). REDD est axé sur la prévention et la
diminution de l’impact de procédés ou d’activités qui entrainent la déforestation ou la dégradation
forestière, comme par exemple la conversion de la forêt, l’exploitation forestière commerciale ou illicite,
la pratique du brûlis et l’empiètement de la population, par l’intermédiaire de la protection et de la
gestion améliorée des forêts. Outre l’avantage climatique évident de conservation des stocks de
carbone dans les arbres sur pied, les activités REDD peuvent contribuer à promouvoir l’utilisation
durable des terres et à prévenir leur dégradation.
CONTEXTE
La COI se définit comme une organisation de coopération régionale appelée à répondre aux difficultés
mentionnées avant, en défendant les intérêts et le développement durable de ses membres. Elle instruit
des projets de coopération favorisant l'échange de connaissances et une mobilisation des efforts vers
des buts communs.
Suite à la demande des gouvernements de plusieurs pays de la COI, un atelier d’échange de
connaissances et de renforcement des capacités des pays membres à bénéficier des fonds destinés à la
lutte contre le changement climatique, plus particulièrement ceux destinés à l’adaptation, sera organisé
du 5au 7 février2013. Il traitera les mécanismes de financement associés au CC dans le cadre du
renforcement de synergies parmi les Conventions de Rio (CCNUCC, CNULCD, CBD). Cet atelier suit un
autre atelier similaire, organisé par COMESA et le MM en octobre 2012 a Madagascar. Auquel, trois pays
de la COI (Madagascar, Seychelles et Comores) ont participé55.
L’atelier permettra à ces pays de partager leurs connaissances et leurs expériences, ainsi que de
renforcer leur capacité sur comment accéder aux mécanismes de financement du CC, particulièrement
ceux relatifs aux mécanismes d’adaptation. En plus, chaque pays élaborera plus à fond une proposition
de projet relative à l’adaptation (ou l’atténuation) déjà commencée avant l’atelier, afin de la soumettre
à des potentiels bailleurs.
L’atelier est organisé par la COI avec l’appui financier et technique deACClimate, ISLANDS et du
Mécanisme Mondial de la CNULCD.
OBJECTIFS DE L’ATELIER
L’objectif d’ensemble consiste à renforcer, à l’échelle nationale et régionale, les capacités d’accès aux
mécanismes de financement associés au CC pour renforcer les flux d’investissements en faveur de la
gestion durable des ressources naturelles dans les paysages dégradés dans le pays de la COI.
Les objectifs précis sont les suivants :
 Renforcer les capacités afin de créer un climat favorable facilitant l’accès au financement des projets
liés au changement climatique
55
En plus, Burundi, DRC, Eritrea, Djibouti,Libie,Seychelles ont participé
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Renforcer les capacités des pays en fin de faciliter le montage et la soumission de propositions de
programmes et projets nationaux financièrement viables qui font le lien entre ressources naturelles
et le changement climatique à travers des propositions de projets concrets développées à l’avance
pas les pays participants à l’atelier
Mettre en commun un savoir-faire et des connaissances sur la possibilité d’appliquer les
mécanismes actuels et émergents de financement de projets d’adaptation au(et d’atténuation
du)changement climatique dans les pays de la COI à travers le même mécanisme
Promouvoir la compréhension nationale et régionale des mécanismes de financement forestiers
innovateurs à travers lepartage des expériences et connaissances.
Cet atelier maximisera les synergies entre les gouvernements et autres institutions clés impliquées dans
les stratégies d’adaptation (et d’atténuation)au changement climatique, et cela aidera à promouvoir une
meilleure collaboration et coordination entre tous les acteurs importants impliqués. L’atelier a pour but
d’augmenter et d’améliorer les investissements pour la gestion durable des ressources naturelles.
RÉSULTATS ATTENDUS
Les résultats suivants sont attendus:
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Connaissance approfondie des mécanismes actuels et émergents de financement associés au
changement climatique
Instauration et renforcement des capacités permettant de repérer, de formuler et de mettre en
œuvre des projets/programmes d’adaptation (et d’atténuation) financièrement réalisables, qui sont
fortement liés aux approches programmatiques des secteurs AFOLU
Capacités renforcées en vue d’élaborer et de gérer le processus d’intégration des interconnexions
entre dégradation des terres et changement climatiquedans des cadres stratégiques pour le
développement économique et social
Communication d’un savoir et d’exemples de réussite parmi les pays de la COI se rapportant à
l’élaboration de projets de gestion durable des ressources naturelles financés par les mécanismes et
programmes liés au changement climatiquedans le contexte de l’élaboration des cadres
d’investissement agricoles/environnementaux
Contribution à la pérennisation des financements pour les projets/programmes de gestion durable
des ressources naturelles et changement climatiquesur le moyen et long terme
Elargir et renforcer les partenariats avec d’autres agences et entités pour promouvoir les
investissements pour la gestion durable des ressources naturelles
Renforcement des capacités des gouvernements et du secteur privé pour planifier et exécuter des
stratégies de gestion durable des ressources naturelles et des programmes d’investissement, et
Meilleure coordination entre les activités pertinentes de la CCNUCC et de la CNULCD à l’échelle
nationale et régionale.
