abstracts now available - 3rd African Congress for Conservation



abstracts now available - 3rd African Congress for Conservation
ORAL Abstracts
Restoration planning for climate change mitigation and adaptation in the city of Durban, South Africa._1
University of KwaZulu-Natal, CEAD Building, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
While historical restoration efforts have tended to proceed ad hoc, systematic planning tools are available to
systematically and effectively plan interventions. A case study of restoration of degraded land in Durban, South
Africa was used to test a cost-benefit analysis decision-making support-tool, RobOff, on how to efficiently allocate
resources when faced with ecological and socio-economic complexity. To achieve this, three complementary
restoration actions (one passive and two active) were modelled for comparison with the current action (planting of
51 indigenous trees), namely, 1) Passive restoration – allow natural regeneration; 2) Active restoration 2 –
planting of 10 indigenous tree species with a higher wood density to achieve a higher carbon stock; 3) Active
restoration 3 – planting of 80 indigenous tree species to achieve a higher tree species richness. The results
showed that resources should preferably be allocated to Active restoration 3. However, when budget is limited,
severely degraded sites should be prioritized for restoration. When biodiversity is the main priority, Active
restoration 3 was recommended while Active restoration 2 and 3 were recommended under carbon stock and
employment prioritization. RobOff is a coherent decision-making tool that can help to systematically and
effectively plan restoration interventions that optimise the outcome benefits in complex large-scale restoration
Biodiversity; Carbon stock, Decision-making tool; Employment, Tree planting
Gendered access to and perceptions of ecosystem services in a Zambian aquatic agricultural system._5
Natalia ESTRADA CARMONA; Simon ATTWOOD ; Roseline REMANS ; Steven COLE ; Fabrice DECLERCK
Bioversity Intenrational, Montpellier, France
Wetland ecosystems support high levels of biodiversity and provide vital ecosystem services for people that live
in and around them. However, many wetlands in developing countries are increased pressures from land
degradation and conversion through agricultural expansion because of their wealth of resources and access to
water. A critical challenge testing whether strategies to promote sustainable intensification in an environmentally
and economically sustainable manner, tackling both conservation and development priorities is feasible. The
ecosystem service paradigm proposes that such a vision is possible if and when the benefits that nature provides
people is recognized, valued, and integrated into development planning. Here, we test this notion through
fieldwork in Zambia’s Barotse Floodplain. The Barotse is a flood pulse driven ecosystem which provides
numerous ecosystem services serving as the foundation for human wellbeing and livelihoods in a region beset by
one of the highest poverty rates in the country. Communities regularly are exposed to a five month hunger
season and acute risk of crop and household failure. We characterized the landscape and identified options for
action that aim to improve the nutrition and livelihoods of the participants and others in their communities, target
crop production, improve productivity and diversification while providing vital ecosystem services and narrowing
Barotse development outcomes gender gaps.
Ecosystem services, local knowledge, crop diversification, nutrition, floodplain.
Impact of Globalization on Biodiversity and Culture Tourism: Osun Osogbo World Heritage Site, Osun
State, Nigeria._8
Samson O. OJO; Munir K. WAHAB
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
This study was undertaken in Osogbo south western Nigeria to examined globalization effect on biodiversity and
cultural features of Osun Osogbo World heritage site (sacred grove), identify the global factors that influence
tourism in the grove, effect of tourist influx, as well as pollution influence on the biodiversity resources of the
protected area. Data collection was randomly administered (100 questionnaires) to the respondents at the four (4)
divisions of the study site. Secondary data collections were from the management staff at the grove and were
analyzed with frequency distribution table. In addition, photographs taken depict the effect on the protected site.
The study revealed that effect of globalization has induced by tourism on biodiversity, habitat and cultural features
in this protected site reflected by biodiversity reduction, denaturing of landscapes and supporting ecosystem of
the heritage site. Effective conservation management strategies need integrated for the future protection and
sustainable tourism development of this protected area. Conservation education campaign on the future role of
cultural tourism to national economic growth should be gear towards sustainable development of the protected
area to maintain its ecotourism potential. Youth clubs should be encouraged in secondary schools for initiation of
conservation programmed for its outstanding universal acceptable value from the point of history, art or science.
Globalization impact, Osun Osogbo world heritage biodiversity, culture tourism.
Climate change adaptation in a tropical carnivore is limited by constraints on nocturnal activity._14
University College London, London, United Kingdom
African wild dogs are classified as an endangered species, today restricted to just 7% of their historic range. Most
climate change impact assessments use trait based analysis to determine at risk species. Due to their high
mobility coupled with their flexible habitat use and diet wild dogs would typically be considered at low risk from
climate change. New evidence, however, shows a fall in pup survival at higher temperatures. This work looks at
the mechanisms behind this fall in recruitment and potential behavioural adaptations of the species in response to
rising temperatures. It appears the African wild dog is unlikely to adapt to rising temperatures through behavioural
change. These findings highlight the risk of missing the mechanisms behind species’ climate change vulnerability,
and therefore the potential to underestimate climate change risk. Broad scale multi species assessments may not
result in adequate conservation policy for the African wild dog, or for other species for which such mechanistic
impacts of temperature and rainfall remain unknown.
Climate change, African wild dog, temperature, behaviour, adaptation.
Woody plant diversity and composition across a gradient of land uses in rural landscapes of
Southwestern Ethiopia._17
Girma Shumi DUGO; Joern FISCHER; Jannik SCHULTNER; Kristoffer HYLANDER; Feyera SENBETA
Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany
Currently an intense debate has spread among scientists on how to best combine the goals of food security and
biodiversity conservation. Some argue that the priority should be “land sharing” – integrating conservation and
food production on the same land. Others favor “land sparing” – segregating intensively managed agricultural
land use from conservation. Noting the limitations of both land sharing and sparing, we argue that quantifying and
examining woody plant species richness and composition in a changing forest-agriculture mosaic advances our
understanding of biodiversity conservation and food security co-benefits of cultural landscapes. We assessed
woody plant species in 150 randomly selected 20 m x 20 m sample plots across a gradient of major land uses
(forest, homegarden, farmland and grazing land) in rural landscapes of Southwestern Ethiopia. Our aim was to
quantify and examine potential differences in woody plant species richness and composition between these land
uses. Species richness and composition differed among forest, homegarden, farmland and grazing land. In
general, woody plant species richness was highest in forest, but the arable mosaic (farmland, grazing land and
homegardens) also supported a large proportion of the recorded species. From these results, we recommend that
considering the entire landscape mosaic – and not only forests – should be of paramount importance in future
conservation initiatives.
Food security, biodiversity conservation, land sharing, land sparing, Ethiopia.
Measuring biodiversity change from space._18
University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
A core activity of conservation science is to assess how biodiversity responds to human land-use change.
However, direct evidence of biodiversity change is unavailable for most parts of the world especially for
biodiverse rich, but economically poor regions in Africa and Asia. We present a novel method to indirectly
measure biodiversity change based on the ‘biodiversity - environmental diversity surrogates (ED)’ concept. We
surveyed birds at 150 coastal forest plots in South Africa and categorised species as either forest specialists or
habitat generalists. We retrieved remotely sensed measures of local and regional environmental variables from
LANDSat images for each sampling plot for three separate points in time: 1991, 2001, and 2015. We then used
generalized additive models to quantify links between environmental variables and bird species richness. Finally,
we used remotely sensed imagery to up-scale model predictions to landscape maps, thereby spatially linking
changes in forest habitat with changes in bird species richness across time. We found a strong link between
environmental variables and specialist, but not generalist species richness. During the last 25 years, specialist
species disappeared from forest edges, but increased in the forest interior, possibly because of human land-use
changes in the adjacent matrix habitats. We propose that this approach be used to detect changes in biodiversity
over time for regions where long-term monitoring data is not available.
Birds; biodiversity-environmental diversity surrogate concept; coastal forests; edge effects; remote sensing.
Expanding the protected area network in Namibia: Identifying and categorising stakeholders around the
Etosha National Park._20
Stellenbosch University, Suiderhof, Windhoek, Namibia
In Namibia, areas dedicated to conservation are increasing due to the proliferation of conservancies and game
reserves. This entails integrating land use practices variably dedicated to wildlife management and the inclusion
resource users in the decision-making process. The interface between natural and social systems in protected
area governance is poorly understood, and we lack methods to assess the social processes influencing
conservation decisions. Here we used stakeholder analysis to integrate local participants into a designated
protected area around the Etosha National Park and to estimate participant importance in the process. To
achieve, we identified and categorised stakeholder groups, and quantitatively and qualitatively assessed their
relative salience to the protected area decision-making process. Combining key informant and semi-structured
interviews, focus groups and participant observation, 12 stakeholder groups were identified and categorised.
Primary stakeholders were individually scored and the cumulative values of position, interest and power
calculated for each group. These attributes provide an indication of stakeholder salience and the various roles
stakeholders potentially play. Stakeholder analysis provides a transparent and repeatable process for identifying
and selecting key stakeholders, potentially leading to improved implementation of conservation areas in the
Stakeholder analysis, salience, policy, primary stakeholders.
Protected area governance and community associations in Madagascar._22
Caroline Fm WARD
University of Leeds, London, United Kingdom
As protected area (PA) governance has shifted from state ‘fortress’ approaches towards involving local
communities, the establishment of local community associations (CAs) has become increasingly common for
many reasons, on the assumption that increased local involvement delivers benefits for biodiversity and human
well-being. However, there has been little exploration of how CAs are formed, who joins, how the benefits and
costs of membership are distributed, and how this affects the impact of PAs on biodiversity conservation and
poverty alleviation. Madagascar has recently established several new PAs which are co-managed by local CAs
and NGOs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected in 2015/16 from 3 communities surrounding a comanaged case study PA in Madagascar. Preliminary results suggest the majority of members joined for
environmental reasons, whereas non-members had not joined due to a lack of information or because
membership took up too much time. Participants’ perceptions of benefits and costs were limited by a lack of
knowledge about the CA, but benefits discussed included work, preserving the environment and easier forest
resource access. Costs included conflict between members and non-members, negative livelihood impacts and
increased accountability for forest loss. These findings highlight the need for better understandings of community
dynamics within conservation planning, and a more representative involvement in community based
Protected areas, community conservation, Madagascar.
Building an African Case Studies Data Base to support policy and practice with regards to ecosystem
governance for future human wellbeing._23
Nadia E SITAS; Benis Egoh
University of Bejaia, FSNV, SBE, Bejaja, Algeria
The IPBES Technical Support Unit for the Africa Region based in Pretoria, South Africa, with support from the
SwedBio Programme funded by Sida and researchers at the CSIR, are currently co-developing an accessible
online database of African case studies that will highlight the links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and
human wellbeing. The database will address a significant gap in the current available knowledge-base of studies
that illustrate the variety of ways humans benefit from biodiversity and ecosystem services, thus providing
invaluable data for both the regional and global IPBES assessments, as well data to support regional and
international sustainability and conservation goals set out in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Sustainable
Development Goals. We hope to co-develop the database with a multiplicity of researchers and practitioners from
across Africa, and in doing so, foster new research collaborations, extend the community of practitioners working
on interrelated issues of natural resource governance, build and strengthen the capacity of emerging researchers,
and identify regional, disciplinary and thematic gaps where future research efforts can be directed. The
presentation will highlight: the need for building such a database, an overview of the methodology for building the
database and how members of the ACCB can be involved in the co-development and use of the database.
Keywords: ecosystem services, biodiversity, human wellbeing, governance, policy
Contribution of the domestication of useful plants in the biodiversity management._29
Anthelme GA GNAGBO; Adou Yao CONSTANT YVES ; Kouamé DJAHA; Koffi Kouadio Arsène DIEUDONNÉ;
Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire
Human pressures on natural ecosystems in tropical areas are marked by significant reductions in forest areas
resulting in a significant loss of animal biodiversity but especially vegetable. In order to supply plant resources for
food and medical care, people often destroy forests in the collection of useful plants. This is the case in Côte
d’Ivoire where the sample of the plant material intensifies to the point of practice even in protected areas. Indeed,
people illegally enter in Azagny National Park to collect Guinea pepper (Piper guineense). This plant is then used
as a source of food, medicinal or commercial. Harvesting techniques result in death of the plant and the host tree
of this climbing vine. To prevent and reduce the pressure on the park, local residents benefit from a program of
domestication of plant species such as Piper guineense. This project of domestication is part of a creative
approach to agricultural sector. This domestication might position itself as an alternative in the reforestation
process, which sometimes suffers a lack of interest from reforested trees. The combination of reforestation
species with utility species could be advantageous in the management of biological resources.
Useful plants, domestication, plant biodiversity.
Bird responses to management intensity in a shade-coffee forest system, southwestern Ethiopia._31
Leuphana University Lueneburg, Faculty Sustainability, Lueneburg, Germany
Moist evergreen forests of Ethiopia host high levels of biodiversity and endemism and are of particularly high
conservation importance. They are also of important economic value due to coffee production. Coffee is a native
shrub in Ethiopia that is grown and explored under different management systems. Studies that address the
contribution of traditional shade-coffee farming for biodiversity in Southwestern Ethiopia are still scarce. Here we
analyzed the responses of bird diversity and community composition along a gradient of coffee management
intensity. We sampled birds using point counts in relatively undisturbed forests, semi-managed coffee forests and
intensively managed coffee forests. We examined richness and relative abundance of functional groups to
address the following questions: (1) How does total species richness respond to coffee management
intensification? (2) How do particular functional groups respond to increasing management intensity? (3) Which
vegetation features contribute to bird occupancy in coffee-forests? (4) How does community composition change
between natural forests and coffee forests? We demonstrate that structural similarity of coffee forests with
relatively undisturbed forests can lead to the successful conservation of numerous bird species in coffee forests.
Birds, coffee-forest.
Taking the elephant out of the room and putting it in a corridor._37
Tempe S. F ADAMS; Michael J. CHASE; Tracey L. ROGERS; Keith LEGGETT
Elephants Without Borders and the University of New South Wales, Kasane, Botswana
Large trans-frontier wildlife corridors can be successful conservation tools by connecting protected areas and
reducing the impact of habitat fragmentation for mobile species. Recently, urban wildlife corridors that pass
through urban communities have been proposed as a potential mitigation tool in allowing elephants to pass
through town’s conflict free. However, because urban corridors are typically narrow and very close to human
development, wildlife (particularly large mammals) may be less likely to use them. Remote-sensor camera traps,
combined with GPS-collared animals, identified the movement patterns of African elephants through these
narrow, urban corridors in urban settlements of Kasane and Kazungula. Corridors were monitored in three types
of human-dominated land-use zoness that represent varying levels of human activities: agricultural, industrial and
open-space recreational land. It was shown that elephants use narrow urban corridors within each land
designation, and by using a model selection approach it identified that season, time of day and rainfall are
important factors in determining elephants’ presence in the corridors. Furthermore, elephants moved more slowly
(0.50-0.55 km/hr) through the narrow corridors compared to their movement patterns through the broader, wideranging corridors. The results illustrate that urban wildlife corridors prove to be useful tools in enabling elephants
to pass through urban areas.
Camera traps, conservation, human elephant coexistence, land management, urban wildlife corridors.
Study of the effectiveness of the compounds of the essential oil of Laurus nobilis as natural antimicrobial
Therapia Laboratoires, Marrakech, Morocco
In order to propose a new natural and effective antimicrobial preservative, this work aims to extract essential oil
from the spontaneous plant of the Moroccan flora, Laurus nobilis L. and its characterization physicochemical, the
study of its microbiological activity, and screening molecules associated with this activity. The essential
composition of the oil extracted by steam distillation of leaves was analyzed by GC/FID. The essential oil content
average is 1.7% of the dry matter. Forty-five compounds were identified. The Eucalyptol (30.52%) was the major
compound quantitatively. The Aromatogram showed that the essential oil has antimicrobial activity against the
five strains tested (Three bacteria and two fungi). The determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations and
minimum bactericidal concentrations confirmed this particular activity against fungal strains. Five molecules
including Eucalyptol, antimicrobial deemed to have been studied, they have shown a remarkable antimicrobial
activity which differs depending on their concentrations and the test germ. Several associations of these
molecules have been formulated as a preservative a preset pharmaceutical preparation. The efficacy of
antimicrobial preservation of some of these agents has been demonstrated. Concluding, some components of
essential oils may be in the area of antimicrobial preservation, promising biological activities and less risky than
synthetic products.
Laurus nobilis, natural antimicrobial preservative
Morphology and distribution of the Southern Grey Shrike (Lanius meridionalis) in North Africa._57
University of Tlemcen, Tlemcen, Algeria
In North Africa, are living two subspecies for Southern Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis: Lanius meridionalis
algeriensis and Lanius meridionalis elegans. This researcher attempts to find out whether there are biometric
differences between the two subspecies and between the genders. A total of 29 L. m. algeriensis birds and 38 L.
m. elegans are studied. These specimens were collected from 29 localities in North Africa (10 in Marocco, 7 in
Algeria and 12 in Tunisia). Results show that there are no significant differences between sexes or between
subspecies, at least despite clear signal in plumage coloration. L. m. algeriensis is distributed in the North-west of
Africa along Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, and L. m. elegans has been reported from north and center
Lanius meridionalis, North Africa, subspecies, biometric, distribution.
Harnessing wild edible plants diversity for food security in the context of climate variability and change
in semi-arid areas of Benin._58
Horticulture and Genetics Unit, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin
Understanding to what extend local communities in semi-arid areas relied on wild food plants in the context of
climate variability and change is critical to inform policy decisions. This study investigated the diversity and
utilization of wild edible plants and their potentials for addressing food security in two contrasting (sub-humid vs.
semi-arid) areas in Benin. Data were collected through focus group discussions in 12 villages and semi-structured
interviews with 180 farmers. Species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were estimated using species
accumulation curves. Hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to assess the similarity among communities.
We documented 115 species belonging to 48 families and 92 genera as food plants in the study areas. Wild
species represent 61% of edible plants collected (60% in the sub-humid area and 54% in the semi-arid area) and
46% of the most cited species. About 25% of wild edible plants were under domestication. Edible species
richness and diversity in the sub-humid area were significantly higher than in the semi-arid area. The interplay of
socio-cultural attributes and agroecological conditions explains the diversity of food plants selected by
communities. We call for re-orientation of food production and consumption as well as climate change adaptation
policies in semi-arid areas towards the recognition of the place wild plant resources and discuss a number of
strategic decisions and actions for this to happen.
Agrobiodiversity, edible food plants, dry areas, species richness, socio-cultural attributes.
The impact of socio-economic benefits in enhancing participation of local communities in wildlife
conservation in Akagera National Park, Rwanda._60
University of Rwanda, Huye, Southern Province, Rwanda
The Akagera National Park is located in the Eastern part of Rwanda, is known to initiate the benefit sharing
scheme for local communities adjacent to this park. These residents are provided with infrastructure development
funds for initiative of collective community development projects among others. However, there is little information
to show the impact of these economic incentives to enhance participation of local people in wildlife conservation
in protected area. The study intended to identify socio- economic benefits and to analyse mechanisms through
which socio- economic benefits are used to enhance participation of local communities in Park conservation. To
determine the extent to which the socio- economic benefits enhance local community participation in conservation
activities and finally to analyse factors which promote and undermine the socio- economic benefits in enhancing
participation of local communities in Akagera conservation activities. Data were analysed using SPSS and Excel
programs. Cross- tabulation, frequencies, percentages were obtained. Residents were willing to participate in
wildlife conservation through anti- poaching, controlling fire incidence, and deforestation control among others. It
further concluded that majority of locals were aware of the park and had positive attitudes towards the park.
However villagers expressed their compensation complaints for their crop damage, livestock depredation, and
injuries or death by wildlife.
Benefits, communities, wildlife conservation, Akagera
Biodiversity analysis and assessment of Akanyaru wetland’s goods and services._62
University of Rwanda, Huye, Southern Province, Rwanda
The study was conducted in Akanyaru wetland located in Bugesera District (Rwanda), on the border with Burundi.
It aimed to assess plant diversity and ecosystem services of Akanyaru wetland. It also aimed to identify and
assess the impacts of the threats on natural habitat and resources. A floristic inventory was conducted by using
stratified sampling method for plants diversity inventory. A series of 120 households participated in semistructured interviews and focus group discussions for ecosystem services and threats assessment. The results
show that dominant species include Cyperus papyrus, Miscanthidium violaceum, Cladium mariscus, Typha
australis, Acacia polyacantha and Phoenix reclinata. Key goods and services include domestic water (100%),
crops (88.3%), medicinal plants (55.8%), fishing (34.2%), clay extraction (30.8%) and handcraft materials
(18.3%). Other services such as biological control, erosion control and climate regulation were also recorded.
Major sources of threats are seasonal floods and erosions (41%), overexploitation of resources by uncontrolled
agriculture (30%) and fishing (19%). Major impacts of the threats include the decrease of agriculture production
(76%) and decline in water quality and the outbreak of associated diseases (66%). We recommend the
establishment of mitigation measures for the threats by developing a joint management mechanism between
bordering countries. Akanyaru should also be given a special status for its importance and extent.
Akanyaru, biodiversity, Bugesera, ecosystem services, threats.
An ecological assessment of biodiversity pressures in Mgahinga Gorilla National Park South-western
Uganda Wildlife Authority, Kampala, Uganda
Mgahinga’s unique biodiversity face habitat degradation and this study provides highlight of human disturbance
on species in Mgahinga Gorilla National Park, Uganda. We quantified threats occasioned by human actions using
threat reduction assessment approach from October 2010 to January 2011. Data were collected through
subdividing the area into 3 blocks from West to East cover c.4.21% of ecosystem. We used park map to overlay
the Universal Traversal Mercator grids for each block and established transects perpendicular from the edge to
the interior of the park at 500m length x 10m width and 5m observation on either side. Results for the woody trees
and poles analysis yielded 54% net proportion of tree biomass loss. We found anthropogenic forces occurred
heterogeneously in ecosystem with snare poaching ranked 50.6% and caused 71.3% of duiker [Cephalophus
nigrifrons] and bushbuck [Tragelaphus scriptus] killed as source of management concern. The implication of
these forces seems to have remarkably impacted on animal populations and overall, the results show that
management coping strategies addressed 37.2% threat index. We conclude that the reduced plant recruitment in
the park and vegetation changes observed demonstrate that the effects of human impact has altered ecosystems
functions. These patterns are likely to cause species inertia shift in particular the ungulates to higher elevations in
search of favorable environment, and we recommend to restore habitat structure.
Mgahinga Gorilla National Park, biodiversity, ecosystem degradation, threats, management.
The land we want: the contribution of local perspectives on the expansion of community forestry._67
University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
The significant contribution that indigenous and local peoples make to biodiversity conservation and climate
change mitigation through the customary management of their land is increasingly recognised. Despite this
recognition, indigenous and local peoples retain legal control to just 10% of the lands that they customarily
manage. Community-based forestry (CBF) is one means that has been advocated to help such groups obtain
greater autonomy over their lands. CBF has had varying outcomes but is generally acknowledged to be as or
more effective than state-controlled management and arguably more equitable. Although international support of
the expansion of CBF is strong, how indigenous and local communities feel about the promotion of such is not
well understood. We describe how communities in Tanzania and Bolivia respond to the potential expansion of
their forests. Understanding local peoples’ responses to CBF expansion, the benefits and burdens that it may
create, plays a critical role in the success of CBF and ultimately, strengthening autonomy over local land. We
interviewed 280 individuals, the majority of whom responded negatively to the proposed expansion of their
community forests. Whilst such a response implies a rejection of CBF, additional follow-up questions and
interviews with other stakeholders suggests otherwise. Our paper describes a finer understanding of how and
when community forest expansion is desired for local communities – in a phrase, the land they want.
Bolivia, Tanzania, community conservation, indigenous.
Grazing and soil carbon: comparing effects of management strategy across vegetation types._75
Princeton University, Princeton, United States (USA)
Grasslands occupy approximately 40% of the Earth’s terrestrial surface and so represent a large reservoir of soil
organic carbon (SOC), estimated at around 1,500 Pg globally. However, due to widespread overgrazing and land
degradation, many grasslands have lost large quantities of SOC and thus, have the potential for increased carbon
storage with shifts in management practices. Yet this potential remains largely untapped due to uncertainties
regarding the type of management which promote accumulation of SOC. This study tests the hypothesis that
grazing ‘best management practices’ differ according to the dominant vegetation type of the grassland. Thus, we
explore how variation in grazing intensity and frequency (continuous vs. rotational practices) affect soil carbon
and associated vegetation properties across C3-dominated grasslands of Patagonia, Argentina and C4dominated grasslands of Kenya. Complete analyses are forthcoming but preliminary results show that a rotational
system of management has positive impacts on productivity and species composition. Understanding which
grazing management strategies are optimal to increase or maintain SOC across ecosystems with differing
vegetation types may highlight which areas of the globe should be targeted for participation in carbon credit
programs. These programs have the potential to provide revenue to help pastoralists and other livestock
managers sustainably manage their lands and critical grazing resources.
Grazing, soil carbon, grasslands, rotational grazing, C3 vs. C4 grasses
The extent to which ecosystem services align with biodiversity planning tools: The case of uMngeni
South African National Biodiversity Institute, Winderemere, Durban, South Africa
Grasslands occupy approximately 40% of the Earth’s terrestrial surface and so represent a large reservoir of soil
organic carbon (SOC), estimated at around 1,500 Pg globally. However, due to widespread overgrazing and land
degradation, many grasslands have lost large quantities of SOC and thus, have the potential for increased carbon
storage with shifts in management practices. Yet this potential remains largely untapped due to uncertainties
regarding the type of management which promote accumulation of SOC. This study tests the hypothesis that
grazing ‘best management practices’ differ according to the dominant vegetation type of the grassland. Thus, we
explore how variation in grazing intensity and frequency (continuous vs. rotational practices) affect soil carbon
and associated vegetation properties across C3-dominated grasslands of Patagonia, Argentina and C4dominated grasslands of Kenya. Complete analyses are forthcoming but preliminary results show that a rotational
system of management has positive impacts on productivity and species composition. Understanding which
grazing management strategies are optimal to increase or maintain SOC across ecosystems with differing
vegetation types may highlight which areas of the globe should be targeted for participation in carbon credit
programs. These programs have the potential to provide revenue to help pastoralists and other livestock
managers sustainably manage their lands and critical grazing resources.
Conservation planning, ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation.
What is the future of baobab in Malawi in light of the ever increasing demand for baobab fruits? Evidence
from Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK)._92
Lilongwe, central region, Lilongwe, Malawi
Twenty years ago, baobab fruits could be seen rotting under the trees but today no fruit can be seen under these
same trees. This dramatic change reflects the recent national, global demand and scale of commercialisation of
baobab fruits in Malawi. Despite increased commercialisation of baobab fruits, little is known about the
consequences on its population structure. Moreover what are commonly seen, in their natural habitats, are
mature baobabs and not juvenile cohorts. This has recently raised alarm on potential impact of mass removal of
fruits on regeneration of baobab. The use of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) in understanding factors affecting
distribution of trees is increasingly being recognised as a tool to understand the dynamics of ecological and social
systems. This paper, using LEK approach, describes factors affecting regeneration of baobab and highlights the
need for incorporating LEK in conservation initiatives of baobab. Results show that the future of baobab is at risk
due to intentional and unintentional actions. While increased trade of baobab has arguably widened farmers’
sources of income and helped alleviate poverty, we argue that the same trade has contributed to poor
regeneration of baobab as reflected by absence of juvenile trees resulting in a skewed population structure since
whole fruit is being sold and seeds are crushed for oil extraction. The paper concludes with a discussion on role
of stakeholders in securing the future of baobab in Malawi.
Baobab, LEK, trade, regeneration, population.
The social valorization of Cola nitida (Vent.) threatens its conservation in Southern Benin (West
Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Cotonou, Benin
Cola nitida, is tropical tree West Africa broadly known in pharmacology and ethnomedicine. Literature review
showed that in Benin species omnipresence in every ceremony. It is resulted a weak documented social species
valorization and the impact of this valorization on species sustainability in its habitats. This paper aims at assess
(1) the local knowledge pattern within rural communities (2) the most use part for social valorization (3) the impact
of valorization by harvesting on the species distribution. The objective (1) and (2) were reached using semi
structural survey of 170 people in Adjarra, Sakété and Ouèdo. Data collected were used to compute some
ethnobotanical indexes. The impact of species valorization was assessed through analysis of species diametric
pattern obtained from 38 plots set in the species natural habitats. The results showed the unequal repartition of
species knowledge according to genders. Actually, male possesses a broad knowledge than women. The most
important part of species was the seed. The diametric structure gave bell shape indicating the weak regeneration.
Thus the species social valorization is preventing species from recruitments. Hence, species domestication is
needed to slow down upcoming species disappearance.
Benin, ethnobotany indexes, spatial structure, domestication.
Etude des comportements du singe Magot dans le Moyen Atlas._117
Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdelah, Faculté des Sciences Dhar el Maheraz , Fès, Morocco
Le singe Magot (Macaca sylvanus) est une espèce emblématique et caractéristique de la forêt de cédraie, mais à
cause de plusieurs menaces, cette espèce est en danger de disparition. Parmi ces menaces, on a le tourisme,
lequel est irrégulier et non contrôlé. Il change les comportements sociaux (affiliatifs, agonistiques, neutres) des
populations sauvages en populations semi sauvages. L'étude est réalisée dans la partie centrale du Moyen Atlas,
dans les massifs forestiers situés à l'Est de la ville d'Azrou (33°15'N, 5°15'W), dont la densité est de 30
individu/Km2. Le groupe choisi à l’étude et l’observation de près que nous l’avons nommé ‘groupe bleu’ est
composé de 32 individus et se trouve dans un état intermédiaire entre l’état sauvage et l’état semi sauvage.
Cette étude entre dans le cadre du Plan d’Action national pour la Conservation du Singe Magot au Maroc, pour
mieux conserver et améliorer l’état du macaca sylvanus dans nos forêts. Nous avons réalisé l’étude de l’impact
du tourisme sur les comportements du singe Magot dans le groupe. Dans notre étude, on a pu déterminer le
degré de l’influence anthropique causé par le tourisme ; et l’impact précis sur les comportements du singe Magot.
Nous avons remarqué aussi que le tourisme agit essentiellement sur des comportements très précis (comme les
comportements affiliatifs) alors que les gestes mimiques restent les moins infectés.
singe Magot, action anthropique comportements sociaux, tourisme, Moyen Atlas
Biométrie de la Caille des blés (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) au Maroc: cas du périmètre irrigué de
Haut Commissariat aux Eaux et Forêts et la Lutte Contre la Désertification, Rabat, Morrocco
Ce travail sur la caille des blés consiste à apporter des données sur la biométrie de cette espèce dans le
périmètre irrigué de Tadla. Il permettra également de caractériser morphologiquement les différentes classes
d’âge, les mâles et les femelles. Des mesures biométriques ont été effectuées sur des individus capturés
pendant les compagnes d’échantillonnage réalisées durant les périodes de reproduction entre 2008 et 2010 et en
période de chasse de la caille dés blés dans le périmètre de Tadla lors de l’exercice de la chasse au titre de la
saison 2010/2011. Les paramètres mesurés ont permis de montrer l’existence de différence significative au
niveau du poids et du tarse entre les classes d’âge de la caille des blés. Les adultes sont en moyenne
plus gros et ont des tarses plus grands que les jeunes cailles. Ils ont permis aussi de mettre en
évidence l’existence d’un dimorphisme sexuel des caractéristiques morphologiques. Les femelles
sont, en effet, légèrement plus grandes et présentent des ailes plus longues que les mâles. Une
comparaison avec les données bibliographiques disponibles a été établie.
Coturnix coturnix, Population, Biométrie, Classes d’âge, Mâles et Femelles, Maroc
Phytothérapie épidermique utilisée par la population du parc national de Talassemtane._136
Univeriste Ibn Toafail Kenitra, Kenitra, Morrocco
L'étude ethnobotanique porte sur la phytothérapie traditionnelle utilisée pour lutter contre les
affections cutanées dans le parc national de Talassemtane. Selon un échantillonnage stratifié, et à
l’aide de 930 fiches questionnaires, nous avons mené une série d’enquêtes ethnobotaniques sur le
terrain pour collecter toutes les informations portant d’une part sur le profil de l’informateur et
d’autre part sur la phytothérapie locale durant l’année 2014. Les résultats obtenus nous ont permis
de recenser 32 espèces appartenant à 22 familles botaniques. Parmi ces familles, les Lamiaceae (6
espèces), les Cistaceae (6 espèces), les Asteraceae (3 espèces) et les Fabaceae (3 espèces), sont les
plus représentées dans cette flore, elles comportent à elle seules presque 50% de l’effectif global. Le
tripotage curatif des plantes médicinales sont toujours préparé par les femmes représentant 59 %
par rapport aux hommes 41 %. Les recettes thérapeutiques sont utilisé dans le traitement des
affections cutanées; comme l’eczéma, abcès, soin des brûlures, irritation de la peau, démangeaison
cutanée (58,56 %); gale et Soin des cheveux 23.76 % Traitement des acnés 8,42 %; et la maladie de la
bouche avec 4,14 %. Alors que les espèces les plus exploitées sont Ajuga iva (6,76 %) et Lavandula
dentata (5,41 %) de la famille Lamiaceae (21,62 %); Cistus albidus (5,41 %) et Cistus crispus (4,405
%); Matricaria chamomilla (6,76 %); et Genista quadriflora (4,05%).
Phytothérapie épidermique, affections cutanées, parc national de Talassemtane, enquêtes
The role of herbivore exclusion on ecosystem function in Mount Fletcher Southern Africa._139
Nandipha G NDAMANE; Jorge RENTERIA; Mathieu ROUGET ; Ayanda SIGWELA
University of Kwa Zulu Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Overgrazing is one of the key factors that result in grassland degradation. Fencing to exclude stock is widely
regarded as a simple restoration method. Excluding livestock is considered as an alternative technique to
rehabilitate the disturbed vegetation. The aim of the study was to determine the short term effect of grazing
exclusion on landscape functioning and vegetation cover. Data was collected between the years 2012 and 2015,
in exclosure and continuously grazed area so as to determine the differences between the areas and the effect of
fencing. The landscape function analysis method was applied which uses the landscape organization and soil
surface assessment indices reflecting the structural organization and functional status of the area. The results
showed that the LFA indices inside the exclosure plots were improved, in terms of ground cover and functioning.
The t-test showed to be significant in some of the indices (landscape organization index, total patch area and
infiltration) and not significant in number of patches/10m, average inter-patch, stability and infiltration. The results
indicated that grazing exclusion is an effective measure for improving the above ground cover. Fencing is an
important first step for conserving threatened grasslands, but more active management may be needed to
enhance grasslands recovery.
Rehabilitation, landscape function analysis, grazing, grasslands, fencing.
Evaluation of management effectiveness of Protected Areas in the Volta Basin of Ghana: Perspectives on
RAPPAM Methodology._142
University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
The study examined the extent to which anthropogenic and other drivers have impacted the management
effectiveness of six protected areas in Ghana. We used the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected
Areas Management methodology to evaluate six components of the management cycle framework: context,
planning, inputs, process, outputs and outcomes. The results showed that under the context component, most of
the protected sites were vulnerable and under various degrees of pressure and threats from human activities. It
was revealed also that “poverty in the nearby communities” ranked highest as a pressure in all the protected
areas, whilst “adjacent landuse” ranked as the most severe threat. We observed further that other components of
the management cycle framework notably ‘planning’, ‘process’, and ‘output’ had appreciably high average scores,
while the scores for ‘input’ was rather low, contrary to our expectation. We attribute this to the biases and general
inconsistencies associated with the self-assessment approach adopted by the framework. As a recommendation,
we called for increased involvement of independent assessors to avoid biases in the evaluation process. We
proposed also the inclusion to the IUCN/WCPA framework, two components: ‘protected area financing’ and ‘local
community participation’ as independent entities in the evaluation process since their respective roles were
observed as vital to protected area management effectiveness.
Protected areas, management effectiveness evaluation, Volta Basin, Ghana
The ichtyofauna of the Oum Rbia bassin: Status and conservation._143
Département de Biologie SEMLALIA, Marrakech, Maroc
The inventory of fishes of Moroccan continental waters allowed to establish a list of 50 species among which 35
autochthonous and 15 introduced, distributed in 28 genera and 16 families. This ichtyofauna is characterized by
the predominance of the family of Cyprinidae and especially the genus Barbus. The study of the ichtyofauna of
the Oum Rbia basin, one of the main rivers of Morocco, aims at completing this inventory and at presenting a first
reference document. The analysis also concerns its current ecological state by the specific composition of its
ichtyological fauna. The basin of Oum Rbia shelters more than half species of the Moroccan continental waters
ichtyofauna. A fauna list is established on the basis of the data stemming from scientific campaigns of scientific
sampling. The identification of specimens was based on morphometric measures and osteological studies at the
Natural History Museum of Marrakech. Eleven families were listed in the literature and persist at present in the
bassin. Other introduced species are found in the stream. The basin of Oum Rbia undergoes a pressure and a
degradation of the water quality and the habitat. Among these threats, we find the destruction of the housing
environments, specially, the spawning areas of fishes, tourist and agricultural developments.
Ichtyofauna; conservation biology; freshwater; Oum Rbia Basin; inventory.
Using a favourability model to predict Bonelli’s Eagle distribution and abundance in Morocco._144
Antonio Roman MUÑOZ, Ana Luz MÁRQUEZ, Darío CHAMORRO, Raimundo REAL
Departamento de Biología Animal, Universidad de Málaga Campus de Teatinos, Málaga, Spain
Bonelli’s Eagle is a long-lived territorial raptor that suffered a population decline over the last decades in Europe.
Although its main strongholds in the Western Palaearctic occur in Spain and Morocco, the paucity of information
in northern Africa is clear. Recently, the use of satellite telemetry has demonstrated Morocco and southern Spain
may have a large-scale metapopulation structure. Species distribution models reflect the spatial distribution of the
biological characteristics of the populations. In the case of Bonelli’s Eagle we demonstrated in Spain a consistent
relationship between predicted environmental favourability and spatial variation in both occurrence and
abundance, which is of particular importance in conservation. In this study we have extrapolated the Spanish
model to Morocco to identify and characterize favourable areas for the species, obtaining favourability values in
each 10×10km square of Morocco highlighting the existence of three main continuous and highly favourable
areas, connected by intermediate favourability areas. It makes no sense to consider Bonelli’s Eagle a prioritytarget species for conservation in Europe, considering the Moroccan population as a distinct management unit. In
this case it is required a collaboration channel between Africa and Europe to develop intercontinental
conservation management strategies, what could provide new insights into the relationships between European
and African ecosystems.
Species distribution modelling, favourability, Aquila fasciata.
Relationship between outcomes of conservation and socio-economic status of residents of Nigerian
national parks._150
Bola Olusola ADELEKE
Redeemer's University, Ede, Nigeria
Conservation of biological resources is the key role of national parks. However conservation procedures which
are not effective might have negative impacts on residents of protected areas. The evaluation of relationship
between conservation consequences and socio-economic gains of community residents can be a way for
developing effective and socially accepted conservation methods. Six National parks were selected from the six
geo-political zones in Nigeria. The study assessed how national parks affect the social and economic life of the
residents, factors responsible for this and relationship between national park conservation outcomes and socioeconomic benefits received by residents. Data base of peer reviewed articles on socio-economic benefits accrued
to residents of parks through conservation procedures was developed and these were analysed through
inferential statistics. Positive socio-economic consequences such as increased income related directly to positive
conservation methods. Positive consequences occurred in parks where there were partnership in management,
empowerment of local people through enhanced traditional skills, stakeholders’ integration and reduced economic
inequality among residents. For effective conservation outcomes, park managements are to develop
management strategies that would enhance the socio-economic status of residents.
Conservation, Outcomes, Relationship, Residents, National Park.
Age-dependent breeding performances of a reinforced bird population in the wild._153
CESCO – MNHN, Paris, France
Based on a longitudinal nest survey of a North-African Houbara bustard reinforced population in Morocco, we
investigated how breeding performances of captive born females nesting in the wild were varying depending on
their age. Nesting females were identified based on RFID technology or from fitted transmitters. We examined
how age influenced the nest initiation date, the daily nest survival, and clutch and egg sizes. We also investigated
if meteorological anomalies could affect breeding performances according to age. Nest initiation date, clutch and
egg size exhibited quadratic trends with age, with the youngest and oldest females initiating their nest on average
later in the breeding season and laying smaller clutches and eggs than middle-aged females. These patterns are
in adequacy with the senescent trends of breeding parameters observed in studies conducted on captive
breeding Houbaras. The daily nest survival increased with the female age, likely reflecting the importance of the
breeding experience over senescing processes affecting the other breeding parameters. Finally, oldest females
laid larger clutch during breeding seasons with positive precipitation anomalies, by contrast to younger females,
which may reflect the ability of experienced females to adjust their reproductive effort according to environmental
conditions. Our results revealed multiple age effects on breeding performances, which should be considered in
future population dynamics and conservation plans.
Age-dependent breeding performances, captive breeding, reinforcement, senescence, transponders.
Predicting the impact of climate change on the distribution of Long-legged Buzzard in north-western
Dario CHAMORRO; Antonio R. MUÑOZ, Raimundo REAL
Universidad de Malaga, Malaga, Spain
Climate change is reported to induce shifts in the geographical range of species. Over the past few decades there
is a growing number of African species that are colonizing Europe (e.g. the White-rumped Swift, the Little Swift
and the Common Bulbul, between others). The medium-sized raptor Long-legged Buzzard is one of these
species, which was first confirmed breeding in continental Europe in 2009. Recent studies based on distribution
models, and the increasing number of records, suggest that the species is finding new favorable areas to breed in
southern Spain. The object of this research is to predict what will happen with the distribution of this species in
northern Morocco under different IPCC climate scenarios in the periods 2041-2060 and 2061-2080. We have
used a presence/absence dataset in UTM 10x10km grid cells and a set of environmental variables to develop a
model of the present favorability for the species in Morocco, and then we extrapolated the model using different
future climatic variables. Our results indicate that there will be fewer favorable areas for the species, mostly
confined in the Atlantic coast, regardless of the scenario we considered. Thus, the distribution area of the Longlegged Buzzard could be suffering a latitudinal movement towards the north, instead of an expansion of its
northern distribution edge, as previously reported.
Climate change, distribution area, favorability models, Buteo rufinus cirtensis, Morocco.
Adaptation through climate smart agriculture practices in an era of climate uncertainties: experiences of
vegetable farmers in the Greater Accra._157
University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
The impact of climate change is predicted to be felt more in some major sectors like agriculture, due to its climate
sensitive nature especially in a developing country like Ghana. Weather variability is already causing majority of
farmers, especially, the poor smallholder food crop farmer crop losses and uncertainty in planting period. The
main objective of this study was to identify climate smart agricultural practices among urban vegetable farmers in
the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The study was carried out using the survey design technique to collect data
from forty farmers who were sampled from three sites in the Accra Metropolitan Area: Ghana Broadcasting
Cooperation (GBC), Kawukudi, and North Dzorwulu, near Opeibea House. The study revealed that, even though
majority of farmers have not heard of the concept ‘climate smart agriculture’, most of the current practices they
use to manage their farmlands are largely considered climate smart. Some of the practices farmers have adopted
in their operations which can classically be considered climate smart are mixed cropping, effective water
management through dugout wells, mulching and effective farm waste management practices. Availability of
water particularly during the dry season and quality of water farmers obtain from nearby rivers and streams are
however so polluted that it poses health risks to both farmers and more importantly consumers.
Adaptation, climate, climate smart agriculture.
Adoption of EbA approach in the face of climate change: improving livelihoods in fringe communities of
the Worobong south forest reserve._180
University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Extreme human activities such as bush burning, over exploitation of resources, and farmland expansion in Africa
renders the forest ecosystem and communities dependent on it vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.
Several adaptation options have been considered as a way of enhancing the resilience of ecosystems and
livelihoods. This study sought to identify Ecosystem services of the Worobong South Forest Reserve (WSFR),
assess how these services have been impacted by climate change, vulnerability of communities and the
interventions needed. The EbA is seen as cost effective, and uses ecosystem services as part of an overall
strategy to reduce the adverse effects of climate change. The study selected 5 fringe communities of WSFR of
the Fanteakwa District in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were administered to 250 respondents
and a focus group discussion was held. 4 key informant interviews with officers of the FC, GmeT, MoFA and a
chief were also conducted. The local people perceived changes in rainfall and temperature, corroborated by the
time series data from GmeT. These have affected crop production among others. As part of the strategies for
resilient livelihoods and ecosystem, locals suggested agroforestry with a proper benefit sharing regime. It is
recommended that extra capacity building efforts and effective stakeholder engagements should be a continuous
exercise to sustain these EbA initiatives.
L’effet Bio-Insecticide de Trois Extraits du Plantes Medicinales Vis-A- Vis le Puceron Noir (Aphis Fabae,
Aphididae, Homopteres)._181
Laboratoire diversité des écosystèmes et dynamiques des systèmes de production agricoles en zones aride,
Université Mohamed KHIIDER, Biskra, Algeria
Les débats autour de pollutions, les OGM, les menaces de la conservation et la biodiversité à cause des
pesticides et leurs résidus démontrent parfaitement. Le but essentiel de ce travail est de trouver par les huiles
essentielles de quelques plantes médicinales un alternative pour minimiser l’utilisation des produits
phytosanitaires contre un ravageur principal de la culture de la fève car ils ont des effets nocifs par la persistance
et l’accumulation des produits toxiques dans l'environnement et chez l'homme à travers la chaine alimentaire en
provoquant des effets non intentionnels et diverses pathologies, alors que les extraits des plantes sont des
produites de métabolite secondaire, bioactive et d’origines biologiques moins toxiques pour l’homme et non
polluant pour l’environnement et jusqu'à maintenant ils n'ont pas signalé un effet nocif de ces produits sur la
biodiversité. Dans ce travail on a évalué l’activité bio-insecticide des huiles essentielles de trois espèces
végétales Allium sativum, Thymus algeriensis et Mentha spicata poussant dans notre région aride Biskra, sur un
déprédateur de la culture de fève puceron noir « Aphis fabae », des concentration croissantes de ces huiles ont
été testées à l’égard d’Aphis fabae par contact et inhalation. Les résultats obtenus montrent que l’huile essentiel
de l’Allium sativum et Mentha spicata sont les plus efficaces, leurs DL50 est assez faibles en comparaison avec
Thymus algeriensis ou ce dernier présente des influences sur la morphologique des feuilles de la fève. Ces
résultats nous orientent vers des travaux plus approfondis dans le but d’utilisation des HEs de ces plantes
comme alternative aux pesticides.
Bio-insecticide, Huiles essentielles, Contact-inhalation, Plantes médicinales, Aphis fabae.
Socio-economic and ecological outcomes of Community based forest management: A case study from
Tobé-Kpobidon forest, Benin._184
Rodrigue C GBEDOMON; Anne FLOQUET ; Roch MONGBO ; Achille Ephrem ASSOGBADJO ; Romain Glèlè
Laboratory of Biomathematics and Forest Estimations, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
Community forestry, promoted as a “win-win” forest management strategy yielded a variety of results that
includes both failure and relative success. The willingness of government to hold control over forest resources
while transferring only part of property rights to local communities is one of the major constraints. Therefore, there
is a need to explore alternative approaches, which enhance the position and accountability of local communities
in community forest management. This study evaluated socio-economic and ecological outcomes of community
forestry in a context of important property rights conceded to local communities. The study was conducted using
focus groups discussions, forest income evaluation and assessment of forest resources and their dynamics.
Findings showed that institutional design with important property rights conceded to local communities partially
empowered local communities and reduced threats while improving the condition of forest resources. The
approach also yielded positive economic outcomes that enabled bordering populations to make up to 25 % of
their global annual income from the forest. However, the sustainability of this scheme of forest management was
mostly limited by the financial dependency on local non-governmental organization, by local institutions and
discrepancy in forest benefits sharing among local forest users.
Community forestry; traditional institutions; socio-economic and ecological outcomes; Benin.
A review of endemic plant species richness in the Guinean Forests of West Africa._188
Temitope I.BOROKINI; Aiah LEBBIE; Faustin AKOTTO
University of Nevada Reno, Reno, Nevada
In 1978, Dr. Brenan conducted a comprehensive study of the phytogeography of tropical Africa, but limited efforts
have been made to update this in spite of new taxonomic information in the last four decades. This study was
carried out to update endemic flora list in each country within the Guinean forests of West Africa, one of the 34
global biodiversity hotspots. The methodological approach involved screening the Flora of West Tropical Africa
(FWTA), online databases of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list of threatened species,
African Plant Database (APD), International Plant Names Index (IPNI), JSTOR virtual herbarium, The Plant List,
Tropicos, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) III, Terrestrial Biozones, and Global Biodiversity Information
Facility (GBIF). Also, published FWTA revisions, and checklists of pteridophytes and orchids were evaluated. We
documented 879 endemic plant species, excluding endemic taxa considered as “imperfectly-known species”, in
contrast to 1001 endemic species previously reported by Dr. Brenan. Furthermore, Cameroon and Sao Tome and
Principe had the highest number of endemics per country, while endemic hotspots in each country were also
identified. There is paucity of empirical research on most of these documented endemic species; consequently,
species-specific conservation measure are lacking for each country. Focus on endemic species and their habitats
is advocated, to reduce current and future threats.
Endemic species, phytogeography, Guinean forests of West Africa.
A comparative assessment of the substantial effects of local logging on understory birds in the Itombwe
Plateau compared to Kahuzi-Biega National Park._189
Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles de Lwiro, Bukavu, D R Congo
We conducted avian inventories two sites at similar elevations in different parts of the Albertine Rift. In KahuziBiega National Park (PNKB) we worked at Mount Bugulumiza (2°19.463’ S, 28°44.445’ E, elevation 2392m) from
20-24 April 2012. The habitat in which fieldwork was conducted was regenerating montane forest. Large trees
were absent and there was a thick understory of vines and shrubs. From 9-16 April, we conducted similar
inventories on the eastern slope of the Itombwe Plateau. The forest at the Itombwe site (2°58.555’ S. 28°54.042’
E, elevation 2245m) was unprotected and under severe pressure by local logging. In both places, we set mist net
lines to survey birds in most heavily forested regions. The differences in the bird communities were dramatic
highlighting the great importance of PNKB and the plight of unprotected forest on the Itombwe Plateau for bird
preservation. Many forest understory species that were common around Bugulumza were unrecorded at our
Itombwe sties (e.g., Alethe poliophyrys, Sheppardia aequatorialis, Illadopsis pyrrhoptera, Graueria vittata, and
Cossypha archeri). Previously, we have gathered data a three other sites in PNKB (Musisi swamp, Mbayo
swamp, and the forest above Tshibati). Although there are some differences in the bird communities between the
PNKB sites all have intact understory communities that were missing from the Itombwe site.
Effects, Local logging, Understory birds, eastern D R C
High resolution spatial & temporal modelling and mapping of land protection & rehabilitation scenarios to
support water-related ecosystem services._195
Catherine J HUGHES; Gary de WINNAAR; Graham PW JEWITT
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Johannesburg, South Africa
South Africa is experiencing its worst drought in decades. With the current water shortages, the question of
whether the delivery of sufficient, high quality water can be sustained through investment in ecological
infrastructure, i.e. through the securing or rehabilitation of natural vegetation and landforms, is highly pertinent.
Priority areas for delivery of water-related ecosystem services were mapped and identified in the uMngeni
catchment in the KwaZulu-Natal province using recent high resolution land cover data and a daily-timestep
hydrological model. The model outputs were translated into mapped results, which are both visually accessible
and quantitative, and are useful for Interventions and future investments in catchment ecological infrastructure.
The wider project aimed ultimately to inform decision makers as to whether such investment would be beneficial,
and where to invest in catchment rehabilitation or land protection. The two key degradation criteria for which
rehabilitation scenarios were modelled were overgrazing and the invasion of upland areas by invasive alien
plants, namely Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii). Although the limitations of hydrological modelling are recognised,
as well as the limitations in terms of rehabilitation and restoration of ecosystem functionality, this study provides a
detailed spatial and temporal hydrologically-informed assessment of what the potential gains of rehabilitation of
ecological infrastructure could be.
Ecosystem services, modelling, mapping, hydrology.
Adaptations of bivalve molluscs to environmental conditions: Case Mytilus galloprovincialis coastal
region of El Jadida (Morocco)._196
UCD-Science Faculty, El Jadida, Morrocco
The coastline of El Jadida is subject to changes imposed by the urban agglomeration and industrial infrastructure
including phosphate processing units (JorfLasfar). This coastline denotes a high contamination by heavy metals
at sites close to releases from phosphate processing industries in JorfLasfar. We studied the impact of industrial
pollution and changes in physico-chemical parameters on growth and sexual maturity of mussel Mytilus
galloprovincialis collected from polluted stations and control stations located at the coast of El Jadida. We: 1)
Measured the physicochemical parameters in the various stations studied, 2) Determined the condition index, the
gonad index and the age of sexual maturity of Mytilus galloprovincialis in the surveyed stations to detect a
possible adaptation to the changing conditions of the environment. Three stations were chosen at different
distances from treatments factory of phosphate discharges (ElHaouzia (S1), SidiBouzid (S2) and JorfLasfar (S3)).
The condition index and the gonad index were determined in mussel samples (N=100 individuals/station)
selected random and monthly (6 months). The data were treated statistically using Statistica software. The results
show that: 1) The physicochemical parameters show acidification, high temperature and low salinity of the S3,
and 2) The gonad index was significantly higher in mussels from the polluted site located JorfLasfar.