APPROCHE ET MÉTHODOLOGIE DE L’ATELIER
L’atelier a été élaboré et spécialement conçu à partir des expériences acquises dans le cadre des divers
processus nationaux et régionaux. La durée de l’atelier sera de trois journées entières de travail et une
journée de visite de terrain optionnelle.Les séances de travail comprendront des présentations sous
format Power Point, des études de cas et des exercices interactifs sur le repérage de projets.
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Les participants pourront ainsi approfondir leurs connaissances sur les procédures et techniques de base
utiles à l’élaboration de soumission de projets de GDT/CC. Un manuel destiné aux participants intitulé
«Modules de formation sur l’emploi des mécanismes de financement liés au changement climatique et
destinés à soutenir les investissements dans la GDT et à contribuer à la mise en œuvre de la CNUCD»sera
distribué avant la tenue de l’atelier pour permettre aux participants de se familiariser avec la
documentation de l’atelier. Lors de celui-ci, les participants seront également demandés de préparer
des propositions de projets GDT/CC pour leurs pays qui viendront élaborées en plus de détail et conçues
à des bailleurs adéquats pendent l’atelier.
Après l’atelier, les co-organisateurs assureront un appui technique aux pays, notamment en tant que
accès à des mécanismes de financements pour les projets élaborés.
Les séances de l’atelier seront dispensées par des experts du MM, de Climatekos et des personnes
ressources.
PUBLIC CIBLE
L’atelier cible cinq pays de la Commission de Océan Indien, à savoir Madagascar, Maurice, Seychelles,
Comores France/La Réunion et Zanzibar. Chaque délégation pays comprendra des représentants des
Ministères clés en charge de l’environnement et le changement climatique (institutions focales pour la
CCNUCC, CNULCD, CBD). De plus la participation des personnes ressources ainsi que celle des
représentants d’organisations régionales est attendue.
Pour assurer un bon déroulement de l’atelier, la participation sera limitée à une trentaine de
participants.
APERCU DE LA STRUCTURE ET DU CONTENU
L’atelier a pour objet de souligner les liens techniques et financiers entre dégradation des terres et
changement climatique dans le secteur de l’utilisation des terres. Il contribuera à sensibiliser les
participants à la pertinence de certaines options, en leur indiquant la voie pour les identifier. Cet atelier
enseignera aussi aux participants ce qu’il faut faire pour que des projets d’atténuation et d’adaptation
voient le jour dans le secteur de l’utilisation des terres. L’atelier sera structuré comme suit :

Le premier jour sera consacré au cadre politique et du changement climatique dans la région de
la COI, des financements changement climatique dans la région et unrefresher sur les liens entre
le changement climatique et la GDT, les différents mécanismes de financement pour le
changement climatique (adaptation et atténuation ; en générale et dans la région COI) et les
caractéristiques des projets d’adaptation et d’atténuation.

Le deuxième jour portera sur la présentation des ébauches de propositions de projets de tous
les pays et des différentes sources de financement changement climatique pertinents aux
projets présentés par les pays (en terme d’objectives, activités soutenues, conditions et
éligibilité, accès et templates) ainsi que sur le travail en groupes par pays (d’abord, les pays
96
choisiront des potentiels bailleurs basé sur les informations de la présentation précédente.
Après, ils pourront développer des idées de projets (toujours basé sur la présentation), en
utilisant les formats de documents pour les différents mécanismes de financement.
En parallèle, les personnes ressources de la région participants à l’atelier vont identifier des
problèmes communs relatifs à l’érosion côtière dans la région de la COI afin de développer un
projet régional

Le troisième jour sera consacré à la finalisation du travail dans les différentes groupes et la
présentation des résultats (par pays, et de la part des personnes ressources)
Annex 4
List of projects in the IOC region funded by dedicated climate change funds
monitor by climate change funds update.