Gonad index, Condition index, Mytilus galloprovincilais, Morocco
Rapid identification and prioritization of alien plant eradication targets based on the potential
environmental impacts and the management effort._200
Land Use Planning & Management, School of Agricultural, Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of
KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Identifying which introduced species have the greatest potential for establishment, spread and impact is critical
for prioritizing management resources. Using species distribution modelling and GIS we assessed the climatic
suitability and potential impact of 31 plant species listed as eradication targets under South African regulations.
Four bioclimatic models and two evaluation techniques were used to predict the potential distribution of each
species; this information was combined with the number of localities and the eradication feasibility in a scoring
system to rank the species. Three management groups were identified. Group “A” includes species with the
highest potential impact and higher likelihood to be eradicated, these species should be a priority for
management. Group “B” includes species with a high potential impact but where eradication would be difficult due
to the number of known localities. Finally species in group “C” scored a medium to low potential impact but given
the nature of the species and the number of known population, eradication is likely to be feasible. This provides a
rapid method to prioritize the management towards the eradication of new potential invasive plant species in the
country combining the estimated potential impact, known number of populations and the eradication success.
Emerging invasive species, species risk assessment, eradication, climatic suitability
Co-defining program success: Identifying objectives and indicators for a livestock damage compensation
scheme at Kruger National Park, South Africa._207
Central European University, Budapest, Hungary
Wildlife damage compensation schemes have been widely used to mitigate human–wildlife conflicts. These have
had mixed success in part due to a lack of shared understanding of the problem and how to monitor and evaluate
effectiveness. The history of damage-causing animals (DCAs) which exit the Kruger National Park (KNP), South
Africa, inflicting damage on persons and property, increasing risk of disease transfer, and undermining the
livelihoods of local communities, remains a contentious issue. Within a strategic adaptive management
framework, the park and its larger governing body, SANParks, have negotiated both a retrospective
compensation scheme, which entails financial retribution given to farmers who previously lost livestock to DCAs
originating from the park, and a corollary scheme for valid claims commencing from 2014. We present findings of
a novel study undertaken with KNP staff, livestock farmers, and others to co-identify potential indicators of an
objective-based participatory monitoring and evaluation program for the scheme. In addition to a wide array of
goals and objectives, 88 indicators were generated as potential measures to monitor change. This suite of
indicators is both qualitative and quantitative in nature and, if adopted in whole or in part, would enlist the
involvement of a broad range of stakeholders. The first step at consolidating these indicators are based on
information sources, methodological tools, and institutions responsible for monitoring.
Adaptive management, Compensation, Human–wildlife conflict, Kruger National Park, Monitoring.
Evaluation de l’efficience du réseau des aires protégées du Rif dans la conservation de la diversité
University of Abdelmallek Essaâdi, Tétouan, Morocco, Tétouan, Morocco
Conscient de l’importance de son patrimoine naturel et biologique et des menaces de dégradation qui pèsent sur
celui-ci, le Maroc a élaboré en 1996, le Plan Directeur des Aires Protégées (PDAP), qui a permis d’identifier un
réseau de 154 sites d’intérêt biologique et écologique. Ce PDAP est actuellement en cours de cadrage à l’horizon
de 2020. L’objectif de ce travail est d’examiner le rendement du réseau des aires protégées du Rif, quant à la
conservation de la diversité odonatologique dans la région, estimée à 54 espèces. La méthode appliquée est
celle de "gap analysis" à travers le recouvrement spatial "overlay" des couches contenant les données de
captures des espèces et celles des aires protégées. L’évaluation de l’efficience du réseau des aires protégées du
Rif, a révélé des lacunes quant à la protection de la faune odonatologique, notamment les espèces ayant un
intérêt spécial de conservation. Les méthodes alternatives de sélection des aires prioritaires de conservation
(hotspots et les algorithmes de complémentarité), se sont montrées plus efficientes que les aires protégées
existantes à représenter cette faune. Parmi ces méthodes, celle se basant sur la complémentarité est la plus
efficace, permettant d’atteindre les objectifs de conservation dans une aire significativement inférieure. Les aires
obtenues par cette méthode pourraient complémenter les lacunes existantes et servir de corridors biologiques
assurant la connexion au sein du réseau des aires protégées.
Aires protégées, Gap analysis, Odonates, Complémentarité, Rif.
Etude Mésologique et Biotypologique des Ephéméroptères des cours d’eau de la région ultrabasique de
Beni Bousera et des terrains adjacents (NW, Maroc)._214
Osama KHADRI ; Majida EL ALAMI ; Rachida EL BAZI ; Myriam SLIMANI ; Nard BENNAS
UAE, FS Tétouan, Tétouan, Morrocco
Pour contribuer à la connaissance et à la conservation de la biodiversité faunistique des cours d’eau du massif de
Beni Bousera et des terrains adjacents, une étude faunistique des Ephéméroptères a été entamée depuis
l’automne 2013 à l’automne 2015 sur 12 stations dans la région ultrabasique de Beni Bousera et 14 autres en
dehors de cette région. Cette étude a permis d’analyser la distribution des Ephémères d’après la nature de la
roche traversée par les cours d’eau (sur péridotite ou sur calcaire) et son influence sur les caractéristiques
physicochimiques des eaux. Les résultats obtenus, nous ont permis de recenser 4 familles d’Ephémères
réparties en 15 genres et 24 espèces. Les Baetidae constituent la famille la plus diversifiée avec 13 espèces.
Cependant, la distribution des éphémères dans les deux sites étudiés diffèrent en termes de biodiversité. Ainsi,
les espèces: Baetis fuscatus, Baetis meridionalis, Ecdyonurus rothschildi, Rhithrogena sp et Serratella ignita
semble être absentes dans la région de Beni bousera. Par contre, les similitudes se limitent à un nombre restreint
d’espèces telles que: Baetis maurus, Baetis pavidus et Baetis rhodani. L’Analyse Factorielle des Correspondance
(AFC) a démontrée nettement la séparation des 26 stations étudiées en deux groupements et ce, sur la base de
la distribution spatiale des espèces répertoriées. Ainsi, cette séparation exprime l’adaptabilité des espèces de
chaque groupement à l’habitat et leurs préférences écologiques.
Mésologie, Ephéméroptères, Biotypologie, AFC, Rif, Beni Bousera.
Assessment of Carbon Sequestration as Ecosystem Service in Marrakech Safi Region._218
Houda GHAZI ; Lahouari BOUNOUA ; Mohamed MESSOULI ; Mohamed YACOUBI KHBIZA
FSSM - Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco
Carbon sequestration is the most recognized service among all other ecosystem services. This service regulates
the climate of Earth by removing CO2 (a potent greenhouse gas) from atmosphere while diffusing water vapor to
the atmosphere and therefore cooling it. In Morocco, even with important diversity interrestrial ecosystems, we
still have no system of accounting for the sequestered carbon.
In this research, we assess the exchange of carbon between the land and the atmosphere in different
ecosystems of the Marrakech Safi region (Morocco). The study aims to quantify the amount of carbon
sequestered in different terrestrial biomes. We use the NASA’s Simple Biosphere model (SiB2), forced by local
land use characterization, soil type and climate. SiB2 is a biophysically-based soil vegetation transfer model that
computes the exchanges of carbon, energy, water, and momentum between the land surface and the
atmosphere, accounting explicitly for 12 vegetation types and urban settings.
For this presentation, we consider the carbon assimilation as an ecosystem indicator. Results show that the mean
value of the carbon sequestered by all biomes in the study area is about 1.3 Ton/ha/year. Results from this
research may shed light on the current state of this ecosystem service and identify hotspots and endangered
areas which can help decision makers better identify suitable projects.
Carbon Sequestration, Ecosystem Service, Evaluation, assessment.
Our Sea Our Life: Lessons from integrating community banking into co-management in
Jeremy HUET; Nicholas HILL; Farinoz DANESHPAY; Surshti PATEL
ZSL, London, United Kingdom
Communities in the north of Mozambique experience some of the highest levels of poverty in the country. Much
of the population is concentrated along the coast and is heavily dependent upon marine biodiversity for their
livelihoods. However, their marine resources are threatened by rapid changes resulting from growing human
populations, climate change impacts, migrant fishers moving away from depleted stocks, and most recently the
planned exploitation and refining of huge natural gas reserves. There are also strong gender inequalities. Women
are often the most vulnerable group within these communities, yet they are rarely represented within Fishery
Community Councils and are therefore not involved in co-management decisions. The project Our Sea Our Life
improves the capacity of the poorest and most vulnerable community members to manage their financial
resources through the establishment of Village Savings and Loan Associations within the context of fishery comanagement. The average annualised return on savings assets is 33% and they have a gender impact as >50%
of members are female. The savings generated by Village Savings and Loan Associations improve living
conditions and the capacity to invest in household wellbeing and new enterprises. Village Savings and Loan
Associations is a social platform that facilitates and incentivises the implementation of fishery co-management
measures by Fishery Community Councils.
Marine biodiversity, conservation, LMMA, savings, communities.
Climate change perceptions and adaptation among small-scale farmers in Uganda: A community-based
Utah State University, Logan, Utah, United States (USA)
Climate change is resulting in very localized impacts around the world, and this is especially true among the
small-farm systems in tropical Uganda. Change across the nation is dominated by shifts in the bimodal pattern of
annual precipitation. Because the onset and duration of the long and short rains has become more uncertain,
disruption in traditional farming practices has occurred. There is evidence that Ugandan farmers are slow to adapt
to such changes, or may even resort to detrimental practices that degrade ecosystem services. Communication
and intervention strategies are therefore needed to better identify emerging problems and sustainable solutions.
This research is using a novel combination of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and action research (PAR) with
two communities of about 1,000 residents each in western Uganda. One community is rural and the other is periurban. The PRAs are used to identify and prioritize solvable problems and develop community action plans where
the required resources and responsibilities are laid out. The PAR is used to reveal the details of problem-solving
interventions via focus groups and key informant interviews. We expect that sustainable solutions to major
problems will involve a combination of human capacity building and improving access to local services. Another
positive outcome of the approach is anticipated to be the empowerment of communities to problem-solve and
improve self-advocacy.
climate change, participatory research
Qualité physico-chimique et biologique du haut bassin versant du Loukkos (Nord Ouest du Maroc)._226
Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, Tétouan, Morocco
Le bassin versant du Loukkos est l’un des bassins les plus importants du Nord du Maroc, en raison de son grand
potentiel hydrique et de son périmètre irrigué qui est l’un des plus importants à l’échelle nationale. Une étude
hydrobiologique a été menée sur 26 stations réparties sur le haut bassin versant de loukkos, de manière
saisonnière durant l’année 2014. L’approche utilisée consiste en l’évaluation de l’état écologique de ce réseau
hydrographique par le biais des analyses physico-chimique des eaux et de l’indice biotique IBMWP (Iberian
Biomonitoring Working Party), basé sur les macroinvertébrés aquatiques. Dans ce travail, on présente la
cartographie de la qualité physico-chimique et biologique des eaux des 26 stations étudiées, et les corrélations
entre la physico-chimie des eaux et la structure des communautés des macroinvertébrés aquatiques récoltés.
Qualité des eaux, physico-chimie, biomonitoring, IBMWP, macroinvertébrés, bassin versant du Loukkos, Maroc
The use of molecular markers data in simulations for genetic resources conservation._229
Caetano M L SERROTE ; Lia R REINIGER ; Valdir M STEFENON ; Aline R CURTI ; Leonardo S COSTA
Universidade Lúrio, Lichinga, Mozambique
Rising population in Africa and expansion of settlements and agricultural spaces to absorb growing demand for
food and housing is fragmenting ecosystems in ways that threaten ecological and genetic processes and which
can lead to loss of species. Molecular markers use population genetics principles to conserve genetic diversity of
populations, thus ensuring the conservation of species. Computer simulations based on molecular markers data
allow understanding genetic, ecological, and reproductive patterns for populations, thus making the conservation
more effective. In this study we used microsatellite markers data from a study made in Brazil involving five
fragments of the forest tree species Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc to simulate rates of selfing and migration that
contribute to its genetic structure. The model with observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.52 and 0.64,
respectively (values obtained with microsatellite markers analyze) was selected. Our results suggested selfing of
0.3 (outcrosses rate = 0.7), consistent with a self-incompatibility system in this species, which reduced but did not
prevent selfing. Migration rate was 0.02, which implied existence of isolation by distance between fragments and
increased inbreeding coefficients. Based on Nei’s gene diversity analysis, only 6% of genetic variability was
distributed among fragments, with 94% inside them because of the high number of outcrosses observed.
Parameters for genetic conservation, namely, Minimum Viable Population and Minimum Viable Area, determined
for conservation in the short- and long-term, suggested that only one fragment had the potential to maintain its
genetic diversity in the short term. However, in the long term, none of the fragments proved sustainable,
suggesting the need of urgent action for their conservation. Creation of ecological corridors in order to connect
the fragments to each other by gene flow and increase the population genetic diversity will be an important
conservation challenge for Africa. Computer simulations based on molecular markers data could be used in the
Africa conservation context to predict future phenomena, thereby enabling identification of priority populations for
Computer simulations, gene flow, forest conservation, reproductive mode.
Testing the utility of DNA barcoding in South African Hemiptera: Using eThekwini species as a case
Ashrenee GOVENDER; Mathieu ROUGET;
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Hemiptera are useful bio-indicators and constitute an important component of South African insect fauna. This
order has been used in the biological control of invasive plants and plays an important role in agriculture.
Identification of Hemiptera using traditional taxonomy can be challenging. Challenges include the separation of
cryptic species and the delimitation of individuals from different developmental stages. DNA barcoding is a
molecular-based system designed to provide a rapid, accurate and automatable method of species
identification.A short, standardized gene region, the mitochondrial cytochrome c subunit 1 (COI), is used as a
species tag. This study presents a preliminary DNA barcode reference library for Hemiptera collected from the
eThekwini region (Durban, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa). This region is situated within the MaputalandPondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot. In total a reference library containing over 1450 COI barcodes
representing a total of at least 315 species (41 families) collected from 19 localities was analyzed. In particular,
this study tested for the presence of the “DNA barcode gap”. This is the gap between the intraspecific and
interspecific genetic distances – the larger the gap the more accurate species delimitation. This study highlights
the utility of DNA barcoding in assessing the biodiversity within the eThekwini region and the data generated will
contribute towards the conservation and management of this region.
DNA barcoding, Species identification, Hemiptera, Cryptic species, Conservation.
Net-Works: How a carpet tile can help aquatic conservation in West Africa._235
Farinoz DANESHPAY; Nick HILL; Heather KOLDEWAY; Amado BLANCO; Santiago ORMENO; Miriam TURNER
Zoological Society of London, London, United Kingdom
Fishing communities all over the world depend on marine and freshwater ecosystems for their livelihoods yet face
huge pressures. Community-based protection is a key tool to tackle these pressures for the recovery and
sustainability of fisheries and the protection of biodiversity. Net-Works is a community-based model operating in
Lake Ossa, Cameroon and the central Philippines that enables fishing communities to collect discarded fishing
nets to be recycled into carpet tile. This supply chain provides fishing families with valuable access to finance
through the Village Savings and Loan Association (VSLA) model. Net-Works VSLAs act as a platform for
participation in the protection and management of these vital ecosystems, offering an opportunity to invest in
diversified livelihoods that can reduce their dependence on fishing, and enabling the community to generate
funds to support conservation activities. To date, Net-Works has collected 100 tonnes of discarded fishing nets
globally, giving more than 500 families access to finance and creating a healthier, more productive environment
for 55,000 people. Having developed the model in the Philippines and now successfully applied the model to a
freshwater ecosystem in Cameroon, we seek to build on the lessons learnt and take the opportunity to scale this
model as a solution for community-based conservation in vulnerable fishing communities.
Marine, freshwater, community, finance, recycling.
Modélisation de la distribution d’Anochetus ghilianii au Maroc et en Espagne: Effondrement de
population ou introduction récente?_236
Laboratoire Ecologie, Biodiversité et Environnement, Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi,Tanger, Maroc
Une étude de modélisation de la distribution spatiale de l’espèce ibéro-marocaine Anochetus ghilianii, au Nord du
Maroc et au Sud de la Péninsule Ibérique en utilisant le logiciel MAXENT a été menée, dans l’objectif d’évaluer
l’hypothèse d’une introduction récente de l’espèce du Maroc en Espagne, où elle est classée sur la liste rouge
des insectes menacés, dans la catégorie « Vulnérable ». Ce logiciel réalise une approximation de la niche
écologique utilisée par l’espèce en fonction des variables environnementales choisies. Les variables retenues ont
été obtenues à partir de WorldClim Global Climate Data. Les données de la présence de l’espèce proviennent
d’une part à partir des citations bibliographiques de l’espèce au Maroc et en Espagne et d’autre part à partir de la
localisation sur le terrain de ses nids dans ces deux pays. La modélisation de la distribution de cette espèce dans
la péninsule Ibérique en utilisant uniquement les données du Maroc, révèle que la zone favorable à sa
distribution dans la p. Ibérique s’avère beaucoup plus large que celle occupée actuellement, se limitant à Cadiz et
à Gibraltar. Si cette dispersion avait eu lieu pendant la crise Messinienne, l’espèce devrait montrer une plus
grande dispersion dans la p. Ibérique, et une divergence génétique entre les populations marocaines et ibériques
devrait exister, notamment si on considère l’isolement géographique maritime d’une durée d’environ 5 millions
d’années après l’ouverture du détroit de Gibraltar.
Anochetus ghilianii (Spinola, 1851), modélisation, aire de distribution, Maroc, Espagne.
Impact of herders’ harvests of fodder plants in Yankari Game Reserve, Nigeria: patterns and extent._239
Salamatu J FADA; Andrew S. PULLIN; Andrew J. PACKWOOD
Bangor University, United Kingdom; University of Jos, Nigeria; Bauchi State Government, Nigeria
Understanding the social drivers of resource use is of key importance in conservation and environmental
management. This study surveys six plants (Afzelia africana, Ptericarpus erinaceus, Strychnos spinosa, Balanites
aegyptiaca, Khaya senegalensis and Tamarindus indica). These plants are used widely in Africa and are
threatened in their natural environment. Additionally, these plants are commonly used as cattle fodder in the
Yankari Game Reserve, Nigeria. An earlier study on the ecological change in woody vegetation of Yankari,
revealed high rates of decline in these fodder plants. This study investigates the degree to which the observed
changes in the fodder plants may have been driven by herders’ activities. A non -random cluster method was
used to sample 82, 100 m2 x 100 m2 plots. The characteristics of fodder plants, i.e. basal area, size classes,
growth levels and fire impacts, were estimated. Data was analysed using Arc Map 10.1, ERDAS IMAGINE 2013
and R 3.1.2 statistics packages. The key findings suggests Afzelia africana and Balanites aegyptiaca are severely
harvested in Yankari. A regression analysis showed a strong relationship between core - boundary distance and
harvest rate of Afzelia africana (P = 0.0001). Poisson regressions showed significant impacts of distance on the
recruitment of the fodder plants. There is urgent need for conservation and monitoring of fodder plants in Yankari
and similar parks in West African Savannah.
Fodder plants; herders; impacts; conservation; Yankari.
Vulnerability to extinction of the Souss valley tortoise, in arid steppe-lands of west central Morocco:
potentials conservation and restoration._242
Nawal HICHAMI; Safaa BENDAMI; Mohammed ZNARI; Mohamed NAIMI; Salwa NAMOUS; Abdeljalil AIT
Cadi Ayyad University - Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco
The Moorish tortoise, Testudo graeca, is the only terrestrial chelonian species in Morocco. It is listed on Appendix
II of CITES and is considered "vulnerable" (IUCN, 2008). In the central Jbilet, west central Morocco, in an arid
and overgrazed steppe-land, one of the largest populations of the endemic subspecies, the Souss valley tortoise,
T. g. Soussensis, at regional level, has been in decline during the last 10 years due to a combination of climatic
and human factors. Indeed, an estimate of the spring population size by Mark-Recapture method from 2003 to
2012, showed that the population size was reduced to more than 50% (from 196 to 88 ind.) with a mean density
of less than 3 ind./ha vs. 6 ind./ha. Using the VORTEX software, we carried out a preliminary population viability
analysis (PVA) on the basis of the last know population size, longevity and demographic parameters. Based on
the estimated mortality rates between 2003 and 2012, it appears that the population of central Jbilet mountains
would face a potential risk of extinction in the forthcoming 30 years. Finally, and taking into consideration
conservation issues identified by the PVA along with different identified direct and indirect threats, a population
and habitat management plan is proposed including a captive-breeding programme for population reinforcement
and ecological restoration of the degraded and overgrazed steppe-lands in the study area.
Extinction, Testudo graeca soussensis, arid steppe-lands, conservation and restoration.
How decisions lead to conflicts: The role of elephant foraging trade-offs and agricultural practices in
elephant crop foraging._246
University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Elephants are world-renowned as conservation icons, yet can locally pose a threat to human safety and
economic activities. This research project is part of the Ecoexist project, which aims to help people and elephants
to co-exist in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. In this area mitigation is required to reduce elephant crop foraging
to improve local livelihoods and conservation support. Mitigation usually focuses on treating symptoms, thus
protecting crops. However, long-term solutions require us to understand why elephants are raiding crops. This
research describes how these underlying drivers are studied making use of interdisciplinary methods. We have
used Bayesian hierarchical models to examine movement modes in elephant behaviour and how these are
triggered by environmental and agricultural characteristics in the landscape. This teaches us more about whether
entering agricultural fields is opportunistic while bypassing towards other goals –such as water sources- or a goal
in itself. We also used nutritional ecology to study how nutrient, energy, fibre and tannin content influences
choices in natural foraging and crop foraging behaviour. We analysed elephant diet on the role diet deficiencies
play in crop foraging. We also tested the role browsing and grazing shifts play in crop foraging making use of
isotope analyses. Finally, plans to analyse farmers’ decision-making processes in their agricultural practices
using political ecology frameworks will be described.
Crop-raiding, human-elephant conflict.
The Regional Network for Conservation Educators in the Albertine Rift: Contributing to conservation in a
biodiversity hotspot._247
Anastasie GASOGO
University of Rwanda, Butare, Rwanda
Funds and experts have funneled to the African continent for biodiversity conservation for decades. Despite this
long term commitment, recent reports show continued loss of tropical forest, species, and persistent wildlifehuman conflicts. While various agendas have been proposed to improve conservation effectiveness, investment
in people is needed. Many conservation organizations have capacity building in their mission statements, yet
most tropical countries still lack trained people participating to sustain conservation initiatives after projects end,
and most projects are externally initiated. We must take a ‘funds of knowledge’ perspective rather than a ‘deficit
perspective’ – while there may be a perception that capacity is lacking in a country slated for a conservation
initiative, inherent strengths, existing capacities and knowledge are present and integral to success. Investing in
people and capacity building may lead to different approaches, but outcomes may get us closer to conservation
goals, and can build sustainability and resilience. Through shared learning, decision-making and experience,
conservation efforts will become more effective and sustainable. In this symposium we highlight the work of
researchers from the Albertine region participating in the Regional Network for Conservation Educators in the
Albertine Rift, located in a biodiversity hotspot, contributing to biodiversity conservation and natural resource
Biodiversity hotspot, capacity building, empowerment, Albertine Rift.
Co-producing Knowledge for Conservation: A Case Study of the Barbary Macaque in Bouhachem Forest,
Northern Morocco._248
Sian WATERS; Ahmed El HARRAD; Lahcen TAIQUI; Sandra BELL; Joanna M SETCHELL
Barbary Macaque Awareness & Conservation, Tetouan, Morocco
Knowledge co-production is a useful tool in species conservation and relies on eliciting and using traditional
and/or local ecological knowledge (LEK) to produce management recommendations. To initiate a Barbary
macaque (Macaca sylvanus) conservation project in Bouhachem forest in northern Morocco, we established a
dialogue with 50 shepherds from ten villages on the periphery of Barbary macaque habitat. We included the
shepherds in research activities to co-produce information about macaque groups and diet. This led to a
distribution map of macaque groups along with an estimate of population size in the study area. We also
combined our own observations of macaque food plants with the LEK of two forest users to co-produce
information on the plants consumed by Barbary macaques in the study area. We describe how establishing this
relationship with forest users has led to positive conservation outcomes for Barbary macaques in Bouhachem
Barbary macaque, survey, local ecological knowledge.
Discord Between Local Belief Systems and Local 'Development': Impacts on a Sacred Species and
Forests in an African Communit._249
Lynne R BAKER; Adebowale A. TANIMOLA; Oluseun S. OLUBODE
American University of Nigeria, Yola, Nigeria
Globally, some species receive protection through indigenous belief systems and informal institutions. Where
such systems represent the only form of protection for threatened species, they may be critical to the survival of
those taxa. We evaluated long-standing social taboos protecting an endangered monkey (Cercopithecus sclateri)
and sacred forest groves in a community in southeastern Nigeria. We conducted a census of the monkey
population and compared our results to estimates from 2010. We also measured the area of sacred groves and
compared those values to estimates from 2005. We observed an increase in the monkey population, although our
results may be affected by factors related to detectability and the ranging and grouping patterns of monkeys.
Although we observed a slight decline in the area of sacred groves, most groves regularly used by monkeys had
not changed in the past decade. While the social taboos related to monkeys and sacred groves remain largely
intact, other factors threaten the monkey population at this site, including the removal of tree patches in and
around sleeping sites, especially to accommodate the construction of large homes; installation of cable and wire
infrastructure for electricity; and clearing of trees along stream forests for farmland. This study highlights the
conservation importance and limitations of local cultural protection, as well as the challenges presented when
such protection conflicts with community-perceived development needs.
Cercopithecus sclateri, human-wildlife conflict, informal institutions, Nigeria, social taboos.
Lake Kivu ichthyologic fauna and its sustainable management._250
Parfait YONGABO; Nyinawamwiza LAETITIA; Jean Pierre DESCY
University of Reanda-College of Agriculture, Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Musanze, Rwanda
Conducted researches showed the Lake Kivu ichthyologic fauna however its exploitation and fish catches
variation in basins and seasons is not well understood by both researchers and lake managers. This research
aimed at identifying the most targeted fish species and understand fish catches temporal and spatial variations for
a sustainable fisheries management in Lake Kivu. To achieve this, fisheries statistics were collected for 27
months from October , 2011 to December 2013. Data were recorded on daily basis across 59 fishing sites in 5
fishing zones of the lake. Our results showed that among 31 fish species only 5 species are targeted with the
dominance of Limnotrissa miodon. The total catches for 2011 (October-December), 2012 and 2013 were 288.57
t, 700.64 t and 717.76 t respectively. Fish catches showed a substantial temporal variation with high catches in
the rainy period of April to June in 2013 and the period following the fishing break (as per Rwandan policy),
January to March in 2012. The monthly average total catch was 63.22 t, the highest catch was recorded in
November 2011 and May, 2013 (84.37t) and the lowest in August, 2012 (8.65t). The average CPUE was 31.64 kg
d-1; the highest value was observed in December 2011 (45.96 kg d-1) and the lowest is August 2013 (23.63 kg d1). Fish catches varied among fishing zones, with high catches in the southern part of the lake. The total catch
and the CPUE were generally higher in 2013 than in 2011 and 2012.
Fish catch, CPUE, Fisheries.
Les coléoptères aquatiques des écosystèmes aquatiques salins du Maroc : biodiversité et considérations
en termes de conservation._253
Nard BENNAS ; Loubna BENAMAR ; Mohamed El HAISSOUFI; Ouassima L’MOHDI; Andrés MILLAN
Université Abdelmalek Essâdi, Tétouan, Morocco
Les écosystèmes aquatiques salins d’intérieur (source, oued, sebkha, et saline) sont des habitats peu fréquents
au Maroc. Ils se localisent généralement dans des ambiances arides et semi-arides du pays. Ils résultent soit de
l’influence des sources salines lorsque leur débit est important, soit du lessivage des terrains salifères affleurant
par les eaux de ruissellement. Le taux de salinité de ces milieux varie entre 0,5 g/l à environ plus de 300 g/l.
Leurs conditions environnementales très particulières favorisent le développement d’une faune aquatique
halophile, caractérisée par un taux d’endémisme très élevé, et constituent un point refuge pour des espèces
rares, dont les populations sont hautement isolées et fragmentées et présentant un grand intérêt
biogéographique et de conservation. Afin de contribuer à la connaissance de la biodiversité aquatique peuplant
ce genre d’habitat singulier au Maroc, une série de prospections hydrobiologiques, dans différents habitats
aquatiques salins du Maroc, a été menée. Les 44 habitats prospectés se répartissent dans les différents
domaines biogéographiques du pays: Rif, Pré-Rif, Moyen Atlas, et les domaines: oriental, atlantique et saharien.
Les activités humaines menacent ces habitats qui sont soumis à des changements hydrologiques naturels, à
l’usage du sol et du niveau de salinité.
Habitats aquatiques salins, biodiversité, conservation.
The critically endangered West African Lion: investigating occupancy, prey availability, and potential
conflict in Park W, Burkina Faso._254
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States (USA)
Integral to the viability of African lions (IUCN status, Vulnerable) is the availability of resources, namely land and
food. Here, I investigate spatial patterns of prey availability and human disturbance in the WAP complex spanning
portions of Burkina Faso, Niger, and Benin. In Winter of 2016, I began a camera survey on investigate the
mammal community in Park W, Burkina Faso in close collaboration with park authorities. Specifically, I deployed
50 remote cameras from February-May with 4km spacing across different habitats and varying proximity to water
as well as park boundaries. I am using an occupancy modelling framework to explore distributions of lions and
their prey. From nearly 4000 trap-nights, I detected 35 mammal species including lions and several other species
of conservation concern (e.g., red-fronted gazelle, elephant, topi). Most disconcerting was the detection of
humans (including poachers) and domestic animals at 7 and 11 camera locations, respectively. Clearly,
encroachment into nature areas will exacerbate human-wildlife conflict and raise concerns about the persistence
of lions. Efforts to survey other areas in the WAP complex and diet analyses to determine use of domestic
animals by lions are underway. This project provides necessary information about lion ecology and potential
conflict in arguably the last stronghold of lions in West Africa.
West Africa, human-wildlife conflict, lions, prey.
Ecological functions and contributions to ecosystem services and conservation status of Reptiles in the
Moroccan Sahara desert
Safaa BENDAMI; Soumia LOULIDA; Nawal HICHAMI; Mohamed NAIMI; Adil MOUMENE; Mohammed ZNARI
Cadi Ayyad University Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morrocco
Reptiles are among the most represented vertebrates in desert ecosystems. Nevertheless, little is known about
their role in maintaining and regulating ecosystem functions and, by extension, their potential value for supporting
ecosystem services. We interviewed local people from different areas in Southern Morocco and conducted a
bibliographic review research on the ecological functions of reptiles and their contributions to ecosystem services.
Several species of turtles, lizards and snakes, contribute to different ecological functions: nutrient cycling,
bioturbation, seed dispersal and energy flow. Many of these provide key ecosystem services, such as biological
pest control, seed dispersal and water quality. Freshwater turtles affect ecosystem structure through soil
burrowing and aquatic bioturbation and ecosystem functions such as decomposition and nutrient cycling through
waste excretion and indirectly through predatory changes in the food web. They also control primary production
through direct consumption and nutrient cycling. Some species provide provisioning services as food source for
local tribes and potential for new pharmaceuticals. Understanding the functions of these reptiles in ecosystems,
may be helpful in elaborating comprehensive management plans for cultural landscapes and for species and
ecosystem conservation and restoration. Unfortunately, most of these reptiles are experiencing major declines,
and humans may be losing associated ecosystem services.
Functions, services, conservation, reptiles, Sahara desert.
Is climate or landuse of greater influence on small mammal communities in Ghana?_260
Nyeema C HARRIS; Reuben A GARSHONG; Morgan GRAY
University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, United States (USA)
Perturbations arising from both disrupting climates and changes in landuse alter the spatial distribution of animal
communities. Disentangling the synergistic effects from multiple threats is problematic but required to discern
effective interventions. Here, we sampled small mammals inside and outside three protected areas in Ghana
along a latitudinal environmental gradient. We used dissimilarity matrices to compare communities. From over
6000 trap-nights, we captured 221 individuals across 28 different species. We found that small mammal
communities structured based on ecoregion not landuse, meaning climate conditions were of greater importance
than protection. Our research aids in anticipating impacts under future global change scenarios and encourages
investigations on protected area effectiveness.
Protected area, West Africa, mammal.
Ecological and physiological traits of a peripheral population of the desert Blue-eyed pond turtle in
Southern Morocco: implications for conservation._261
Soumia LOULIDA; Mohamed NAIMI; Mohammed ZNARI; Safaa BENDAMI; Adil MOUMANE
Cadi Ayyad University Faculty of Science, Marrakech, Morrocco
Peripheral populations of the Sahara desert Blue-eyed Pond Turtle, Mauremys leprosa saharica, in southern
Morocco, are faced to aridity and anthropogenic and climate change mediated water and land salinisation. We
investigated structure and morphometric characteristics and tolerance to salinity and dehydration of an isolated
population of the Blue-eyed turtle at Sidi El Mehdaoui oasis, Lower Draa. Trapped turtles were weighed and
measured for shell dimensions and blood and urine were taken. Tests of exposure to saltwater and maintenance
out of water were carried out. Plasma and urine osmolalities and electrolytes and urea concentrations were
determined. The population is small with a predominance of adults probably due to a low demographic turnover
rate. Adults are small-sized with a very low level of sexual dimorphism in relation to the low productivity of the
habitat. These turtles cannot survive in brackish water over 24% seawater. They depend on water reserves in
their bladder allowing them to reach the isotonicity level beyond which anhomeostasis occurs. Their limited
osmotic abilities does not allow them to survive for long term periods in saltwater or out of water because of
dehydration indicated by progressive weight loss to a critical threshold. The increased drought and water and soil
salinisation are great threats to the long term persistence of the vulnerable peripheral populations of the Saharan
Pond turtle and their habitats and conservation measures are needed.
Blue-eyed turtle, peripheral population, Sahara desert, ecophysiology, conservation.
Conflict transformation in action: building field capacity to address social and conservation conflict
impacting the endangered Grevy’s zebra in Kenya._262
Antioch University New England, Keene, New Hampshire, United States (USA)
Meeting contemporary conservation goals requires approaches that promote constructive change and address
social processes that cause conflict. Conflict transformation from the peacebuilding field is an underutilized
strategy and toolkit that can address the complexities of conservation conflict. Intractable social conflict coupled
with human-wildlife conflict has made it difficult for the Grevy’s Zebra Trust to meet critical conservation goals
necessary to protect the endangered Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi). An integrated conflict transformation
framework was implemented to tackle both conservation conflict and promote peaceful community coexistence. I
developed an approach using a conflict transformation platform including experiential learning workshops to
cultivate understanding towards achievement of conservation objectives. My analysis found that conflict
transformation is applicable across multiple conservation disciplines, from management to field level. Investing in
conflict transformation strengthens capacity to analyze and address conflict situations. Applying conflict
transformation to human-wildlife conflicts offers opportunities to build relationships and facilitate innovative
strategies to address social conflicts at the core of conservation conflict. Moreover, interventions framed within
the conservation conflict transformation model could be a new paradigm for peacebuilding and development,
enabling parties in conflict to move in a more constructive direction.
Human-wildlife conflict, capacity-building, endangered, conservation.
Networking to Advance Species Conservation: IUCN SSC Pangolin Specialist Group As Example._263
Olufemi A. SODEINDE; Olufemi A. SODEINDE ; Durojaye SOEWU
New York City College of Technology, CUNY, Brooklyn, United States (USA)
The IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) Pangolin Specialist Group (PSG) like other SSC Groups, is a
voluntary network of experts from around the world. The areas of interest of the SSC PSG experts include field
biology, social science, zoology veterinary science, ecology and genetics. The Pangolin Specialist Group’s
mission is to be a global voice for pangolins by working to advance worldwide knowledge and understanding of
pangolins, their conservation, natural history and ecology and catalysing action to meet these needs. The PSG an
advisory body to IUCN, currently has around 100 members from 25 countries around the globe. This networking
of experts has made it easier to both share and disseminate information on all extant pangolin species and to
identify and address commonalities and differences between pangolin populations and species in the continents
where they exist. The Groups’ website has become a one-stop destination for news about pangolins as well as
being a repository for information about on-going research and latest copies of peer-reviewed publications on
pangolin research. It is a veritable model that can be used as a template for creating networks of experts on
Africa-based and worldwide research on African fauna. The model encourages collaboration and directs research
focus on the weakest links in our information database on fauna as exemplified by pangolins in this case.
Networking, species conservation, IUCN Pangolin Specialist Group.
The fruit phenology of Musanga leo-errerae and its importance for chimpanzee conservation: case study
of Kalinzu Forest Uganda._265
Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
The ficus genus has been documented to be important dietary component that sustains chimpanzee populations
in tropical forests. In Kalinzu, Ficus and Musanga genera function as coexistent keystone fruit and perfectly
complement each other in chimpanzees’ diet sustenance. We analysed 2635 faecal samples to determine the
overall diet of Kalinzu chimpanzees which was found to be 75% frugivorous, 37.2% of which is solely contributed
by M. leo-errerae fruit. From the 2635 faecal samples analyzed, frequency occurrence of Musanga leo-errerae
and Ficus species in chimpanzee diet was 80.2% and 67.2% respectively. A four year phonological study
indicated that fruit availability of Ficus species showed significant variations while that of Musanga leo-errerae
was consistent and significantly higher than that of Ficus (P = 0.053; t = )2.034) all year round. Musanga leoerrerae fruit production did not vary significantly between months (ANOVA, F = 2.0, d.f. = 11, P = 0.13). The size
of fruit and rate maturation varied with seasons, although fruit production was synchronous and available all year
round. The continuous availability of Musanga leo-errerae fruit makes it an important food for chimpanzees in this
forest, especially during general fruit scarcity. This information has significant implications in the management of
tropical forests and endangered frugivorous primate populations like the chimpanzees.
Chimpanzee, Diet, Fruit phenology, Kalinzu, Musanga Leo-errare.
A Single Species Action Plan approach: Lack of genetic and innate diversity in the critically endangered
White-winged Flufftail (Sarothrura ayresi)._267
Antoinette KOTZE; Hanneline A SMIT-ROBINSON; Elaine VERMAAK ; Desire L DALTON
National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
The White-winged Flufftail (Sarothrura ayresi) occur in the highland marshes in Ethiopia, as well as almost 4 000
km to the south in South Africa. It is listed globally as Critically Endangered with less than 250 adults remaining.
These birds are severely threatened by habitat destruction. Under the African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds
Agreement (AEWA) a White-winged Flufftail International Working Group and a Single Species Action Plan were
initiated to ensure favourable conservation status. An action from this plan was to investigate genetic connectivity
in South African and Ethiopian populations. We report on the first results from the analysis of mitochondrial and
nuclear markers. In addition, diversity at six immune loci was analysed as high genetic diversity at these loci is
necessary in order for a population to show resistance against infectious diseases. Analyses of both DNA regions
identified only three interspecific variations between the two populations. We further confirm low genetic diversity
in the innate immune region similar to that observed in bird species that have undergone population bottlenecks.
These results provide evidence of low genetic diversity and support the hypothesis that the two populations are
not different species or sub-species. Low genetic diversity in the populations may thus ultimately contribute to the
extinction of the species unless conservation actions as per the Single Species Action Plan are put in place.
Action plan, genetic, diversity, critically endangered.
Formulating National Biodiversity Management Policy and integrating adaptive governance for Cape
mountain zebra conservation in South Africa._271
Coral BIRSS; Antoinette KOTZE
CapeNature, Stellenbosch; South Africa
The South African Biodiversity policy framework provides for the compilation of management plans for species.
Biodiversity Management Plans for Species (BMP-S) can be drafted by individuals or through stakeholder
collaboration. The aim is to ensure that management authorities are held accountable for achieving the countries’
mandated conservation outcomes. Cape mountain zebra (CMZ), is endemic to South Africa and its conservation
is dependent on the collaboration of 4 of the 9 provinces as well as the National Ministry of Environmental Affairs.
The CMZ BMP-S has been compiled by integrating the IUCN SCC Planning Guidelines with the National Norms
and Standards for drafting BMP-S, and through stakeholder collaboration, towards a common desired outcome.
Access and utilization needs by different stakeholder groups are polarised and present obstacles for conservation
management authorities. The establishment common ground and providing for multi-disciplinary participation,
information sharing and learning is an effective mechanism for achieving conservation outcomes as
demonstrated through this process. The CMZ BMP-S in itself aspires to represent an adaptive governance
framework in order to commit to adaptive management, deliver on monitoring and review requirements, and
enable dynamic responses in an unpredictable social ecological system. It is believed that the development of
adaptive governance frameworks at national scales can also be employed globally.
Policy, Conservation, Cape mountain zebra, adaptive governance.
Macrofungi conservation in Albertine Rift Forests._273
Edward N. MWAVU
Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
Tropical Africa is endowed with a rich diversity of macrofungi whose sustainable management can play a
significant role in the development of sustainable agricultural development practices and strategies against
malnutrition and ill health. Although fungi have a high potential in enabling and attaining sustainable development,
in the Albertine Rift, very little is known about it compared with many animals and plants; and no wonder they are
as the Orphans of Rio. Many of the region’s past National Biodiversity Action reports produced in response to the
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) failed to consider fungi at all. In this region there is limited taxonomic
characterization of the macrofungi which could be contributing to the failure to realize the potential for their
sustainable use and conservation. There therefore is need to identify, classify, and publicise threats to macrofungi
and to identify important areas for macrofungi and impacts on human society, which may occur as a result of
fungal population declines and extinctions. Furthermore, taxonomic solutions to species conservation require an
increased number of taxonomist with the knowledge and relevant high-quality skills, which are however limited in
the Albertine eco-region countries. In this regard significant advances in scientific knowledge as well as building
of human capacity are necessary to promote the conservation and sustainable use of macrofungi diversity.
Fungi, taxonomy, diversity, Albertine Eco-region.
Diversité et biotypologique des Plécoptères du Rif occidental Marocain (Nord-ouest, du Maroc)._274
Rachida EL BAZI; Majida EL Alami ; Sanae ERROCHDI ; Osama KHADRI ; Myriam SLIMANI ; Nard BENNAS
UAE, FS Tétouan, Tétouan, Morocco
Pour contribuer à la connaissance et à la conservation de la biodiversité faunistique des cours d’eau superficiels
du Rif occidental, une étude faunistique des Plécoptères a été réalisée du janvier 2014 à janvier 2015.
L’étude de 53 stations réparties sur l’ensemble du Rif occidental a permis de recenser 7 familles de plécoptères
réparties en 13 genres et 15 espèces dont 40% sont des endémiques marocaine (Isoperla cf. kir, Siphonoperla
lepineyi), nord-africaine (Brachyptera algirica), betico-maghrébine (Capnioneura petitpierreae), ibero-marocaine
(Hemimelaena flaviventris) et betico-rifaine (Leuctra franzi). Les Capnidaes et les Leuctridaes constituent les
familles les plus diversifiées avec 3 espèces, alors que les Perlodidae forment la famille la plus abondante dont
Isoperla cf. kir est la plus représentée. L’analyse biotypologique des Plécoptères de la région d’étude a montré
que leurs répartitions varient, essentiellement, en fonction de la nature de la roche traversée par les cours d’eau
(grés, calcaire ou péridotite). Ainsi, les espèces, Isoperla cf. kir et Leuctra sp présentent une large distribution
dans les roches gréseuses, alors que Capnioneura petitpierreae, Perla cf. pallida, Protonemura sp et Eoperla
ochracea sont largement distribuées dans les roches calcaires. Les plécoptères semblent être absents -à
l’exception de Perla cf. pallida- dans la région de Beni bousera qui est caractérisée par des teneurs élevées en
Mg et des eaux fortement minéralisées.
Plécoptères, diversité, biotypologie, cours d’eau, Rif occidental, Maroc.
Assessing taxonomic and functional diversity indices in rehabilitating coastal dune forest._278
University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa
The selection of appropriate ecological indicators is important to facilitate the monitoring of restoration efforts.
However, to asses if rehabilitating sites develop towards a reference site, most restoration efforts only consider
taxonomic diversity indices, such as species richness, and overlook other components of biodiversity, such as
functional diversity. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of taxonomic and functional
diversity indices to assess how rehabilitating coastal dune forests develop towards a reference site. We surveyed
all woody individuals in three sites (23, 31 and 38 years old) that develop after strip mining and in one old-growth
forest in 2015 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We identified all individuals (~ 0.4 ha per site) at the species level
and measured four functional traits (Specific leaf area, wood density, δ13C and maximum height). Our result
showed that average species richness increased as the forest aged. By contrast, rehabilitating sites tended to
progress towards a reduced trait space as they aged, contrasting with the old-growth forest that showed an
expanded trait space. This result suggests the presence of an environmental filter at later regeneration stages
which may potentially deflect the forest regeneration trajectory. Overall, we show that restoration efforts that only
monitor taxonomic diversity can overlook ecological processes important to identify potential deviations from the
reference site.
Functional diversity, forest restoration, environmental filtering, community assembly.
Conservation status of the Endangered Pygmy Hippopotamus choeropsis liberiensis in Sapo National
James W GBEADUH; Shadrach P. KERWILLAIN; Matthew VARNEY; Benedictus FREEMAN; Molokwu ODOZI;
Fauna and Flora International, Paynesville, Liberia
Sapo National Park (SNP), Liberia’s largest protected area is globally recognized as a biodiversity hotspot and a
stronghold for many threatened species in the Upper Guinea Rainforest, including the endangered pygmy
hippopotamus. However, little is known about the current status (distribution, population density and threats) of
the pygmy hippopotamus in SNP. To address this data gap, this study surveyed 62 transects of 2 km each across
the SNP and set up camera traps in the south-western part of the park where the first footage of this species was
recorded in 2011. Pygmy hippopotamus signs were recorded on 11 transects with an estimate of about 22
individuals. Out of 24 camera traps, pygmy hippopotamus were captured by four cameras in 176 images. The
distribution map showed high concentration of the species in the south-western part of SNP compared to other
areas. In addition, hunting signs including trails, camps and gun shells were recorded and increasing mining
activity was also observed in this part of the park. While this study reconfirms the presence of the species, the
presence of anthropogenic threats in the areas where the species is present, plus anecdotal evidence from local
communities about the killing of the animal suggests that they face huge existential threats. Findings from this
study will provide baseline information for future research and inform management practices aimed at more
effectively managing SNP as an important habitat for pygmy hippopotamus.
Pygmy hippopotamus, biomonitoring, transect.
Evaluating a transdisciplinary research partnership: Considering both the more tangible and less
tangible outcomes._282
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Continuous, reflective evaluation is necessary to fully understand the successes and challenges of
transdisciplinary research partnerships. A Research Programme has been established between the University of
KwaZulu-Natal and the eThekiwini Municipality (EM) aimed at bridging the science-action gap. The research
focuses on generating knowledge and capacity to support local land use planning and management, in an effort
to lessen the impacts of climate change and urbanisation on the area’s ecosystems. A reflective evaluation was
initiated to better understand the process and outcomes of this programme. The following objectives were
assessed: scientific outcomes, relevance of outcomes to the requirements of EM and the participants’
perceptions of the programme. The evaluation drew on a combination of assessment tools such as
questionnaires and reflective exercises. The programme was successful in capacity building but had a limited
scientific publication output and practice uptake. Key research gaps were identified but there was limited success
in addressing them. Overall the less tangible, social capital and networking outcomes were more successful than
the more tangible science and policy outcomes. An important lesson of this partnership was to pay attention to
the process and not only the outputs. This study highlights the importance of continuous participatory reflection
and evaluation in such partnerships and its resultant learning and adaptation
Evaluation, science-action, reflection, urban biodiversity conservation, knowledge co-generation.
Piloting REDD+ in a Proposed Protected Area: Lessons from Liberia._283
Fauna and Flora International, Monrovia, Liberia
Covering about 40% of the remaining Upper Guinean Rainforest, Liberia holds the largest sections of this
important ecosystem. This forest contains extremely diverse ecological communities, distinctive flora and fauna,
and a mosaic of forest types that provides refuge to several threatened and endemic species. However,
anthropogenic threats are on the rise, with average deforestation rate going from 0.2% in 2000 to 0.35% by 2006.
To counter this threat, REDD+ (Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) is being adopted
by this project as an important tool for protected area management. However, there is paucity of information
about REDD+. In 2009 work began to test REDD+ as an innovative means to forest management in a proposed
protected area, Wonegizi. The 5-year project was aimed at informing the development of national processes and
policies. Baseline biodiversity & carbon surveys, social impact assessments and community consultations were
carried out in 8 communities. Lessons learned include, REDD+ projects require time and can be complicated and
expensive and will not be automatically accepted by local communities if in competition with other seemingly
higher value land use option, (logging, agriculture, mining). Also, national inter-sectorial land use coordination is
key for REDD+ success. Lessons from this project can be an invaluable source of information for policy makers
and practitioners involved with the design and implementation of REDD+ programs.
REDD+; Protected Area.
Structure and viability analysis of the southernmost Barbary macaque population in the High Ourika
valley, western High Atlas Mountains, Morocco._286
Salwa NAMOUS; Abdeljalil A BAAMRANE; Mohammed ZNARI; Mohamed AOURIR; Nawal HICHAMI
Cadi Ayyad University Faculty of Science, Marrakech, Morocco
The Barbary macaque Macaca Sylvanus is seriously imperiled in Northwest Africa. A study was conducted in
summers 2009 and 2013 on the southernmost population in the Ourika valley, Morocco. This rugged
mountainous area is dominated by degraded poor-fruit environments, mostly holm oak Quercus rotundifolia forest
patches. We estimated the group and population sizes and structures using the line-transect distance method. A
population viability analysis (PVA) was also conducted using VORTEX simulating an optimistic and pessimistic
scenarios derived from published demographic data. Four and two groups were located, respectively in 2009 and
2013. The mean group size ranged from 12 to 46 individuals and the respective estimated total population sizes
were 122 and 84 individuals. The estimated mean density varied from 10 to 171 individuals per km2. The
population structure varied significantly among groups and years. Macaques were distributed, respectively in
2009 and 2013, in 24.8 vs. 20% adult males, 24.8 vs. 22% adult females, 11 vs. 13% subadults, 13 vs. 17%
juveniles and 26.4 vs. 26.3% infants. In both years, 50 to 56% of the population consisted of young individuals.
The apparent fecundity rate was 1.06 infant per adult female. Adult sex-ratio was 1:1. The PVA predicted that the
studied population would not be viable over the forthcoming 100 years under both scenarios. Conservation
recommendations are proposed for this peripheral Barbary macaque population.
Barbary macaque; Ourika valley; population structure; viability analysis; conservation.
Tropical Ecology Assessment Monitoring in Virunga Massif: Camera trap image baseline results._289
Charles B. KAYIJAMAHE; Eustrate UZABAH;
International Gorilla Conservation Programme, Kigali, Rwanda
Tropical Ecosystems are the most rich and diverse areas in terms of biological diversity in the world. Despite this
richness, these ecosystems are also among the most threatened. Among many threats; concise and rigorous
scientific information to support conservation management decision is lacking. The Tropical Ecology Assessment
Monitoring (TEAM) network was created to generate real time data for monitoring long-term trends in tropical
biodiversity, land cover change, climate and ecosystem services in tropical forests. Here, we present the results
from the baseline data on terrestrial vertebrates collected by camera traps in 2014. A total of 60 camera traps
were deployed into 2 arrays. Each array consists of 30 camera traps which are deployed and remain in the forest
for 30 days. Potential camera trap point location were selected using ArcMap software generated in a such way
that points were regularly spaced at a density of 1 camera trap per 2 km2 and points located across all altitudinal
ranges. A total of 1,826 camera-trap days were collected with a total of 59, 959 images. 19 animal species have
been accurately identified and were grouped into 18 genus, 13 families and 2 classes. Interestingly, some
patterns of certain animal species and habitat preferences have been noticed and started to raise some questions
which may in future be translated into research projects to answer key conservation management issues in
tropical forests.
Tropical Ecology, camera trap, Virunga Massif.
Captive breeding as a conservation tool of the last remnant populations of the Black-bellied Sandgrouse
in west-central Morocco._292
Mohamed AOURIR; Mohammed ZNARI ; Mohamed RADI; Jean-Michel MELIN
Faculté des Sciences, Agadir, Morocco
Populations of the Black-bellied sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis have drastically declined in the arid steppes of
west central Morocco due habitat destruction, poaching and illegal hunting. Conservation measures are therefore
urgently required. A captive breeding program was initiated for the reinforcement of declining wild populations.
We studied behavioral adaptability and reproductive performance of a founder stock of birds originated from wildcaught eggs. Activity-time budget in captive birds was recorded using instantaneous scan sampling methods.
Wild-laid eggs and pulled captive-laid eggs were incubated artificially. All chicks were hand-reared until 7 weeks
of age. Behaviors of captive adult birds, but not activity-time budget, are roughly similar to those in the wild.
Captive sandgrouse showed a seasonal breeding pattern with a laying period of 7 to 12 weeks. The clutch
frequency is up to 7 clutches/season with an average clutch size of 2.7±0.5. The mean total egg production
ranged from 8 to 18 eggs/female. Egg hatchability increased with female age and survivability of chicks hatched
from wild-laid eggs was much higher than that of chicks from captive-laid eggs during the first post-hatching
week. The recommended age at which wild-laid eggs could be collected is at least 13 days for full chick
survivability. Due to its adaptability to the captive conditions, Black-bellied Sandgrouse can be successfully bred
for the reinforcement of the declining wild populations.
Sandgrouse, arid steppes, adaptability, captive-breeding, reinforcement.