97
Project
Focus
Country
Adapting Water
Resource
Management in
Comoros to Increase
Capacity to Cope
with Climate Change Adaptation Comoros
Enhancing adaptive
capacity and
resilience to climate
change in the
agriculture sector in
Comoros
Adaptation Comoros
National Adaptation
Programme of
Action
Adapting Coastal
Zone Management
to Climate Change
in Madagascar
Considering
Ecosystem and
Livelihood
Improvement
Preparation of a
National Action
Program to Adapt to
Climate Changes
Promoting Climate
Resilience in the
Rice Sector through
Pilot Investments in
Alaotra-Mangoro
Region
Climate Change
Adaptation
Programme in the
Coastal Zone of
Mauritius
Converting AirConditioning
Adaptation Comoros
Funder
Least
Developed
Countries
Fund
(LDCF)
Least
Developed
Countries
Fund
(LDCF)
Least
Developed
Countries
Fund
(LDCF)
Least
Developed
Countries
Fund
Adaptation Madagascar (LDCF)
Least
Developed
Countries
Fund
Adaptation Madagascar (LDCF)
Adaptation
Adaptation Madagascar Fund (AF)
Adaptation Mauritius
Mitigation
- general
Mauritius
98
Adaptation
Fund (AF)
International
Climate
Approved
Year
Approved
2009
3.4
2012
8.99
2003
0.2
2012
5.34
2004
0.2
2012
5.1
2011
9.12
2008
1.271
Equipment in Public
Buildings to Natural
Refrigerants
General Budget
Support - Global
Climate Change for
 Mauritius:
Supporting
sustainable
development,
climate change
mitigation and
adaptation
measures in
Mauritius
Removal of Barriers
to Energy Efficiency
and Energy
Conservation in
Buildings
Removal of Barriers
to Solar PV Power
Generation in
Mauritius, Rodrigues
and the Outer
Islands
GCCA - Seychelles
Climate Change
Support Programme
(SCCSP):
Enhancing the
sustainability of the
economic and
development reform
Grid-Connected
Rooftop Photovoltaic
Systems
Study for coastal
erosion and flood
control management
AECF Renewable
Energy and
Adapting to Climate
Technologies
(REACT) Private
Sector Challenge
Initiative
(ICI)
Multiple
foci
Mitigation
- general
Mitigation
- general
Mauritius
Global
Climate
Change
Alliance
(GCCA)
2009
4.08
Mauritius
GEF Trust
Fund (GEF
4)
2010
0.91
Mauritius
GEF Trust
Fund (GEF
4)
2010
2.01
2009
2.72
2010
1.16
Adaptation Seychelles
Global
Climate
Change
Alliance
(GCCA)
GEF Trust
Fund (GEF
4)
Japan's Fast
Start
Finance
Multiple
foci
UK's
International
Climate
Fund
Multiple
foci
Seychelles
Mitigation
- general
Seychelles
Tanzania
99
0.54
2011
3.7
Fund Tanzania
Window
Accountability
Programme - Civil
Society Climate
Change and
Environment Fund
(with DANIDA and
USAID)
Climate Change
Institutional
Strengthening
Programme
Conserving
Mountain Forests
Developing Core
Capacity to Address
Adaptation to
Climate Change in
Productive Coastal
Zones
Implementation of
Concrete Adaptation
Measures to Reduce
Vulnerability of
Livelihood and
Economy of Coastal
Communities in
Tanzania
Iringa-Shinyanga
Backbone
Transmission
Investment Project
Mainstreaming
Climate Change in
Integrated Water
Resources
Management in
Pangani River Basin
Mini-Grids Based on
Small Hydropower
Sources to Augment
Rural Electrification
National Adaptation
Multiple
foci
Tanzania
Multiple
foci
Tanzania
Mitigation
- REDD
Tanzania
UK's
International
Climate
Fund
UK's
International
Climate
Fund
International
Climate
Initiative
(ICI)
2011
0.27
2011
0.69
2008
3.257
Adaptation Tanzania
Least
Developed
Countries
Fund
(LDCF)
2010
3.1
Adaptation Tanzania
Adaptation
Fund (AF)
2012
5.01
Mitigation
- general
Japan's Fast
Start
Finance
Tanzania
52.59
Adaptation Tanzania
Special
Climate
Change
Fund
(SCCF)
2006
1
Mitigation
- general
Tanzania
Adaptation Tanzania
GEF Trust
Fund (GEF
4)
Least
2010
2003
3.35
0.2
100
Plan (NAPA) for
United Republic of
Tanzania
Developed
Countries
Fund
(LDCF)
Renewable Energy
and Adaptation
Climate
Technologies
Window (Africa
Climate Change
Mitigation
Tanzania)
- general
Tanzania
Strengthening