A population viability analysis of the last surviving Moroccan dorcas gazelle (Gazelle dorcas massaesyla)
in M’Sabih Talaa reserve, Morocco._296
Mohammed ZNARI; Abdeljalil AIT BAAMRANE ; Chris LOGGERS ; Mohamed NAIMI ; Said EL MERCHT
Faculté des Sciences – Semlalia, Marrakech, Maroc
The formerly widespread but now vulnerable Dorcas gazelle Gazella dorcas has declined markedly during the
last decades. The semi-captive population in M’Sabih Talaa Reserve, west-central Morocco, is genetically distinct
and may be the last remnant of the Moroccan Dorcas gazelle G. d. massaesyla. Based on the information
gathered from a field survey and life-history data available from captive populations, we carried out a population
viability analysis (PVA) using the VORTEX to simulate different management scenarios. The last population size
was estimated to 200, in 1996. To assess the current population size, we used line-transect distance sampling
from April 2008 to August 2009. The estimated population size ranged from 87 to 113 indicating a decline of
nearly 50% since 1996. On the basis of a sensitivity analysis, the PVA revealed that inbreeding depression and
possible natural catastrophes would have a huge impact on the population’s prospects. The establishment of two
subpopulations and successful attempts at reducing the consequences of catastrophic events would be able to
significantly mitigate the harmful effects of both inbreeding and environmental stochasticity. These findings may
be of general interest to conservationists dealing with unique threatened small populations. The other main
conservation actions for this remnant population of the Moroccan Dorcas gazelle, are the suppression of
poaching and feral dogs, and implementation of a genetic management program.
Dorcas gazelle, demographic decline, population viability, M'Sabih Talaa Reserve, Morocco.
Biodiversity conservation in a political instability: Challenges and prospects._297
University of Burundi, Bujumbura, Burundi
Burundi lies within the Albertine rift region with high endemism and high biodiversity. However, its high population
density and political instability has a negative impact on biodiversity conservation efforts. The civil war period
between 1993 and 2003 saw high environmental degradation and was followed by a relatively stable period with
development and biodiversity conservation schemes. The government has developed legal mechanisms and
conducted projects for conservation system reinforcement and alleviation of poverty of local communities around
protected areas. But a political crisis arose since April 2015 and some government partners have suspended their
financial cooperation, including those aiming at the financing of conservation programs. Lack of fund for
conservation and poverty combating projects may result in an increase in illegal exploitation of natural resources
such as illegal logging and hunting of wildlife for bush meat. Increased deforestation may have a devastating
impact on the country’s wildlife. Despite the challenges, one can be optimistic as local communities have been
involved and understood their role in protected areas management. In case of limited resources for park
managers and political instability, community support is critical. Hence, more efforts should be directed at
providing benefits to communities such as controlled harvesting of resources from protected areas and increase
sensitizing for mitigation of environmental degradation.
Burundi, political instability, biodiversity, community conservation.
Southern Morocco Unionidae._300
Tamraoui YOUNESS; Mohamed GHAMIZI; Manuel LOPES-LIMA
Hydrobiology, Ecotoxicology and Sanitation-Faculty of Sciences Semlalia Laboratory & Museum of Natural
History, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco
The fresh water bivalve mollusk Unionidae family is represented in Morocco by 3 native families (Margaritiferidae,
Unionidae, Sphaeridae) and one invasive (Cobriculiade). This group isn’t much studied in South of Morocco,
regardless of its biological importance, as a water filter organism, and in continental aquatic environment biotypology. These bivalves’ nominal species go back to French Protectoral period and a systematic review should
be done. The modern approaches combine morphological and genomic allowing to locate different group taxon
and estimate its biodiversity. The pre-independence researches show two species presence of genre Unio: Unio
foucauldianus Pallary 1936 in Souss and Massa rivers, and Unio ksibianus was located in L’Ksobe river and Unio
gibbus and Potomida littoralis Cuvier 1798. The 2016 researches show the presence of U. foucauldianus and P.
littoralis in Moroccan Southern watercourses. The researches in South Atlas areas and Agadir and Essaouira
coast watercourses revealed the presence of many populations of U. foucauldianus and P. littoralis in these
rivers: Ouzioua (Souss tributary) Massa, Noune, Draâ, and Ziz. And Unio sp in L’Ksobe river. The found species
distinction is based on morphometric creteria. The conservation status of Moroccan endemic species U.
foucauldianus is endangered and its habitats are threatened. In addition, the Potomida littoralis conservation
status is least concern.
Unionidae, the fresh water bivalve mollusk, southern Morocco, Unio faucauldianus, Potomida littoralit,
morphometric criteria, South Atlas areas.
Moving with the Times: Promoting an Integrated Management Strategy for Liberia’s Strictest Protected
Mary Ngozi MOLOKWU-ODOZI; Kathryn PHILLIPS; Shadrach KERWILLIAN; Benedictus FREEMAN; Clara
Fauna & Flora International, Monrovia, Liberia
Liberia’s foremost protected area (PA) and only national park, Sapo (SNP) holds many threatened and endemic
species including a significant population of western chimpanzee. Established in 1983 by an executive order,
Sapo has been managed with limited stakeholder engagement. Although Liberia has progressed in PA
management with the other PAs co-managed by communities and the state, management of SNP remains
relatively militarized. This strategy coupled with limited resources for park operations such as law enforcement
has led to a surge of illegal activities that now threaten the survival of SNP’s biodiversity. Relationship with local
communities has further deteriorated as complaints of crop raiding by animals and in particular extension of the
park boundaries is a continued source of strife. We present the outcome of a project aimed at improving
understanding of park-related impacts on communities and effectiveness of park management through
institutional and technical capacity building, including the development of a scientifically informed collaborative
management strategy. Using the social assessment for protected areas (SAPA), we investigated these issues in
40 communities. We present results of this process to show its effectiveness in integrating communities’ and
management’s interests and concerns for PA management. Additionally, we present challenges and lessons
learned in instilling community-based management approaches in a slow progressing protectionist setting.
PA management, co-management community engagement, science-based conservation.
Trends in snow cover duration and response of vegetation growth in the Middle Atlas Mountains._307
Nezha ACIL
Lund University, Casablanca, Morocco
Endowed with a rich flora and a high level of endemism, the Middle Atlas Mountains receive substantial snowfall
in winter, which contributes to plant hydration during the dry season. In the context of climate change and for
conservation purposes, it is important to identify where vegetation is the most sensitive to changes. This study
aimed to assess the trends in Snow Cover Duration (SCD) between 2000 and 2015 and analyse the relationship
with vegetation growth, as approximated with the Plant Phenological Index (PPI). Trend analysis of SCD along
elevations and among basins revealed an increase in the mid-elevations (1750–2500m), particularly between
2250-2500m and in the wetter ocean-facing Sebou basin. With lower certainty, SCD trends also flagged a nonsignificant decrease in lowlands, particularly in the south-facing zones of Oum Er-Rbia basin. Correlation between
SCD and PPI indicated that above a certain threshold (1750m for woodlands, 2000m for grasslands), vegetation
growth became more dependent on snow, probably as a source of water at the mid-elevations and as an
insulator at the highest ranges. Maximum sensitivities were around 2500m for woodlands and 2750m for
grasslands. Finally, the positive effect of snow on mid-elevation shrubland samples was found to be significant
when SCD exceeded 4 weekly observations. To conclude, mid-elevations appear to be the most vulnerable to
climate change and should be prioritised in future conservation actions.
Snow, vegetation, mountains, remote sensing, climate change.
Empowering the youth of Liberia to tackle Climate Change through the propagation of fuel efficient
Farmers Associated to Conserve the Environment (FACE), Paynesville, Liberia
The coastal belt of Liberia contains habitat of wide variety of wildlife species. Some common features of this
region include mangrove forests, estuaries, lakes and ponds. Small percentage of the area is coastal tropical-
highland semi-evergreen forest. The Farmers Associated to Conserve the Environment (FACE) in partnership
with Fuana &Flora International (FFI) implemented a project in the Lake Piso MUR. The project aims to reduce
deforestation and improve health in North-West Liberia through pilot youth-run scheme to build and distribute
fuel-efficient stoves. The project trained 3 females and 7 males between ages 20 and 30 from local communities
and established nature clubs in four schools. FACE also identified minimum of 20 communities who desired to
develop and engage in the production and use of eco-stoves. Twenty 20 young women and men between ages
18 to 25 were trained in eco-stove production. The eco-stoves were tested and results indicate that the stoves are
more efficient than tradition coal-pot stoves made purely of metal plate. Local authorities were overwhelmed and
requested mass production to serve low income and poverty-stricken people in the community. FACE and FFI
intend to provide long-term educational support to the nature clubs. The support will include field tour during
which there will be lectures on ecological issues relating to climate change, how human actions contribute to
climate change and what can be done to reverse or stabilize climate change.
Fuelwood, efficient cookstoves, Liberia, youth.
Challenges for managing biodiversity in a changing climate: Cases from the Albertine Rift Countries._310
University of Dar Es Salaam, Institute of Resource Assessment, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
The global community is increasingly facing enormous challenges as it strives to manage the remaining
biodiversity and sustain its ecological processes and ecosystem services. In Africa, multiple pressures including
fragmentation of habitat, land degradation, deforestation, intrusion by invasive species, and pollution continue to
threaten the rich biodiversity of the region particularly in the Albertine Rift countries (i.e. Tanzania, Uganda,
Rwanda, Burundi and DR-Congo). Climate change is adding to and interacting with these and other pressures,
which further threaten biodiversity. In this paper, cases are drawn from different protected areas to show how
persistent and extreme droughts as well as flooding are directly and indirectly affecting biodiversity conservation
in the Albertine Rift Countries. The paper examines the current biodiversity conservation strategies in the region
in terms of their effectiveness in addressing multiple pressures in a changing climate. To date, biodiversity
management in most protected area within the region is still passive ‘nature taking its own course’. During
extreme droughts, massive death of water dependent species (e.g. Hippopotamus - Hippopotamus amphibiuse)
is increasingly recorded in different protected areas across the region. Therefore, to sustain the biodiversity and
ecosystem services in the region, adaptive biodiversity conservation and management strategies are
Biodiversity, climate change, conservation, Albertine Rift countries.
Bridging theory and practice: learning from 13 years of Conservation planning in South Africa._312
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Conservation planning has evolved since the pioneering literature appeared in the early 2000s from focusing on
species to ecosystems while geographical focus evolved from international biodiversity hotspots to a broader
landscape. The number of policy-related initiatives increased with more emphasis on translating policy and
science into action. A review of international literature highlights that the quality and quantity of science is growing
despite the fact that there is little published evidence of translation into action. Our research focuses on
understanding the linkages between conservation science and practice in South Africa. We conducted a
systematic literature review of international and South African conservation planning literature and South African
conservation planning practice. Preliminary results reveal that the South African conservation planning practice
focuses more on implementation while literature focuses on assessments. Priority area identification features the
most both in practice and literature. Lastly, ecosystem focus in the conservation practice is oriented towards all
ecosystems while literature shows a bias towards terrestrial ecosystems. The results reinforce the gaps existing
between theory and practice which have implications for biodiversity conservation. The presentation will focus on
the framework of this research and the preliminary findings.
Conservation planning; conservation planning practice; conservation planning literature.
Diversité et distribution bathymétrique des gorgones octocoralliaires de la baie d’Agadir._314
Faculté des Sciences, Agadir, Souss Massa, Morrocco
La position géographique de la baie d’Agadir fait d’elle un écosystème avec de nombreuses particularités
écologiques, faunistiques et floristiques. En effet, la baie est située dans une région considérée comme une zone
de transition entre la faune méditerranéenne et celle atlantique. Aussi, la baie est dans un environnement sous
l’influence de masses d’eaux froides des fonds marins riches en nutriments (upwelling) et de masses d’eaux des
courants de canaries. Toutefois, malgré l’intérêt écologique, et aussi socioéconomique de la baie (tourisme et
pêche), peu de travaux ont porté sur la biodiversité faunistique et sur sa relation avec les paramètres
écologiques. Notre contribution a pour objectif l’étude de la diversité dans la baie d’Agadir, des gorgones
octocoralliaires, groupe d’espèces benthiques sessiles vivant sur les substrats durs ; ainsi que sa distribution
bathymétrique jusqu’au 20 mètres de profondeur. Les résultats préliminaires montrent que les genres
Leptogorgia et Eunicella sont les plus abondants dans la région. Néanmoins, le genre Paramuricea n’est
représenté que par une seule espèce. La distribution bathymétrique est remarquable, les premiers individus de
Leptogorgia apparaissent à 5 m de profondeur, et ceux d’Eunicella à 8 m. Paramuricea a été observé à 20 m.
Notre étude a permis également, d’identifier une nouvelle espèce Leptogorgia pour la région. L’espèce a été
identifiée auparavant dans la côte atlantique du Sénégal et au Guinée Bissau.
Gorgones octocoralliaires, biodiversité marine, taxinomie, Leptogorgia, Eunicella.
Land use preferences of African wild dogs in a human-dominated landscape in Kenya._318
Institute of Zoology, London, United Kingdom
Habitat loss and fragmentation have been identified as among the greatest threats to the survival of many wildlife
species across the world. Whilst habitat fragmentation threatens many species, large carnivores are particularly
vulnerable to its effects. The African wild dog, Lycaon pictus, is one of the most wide-ranging of Africa’s large
carnivores requiring large areas of contiguous habitat to persist; habitat loss and fragmentation is among the
greatest threats to their long-term survival. Movement data have been collected from packs of African wild dogs
within the Samburu-Laikipia landscape of northern Kenya. This area supports a variety of land uses including
traditional pastoralism, commercial livestock ranching, subsistence agriculture, large-scale farming, and
ecotourism. These data were used to investigate how wild dogs use the landscape in relation to the different land
use types. This matrix of different land uses is representative of much of the remaining resident wild dog range
throughout Africa and so understanding how this population is able to survive in this landscape has widespread
Land-use, conservation, Kenya, wild dogs.
Analyse des modes et dynamique d’exploitation des ressources halieutiques dans la lagune Ndougou
(site Ramsar Setté Cama, Gabon)._332
WWF Gabon, Libreville, Gabon
Des enquêtes régulières sur les captures et l’effort de pêche ont été réalisées sur les débarcadères, points de
vente, les campements et sites de pêche durant la période 2013-2014 sur le système lagunaire Ndougou (site
Ramsar de Setté Cama). De plus, des techniques documentaires ont été utilisées pour recueillir des données
antérieures afin de réaliser des comparaisons sur les valeurs des captures et l’effort de pêche. Les résultats
présentent l’utilisation 5 techniques de pêche dont le filet dormant et le « tapé-tapé » sont les plus utilisées par
les pêcheurs avec les mailles 50mm et 45 mm. L’analyse de la dynamique d’exploitation entre les périodes 19951997 et 2013-2014, souligne que la prise par unité d’effort a diminué de 26.33 kg par jour de pêche et par
pirogue. De même, en saison des pluies, la prise par unité d’effort a baissé de 6.13 kg par jour de pêche et par
pirogue. A contrario, l’effort de pêche a augmenté durant la même période avec le nombre d’heures en saison
sèche allant de 4 heures à 72 heures et la longueur des filets passant de 250 m à 1100m. Face à cette situation,
il serait intéressant de mettre en place un certain nombre de mesures dont le renforcement de l’application de la
loi; une sensibilisation et implication des communautés locales pour une co-gestion des ressources.
Capture, dynamique, Mode, exploitation, lagune
Incentives for Community Forest Management in Tanzania._337
Steve BALL
Farm Africa, Masaki, Tanzania
I briefly recap the history of Participatory Forest Management in Tanzania, key achievements and challenges. A
particular and common challenge has been to provide incentives for community participation that outlast the
duration of a given project. I summarise the main tools that have been developed to provide incentives to
communities: fines for transgressing forest byelaws, NTFP collection, beekeeping and other ‘income generating
activities’, timber extraction (including forest certification), charcoal production, Payments for Ecosystem Services
(watershed-related and REDD+). I analyse these tools in terms of the kind of incentives provided: forestdependent or forest-related, private versus communal benefits, net positive or neutral contribution to the local
cash economy, and ease of accessibility. I discuss how these classifications interact with key variables of
conservation and development programming such as physical accessibility, land tenure and local governance. I
provide lessons learned from implementers, and discuss how to implement such initiatives in practice. I conclude
with recommendations for the design of future efforts in this area.
PFM, sustainable forestry, community benefits.
Evaluation de l’état de la foret de Benslimane en vue d’une stratégie de conservation._345
Chouaib Doukkali University - Faculty of Science, El Jadida, Morocco
La présente étude s’appuyant sur l’utilisation de la télédétection spatiale et des systèmes d’information
géographique, vise l’évaluation de la dynamique forestière dans la forêt de Benslimane qui s’étend sur une
superficie de 12262 Ha et se compose du Chêne liège, du Thuya et des essences secondaires.
L’étude a permis l’élaboration des cartes d’évolution durant les 20 dernières années (1994– 2013) et ce, en se
basant sur deux techniques différentes de traitement des images satellitaires multidates (Landsat TM et Landsat
8) : le calcul de l’indice NDVI et la classification orientée objet (C.O.O.).
A la lumière des résultats obtenus, il s’est révélé une régression de 35% de la superficie de Chêne liège et de
50% de la superficie de Thuya par rapport à leurs superficies initiales en 1994. Ainsi, les peuplements forestiers
ont connu au cours du temps une dynamique négative qui l’emporte sur leur rétablissement.
L’analyse des statistiques relatives aux constations des délits, sur une période de 32 ans (1984 – 2015), a permis
de déduire que la subéraie a été soumise à des exploitations illégales dues à une forte pression anthropique ; à
savoir les coupes délictueuses de bois, le surpâturage, le défrichement et le labour. Les pertes physiques par
espèce s’estiment à 18,4 m3/an pour le Chêne liège et 6,1 m3/an pour le thuya. D’où l’urgence de la mise en
place d’une stratégie de conservation et de gestion durable d’un tel patrimoine naturel national.
Télédétection, évaluation, dynamique forestière, délits de coupe et enlèvement de bois, parcours, anthropique,
stratégie de conservation.
Patterns of distribution and structure of epifauna inhabiting invasive and native seaweeds on the Atlantic
coast of Morocco._348
Faculty of Sciences, University Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida, Maroc
In the present study, we analyzed epifauna colonizing the invasive brown seaweed Sargasum muticum and the
common native seaweeds in mid-intertidal rocky pools of El Jadida, Morocco. Samplings yielded 8,364
specimens belonging to 54 species of five zoological groups. The highest total numbers of individuals (2,088 ind.)
and of species (43 species) were harboured by Cystoseira humilis and S. muticum respectively. Gastropods were
the most species-rich group (35.2%) followed by amphipods (16.7%). The highest epifaunal abundance “A” (58
ind. ±11.9/10 g dry weight of alga) was found in Cystoseira tamariscifolia during spring and the lowest one (5 ind.
±0.9/10 g algal dry weight) in B. bifurcata during autumn. Species richness “S” ranged from 1±0.00 species in
Gracilaria multipartita (summer) to 7±1.66 species in C. tamariscifolia (spring). Diversity H’ values were generally
lower than 3 bit throughout all seasons. Pielou’s index J’ varied between 0.21±0.05 (G. multipartita) and
0.87±0.33 (B. bifurcata) in autumn. All these biological parameters significantly differed between phyco-habitats
but they didn’t show any significant differences between seasons, except H’ (p<0.05). Results obtained through
the permutational multivariate analysis of variance indicated that epifauna composition significantly varied among
macroalgae through seasons (p = 0.001) and there were slightly consistent differences between epifaunal
assemblages associated with the invasive and native algae.
Epifauna, seasonal patterns, rockpools, Sargassum muticum, seaweeds, Morocco.
Distribution and ecology of the Celtic sea slug Onchidella celtica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic
coast of Morocco._349
Abdellatif CHAOUTI, Abdeltif REANI, Marisa SILVA, Meryem HASSOUANI, Zahira BELATTMANIA, Abdenbi
Faculty of Sciences, University Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida, Maroc
The littoral pulmonate gastropod Onchidella celtica (Cuvier, 1817) known as celtic sea-slug is reported from two
locations from the Atlantic coast of Morocco for the first time. The species was gregariously found in the shelter of
rock crevices protected from both strong wave action and sunlight and also on algal holdfasts. This new record
from the littoral locations of Mrizika (32°43'55.8"N 9°02'57.6"W) and Oualidia (32°43'56.7"N 9°02'60.0"W), allows
the known geographical distribution range of the species in the Northern hemisphere to be extended to the
southern latitudes (North African Atlantic coasts). It contributes to knowledge of the biogeography of this rare
species found, to date, only on Atlantic European coasts between British shores (Great Britain) in the North and
the western Mediterranean in the South, including the Azores and Madeira islands. The present investigation is
the first report on the occurrence of O. celtica on Moroccan Atlantic rocky shores and suggests that this species
may also occur in other localities from the Mediterranean and North Africa and may represent the first non-native
Onchidiacea species for western Atlantic coasts of Morocco as southern limit of the species. Some data on the
distribution and auto-ecology of the species are provided.
Onchidella celtica, Atlantic Ocean, Morocco.
Small mammal responses to Scarp Forest restoration in the Maputoland-Pondoland-Albany Hotspot,
South Africa._354
Angelique T LAZARUS, Corrie M SCHOEMAN
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Restoration ecology involves the rehabilitation of ecosystems that were previously degraded by anthropogenic
activities. One of the main challenges is to accurately quantify success of restoration. Restoration success can be
quantified by measuring diversity of suitable indicator taxa, restored vegetation structure and ecological
processes. Rodents and shrews are considered valuable indicators of habitat integrity and habitat restoration
efforts. They form the most species rich mammal order and perform vital ecological roles as predators, prey and
ecosystem engineers. In this study we present results for the first component of assessing the restoration
success at a Scarp Forest restoration project in the Maputoland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot, South Africa: small
mammal diversity. We predicted that rodent and shrew diversity would be higher in landscapes with long
restoration histories or that are relatively unaltered than recently restored or strongly altered landscapes. After
540 trap hours in two seasons, we captured 127 individuals, comprising six rodent species and one shrew
species. We found support for our prediction: species richness and abundance of small mammals were
significantly higher in older reforested sites than younger reforested and strongly altered sites. Our next step is to
investigate whether the small mammal assemblages on restoration plots are structured into different trophic,
taxonomic and microhabitat levels based on stable isotope analyses.
Small mammals, diversity, restoration, reforestation.
Biodiversity change in South Africa: Connections to ecosystem services and human well-being._358
Maike H HAMANN; Reinette BIGGS; Belinda REYERS
Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem services, as well as their contribution to human well-being
has become the focus of much research interest in both science and policy. Here we present a study which uses
a biodiversity intactness index to test whether and how strongly biodiversity loss is linked to indicators of
ecosystem service supply, ecosystem service use and human well-being at different sub-national scales in South
Africa. We focus specifically on thresholds in biodiversity beyond which ecosystem service provision may be
severely impacted, and the link between biodiversity loss and income inequality. Our results show that
biodiversity loss has mostly been associated with agricultural expansion and urban development in areas where
the potential of ecosystems to supply essential services is high. Once biodiversity intactness drops below 40%,
inequality becomes a significant predictor of biodiversity loss, potentially exacerbating an already challenging
situation for the poor who live in these areas and depend on biodiversity and ecosystem services for their
livelihoods. Our findings indicate that the relationship between biodiversity loss, ecosystem services and human
well-being is highly varied within South Africa, emphasizing the need for more thorough investigations into these
linkages at sub-national scales.
Ecosystem functioning, inequality, social-ecological systems, sustainable development.
Disaggregating ecosystem services use in South Africa._362
Odirilwe SELOMANE; Belinda REYERS; Reinette BIGGS
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Muizenberg, South Africa
It is now widely acknowledged that ecosystem services contribute to human well-being and many studies at
various scales from global to local levels demonstrate the dependence of human societies on ecosystem
services. However, we quantify this contribution at an aggregate level, which masks the distributional inequalities
in use and access. As a result, it is not always clear to whom the benefits of ecosystem services go because the
mechanisms which determine who benefits and who loses are relatively under-explored. For example, while we
know that poor communities depend more on the direct use of ecosystem services, evidence about how
ecosystem services contribute to alleviating poverty is limited. Further, because ecosystem services are
increasingly understood to be coproduced by nature and people, and sometimes skills and equipment are
required to gain the benefits, access is not always guaranteed for people who do not have these means.
Distributional issues are important in South Africa and Africa in general, where unequal distribution of resource is
and will continue to be a major issue. Here we explore how people’s capabilities, defined by a host of social
characteristics including income, tenure, area of living, household size and gender of household head, determine
how households use direct ecosystem services. We use South Africa as a case study and report on groups of
users of ecosystem services based on these factors.
Distribution, ecosystem services, South Africa, human well-being.
Local perceptions of tree diversity, resource utilisation and ecosystem services provision at the
periphery of Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe._363
University of Zimbabwe, Department of Biological Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe
Efforts to conserve biodiversity in savanna ecosystems have mostly focused on wildlife protection, with
relationship between local communities at the edge of protected areas and their local woodlands being ignored.
We explored the importance of forests in and around national parks in providing services to local people and
factors influencing perceptions of such resource access and utilization around Gonarezhou National Park in
Zimbabwe. Individual interviews and focus group discussions were held between June and November 2014
involving 247 households from Malipati and Chomupani communal areas as well as Gonakudzingwa small scale
farms. A higher diversity of tree species non-timber forest products and other ecosystem services were recorded
in Malipati communal area, located directly adjacent to the national park than in the other two sites. Local
perceptions of the park were influenced by geographical location, with communities adjacent to it (Malipati,
Gonakudzingwa) citing more benefits than those farther away (Chomupani). Our results also demonstrate that
tree diversity is important for local livelihoods at the periphery of Gonarezhou Park and that is affected by such
factors as proximity to the park, ethnicity and land tenure system (communal or private). Biodiversity conservation
strategies should thus aim to provide sustainable ecosystem services as well aim to mitigate disservices such as
human-wildlife conflicts and livestock/wildlife disease transmission.
Ecosystem services, Gonarezhou, perceptions, ethnobotany.
Bush encroachment as a social-ecological regime shift: A review of key feedbacks, drivers and
Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
Many grasslands and savannas around the world are affected by bush encroachment, an increase in the density
of woody plants. Open savannas support a range of livelihoods, economic activities and biodiversity, and bush
encroachment has significant economic, cultural and ecological implications. The shift in vegetation structure is
often unexpected and difficult to reverse, suggesting that it results from positive feedback loops that link
vegetation and social-ecological variables such as fire, grazing and resource availability. Much of the work on
bush encroachment has focused on the direct ecological drivers of the process, such as the role of fire or grazing
in inhibiting or promoting the process, but little work has been done on how ecological changes may feedback to
effect some of the underlying social processes driving encroachment, and how this may in turn impact ecosystem
services and human well-being. In this paper wWe build on the existing literature but broaden the perspective to
present a qualitative systems analysis of bush encroachment as a social-ecological regime shift. In addition we
provide a literature-based synthesis of the impacts of bush encroachment on ecosystem services and human
well-being. Based on the systems analysis we identify potential social and ecological leverage points – places to
intervene in the system – to prevent or reverse the bush encroachment process.
Bush encroachment, Social-ecological systems, regime shifts, ecosystem services.
Application du SIG au suivi de la dynamique spatiale de la cédraie du parc national de Khénifra en vue
d’une meilleure gestion et conservation._371
Mohammed MOUNIR ; Rachid TELLAL ; Mohamed QARRO
Faculté des sciences - Université Chouaib Doukkali , El Jadida, Maroc
La province de Khénifra abrite une ample biodiversité et constitue la zone de conservation de l’écosystème
cédraie par excellence. Ce potentiel biologique et naturel est un enjeu stratégique pour la région du fait qu’il
engendre un patrimoine protecteur, productif et un réservoir génétique ; un espace socio-économique important ;
un espace récréatif et culturel sans égal. Par conséquent, il a été décidé de créer le Parc National de Khénifra en
avril 2008, s’étendant sur une superficie de l’ordre de 93 500ha. Il constitue un territoire spécifique à la cédraie de
l’Atlas recelant une grande richesse paysagère, géologique, biologique et culturelle. Cependant, ce parc fait face,
aujourd’hui, à plusieurs menaces à savoir, le changement climatique, le développement d’investissements
extérieurs incontrôlés, la spéculation foncière sur les terres irrigables pour l’arboriculture fruitière, l’augmentation
des besoins en bois de feu des populations riveraines, et la surexploitation des ressources naturelles, aggravant
la dégradation des milieux. Dans ce sens, ce travail consiste à analyser spatialement, la dynamique d’évolution
de la cédraie au niveau dudit parc à travers une étude diachronique basée sur des images satellitaires
LANDSAT. L’objectif de ce travail est de désigner des zones prioritaires pour l’intervention du gestionnaire et
d’inventorier les points à forte dégradation, ceci en explicitant les facteurs de changement dans l’espérance d’une
meilleure conservation future.
Moyen Atlas, SIBE, parc national, télédétection, dynamique.
Polychaete community as a tool for the assessment of the ecological quality status of Essaouira rocky
shore (NW Morocco)._374
Nor-Eddine CHOUIKH; Patrick GILLET; Mohammed CHEGGOUR; Abdelmale MAAROUF; Abdellatif CHAOUTI;
Abdelfattah MOUABAD
Laboratoire Aliments, Environnement et Santé, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cadi Ayyad
Marrakech, Morrocco
The present study was carried out to assess the ecological quality status (EcoQS) of the littoral of Essaouira (NW
Morocco) using the polychaete community of the rocky mid-littoral area. The EcoQS was considered using biotic
indices (AMBI and M-AMBI) together with some biological descriptors. A total of 235 specimens, belonging to 21
taxa were collected in three sampling stations during spring. Among the families, Nereididae ranked first in terms
of number of species (4 species) and individuals (157 individuals). Platynereis dulmerilii, Perinereis cultrifera and
Sabellaria alviolata were the dominant species. Diversity H’ values were generally lower than 2.05 bit through all
sampling stations. Pielou’s index J’ varied between 0.44 and 0.64. This was essentially due to the high
dominance of few species. The polychaete community was dominated by the tolerant species to organic load,
which were not significantly different between stations. Though the values calculated with the AMBI and M-AMBI
indices were different, the trends of the specific ecological quality were almost similar between stations. The
values produced by the indices used in the study exhibited an increased and a good ecological status for this
rocky shore area in varying degrees, with an "unbalanced" community. According to the M-AMBI index scores,
this littoral area can be classified as in moderate EcoQS reaching to high status while the AMBI score
corresponded to a “high” ecological status.
Polychaeta, rocky shore, organic pollution, environmental quality assessment; biotic indices.
Ambiguous precision: Efficiency, knowledge and socio-ecological systems in charcoal production, the
xase of south Mozambique._376
CEG-IST, Maputo, Mozambique
In Mozambique, charcoal is an 800000€ business, employs over 30000 and provides hot meals for over 80% of
the urban households. Such bioenergy system is based on earth kilns operated by rural producers following very
few sustainable and forest conservation strategies. Consequently, in South Mozambique, charcoal has been
associated with the deforestation of the valuable Mopane (Colophospermum mopane) Forest to feed Maputo
City. Simultaneously, it has been argued that improved kiln efficiency could promote sustainable charcoal
production and forest conservation. Therefore, this work presents a novel approach to participatory technology
selection and testing of an improved charcoal kiln in South Mozambique. The kiln selection involved producers,
experts, technical government and NGO staff and the testing used participatory research with producers to build
side-by-side two kilns (the current and the selected IBEK) operating on the exact same conditions. Based on this
innovative testing it was possible to compare directly the kilns in terms of, e.g.: wasted biomass; operation time;
productivity; and fines generated. The results show that: improved kilns might not be more efficient, but if they are
it does not imply mandatorily better forest conservation; local technology design knowledge is relevant; efficiency
should be considered embedded in socio-ecological systems; and different “kinds of efficiency” coexist opening
new options to increase bioenergy production from forests.
Improved charcoal kilns; Mozambique; kinds of efficiency; socio-ecological systems; technology selection,
knowledge and design.
A Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA) in support to global conservation policies._377
Gregoire DUBOIS; Lucy BASTIN; Bastian Bertzky; Santiago SAURA; Mariagrazia GRAZIANO; Andrea
Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra, Italy
The Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA, http://dopa.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ ) has been developed to
support the European Union’s efforts in strengthening our capacity to mobilize and use biodiversity information so
that they are readily accessible to policymakers, managers, experts and other users. Conceived as a set of open
source web based services, DOPA provides a broad sets of tools to assess, monitor and even forecast the state
and pressure of protected areas at local, regional and global scale. We will present one interface of the DOPA,
the DOPA Explorer, that is a web based interface providing simple means to explore the nearly 16 000 protected
areas that are at least as large as 100 km2. Distinguishing between terrestrial, marine and mixed protected areas,
DOPA Explorer can help end-users to identify those with most unique ecosystems and species, assess the
pressures they are exposed to because of human development. Recently recognized as a reference information
system by the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), DOPA is based on the best global data sets
available and provides means to rank protected areas at the country and ecoregion levels. With a few illustrations
of the use of the DOPA Explorer for decision-making, we will further discuss the need to develop a new platform,
OpenDOPA, allowing for the collection of in situ information by local actors to better assess uncertainties and
reliability of the global data used for decision making.
Protected areas, policy, funding, conservation.
Teaching and lessons on biodiversity conservation from the Biblical Pentateuch._387
Alex Bimbo ONATUNJI; Folarnmi D BABALOLA; Shonowo D AYOOLA; Esther S CHINWEUBA; Rachael O
University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
About 31.5% of the world population has been reported to be Christian. The faith and believe of the people are
guided by the Bible considered as the Holy Book. This study therefore reviewed the teaching of the “Pentateuch”
first five books of the Bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy) as regard biodiversity
conservation and how lessons therein can help to increase the level of conservation among Christians. The
verses analysed reveals the creation of biodiversity as well as rules guiding its use, consumption and destruction.
The word “Tree” occurs 48 times within the five chapters, however 29 verses were discovered to directly link with
conservation and protection of fauna and flora biological diversity. Specifically, Deuteronomy 20:19 gave explicit
command that “…thou shalt not destroy the Trees... for thou mayest eat of them…for the tree of the field is man's
life…”. From the review, it is concluded that the spiritual leaders can use Biblical scriptures to stimulate
conservation of biodiversity among the Christian folks thereby sustaining the future of biodiversity.
Bible, religion, biodiversity conservation, Christians, Pentateuch.
Behavioural Pattern of Olive Baboon (Papio anubis) in Yankari Games Reserve Nigeria._389
Victor A OJO; Yahulda P MBAYA; Jacob O ORIMAYE; Olaide O OYELEKE; Mohammed A SADIQ
University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
This study was to investigate the types, pattern and seasonal variation in behaviours of olive baboon (Papio
anubis) in Yankari Games Reserve (YGR), Nigeria. Instantaneous scan sampling where behaviour of the nearest
adult; sub adult and young to the observer were recorded every 5 minutes from 0600 to 1600 hours for 10 days
each in July (rainy season) and December (dry season) of 2012. Records were analysed for frequency and
percentages and presented in tables. Olive baboon in YGR was observed to exhibit the same types of behaviours
in rainy and dry seasons. This primate species was observed to be more active in the morning, with 445 (71.81%)
daily behaviour and most observed behaviour in wet and dry seasons being moving with 122 (33.61%) and 92
(35.94%), respectively and the least observed behaviour in both seasons was mating, with 0.39% and 0.28% in
rainy and dry seasons respectively. It was also observed that adult olive baboon were most active age class 457
(73.8%) while the least active age class was young with 59 (9.9%) of the behaviours. It could be concluded that
there was no difference in behaviour types exhibited by olive baboon in both seasons; the most predominant
behaviour was moving, also olive baboon was more active in the morning in YGR and that adult olive baboon was
the most active age class. Further studies in behavioural ecology of olive baboon in YGR be encouraged to
enhance the conservation of the primate in their natural habitat.
Behaviour, Olive baboon, conservation, Papio anubis, age-class.
Reproductive strategy in an Alpine lizard: The Atlas day gecko (Quedenfeldtia trachyblepharus) endemic
to the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco._390
Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Maroc
In reptiles, the acquisition of basic data on the impact of environmental variables on the life history traits is a
critical step to protect these ectothermic animals. For example, the acquisition of knowledge about their ecology
will identify ecological requirements and key elements of the environment that should be the target of
management measures in order to these species can evolve in their area of "adaptability". The Atlas day gecko
(Q. trachyblepharus) is endemic to the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco, essentially located in the Toubkal range
of the High Atlas and occurs from 1400 m altitude, reaching up to 4000 m. It is the only alpine gecko of the
Mediterranean region. The Atlas day gecko is the dominant species in lizard communities from the alpine stage in
our study area. We studied the reproduction strategies, on two active seasons in this saurian in Oukaïmeden
massif at 2700 m altitude and clarified the factors influencing the choice of nesting sites. Regrouped females lay
their eggs in well-exposed communal sites, with very narrow cracks, to limit their predation, and better thermal
and structural qualities then random cracks. These day geckos have an extended breeding period (March to
September) and, is therefore particularly exposed to seasonal temperature fluctuations especially in springtime.
They also show large variations in laying and hatching dates. These decisions allow this Moroccan endemism to
persist in constraint conditions in high altitude.
Endemism, ectotherm, high-altitude, reproductive strategy, Quedenfeldtia trachyblepharus
Phytogeographic patterns among the North African green frog Pelophylax saharicus (Amphibia: Anura) in
Lansari AZIZA; Tahar SLIMANI; Abdellah BOUAZZA; El Hassan EL MOUDEN
Laboratory of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morrocco
Morphological variation of organisms is a physiological, ecological and evolutionary pertinence indisputable. This
variation is caused by genetic and environmental factors. Thus, analysis of intra-specific variation in genetic and
morphological levels is crucial in the understanding of evolutionary processes. Indeed, one of the main goals of
evolutionary biology is how the selective pressures and dispersal barriers can lead to subspecific differences
even speciation. Morocco has many geographical barriers, which are the cause of genetic divergence and high
levels of endemism in several species as the case of Pelophylax saharicus. In this context, an important step is to
identify the evolutionary units, morphologically and environmentally, in a continuous geographical space. This is
an essential precondition for achieving accurate distribution maps essential for conservation measures of poorly
defined taxa. Our genetic data revealed the existence of two main haplogroups of P. saharicus in Morocco, while
the ecological niche modeling reveals different environmental variables associated to the distribution of two
haplogroups. Our findings indicate the existence of two phenotypic forms with different ecological requirements
but cannot define the existence of two different species. Moreover, the role of the Atlas Mountains in the
construction of biogeographic patterns was already mentioned in several species in the country, especially in
Pelophylax saharicus, Phylogeography, Ecological-niche-modeling, Atlasic barriers, Morocco.
Dualities of conservation and livelihoods: human elephant conflict and rural wellbeing in Niassa,
Northern Mozambique._399
Mariana B CARVALHO; Casey M RYAN; Frank VOLLMER; Emily WOOLLEN; Natasha RIBEIRO; Janet FISHER;
Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique
Northern Mozambique preserves the largest unfragmented miombo woodland in Africa and possibly the biggest
population of elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the continent. Deforestation in the region is increasing, mainly
linked to small scale, shifting agriculture, and the conflict between rural communities and elephants in the area is
a reality. This study, as part of a wider project on land use change and livelihoods, used a combination of social
and ecological methods to evaluate the extent and characteristics of the human-elephant conflict in ten rural
communities in the fringes of the Niassa National Reserve. We assessed the relation between the deforestation
level and the occurrence of conflict but also its impacts on the multidimensional wellbeing of rural people. Half of
the communities and between 4% to 21% of the households sampled reported conflict with elephants, particularly
crop losses but also health injuries. Crop losses were strongly seasonal and estimated between 50% and 70% of
production, targeting mainly maturating maize. Food security and wellbeing are negatively affected by elephants'
action and little mitigation action is conducted in the region, with communities reporting to be powerless to
minimize the impacts. Deforestation (assessed from several indicators) is generally negatively correlated with
conflict. We discuss our findings in the scope of potential land management strategies to reduce negative impacts
on both biodiversity and human wellbeing.
Land use change, wildlife conflict, elephants, wellbeing, coping strategies.
The atlas of wild Moroccan mammals: From distribution to conservation._402
Stéphane AULAGNIER; Fabrice CUZIN ; Michel THEVENOT
CEFS - INRA, Université de Toulouse, Castanet Tolosan cedex, France
In 1986 was issued a tentative atlas of all terrestrial wild mammals living in Morocco. Distributions were mapped
according to a 0.5° x 0.5° grid. Thirty years later, they are updated and will be issued on a 0.25° x 0.25° basis.
Beyond better range accuracy and taxonomic changes a comparison between maps reveals species spreads or
shortenings. The first case is mainly a consequence of knowledge improvement; this is particularly true for bats
and two gerbills. The second case is unfortunately due to the decline of most of large mammals, ungulates,
carnivores and Hystrix cristata, despite legal protection and some conservation measures. After Addax
nasomaculatus and Oryx dammah in the sixties, Nanger dama and Acinonyx jubatus have been extirpated in the
nineties. Panthera pardus and Leptailurus serval are on the verge of extinction. Hyaena hyaena, Lutra lutra,
Caracal caracal and Canis anthus dramatically declined as the result of human activities and/or conflicts. Gazella
dorcas, Gazella cuvieri and Ammotragus lervia benefited from ancient and new protected areas. Gerbillus
hesperinus and Xerus erythropus also suffer from human activities. At last, bat distributions conceal a likely
decline suggested by the loss of the major cave colonies. Distributions, together with population size for some
species, will serve to evaluate the national red list status of Moroccan mammals which number 2 RE, 3 CR, 5 EN,
6 VU and 11 NT species at the Mediterranean scale.
Mammalia, range, decline, status, conservation.
Floristic distribution and abundance of a disturbed Oniganbari forest reserve in Southwestern
Tunde Abayomi NURUDEEN; Elizabeth N EKPO; Olusola O OLASUPO; Joy O NWOGWUGWU; Dele K
Forestry Research Institute Of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria
Tropical forests are often referred to as one of the most species diverse terrestrial ecosystems, and generate a
variety of natural resources to help sustain the livelihood of local communities. Therefore,understanding species
diversity and distribution patterns is important for helping managers evaluate the complexity and resources of
their forests. The floristic distribution and abundance of a disturbed tropical rainforest ecosystem in southwestern
Nigeria was established in this study. Four plots (50m x 50m) was located using systematic line transect at the
centre of the forest. All trees species (dbh ≥ 10cm) were identified and their diameter at breast height was
measured. Total of 89 stems ha-1 belonging to 17 important families and 32 genera were recorded from the
study. The study area was dominated by the families Sterculiaceaa, Papiloniaceae, Ulmaceae and some other
important families. The Shannon – Weiner diversity index (3.22) obtained is an indication of a disturbed and
lesser diverse ecosystem. Evenness (0.50) and other diversity indices indicated a lesser diverse ecosystem. The
total basal area and volume were found to be 46.20m2 and 236.04m3 respectively. This study provides a
baseline for the management of tropical rainforest in southwestern Nigeria.
Diversity, abundance, diversity index, forest.
Contribution to sustainable development and the preservation of biodiversity of the Moroccan artisanal
fishery: A Small pelagic case._409
INRH, Casablanca, Morrocco
In Morocco, artisanal fishing is practiced in more than 130 fishing sites along the Moroccan coast, for about
15,000 small boats. They use a variety of gear to target several pelagic and demersal resources in coastal areas.
Aware of the impact of artisanal activity on marine resources in general and small pelagic in particular, besides
the growing consensus worldwide on the need to implement specific management procedures for artisanal
fishing, Moroccan Department of Marine Fisheries has implemented a strategy that includes actions to ensure
responsible practices with a view to ensuring the effective conservation, management and development of
fisheries resources in respect of ecosystems and biodiversity. Fishing activity can’t be sustained without knowing
the potential that we have. Based on the key indicators including operating and bio-ecological indicators derived
from the analysis of this artisanal activity, necessary for the implementation of sustainable management
strategies, an inventory of fisheries resources targeted by this fleet and a first assessment of the fishing pressure
is achieved. However the real impact of this fleet on the marine ecosystem in general and in particular pelagic
resources currently remains difficult to assess which requires regular and thorough scientific monitoring of
biological, ecological and economic components.
Artisanal fishing, sustainable development, biodiversity.
Protected Areas Resilient to Climate Change (PARCC)._413
UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, United Kingdom
The Protected Areas Resilient to Climate Change (PARCC) project was a full-size GEF project focused on the
impacts of climate change on protected areas (PAs), implemented from 2010 to 2016. UNEP-WCMC was the
executive agency, working in collaboration with IUCN West and Central Africa Programme (IUCN PACO), and
several scientific partners. The project focused on five core countries in West Africa (Chad, Gambia, Mali, Sierra
Leone, and Togo), but all technical elements of the project were completed for the entire West African region. The
main objective of the project was to develop strategies and tools to increase the resilience of PAs to climate
change, and build capacity in the region to implement these approaches. After developing new regional climate
projections, the vulnerability of species and PAs to climate change was assessed, as well as the connectivity of
the West African PA network. Based on these findings, systematic conservation planning systems were
developed to help inform conservation priorities in the design of new PAs.
Five transboundary pilot sites were also selected for activities on the ground, and capacity building took place at
multiple levels, primarily through training workshops. Furthermore, adaptation strategies and policy
recommendations were developed, as well as guidelines for PA managers. Finally, the project results have been
integrated into the Protected Planet website, the web interface of the World Database on Protected Areas.
Protected areas; climate change; resilience; biodiversity; vulnerability assessments.
Relationship between ocean use, knowledge, and perceived benefits of an urban marine protected area in
Jennifer K O'LEARY; Michelle MEYER; Mollie SACKLES; Arthur O. TUDA;
California Polytechnic State University & California Sea Grant. San Luis Obispo, California, United States (USA).
Maintaining marine systems must involve public behavior change, including shifts in perceptions of and
interactions with the marine environment. Marine protected areas (MPAs) can provide ecosystem-based
conservation of marine systems, but are not always accepted or managed effectively for delivery of benefits.
Within an urban MPA in Mombasa, Kenya, we surveyed public beach goers, beach vendors, fishermen, and MPA
staff to determine level of interactions with the ocean, knowledge of marine systems and MPAs, and perceptions
of MPAs. There was a significant positive association between knowledge about marine systems and the number
of ocean activities respondents participated in. In contrast, there was no association between education level and
knowledge, indicating that interaction with the ocean is more important than education in enhancing marine
knowledge in Mombasa. Respondents across all groups strongly valued marine systems as critically important for
a variety of services. Respondents were more equivocal about the benefits of MPAs, especially fishermen, many
of whom were neutral or negative as to whether MPAs benefit them. Our results demonstrate that increasing level
of interaction with the sea will likely enhance local understanding of marine systems. However, understanding
may not lead to MPA valuation, and managers need to work more closely with local communities to engage them
in MPA management decision making, as well as find ways to deliver and demonstrate MPA benefits.
Social science, marine conservation, protected areas, ecosystem services.
Assessment of soil water availability in two mountains of the Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda._415
Deogratias TUYISINGIZE, Bizuru ELIAS
Diane Fossey Gorrilla Fund International, Rwanda
This study has assessed water availability in soil using plots located along elevation gradients in two mountains
(Bisoke and Muhabura) of the Volcanoes National Park. A total of 56 soil samples were collected along altitudinal
gradients at Bisoke and 58 samples at Muhabura during both rainy and dry seasons in 2013 and 2014. Generally,
the soil water content gradually increased as altitude increased with an increase of 72% of water content from
lowest altitude to the highest altitude (R2=0.72; n=56). The soil water content was consistently higher in the high
elevation than low elevation plots, soil water content varied along altitudinal ranges (p=0.01). Seasonal
comparison in soil water content has showed no differences in altitudinal gradient (p>0.05). The porosity of the
soil of the Volcanoes National Park soil causes its water to infiltrate from high altitude to reappear at low altitude
as water sources, therefore, soil water content should at contrary be higher at lower altitudes, but our findings
argued the opposite. Agriculture practices by the local people outside the park are likely the major contributing
factor to water loss in low altitudinal levels of the forest. This hypothesis can be supported by the progressive
disappearance of wetlands located closer to the park edge. Most of the lower altitude swamps and lakes have
already dried up while wetlands located upward are still intact. Water loss has a serious negative impact on
biodiversity of the park as far as most of the wetlands were located at lower altitude.
Soil water availability, altitudinal gradient, volcanoes, Albertine Rift Valley.
Climate Change on the African Continent: Threat or Challenge?_416
Dru Associates, Inc., New York, New York, United States (USA)
Africa is unique, for its natural resources, rapid human population growth, potential for industrialization and
importance to so many nations around the world for trade, raw materials and minerals, and for its long history of
global networking going back to the earliest European explorers. In 2007 SCB initiated its first carbon offset
project in conjunction with the ICCB, and committed to a unique habitat restoration project in the Baviaanskloof
World Heritage site in the Eastern Cape. Since then, SCB has participated in a series of carbon offset projects
that reflect the diversity of both SCB and the realm of habitat management that is being developed by carbon
trading in a number of habitat types: savannah and succulent thicket in Africa, grasslands, and tree plantations in
North America. The importance of these experiments cannot be overstated, and we seek to encourage habitat
restoration globally, but a transect of habitats from south to north on the African continent shows the remarkable
habitat challenges of global warming, and also the potential for an array of such projects in a variety of nations.
And this effort could be critical if the pressure on locals in Africa increases for them to ‘sell their land’ for cash to
palm oil plantations, as a reach for northern hemisphere agents to fit into the carbon trading market.
Climate change, carbon projects, restoration, SCB ecological footprint, climate conscious conference.
Keeping the cookstoves burning in urban and periurban Africa: The implications of wood energy
Institute for Ecosystems and Sustainability Research, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Morelia,
Michoacán, Mexico
Most urban and peri-urban households in Sub-Sahara Africa depend on charcoal as their primary cooking energy
and urbanization rates alone suggest increased consumption of charcoal for the next decades to come. Given
that most of this charcoal originates from natural forests without specific management plans, reliable and
adequate sources of biomass to meet current and future demand are not only uncertain but highly contested.
Where does charcoal and firewood really come from and what are the effects of its extraction on forests and
landscapes? Programs to reduce consumption dominate the foresty and energy sectors in many African
countries, but do they work? The objective of this symposium is to explore these questions in different African
contexts in order to determine the set of conditions that contribute to sustainable and non-sustainable production
and successful/unsuccessful interventions in the charcoal and fuelwood sector.
Charcoal, cookstoves, degradation, deforestation, energy policy
Quantifying the environmental benefits of cookstoves: Fact or Fiction?_419
Centro de Investigacion en Geographia Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia,
Michoacan, Mexico
The measurable impact of traditional woodfuel harvest on forest cover and aboveground biomass has been a
contested issue since decades. In this presentation we explore the underlying complexities of wood harvest
patterns and processes in the developing world that historically led to such divergent and inconclusive local case
studies. We then delineate a series of recommended features that environmental modeling approaches must
have in order to get closer to the reality of woodfuel supply/demand local patterns and processes. We concluded
by stressing that no action in the ground (e.g. payment for carbon savings) should be carry on unless it is based
on sound, and validated scientific data.
Cookstoves, biomass energy, charcoal, woodfuel.
Modeling Fuelwood Savings Scenarios: Introducing MoFuSS version 1.0._420
Ulyses OLIVARES, Adrian GHILARDI, Jean Francois MAS
Escuela Nacional de Educacion Superior, Unidad Morelia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia,
Michoacan, Mexico
The extraction and burning of woody biomass at rates exceeding re-growth (i.e. non-renewable extraction) results
in net emissions of CO2. Quantification of the amount of non-renewable woody biomass through a robust and
widely applicable method is urgently needed for a wide variety of applications including cookstove carbon-offset
projects, national GHG inventories, and sustainable forest management strategies under REDD+. Within this
context, we developed “MoFuSS” (Modeling FuelwoodSavings Scenarios), a dynamic model that simulates the
spatiotemporal effect of fuelwood harvesting on the landscape vegetation and that accounts for savings in nonrenewable woody biomass from reduced consumption. The tool is a landscape-level computer model that
simulates fuelwood harvesting in space and time, and expected regrowth of the vegetation. By means of what-if
scenarios embedded within dynamic landscapes, MoFuSS can be used to account for savings in non-renewable
woody biomass from reduced fuelwood consumption. Datasets from Mexico and Central America, Kenya and
India are available to explore these dynamics with real information from the field. MoFuSS and any other software
that is needed to fully operate this tool are freely available to download and use, and all MoFuSS scripts can be
opened, edited and saved using any free code editor such as Notepad++ or Sublime Text.
biomass energy, charcoal, freeware, modeling, WISDOM.
Challenges of indigenous knowledge in conservation of biodiversity in Osun Osogbo sacred grove,
Folaranmi BABALOLA
Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
The study assessed the challenges of biodiversity conservation in Osun Osogbo sacred grove located in Southwest Nigeria. The sacred grove was established on the indigenous knowledge (IK) of the people of Oshogbo and
passed down orally from one generation to another. Meanwhile, ecological encroachment and degradation
activities posed great challenges to the sustenance of the grove. Data was collected through interview of twenty
key informants in the adjoining communities and five officials in the grove. The riparian vegetation in the scared
grove is unique in the sense that it is the only remaining relic of the Nigeria rain forest ecosystem endemic to the
grove. The forest serves as watershed protecting the water body. Some of the challenges facing the grove
include pressure from population explosion and urbananisation process, poaching and deforestation resulting
from farming practices going on along the boundary. About 90% of the interviewed indigenes of the adjoining
communities to the grove informed that the local belief used to establish the sacred grove is now being neglected
and people have no fear for repercussion of any form of illegal exploitation and encroachment activities.