Climate Information
and Early Warning
Systems in Tanzania
to Support Climate
Resilient
Development
Adaptation Tanzania
Support for Climate
Change Forum - CS
Network
Tanzania Energy
Development and
Access Project
(TEDAP)
Tanzania
The Global Climate
Change Alliance for
Tanzania: Increasing
capacities of the
most vulnerable
Tanzanian's
communities to
engage in
sustainable use of
their natural
resources
UN-REDD national
programme Tanzania
Multiple
foci
Tanzania
UK's
International
Climate
Fund
Least
Developed
Countries
Fund
(LDCF)
UK's
International
Climate
Fund
Mitigation
- general
Tanzania
Mitigation
- REDD
Tanzania
GEF Trust
Fund (GEF
4)
Norway's
International
Climate and
Forest
Initiative
Multiple
foci
Tanzania
Global
Climate
Change
Alliance
(GCCA)
Mitigation
- REDD
Tanzania
UN-REDD
101
2011
3.7
2012
4
2011
0.11
2010
6.5
2010
36.49
2008
3.04
4.28
Annex 5
List of assistance available under the EDRF
102
Service
Date
Date
instructeur agrément dernière
initial
version
Axe Objectif Mesure Intitulé fiche mesure
Axe 1 : La compétitivité des hommes : promouvoir et valoriser le potentiel humain
Préparer des nouvelles générations mieux formées
1-01
Construction aménagement
enseignement supérieur
1-02
RECTORAT
19/12/07
Construction et réhabilitation de lycées
DEAL
17/12/09
1-03
Construction et réhabilitation de
collèges
DEAL
10/06/08
1-04
Infrastructures formation
professionnelle
DEAL
03/09/09
Valoriser la culture, le patrimoine et l’identité réunionnaise
1-06
Protection et valorisation du patrimoine
DAC OI
03/09/09
1-07
Egalité des chances d'accès à la culture
DAC OI
07/05/09
Améliorer l’offre sanitaire et médico-sociale
1-08
Infrastructures sanitaires
ARS OI
17/12/09
03/11/11
1-09
Structures d'accueil des personnes
handicapées
ARS OI
01/10/09
09/06/11
1-10
Structures d'accueil des personnes
agées
ARS OI
01/10/09
09/06/11
Assistance technique
1-11
Assistance technique FEDER
AGILE
Axe 2 : La compétitivité de l’économie : développer l’économie réunionnaise dans
l’environnement international
Préparer un pôle économique à l'échelle de l'Océan Indien
103
2-01
Infrastructures de recherche
universitaire
2-02
RECTORAT
08/11/07
05/11/09
Pôle de recherche appliquée en
"Observation" : terre, mer, espace
DRRT
02/08/07
06/03/08
2-03
Développement de la culture
scientifique, technique & industrielle
DRRT
02/08/07
05/11/10
2-04
Pôle d'innovation et transfert de
technologie en faveur de la
compétitivité des entreprises
DRRT
06/12/07
08/11/12
2-05
Pôle de recherche et d'innovation en
santé, biomédecine et biotechnologies
DRRT
06/12/07
2-06
Pôle de recherche et applications
innovantes en TIC
DRRT
06/12/07
2-07
Programme de recherche agronomique
DAAF
01/10/09
2-08
Aide aux entreprises touristiques
DAE (CR)
06/09/07
2-09
Développement de la promotion
touristique
DAE (CR)
04/12/08
2-10
Soutien aux actions collectives et
groupements de professionnels dans le
secteur touristique
DAE (CR)
06/08/09
2-11
Développement des infrastructures de
pêche
DEAL
07/05/08
2-12
Investissement des entreprises TIC
DAE (CR)
08/11/07
2-13
Actions publiques ou collectives TIC en
faveur de l'économie marchande
DAE (CR)
06/12/07
2-14
Services et applications TIC à la
population
DSI (CR)
05/07/07
2-15
Ingénierie financière - Capital
investissement
DAE (CR)
10/06/08
104
04/03/10
15/12/11
01/03/12
16/12/10
07/06/12
2-16
Ingénierie financière - Fonds de
Garantie
DAE (CR)
06/03/08
2-17
Ingénierie financière - Commission de
garantie Sofaris
DAE (CR)
05/02/09
2-18
Ingénierie financière - Prêts
DAE (CR)
17/12/09
08/11/12
03/11/11
Consolider les bases du développement économique et social
2-19
Consolidation du tissu économique et
des réseaux
DIECCTE
05/07/07
03/05/12
2-20
Aide aux investissements des
entreprises industrielles et artisanales
DAE (CR)
06/09/07
16/12/10
2-21