Furthermore, 60% of the respondents expressed their displeasure in the way the government is in total control of
the grove and not involving the local communities. To effectively strengthen the indigenous knowledge in
conservation of remaining natural diversity, the local people should be fully integrated in the management
strategies. More guards are also required for patrol activities, and re-establishment of the grove’s boundary and
buffer zone are pertinent to prevent further encroachment
Osun Scared Grove, indigenous knowledge system, deforestation, cultural belief.
Poster Abstracts
Pst_15: Climate change perceptions and adaptation among small-scale farmers in Uganda: A communitybased approach
Utah State University, Logan, UT, U.S.A.
Climate change is resulting in very localized impacts around the world, and this is especially true among the
small-farm systems in Uganda. Change across the nation is dominated by shifts in the bimodal pattern of annual
precipitation. Because the onset and duration of the long and short rains has become more uncertain, disruption
in traditional farming practices has occurred. This is especially true for crops such as maize and rice. There is
evidence that Ugandan farmers are slow to adapt to such changes, or may even resort to detrimental practices
that degrade ecosystem services. Communication and intervention strategies are therefore needed to better
identify emerging problems and solutions. This research is using a novel combination of participatory rural
appraisal (PRA) and action research (PAR) with two communities of about 1,000 residents each in Hoima district.
One community is rural and the other is peri-urban. The PRAs are used to identify and prioritize solvable
problems and develop community action plans where the required resources and responsibilities are laid out. The
PAR is used to reveal the details of problem-solving interventions via focus groups and key informant interviews.
We expect that solutions to major problems will involve a combination of human capacity building and improving
access to services and technology. Another positive outcome of the approach is anticipated to be the
empowerment of communities to problem-solve and improve self-advocacy.
Climate change, participatory research
Pst_21: Expanding the protected area network in Namibia: Emergent concepts of land use conflicts
around the Etosha National Park
Lelani M. MANNETTI, Karen J ESLER, Ulrich ZELLER, Thomas GOTTERT
Stellenbosch University, Windhoek, Namibia
In Namibia, efforts are being directed toward the incorporation of land surrounding protected areas into an
expanded protected area network. This integration of conservation landscapes requires changes in land use
practices by the surrounding properties. We provide an assessment of governance challenges and land use
conflicts based on the premise that these affect decision-making and planning. The study collates the perceptions
of resident communities surrounding the Etosha National Park (ENP) in Namibia. It explains land use conflicts in
order to elicit the values attributed to the various ecosystem services provided by an expanded protected area
network. Interview data were collected on properties bordering the ENP. Answers to close-ended questions were
used to compare land use and land tenure to: a) onsite governance challenges and b) conflicts with neighbouring
properties and the ENP. Grounded theory was applied to evoke emergent concepts of conflict; and relationships
between perceptions and land use tenure were assessed. The natural resource management challenges
mentioned are related to primary land use, while conflicts significantly depend on land tenure. Respondents
diverged in the types of conflicts experienced and the thematic concepts identified relate to production, wildlife
and human conflicts. Understanding resource user viewpoints provides insight into the opportunities and
constraints that face ecosystem service conservation in multi-functional landscapes.
Conservation landscape, trade-offs, ecosystem service beneficiaries
Pst_24: Insecticide activity of three plant extracts towards Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal, 1775)
(Orthoptera, Cyrtacanthacridinae)
National Superior Agronomic School, Algiers, Algeria
The present study is to test the acridicide effect of three plant extracts: Capsicum annuum, L., C. ladaniferus, and
Cistus monspeliensis. These tests were carried out on larvae of the fifth phase from a mass rearing leads from 4
adult pairs. As regards the preparation of the extracts, plant leaves are crushed separately, until a powder. 30 g
of previously ground plant are placed in ethanol absolute shadow. The solution is filtered and then evaporated in
an oven. The activity of the ethanol extracts on morphology, mortality and behavior of fifth instar larvae was
evaluated in controlled conditions in the laboratory. In this context, we used three dose based doses approved,
the test showed a sensibility of larvae with respect to these extracts that induces a high mortality rate reaching
93.33% for C. annuum L and Cistus ladaniferus an estimated lethal dose 0.039 ml / m2; 0.024 ml / m 2
respectively for the two plants. The activity of these plants was also reflected by morphological deformation and
inhibition of phenomenon of moulting.
Schistoserca gregaria, acridicide effect, Ethanolic extracts, lethal dose.
Pst_25: Analysis of the number of sensilla on the labrum and the diet of grasshoppers belonging to the
family Pamphagidae (Orthoptera)
Laboratoire de biosystématique et écologie des Arthropodes, Faculté SNV, Constantine, Algeria
We studied the diet of 10 species of grasshopper belonging to the family Pamphagidae over a period of 3 years
at 6 localities in North Eastern Algeria. The species of plants consumed by the grasshoppers was determined by
comparing slide mounted specimens of the pieces of plant epidermis in their faeces with those in a reference
collection of identified plants collected from the same localities. The percentages of occurrence of the different
species of plants in the faeces of the grasshoppers were not related to the abundance of the plants at the sites
studied. The number of sensilla on the labrum was also studied in both sexes of each species. Once one corrects
for differences in the size of the labrum, the forbivores have higher numbers of sensilla in groups A1, A2 and A3
(but not A10) than the ambivores. The numbers of sensilla in the A10 group on the labrum of species of
Pamphagidae is greater than on that of species of Acrididae, which are mainly graminivores and adapted to semiarid conditions.
Pamphagidae, diet, labrum sensilla, Algeria
Pst_27: Demography of wild Barbary macaque in Oriental Middle Atlas
Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdelah, Fes, Morocco
Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus) lives in forest biotopes of Algeria and Morocco. It is found mostly in the
cedars' forest of the Middle Atlas Mountains, where he lives in structured groups. In the oriental Middle Atlas, in
addition to cedar forests, it also lives on the rocks. In these places, the groups are not isolated by habitat
degradation and caves are used as dormitories. The study showed that the last populations of monkeys have a
large renewal rate of effectives. The high proportion of young individuals explain why there is neither strong
groups anthropization nor poaching on the youths.
Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus, Morocco, Middle Atlas, Anthropization
Pst_34: Biodiversity of arthropods found in the diet of Fennec, Fennecus zerda in the northern Sahara in
Algeria (Case of Ghardaia region)
Uinversité Mouloud Mammeri Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria
The study of the seasonal variation in diet Fennec was conducted in Ben Ahmed station in Ghardaia region (32 °
to 28 ° N, 3 ° to 42 ° E), which is part of the Saharan bioclimatic mild winter. It is essentially based on knowledge
of the diet according to the season of the canine. It also allows us to gain insight on the wildlife of the region in
general, through sampling in Ben Ahmed station. Analysis of the droppings of Fennec, has given 75 species
belonging to 6 classes of animals and plant phylum. 17 orders and 31 families were determined on 770 items
ingested by the Fennec. The food diet study showed that class Insecta holds the maximum numbers with 597
individuals, followed by 142 individuals with Mammalia then Arachnida with 14 individuals. In terms of biomass is
Mammalia dominates with 87%, followed by 9% Insecta, Aves, and Reptila with 2.3% and 1.6% respectively.
Vertebrates are more important in terms of biomass that invertebrates. As in this study, the Fennec can be
considered an opportunistic carnivore was par excellence.
Fennec, seasonal variation in diet, droppings, biomass, carnivore opportunist
Pst_35: Biodiversity Culicidae in the Tizi-Ouzou region
Uinversité Mouloud Mammeri Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria
The inventory of culicidae in the region of Kabylia allows us to identify 5044 people distributed over 28 species of
Culicidae and 4 genres. In addition, the study on morphometry on Ailles of Culex pipiens indicates the shape and
size of Ailles varies depending on the altitude and the vas evidence shows that Culex hotensis is the most
abundant in the region of Kabylia in 2124 with individuals and Taksebt station is the richest in species with 24
species. 10 and vector species are listed parasitosis, unreported and three new species in Algeria have made
their appearances, also asserts the presence of Culex territans by genitalia. Finally, we developed the bioecology of some species with medical and veterinary interest.
Inventory; Culicidae; Morphometry; Bioecology; Tizi Ouzou
Pst_36: The estimation of different species of monkeys in the University of Cape Coast Forest Reserve
University of Cape Coast – Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Climate change, habitat loss and illegal hunting have caused significant reduction in the number of Monkeys
population in the University of Cape Coast (UCC) Forest Reserve. This work reports the results of a survey of the
population of species of monkeys in the secondary rainforest vegetation of the University of Cape Coast. The
0.5km² study area was demarcated into six (6) sections. The entire area was then surveyed for the presence of
species of monkeys. Survey resulted in the detection of two species of monkeys in the Reserve. These are the
Cecopithecus petaurista and Cecopithecus cephus. C. petaurista recorded a total number of fifty-six (56). Out of
this number, thirteen (13) were juveniles whiles forty-three (43) were adults. For C. cephus, a total of seven (7)
individuals was observed with only one (1) being the juvenile. Cecopithecus petaurista was friendly and least
affected by the presence of an unarmed persons, but Cecopithecus cephus seemed very timid, always on alert
and therefore more difficult to be seen. Both species of monkeys were observed to move from different parts of
the forest in search for food (foraging). Additional surveys are necessary in subsequent years to map annual
fluctuations in the size and distribution of the monkeys’ population in the UCC Reserve.
Pst_63: Ethnobotanical study of some underutilized food crops in Rwanda
University of Rwanda, Huye, Rwanda
The decline in plant genetic resource prompted us to carry out this study aiming to identify the underutilized food
crops and assess local populations’ traditional knowledge on the importance and use of underutilized food crops
(UCs) in traditional medicine. Data collection was done by using the questionnaire and focus group discussions
with 65 members of traditional healer’s cooperatives of Huye District. The vegetables and tubers rank among the
highly underutilized species (93%). Gynandropsis gynandra showed the highest medicinal potential (20%),
whereas Amaranthus graesizans recorded the lowest potential (2%). 80% of respondents confirm that the UCs
used in traditional medicine are still available although rarely. Intestinal worms constitute the main diseases
treated (30%). The main reasons of negligence of UCs are their low yield and economically non profitable
production (40%). To overcome identified constraints, the respondents claim mostly for improved agricultural
varieties (50%). The study concludes that UCs have medical and nutritive values sustaining life in local
population. This raises the need to put forward conservation measures for their conservation. We recommend
putting much effort in searching for improved crops, developing value adding strategies, investigating nutritional
and medicinal properties and identifying appropriated policy and legal frameworks related to UCs.
Traditional knowledge, Traditional medicine, Underutilized food crops
Pst_76: The where and why of livestock movement patterns: Understanding herder decision-making in an
agropastoral context
Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, United States (USA)
Free-ranging movement (or lack thereof) is one of the key differences between native and domestic ungulate
grazing. Domestic livestock movements are controlled by a human manager whose decisions are constrained by
a host of physical and socioeconomic factors, as well as potentially by various perceptions s/he holds regarding
aspects of the environment. As grazer movements affect the spatial pattern, and potentially the magnitude, of
impacts on a variety of ecosystem properties, the factors that motivate individual herd movement could play a
significant role in herders’ ability to sustainably manage livestock and prevent environmental degradation. This
study uses questionnaires (n = 31) to uncover the various influences on herder decisions regarding herd
management and movement within two sub-villages of the Serengeti ecosystem of Tanzania. Results revealed
that while water and forage consistently ranked as the highest concern when making movement decisions, a host
of other factors, such as herd size or whether livestock are kept for subsistence or commercial purposes, play a
role. Decisions are also influenced by herder perceptions about human and livestock density and of resource
scarcity. This study illustrates the necessity of understanding the socioeconomic and political context in which
decisions regarding livestock movement are made in order to better comprehend the drivers of livestock grazing
impacts and their distribution across human-dominated landscapes.
Herd movement, agropastoralist, herder decision-making, livestock, livestock movement patterns
Pst_96: Study of diet of Owl Ascalaphe Bubo ascalaphus (Savigny, 1809) and the Barn Owl Tyto alba
(Scopoli, 1759) in the region of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara)
Ben Ghedier B. AHLAME
This work focuses on the study of the diet Owl owlfly Bubo ascalaphus (Savigny, 1809) and the Barn Owl Tyto
alba (Scopoli, 1759) in the region of Ouargla. To study the food menu of these nocturnal raptors and have an
overview on the wildlife of the region. The study of diet B. ascalaphus in the region of Ouargla has highlighted the
presence of two prey categories. Rodents are in first place with a rate equal to 82.4% followed by birds (AR% =
17.6%). The most consumed prey Rattus rattus (AR = 47.0%), Mus musculus (AR = 29.4%), Streptopelia sp. (AR
= 17.6%) and Meriones sp. (AR = 5.8%). While the analysis of the Rejectedion of skeins of Tyto alba allowed us
to identified two categories in the food menu of this raptor. The aves are the most represented (AR = 90.9%),
followed by Rodent (AR = 9.1%). Prey species as selected by the Barn Owl is Streptopelia sp (AR = 81.8%).
Owlfly Owl, Barn Owl, diet, Rejectedion ball, Ouargla, Algeria.
Pst_101: Inventory of the avifauna on the level of Sebkhet El- Maleh d' El-Menéa W. Ghardaïa (Southern of
Center for Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing-University of Rwanda (CGIS-UR), Huye,
An inventory of the avifauna is made in Sebkhet El-Maleh (El-Menea) during the period of October 2012 until April
2013. The Lake El-Goléa or Sebkhet El-Maleh located at 12 km in the south of Daïra of El-Menia, in the
commune of Hassi El-Garra that is in an average altitude from 330 to 387 m; with a longitude of 02°54' and
02°56'; and a latitude of 30°25' Northern. The lake is an endoreic depression made up of grounds salted which is
composed by 2 water levels; the first, located at North (upstream reservoir), with a moderated salinity, very rich
from the biological diversity point of view and being assimilated to a pond; the second is Sebkha, or salted lake,
stripped whose banks are covered by salt. The avifauna of Sebkha includes 6721 individuals belonging to 36
species including 13 Families, 9 Orders. The most represented family by species is Anatidés with 12 species,
followed by Ardéidés and Scolopacidés with 4 species for each one. The families of Rallidés and Charadriidés
are represented by 3 species for each one. The coot is the most abundant species (1200 individual), followed by
the gadwall duck and Common Moorhen (1011 and 1006 individuals), on the other hand the european Starling
and the grey heron are the least species presented in the Lake of El-Goléa with 11 individuals of each one.
Inventory, Avifauna, Anatidae, Sebkha, El-Menea
Pst_109: Diet composition of African golden wolf (Canis anthus) in Tlemcen hunting reserve, Algeria
Ahmed EDDINE, Mohamed BERRICHI, Mostapha ZAOUI, Noureddine MOSTEFAI, Amina KERBOUB
Tlemcen University, Tlemcen, Algeria
Initially our objective was to analyze the diet composition of Golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Tlemcen hunting
reserve between June 2014 and May 2015, but the results of our genetic analysis and those of other authors
showed that the animal concerned is a wolf species (Canis anthus). The study of the diet was conducted from the
feces analysis. In total we collected 246 scat samples from the whole territory of the study area. The components
of droppings were compared with those of identification guides and our hair collection of species that occupy the
region, 33 food items were identified including fruits, plant leaves, wild and domestic animals, soil and
anthropogenic material. The results were expressed as frequency of occurrence, relative frequency of occurrence
and the percentage of biomass using coefficient of digestibility. Animal remains represent 84.83 % of the biomass
consumed by African golden wolf where plants matter represents 15.17 %. Prey species richness was highest in
summer with 23 different food items and lowest during autumn with 17 items. Wild boar is the most important prey
in the food spectrum of this canid. Otherwise, livestock is also a good source of energy for the African golden
Diet, Canis aureus, Canis anthus, food items, biomass.
Pst_119: Biodiversité et analyse systématique de la famille des Megachilidae (Hymenoptera; Apoidea)
dans l’Est algérien
Université des fréres Mentouri Constantine, Constantine, Algeria
L’inventaire de la famille des Megachilidae dans sept localités de l’Est algérien (Skikda, Guelma, Constantine,
Mila, Oum El Bouaghi, Khenchela et Tébessa) pendant trois ans d’étude a révélé la présence de 102 taxons. Ils
sont répartis en 5 tribus, 21 genres et 43 sous genres. La tribu Osmiini est la mieux représentée soit avec le
nombre d’espèces ou avec le nombre d’individus. Elle totalise 1018 spécimens et 51 taxons soit 50% de la faune
totale des Megachilidae de l’Est algérien. Elle est suivie par les Anthidiini avec 244 spécimens et 31 taxons soit
31% de la faune totale. La tribu Megachilini est classée en troisième position avec 235 individus et 19 taxons soit
18% de la faune totale. Nous avons récolté un seul taxon de la tribu Lithurgini avec un nombre remarquable de
spécimens soit 2%. Les Dioxyini sont faiblement représentés avec 1% de la faune totale. Ce travail mettre en
évidence la présence de 5 espèces endémiques et 8 nouvelles espèce pour la faune d’Algérie.
Megachilidae, inventaire, Est algérien, taxon, Osmiini.
Pst_122: Évaluation des paramètres de croissance de l'éssai de Irvingia wombolu Vermoesen
(Irvingiaceae) au Cameroun
Global environment Protects, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Irvingia wombolu Vermoesen is a local fruit tree with a wide distribution across West and Central Africa. It is also
a multipurpose tree that provides non timber forest products, in particular fruits, kernels that can be transformed
into powder and for cooking, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic and its wood is also used in house construction. The
kernels have both culinary and economic value locally, regionally and internationally. The objective of the study
was to assess the growth and development of Irvingia wombulu original tree seedlings for at most 10 years so as
to establish a progeny trial. To better understand its development in an in-situ medium in Cameroon, 482 trees of
I wombolu were assessed. Results indicated that I. wombolu’s growth and development varied in the same trends
but with different rates, and the species exploited mainly by local communities. Height and crown diameter are
increases simultaneously as collar diameter and DBH. The most important factor is growth and development
percentage which would help us make some prevision in fruits production and tree management so as to handle
some constraints when cultivating the specie in any land use system. Fruit width, weight and easiness for kernels
extraction are found to be the main characteristics of farmers. Results showed that, the species is very useful and
there is need to develop other types of propagules and preserve it.
Growth-parameters; agroforestry; NTFP’s; local communities
Pst_126: Relation entre le régime alimentaire et les variables environnementales chez le Faucon
Université Laarbi Ben M'Hidi ,Oum El-Bouaghi, Algérie
Le faucon crécerelle Falco tinnunculus a niché durant trois années successives (2011, 2012 et 2013) dans un
milieu urbain (Université d’Oum El-Bouaghi). La taille du domaine de chasse est comprise entre 5,92 et 255,07
ha entre les 4 nids suivis, les variables environnementales varient entre 2 et 10 milieux. La nature de
l’alimentation change au dépend du nid et comprend généralement des sauterelles, des serpents, des lézards et
des poussins de pigeon biset, et la fréquence d’alimentation des poussins par les parents est comprise entre 0,5
et 6 livraisons par heure.
Faucon crécerelle, Falco tinnunculus, domaine de chasse, type des proies, les variables environnementales
Pst_129: Structure et dynamique des populations de nématodes parasites de poissons de Haute Mer de
la Cote ouest algérienne
University of Saida, Saida, Algeria
Les parasites de poissons représentent des moyens très fiables dans la collecte d’informations écologiques, le
fait qu’ils aient des cycles biologiques faisant parfois intervenir plusieurs hôtes, renseigne d’une manière précise
sur la biodiversité et par conséquent sur la structure globale des écosystèmes. C’est dans cette optique que dans
le travail que nous présentons ici, nous nous sommes intéressés à dresser un inventaire des nématodes
parasites de poissons gadidés de la côte ouest algérienne il s’agit de: Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis phycis,
Merluccius merluccius, Phycis blennoides et Mora moro, ces poissons sont des espèces dites profondes et ont
l’avantage de nous renseigner sur les écosystèmes de haute mer qui demeurent encore très peu connus. Cette
étude nous a permis d’identifier 12 espèces de nématodes appartenant à 6 différentes familles, nous avons
également tenté d’établir des liaisons, entre les structures des populations parasitaires et les facteurs biotiques
(statut phylogénique de chaque poisson hôte sa taille, son microhabitat) ainsi que les facteurs abiotiques (sites et
période de pêche).
Nématodes, parasites, poissons, gadidés, haute-mer
Pst_131: Variation spatio-temporelle et impact du milieu sur la distribution de la Caille des blés dans la
plaine agricole de Tadla
Abdellah ICHEM
Afin de déterminer les caractéristiques du milieu nécessaires pour évaluer la répartition de la caille des blés en
saison de reproduction dans la plaine agricole de Tadla, des parcelles ont été prospectées pendant les années
2009 et 2010 selon une chronologie et un ordre bien précis. Les résultats obtenus ne montrent aucune influence
des paramètres suivis sur nos dénombrements de la caille. Une analyse temporelle des effectifs de cette espèce
dans l’ensemble des parcelles a été réalisée.
Coturnix coturnix, Population, Habitat, Plaine de Tadla, Maroc.
Pst_138: Elaboration d’un plan de prévention des risques d’incendies de forêt pour la commune de Dar
Yaghemouracen (Tlemcen- Algérie)
Ahmed EDDINE, Mohamed BERRICHI, Mostapha ZAOUI, Noureddine MOSTEFAI, Amina KERBOUB
Tlemcen University, Bensekrane, Algeria,
Dans la Wilaya de Tlemcen (Ouest d’Algérie) la récurrence et les incidences des feux ont augmenté de façon
significative au cours des dernières décennies. Ce travail porte sur l’estimation et la gestion/prévention du risque
incendie de forêts dans la commune littorale de Dar Yaghmouracen de l’Atlas tellien occidental de l’Algérie.
L’élaboration d’un plan de prévention des risques d’incendies de forêts (PPRIF) basée sur la récolte de données
sur l’indice de combustibilité du végétal, les éléments du climat et l’état du relief montre que la classe des aléas
très fort domine à hauteur de 44.45%. La carte de la superposition des enjeux aux aléas, indique d’une façon
méthodique les endroits où les mesures préventives sont prioritaires pour contenir ce risque.
Incendies de forêt, Dar Yaghmouracen, PPRIF, aléa, enjeux
Pst_146: Place of the hybrid sparrow and Colombidae in the avifauna of two palm groves in the region of
Ouargla, Algeria.
Univ. Kasdi Merbah, Ouargla, Algeria
The present research work was carried out in two palm groves in the region of Ouargla (Algeria), that of El Ksar
(31 ° 58'N. And 5 ° 19'E.) and that of Ain El-Beida (31°56'44.30"N; 5°23'20.76"E). To study the avifauna of this
region we adapted the squared plans method. Thus, 22 species were recorded in the palm grove of El Ksar and
27 species in Ain El-Beida grove. Within 22 bird species inventoried during the breeding season at El Ksar, 15
families are reported. Most dominant and most important in number of species observed are those of thrush,
pigeon family, and Sylviidae, each with 3 species. However, the 27 bird species recorded in the palm grove of the
university, are belonging to 14 families, whose best represented is that of Turdidae with 7 species followed by the
pigeon family with 3 species. In both study stations the hybrid sparrow species is clearly dominates by a relative
abundance equal to 33.3% in El Ksar and 53,62% in Ain El-Beida. And for the distribution type, it was found that
the hybrid sparrow always has contagious distribution in both stations.
Avifauna, hybrid sparrow, Colomobidae, palm groves, Ouargla (Algeria)
Pst_154: biological control assay against phytopathogenic fungi of tomato by using the aqueous extract
of Zygophyllum album
Randa MLIK; Lakhdari WASSIMA; Dehliz ABDERRAHMENE; Acheuk FATMA; Hammi HAMIDA; Matallah SALIM
National Institute of Agronomic research, Algeria / department of Agronomy, University of Kasdi-Merbah, Ouargla,
The tomato is one of the main market garden crops that grown in Algeria. This culture is confronted with several
problems including plant health. The purpose of this study is to find organic ways to introduce them into an IPM
program against fungal diseases of tomato. An in vitro test of a biological activity of aqueous extracts that
extracted from a spontaneous plant harvested in the region of Oued Righ (Zygophyllum album) was studied
against four phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis sp., Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp. And Sclerotinia sp.) isolated from
tomato to 26 °C, on an artificial culture medium (PDA), we have found that the extract of this plant could inhibit
the mycelial growth of two fungi only viz: Alternaria sp. (60.17%); Fusarium sp. (55.81%) and a low level of
inhibition of Botrytis sp. (25.95%). Unlike, this extract has no effect on the fungus Sclerotinia sp.
Zygophyllum album, Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., biological control, aqeous extract, Algeria.
Pst_160: Impact de la zone degradee sur la nappe alfatiere au niveau de la Wilaya de Naama (Algerie)
Benhamza MESSAOUDA; Bendahmane MALIKA; Absi HALIMA; Bensirat FADILA
Centre Universitaire de Naama, Naàma, Algeria
L’alfa (Stipa tenacissima) est une graminée vivace très répandue en Afrique du Nord. il est considéré comme l’un
des remparts face à l’avancée du désert. Cette graminée pérenne s’adapte à la sécheresse constituant une
espèce dominante de la végétation des steppes algériennes. Notre travail porte sur l’étude de cette plante
steppique qui constitue la deuxième richesse de la willaya de Naama (région se trouvant dans le moyen sud
algérien). Notre méthode consiste à opérer une comparaison entre l’alfa se trouvant dans une zone mise en
défens et l’alfa se trouvant dans une zone dégradée. Les résultats obtenus, à partir de facteurs déterminants,
montrent que l’alfa des zones mises en défens est plus performant par rapport à celui qui se trouve en zone
dégradée en qualité et en quantité. La superficie de la zone dégradée est supérieure à celle mise en défens.
C’est ce qui met en péril l’environnement par la perte de biodiversité et donc d’un écosystème ainsi que la
raréfaction des besoins d’un volet de l’industrie.
Graminée vivace, steppes algériennes, Stipa tenacissima
Pst_162: Confirmation of an important nesting site for the critically endangered hawksbill turtle in
northern Madagascar
Conservation Centree Sur La Communaute (C3), Antananarivo, Madagascar
Madagascar is believed to support regionally- and potentially globally- significant nesting populations of green
and hawksbill turtles, which may be attributed to the expanses of foraging habitat located there. Centuries of
human exploitation for food and the curio trade, and incidental capture in fisheries have resulted in the decline
and local extinction of several of Madagascar’s turtle populations. We identified the islands of Nosy Hara Marine
Park as a critical sea turtle rookery following a rapid assessment across northern Madagascar conducted in 2011,
although we were unable to confirm the species involved because of the limitations of our track-count
methodology. In 2015, to address these limitations, we trained local teams including students and marine park
rangers to monitor nesting turtles on a nightly basis during the Austral summer (the peak nesting period as
identified by our rapid assessments). Four beaches on the islands of Nosy Hara were surveyed for a total of 142
nights (10 – 66 nights per beach). Fifty-six hawksbill turtle nesting tracks and thirty-seven green turtle tracks were
recorded. Thus, these recent surveys confirmed a higher intensity of hawksbill nesting than previously recorded
at other sites in Madagascar. In order to sustainably protect this important sea turtle nesting habitat, we
recommend continuation of our beach monitoring, tagging and awareness-raising programmes, with the full
cooperation of the local communities of Nosy Hara.