Silo à céréales Port Est
DEAL
01/10/09
2-22
Aides immatérielles et compétences
externes aux PME et TPE (industrie,
artisanat et commerce)
DIECCTE
03/04/08
Axe 3 : La compétitivité du territoire : organiser le territoire sur de nouveaux paramètres de
performance
Adapter et développer les réseaux de transport pour répondre aux défis de la mobilité
interne et de l’accessibilité du territoire
3-01
Réalisation du Trans-Eco Express
DEAL
07/07/11
3-02
Route des Tamarins
DEAL
06/08/09
3-03
Nouvelle Route du Littoral avec TCSP
DEAL
03/11/11
3-04
Voies de liaison à mi-hauteur et
désenclavement
DEAL
04/12/08
3-05
Réalisation d'infrastructures réservées
aux transports collectifs
DEAL
06/11/08
3-06
Accessibilité des services de transports
collectifs et des infrastructures aux
personnes à mobilité réduite pour les
Autorités d'Organisation de Transport
DEAL
04/12/08
105
Accompagner les politiques de développement des milieux urbains concourrant à la
revitalisation et l’attractivité des villes et bourgs
3-08
Programme de revitalisation des
centres-villes et densification urbaine
autour des pôles d'échange
DEAL
05/02/09
3-09
Structuration et valorisation des bourgs
des Hauts et de mi-pente
CAH
07/05/08
3-10
Aménagements urbains, équipements
et aménagements de proximité
DEAL
10/06/08
3-11
Restructuration urbaine des quartiers
sensibles
DEAL
05/02/09
06/10/11
01/10/09
Préserver l’environnement et les ressources dans le cadre d’un développement
durable, en valorisant ses atouts, notamment sur le plan touristique
3-12
Mesure de transition en faveur des
investissements en matière d'eau
potable
DAAF
08/11/07
3-13
Amélioration des réseaux et des outils
de gestion de l'eau
DAAF
08/11/07
05/02/09
3-14
Grands équipements structurants en
matière d'assainissement et d'eau
potable
DAAF
04/10/07
05/02/09
3-15
Adéquation des ressources en eau et
des besoins
DAAF
06/11/08
3-16
Mettre en œuvre le PDEDMA
DEAL
14/02/08
3-17
Fourniture d'énergies respectueuses de
l'environnement
DIECCTE
05/07/07
03/11/11
3-18
Soutien aux entreprises en matière de
protection de l'environnement et de
maîtrise de l'énergie
DIECCTE
06/12/07
04/08/11
3-19
Programme de gestion des risques
d'inondations (PGRI) : prévision,
prévention et protection
DEAL
06/12/07
01/04/10
106
3-20
Soutenir la R&D sur les phénomènes
de risques naturels
DEAL
03/04/08
3-21
Protection et valorisation de la
biodiversité
DEAL
06/12/07
3-22
Retour au bon état des milieux marins
et récifaux, des milieux aquatiques
continentaux et des eaux souterraines
DEAL
08/11/07
DAE (CR)
06/11/08
DEAL
07/05/08
03/06/10
Valoriser les atouts touristiques de l''île
3-23
Aménagements et équipements
touristiques publics
3-24
Equipements littoraux portuaires liés
au tourisme
06/09/12
Axe 4 : Compensation des handicaps liés à l'ultrapériphérie
Compenser les surcoûts liés à l’éloignement
4-01
Acheminement fret - extrants
DAE (CR)
06/11/08
06/10/11
4-02
Acheminement fret - intrants productifs
DIECCTE
04/09/08
03/11/11
4-03
Acheminement fret - produits
phytosanitaires et engrais
DAAF
10/06/08
05/11/09
4-04
Aide au transport des déchets
dangereux
DIECCTE
07/10/10
4-05
Compensation des surcoût Télécom Fonctionnement
DSI (CR)
05/04/07
4-06
Compensation des surcoût Télécom Investissement
DSI (CR)
Compenser les surcoûts liés à l’insularité
4-07
Aéroports
DEAL
10/06/08
4-08
Port Réunion
DEAL
10/06/08
107
Compenser les surcoûts liés au relief et climat difficiles
4-09
Réseau régional à haut débit
DEAL
06/11/08
4-10
Assurer la protection des habitants et
des biens dans les hauts contre les
mouvements de terrain
DEAL
01/10/09
4-11
Sécurisation du réseau
DEAL
04/12/08
4-12
Acheminement déchets Mafate
DEAL
07/08/08
Compenser les surcoûts liés à la faible supe rficie
4-13
Zones d'activités
DAE (CR)
Annex 6
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