Eretmochelys imbricata, marine turtle, nesting beaches, rookery, western Indian Ocean,
Pst_164: One complete migration cycle of an adult Griffon Vulture: from southern Spain to Senegambia
as revealed by high-resolution GPS tracking technology
Antonio Roman MUÑOZ; Ana Luz MÁRQUEZ; Darío CHAMORRO; Raimundo REAL
Departamento de Biología Animal, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain
Although the Griffon Vulture has long been considered a sedentary or partially migratory species, it was
demonstrated that the majority of juvenile Griffon Vultures leave their breeding colonies during their first autumn
of life, many of them crossing the Strait of Gibraltar. European ringed birds have been recovered in Morocco,
Algeria, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal but limited information is available about the movements of the species in
Africa. We captured breeding Griffon Vultures in southern Spain which were fitted with GPS transmitters to obtain
spatially (within 4 m) and temporally (c. 4 mins) high-resolution movement data. In this study we identify the
migration route and stopover sites of one adult bird that successfully moved from southern Spain, after breeding,
to Senegal and Gambia, and back to the breeding colony. We analysed daily movements and calculated the daily
distance and migration speed. We also studied the effects of weather and environmental conditions on the travel
of this soaring bird. While further studies with a broader sample are needed to sufficiently understand Griffon
Vulture movements from Europe to Africa, this work sheds light on the destination, routes and migratory
characteristics of the species in Africa.
Gyps fulvus, migration, GPS transmitters
Pst_167: Wildlife trade in Africa: a biogeographic perspective
Universidad de Malaga, Malaga, Spain
Africa is one of the most important continents regarding illegal wildlife trade, which is considered one of the
greatest threats to biodiversity and conservation worldwide. Seizures reported by different countries each year
can provide valuable information about possible transit routes and species currently in demand. With the data
supplied by TRAFFIC, the wildlife monitoring network, we identify large-scale chorotypes (assemblages of
species with similar geographical ranges) of 59 species of vertebrates which were seizured worldwide in different
route stages. Thirteen of those species (8 mammals, 4 reptiles and one bird) had African distributions. We
aggregated the species into 15 significant chorotypes. The African species were grouped in 6 chorotypes. Most
African countries where captures took place were in the middle-southern Africa. The destinations of these species
were mostly Asian countries, especially China and adjacent countries. Other nations that have been demanding
African wildlife were the USA and the European region. A few African countries (Botswana, Kenya, Nigeria, South
Africa and Zimbabwe) received part of the wildlife captured within their own country. We could conclude that
chorotypes are meaningful and useful to clarify possible trade routes and can be used to understand the problem
in a better way, and inform about efficient counter-measures and action plans to combat this threat.
Wildlife trade; transit routes; chorotypes; Biogeography; Africa
Pst_183: Exploring the spatial configurations of home gardens in Benin: Implications for biodiversity
Rodrigue C. GBEDOMON, Achille Ephrem ASSOGBADJO, Roch MONGDO, Romain Glèlè KAKAI
University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin
Although home gardeners could logically install plant species at different places around their homesteads, there
is no quantitative evidence of how home gardens (HGs) are spatially configured and how these spatial
configurations (SCs) discriminate plant species within HGs. Using spatial position analysis with respect to
homestead and garden inventories, this paper explores the SCs of 360 HGs and assessed their constituent
species as well as their prevalence across seasons, agro-ecological zones (AEZs) and phyto-geographical
districts (PDs) in Benin. Association between SC and species composition was tested using correlation coefficient
and Jaccard dissimilarity. A non-metric multidimensional scaling and a canonical discrimination analysis were
performed to detect SCs discriminating AEZ and PDs. Relative frequencies of each SC were calculated per PD
and displayed on the Benin map using ArcGIS 10.0 software. Eight SCs were distinguished and 90.55% of HGs
contained at least two SCs. Except for yards, SCs shared no or few species. Occurrence and prevalence of SCs
varied across AEZs and PDs. Because HGs have multiple SCs and dynamic components, their size and shape
may not always be objective indicators in the HG horizontal structure analysis.
Spatial configurations; home gardens; species composition; West Africa
Pst_190: Avifaunal Census around Oban Division of the Cross River National Park, South-East Nigeria:
The irreversibly implication of forest conversion
Boniface O. AGBO, H BAKAM, SB Kongvong, K ERONDU,
Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
The ever growing human population places great demand on natural forest worldwide. Humans need land to
meet the rising quest for resources so, there is need to network zones and cities through road to ease livelihood
of people in developing areas. However, the ecosystems and ecology in a pristine forest such as is found around
the Oban Division of the Cross River National Park, is so designed that biodiversity utilizing such areas are more
or less specialized in the roles they play. This report singled avifauna exploring around 3000km2 of lowland
rainforest situated South-East Nigeria adjoining Korup National Park in Cameroon. An area proposed for the
UNESCO world heritage status owing to its richness in flora and fauna species and also a key biodiversity
hotspot in the country and continent. Avifaunal census was carried out two hours (06:30 – 08:30hours) in the
morning and evening (16:30 – 18:30hours) twice in a day on the 29th February, through 2nd March, 2016. All
birds heard and seen with the aid of binoculars, along two 2km transects were identified using the Birds of
Western Africa field guide. 49 bird species recorded in this short-term exploration are spread in 22 families with
93.88% forest or forest edge dwelling and only 6.12% are of mixed habitat. High percentage of forest species
underscores the irreversibly consequence forest conversion would have on the habitats of hundreds of plant and
animal species should the proposed super highway project be allowed.
Avifauna, biodiversity, conversion, forest, habitat.
Pst_198: Myrmecofauna In the forest of Bainem in Algiers, Algeria
Benabbas S. ILHAM, Senouci NADJLA, Bouguerdjoum AMINA, Kerbouch OURIDA, Saidi MAHDIA, Doumandji
University of Science and Technology Houari Boumédienne of Algiers, Algeria
The present study is made in forest stations located in the sahel Algiers in 2015. This stations belong to the
bioclimatic subhumid to mild winter. With the aim to have precisions on myrmecofauna of study. The technique of
barber pots is used on the field collection. This study has identified three sub families: Myrmicinae (12 species),
Dolichoderinae (2 species) and Formicinae (5 species). The total wealth of 19 species S = 20 and Sm = 1.66.
results obtained in the stations reveal the dominance of Aphaenogaster depilis with (R.A. % = 18.8%) followed by
Messor barbara with 28.2%, in the forest of Bainem. Cardiocondyla mauretanica the species was observed once
in the Barber traps (R.A.= 0.01).
Myrmecofauna, Formicidae, Barber pots, Bainem, Algeria.
Pst_212: Identification des aires prioritaires de conservation de la biodiversité des écosystèmes
aquatiques continentaux: quelles méthodes privilégier?
University of Abdelmallek Essaâdi, Tétouan, Morocco
La diversité biologique des écosystèmes aquatiques continentaux du Maroc, est l’une des plus importantes à
l’échelle du continent africain. Toutefois cette biodiversité est hautement menacée notamment, par la perte des
habitats, qui constitue la première menace qui pèse lourdement sur la plupart des espèces. Pour conserver cette
biodiversité, la création des aires protégées est un des outils les plus importants et les plus efficaces.
Dans cette étude on utilise les données des Odonates, réputés pour être de bons indicateurs de la biodiversité
des eaux douces, pour identifier les aires prioritaires de conservation dans le Rif marocain. On compare
l’efficience des différentes méthodes proposées dans la littérature, depuis les indices traditionnels jusqu’aux
algorithmes basés sur le principe de complémentarité, fondés sur les différents critères tels que : la richesse, la
rareté et la vulnérabilité.
Les résultats obtenus montrent que les méthodes basées sur le principe de complémentarité sont plus efficaces
que les indices et les hotspots de richesse et de rareté, quant à la représentation des objectifs de la conservation,
que ce soit lorsque la superficie de l’aire à conserver est prédéterminée, ou lorsqu’on cherche à déterminer l’aire
minimale nécessaire pour englober toutes les espèces au moins une fois. Parmi les méthodes basées sur la
complémentarité, c’est celle basée sur la richesse qui s’est montrée la plus efficace à représenter les objectifs de
la conservation.
Conservation, Complémentarité, Odonates, Richesse, Rareté, Vulnérabilité
Pst_213: Mapping the conflict of raptor conservation and recreational shooting in the Batumi Bottleneck,
Republic of Georgia
Brandon P. ANTHONY; Louise SWEMMER
Central European University, Budapest, Hungary
Illegal use of natural resources threatens biodiversity and often leads to conservation conflicts. Such a conflict is
emerging in the Batumi Bottleneck in the Republic of Georgia, where every autumn more than one million
migrating birds of prey funnel above a handful of villages en route to the African continent via the
Mediterranean/Black Sea Flyway. This spectacle attracts not only birdwatchers and ornithologists from around
the world, but also local people with shotguns. Knowledge about the illegal autumn hunting of raptors is still
emerging, and there is no appropriate policy and practice in place to manage the situation. As a first step towards
resolving this conflict, utilizing semi-structured interviews, we map the goals and opinions of relevant stakeholders
associated with raptor migration in the bottleneck. Most stakeholders are on common ground considering the
shooting unacceptable, but articulate different preferences concerning a solution, which hinged on issues of
facilitation and enforcement. However, the responses of many hunters diverged greatly from those of other
stakeholders, and were analyzed separately. We found that hunters largely (1) see raptor hunting as a source of
amusement and food; (2) distinguish raptors only on higher taxonomic groups, and not on species level; and (3)
prioritize shooting larger and/or lighter colored birds. The most urgent issues to be addressed via conservation
actions are the wide scale lack of awareness of the conflict, the potential loss of migratory species, and the risk of
conflict escalation.
Batumi Bottleneck, birds of prey, conservation conflict, human-wildlife conflict, illegal hunting, migratory birds
Pst_215: L’Action de la roche serpentinique sur la diversité faunistique de la région de Beni Bousera (NW
Osama KHADRI, Majida EL ALAMI, Rachida EL BAZI, Myriam SLIMANI
UAE, FS Tétouan, Morocco
28 stations ont été prospectées d’une manière saisonnière (du l’automne 2013 à l’automne 2014). Des
prélèvements qualitatifs par le biais du filet troubleau de la faune benthique ont été réalisés pour les 13 stations
dans la région de Beni Bousera et 15 autres en dehors de cette région, et après le tri fin sous la loupe et les
analyses physico-chimiques de l’eau effectuées au laboratoire et les analyses in situ, nous avons noté des
concentrations élevées en magnésium et faibles en calcium ce qui induit un ratio Mg/Ca très important (autour de
20,173 mg/l dans les cours d’eau serpentinisés et seulement autour de 0,235 mg/l dans les cours d’eau non
serpentinisés). En outre, la conductivité électrique dans les cours d’eau serpentinisés étudiés était maximale
autour de 1400 µS/cm et minimale dans les cours d’eau non serpentinisés autour de 354,3 µS/cm. Par ailleurs,
le tri et l’identification des macroinvertébrés échantillonnés, nous ont permis de constater que les stations
serpentinisées présentent une grande richesse au niveau des familles répertoriées, soit 46 familles (55%) dont
16 appartenant aux Diptères, 8 aux Trichoptères, 7 aux Coléoptères et Hétéroptères, 3 aux Ephéméroptères et
Odonates et 2 aux Plécoptères, par rapport aux stations en dehors de la région de Beni Bousera qui ne
contiennent que 33 familles (45%).
Macroinvertébrés, Beni Bousera, serpentine, analyses physico-chimiques.
Pst_227: Evaluation de la qualité de la ripisylve du haut bassin versant du Loukkos (Nord Ouest du
Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, Tetouan, Morocco
La bande riveraine assure une multitude de fonctions écologiques nécessaires au bon fonctionnement des
systèmes fluviaux, à l’amélioration de la qualité des eaux et au maintien de l’intégrité de leurs communautés
Dans le cadre de l’évaluation de l’état écologique du haut bassin versant du Loukkos, en se basant sur des
critères écosystémiques (macroinvertébrés, végétation riveraine), une étude hydrobiologique a été menée sur 26
stations réparties sur le haut bassin du Loukkos, d’une manière saisonnière durant l’année 2014. Dans ce travail,
les résultats concernant la qualité de la végétation riveraine, en appliquant l’indice QBR (Qualité des Bandes
riveraine) sont présentés. Les résultats de l’indice QBR, montrent que les stations situées dans un
environnement naturel, loin d’actions anthropiques présentent une ripisylve de bonne à très bonne qualité (QBR>
75), tandis que les tronçons qui sont soumis à l’impact dérivant notamment de l’agriculture de l’olivier très
caractéristique de la région, présentent une ripisylve d’une mauvaise qualité (QBR < 50).
Etat écologique, végétation riveraine, Indice QBR, bassin versant du Loukkos, Maroc
Pst_230: Ecological engineering and environment-plant interactions to improve resilience to climate
change of aromatic and medicinal plants
Mohammed BOUSKOUT; Ouahmane LAHCEN
Faculté des Sciences, University of Cadi Ayyad, Semlalia Marrakech, Morocco
The implementation of ecological strategies, based on better use of local natural resources, adapted to the
environmental conditions (biotic and abiotic), is one of the most sustainable approaches. In this context, the
Caper, appears like a key model in conservation policy and restoration of degraded landscapes. Indeed, Caper is
suitable for a multitude of ecological conditions and has promising properties in terms of physiology (drought
resistance) and socio-economic value. Different parts of this aromatic and medicinal plant, such as the flower
buds, fruits, seeds, shoots and bark of roots, have been used as food or folk medicines. Its exploitation and its
cultivation in various Mediterranean countries similar to Morocco showed that this species can be of great
profitability will allow of valorise to agricultural land at low the agronomic aptitudes. However, the cultivation of
caper is limited by several constraints environmental and cultural. The overall objective of our study focuses first
of all, the production of improved planting stock caper able to overcome the hostile conditions of marginal lands it
occupies, on the other hand, the provision of new runs and conservation ecological intensification of (agro)
ecosystems for both manage the aggravation of environmental pressures and optimize the ecological services
that an ecosystem can render the man.
Medicinal plant; ecological strategies; Capparis spinosa
Pst_237: Anochetus guilianii (Hym., Formicidae), une espèce marocaine introduite dans la Péninsule
Ibérique: Envide par l’analyse de l’ADN mitochondriale
Taheri AHMED, Mchael J. JOWERS, Joaquin REYES-LOPEZ, Nard BENNAS
Laboratoire Ecologie, Biodiversité et Environnement, Université Abdelmalek Essâadi, Tétouan, Morocco
Anochetus ghilianii (Spinola, 1851) est la seule espèce du genre afrotropicale, Anochetus qui se trouve en
Europe et dont la distribution est restreinte au Sud de l’Espagne, où elle est inscrite sur la liste rouge des
insectes menacés. La faible capacité de dispersion de cette espèce (les reines sont aptères) suggère que sa
présence dans la péninsule Ibérique devrait être ancienne, datant depuis la crise Messinienne. Dans la péninsule
Ibérique, elle se localise dans des zones côtières, tandis que les populations du Nord du Maroc montrent une
distribution géographique et altitudinale plus ample. Dans cette étude, nous avons séquencé un fragment d'un
gène mitochondrial possédant une évolution rapide (COI) de plusieurs individus de cette espèce capturés au
Maroc et dans la péninsule Ibérique. Les résultats de « Bayesian Inference » et des analyses « Median-Joining »
ont montré qu’il y a une diminution de la diversité génétique des haplotypes en allant des localités du Nord
(Andalousie) vers les localités du Sud (Rif central). De plus, les résultats ont révélé que le même haplotype a été
récupéré à partir de toutes les localités ibériques et de celle de Tanger au Nord du Maroc. Cette absence de
divergence génétique est attribuée à plusieurs translocations récurrentes à travers le trafic maritime entres les
ports des deux côtés du détroit de Gibraltar et corrobore l’hypothèse d’une introduction dans la péninsule
Anochetus ghilianii (Spinola, 1851), ADN mitochondriale, Espagne, Maroc.
Pst_243: A plan for conservation and ecological restoration of the degraded arid steppe-lands in the
Haouz plain, west central Morocco
Faculté des Sciences, University of Cadi Ayyad, Semlalia Marrakech, Morocco
The arid rangelands are subject to significant alterations, especially under chronic drought and overgrazing. This
is the case of the Zizyphus lotus steppes of the Haouz plain. This study aimed to assess conservation and
restoration potentials of this ecosystem and to propose development scenarios for a better use of the resources.
Conservation and restoration options proposed for key species populations, and more specifically Z. lotus, and for
the entire arid steppe ecosystem, would allow to return to an alternative stable state according to the degree of
habitat degradation and the demographic status of populations, by improved resources management, and
rehabilitation through reintroduction of extinct plant and animal species. A preliminary diagnosis of the ecosystem
state was carried out through examination of vegetation and some elements of threatened wildlife that depend on
such as the Moorish tortoise. It is assumed that the local population will support the conservation and restoration
project proposed at the regional level, and especially livestock breeders and grain producers. Thus, the proposed
measures should be of a direct (and indirect) benefit to these people. Measures would lead to the improvement of
groundwater recharge which, however, would not be directly accessible for plants and livestock. It would indirectly
assist in the protection of the region by providing water for irrigation for the production of fodder plants during dry
Conservation, restoration, Zizyphus lotus, Haouz plain.
Pst_245: Tacit Communication Avoids Conflict with Shepherds in Bouhachem forest, Northern Morocco
Barbary Macaque Awareness & Conservation, Tangier Tetouan Hoceima, Morocco
The conservation of endangered Barbary macaques in Bouhachem forest, Morocco, is inextricably entwined with
shepherds and their dogs using the forest to graze their livestock. Dog predation on macaques and domestic
livestock is commonly reported but, in 2010, shepherds believed such attacks were caused by feral dogs. After
photographing and identifying dogs in the forest, we found that almost all were free-ranging dogs owned by local
villagers. To communicate information which conflicted with shepherds’ local ecological knowledge and reduce
the risk of rabies to both people and their livestock, we developed a dog health programme (DHP). The
conservation team vaccinated 319 dogs in three villages and provided each dog with a collar colour-coded by
village. After observing the collared dog packs hunting in the forest, shepherds acknowledged the dogs are
owned. Thus tacit communication avoided potential conflict, did not overtly prioritise scientific data over local
knowledge and also reassured local people that we value them as well as the Barbary macaques. We suggest
that by communicating tacitly rather than directly in situations where the latter may be unwelcome it is possible to
avoid a build-up of resentment, subversive behaviour and ultimately full blown conflict with the very people who
co-exist with the species we are trying to conserve.
Domestic dogs, wildlife predation, tacit communication
Pst_255: Endemic water beetles of Morocco: vulnerability analysis and conservation measures
Nard BENNAS, Loubna BENAMAR, Mohamed EL HAISOUFI, Ouassima L’MOHDI, Andres MILLAN
Université Abdelmalek Essâdi, Tétouan, Morocco
To be able to protect adequately the freshwater biodiversity, it is crucial to know what species and habitats
require greater conservation effort. In this study, we identify the most threatened species of endemic water
beetles from Morocco using a categorization system to rank species according to their conservation priority or
vulnerability at the national and global levels. At national level, three species were identified as being extremely
vulnerable (Graptodytes bermondi, Esolus bicuspidatus and Helophorus theryi), and thirty-two were highly
vulnerable, for which reason they should be proposed to be included in a future Moroccan red list. At global level,
twenty-two species were highly vulnerable. They were classified according to the IUCN criteria in three
categories: Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable. Effective protection of the most threatened
species at national and international level requires measures directed at the conservation of their habitats. Crucial
target habitats for protection in Morocco include springs, freshwater streams, saline streams, marshlands, lakes,
and peat bogs.
Water beetles, Morocco, Vulnerability, Conservation, IUCN, Red List
Pst_256: New phylogenetic and distribution data on two Gerbillidae rodents in Morocco: Dipodillus
simoni and Gerbillus henleyi
Oussama BOUARAKIA; Loubna TIFAROUINE; Christiane DENYS; Touria BENAZZOU; Abdelaziz BENHOUSSA
Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Morocco
Despite the fact that Gerbillidae rodents represent an important part of the mammalian fauna in North Africa,
many gaps remain in our understanding of the distribution, ecology, evolution and systematics of some lesser
known species in this family. We present in this study the most recent findings on two of these species. The first
species, Dipodillus simoni, is a short tailed, small gerbil, endemic to North Africa. In Morocco, it is present only in
a small area in the North-East, and it hasn’t been caught since 1970. In 2014, a small gerbil that we have
captured, in this region, was identified as Dipodillus simoni using body and skull measurements and sequencing
of the Cytochrome B gene of the mitochondrial DNA. This represents the first genetic characterization of this
species in Morocco and the only one outside of Tunisia. The second species, Gerbillus henleyi, is a, long tailed,
small gerbil that lives in North Africa with an extension to the east of the Sinai desert. In Morocco, this species is
known only in the South-West. Between 2014 and 2015, we have captured four gerbils, in the North-East of the
country, that were confirmed genetically and morphologically as Gerbillus henleyi. This is the first case of
presence of this species in this part of the country. Therefore, we can extend its known distribution to the NorthEast of Morocco. We have also found that these Moroccan specimens form a haplotypic lineage distinct from the
other African populations.
Gerbil, North Africa, genetically, morphologically, distribution
Pst_270: Diurnal Time Budgets; Activity Rhythm and Social Organisation of semi-captive Gazelle dama
mhorr in the station of aclimation Safia.
University of Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
The Mhorr gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr) is one of the three most threatened antelope species. Their social
organization and rhythm of activity is poorly known. This work aims to contribute to a better understanding of their
ethology and ecology in Safia station, an enclosure where the species was historically abundant. By the method
of scan-sampling the diurnal behaviours (foraging, vigilance, resting, moving, and 'others') of 14 Mhorr gazelles in
the station of the acclimatization Safia were observed in April 2016, with the time budgets and activity rhythms
and the social organisation. Data on activity time budget were analysed by assessing time allocated for different
activities at different hours of the day. According to our results, Mhorr gazelles spent 42% of their time feeding,
33% resting and 23% moving. Vigilance and “other” activities only made up less than 3% of the activity budgets in
Gazelles, Time Budgets, Rhythm Activity, Social Organisation
Pst_272: Adopting a new ecological conservation model for Yankari Game Reserve, Nigeria
Salamatu J. FADA, James M GIBBONS, Andrew S PULLIN, Andrew J PACKWOOD, Shereen GALAL, Thomas B
Bangor University, United Kingdom; University of Jos, Nigeria; Bauchi State Government, Nigeria
West African protected areas are faced with many threats including, human – wildlife conflicts, incursions from
communities surrounding protected areas, climate change, etc. These threats operate in a synergistic manner to
cause degradation and decline in populations of important species of high conservation concern (e.g. lions and
elephants) and also habitat degradation. Studies conducted in Yankari Game Reserve (Yankari) Nigeria on the
population size and genetic diversity of Nigerian Lions (Panthera leo) used the non-invasive sampling method of
faeces to gather information about the population size of lions in Nigeria. The study found that the number of lion
individuals within Yankari are small and there was no evidence for gene flow between the population in Yankari
and that of Kainji Lake National Park. Similarly, the study on the processes and drivers of vegetation change
using interdisciplinary approaches, (ecological, geospatial and social – cultural) found increase in species of
Combretaceae family, decline in fodder species (1986 - 2011), high variability in annual rainfall, prevalence of
droughts, prevalence of, and increase in human activities at the boundary of Yankari. Drawing from the findings of
these studies, Gyara adopts a bottom - up model as a conservation strategy for Yankari. Gyara is designed to
work with the local communities to restore the ecological integrity of Yankari. This model could be replicated in
similar protected areas in West Africa.
Protected areas, Gyara, threats, conservation, lions
Pst_276: Restoration success and its potential benefits in a climate change driven restoration
programme in the city of Durban, South Africa.
Hloniphani MTHUNZI; Mathieu ROUGET; Lutendo MUGWEDI; Benis EGOH; Sershen NAIDOO; Rob SLOTOW
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Climate change and ecosystem degradation is a global phenomenon that presents a substantial threat to
biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and human well-being. As such tree planting is one of the primary approaches
employed to restore degraded ecosystems and to improve ecosystem services provision in cities. This study’s
aim was to determine if the restored forest possesses key ecological processes that are vital for maintaining a
stable, resilient and self-sustaining ecosystem that would be able to yield crucial socio-economic benefits in the
long-term. To achieve this, six variables of vegetation structure, seven variables of ecological processes and two
variables of ecosystem services were assessed and compared to the reference site at Buffelsdraai Landfill Site of
the KwaZulu Natal Province of South Africa. Tree planting was initiated in 2009/2010 growing season (November
to February). Vegetation structure varied significantly across the habitats, with the reference habitat having the
highest vegetation height and tree canopy cover than all the restored habitats, followed by 5-year-old, 3-year-old
and 0-year old restored habitats. Results showed that the restored habitats are species rich, evenly distributed
and diverse compared to reference sites. Therefore, it is critical for cities around the world to invest in urban
ecosystems restoration in order to improve climate change mitigation and adaptation, people’s health and
livelihoods under the face of climate change.
Restoration, trees, planting
Pst_280: Pangolins in Nigeria: Their Biology and Ecology and Challenges to Their Conservation
Olufemi A. SODEINDE; Durojaye SOEWU
New York City College of Technology (CUNY), Brooklyn, New York NY
Pangolins have the unenviable record of being the most illegally traded species internationally and are of
conservation concern. We have studied different aspects of the ecology and conservation biology of pangolins in
Nigeria whose results are presented. These include the conservation status, morphometry, hematology and
parasites, consumptive uses of the species; and efforts to conserve pangolins. Two species of pangolins exist for
sure in Nigeria, Phataginus tetradactyla which is rarer but is as much recorded in the bushmeat and traditional
medicine trade, and Phataginus tricuspis. Pangolins are infested by ticks and mites of zoonotic concern and
helminth parasites. The blood picture shows anemia among animals kept for long in captivity. Efforts to conserve
the species are ineffective because of defective organization of the controlling agencies, top-bottom management
of conservative issues and a pervading lack of awareness about conservation among stakeholders at the lowest
rung of the hierarchy. A case is made for captive maintenance of these cryptic species.
Pangolins, Nigeria, biology, ecology conservation challenges
Pst_285: Crop-raiding Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Ourika Valley, western High Atlas
Mountains, Morocco: a case of human-animal conflict
Salwa NAMOUS; Mohammed ZNARI; Jan SIESS; Mohamed AOURIR; Nawal HICHAMI
Cadi Ayyad University Faculty of Science, Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco
In areas with agriculture, the coexistence of wild primate species and humans often turns to conflict, as many of
these species eat cultivated plants. We investigated summer diet in crop-feeding Barbary macaques in High
Ourika valley, Morocco. Diet composition was determined using fecal macro- and microscopic analyses. We also
got an overview of the problem of crop-feeding Barbary macaques from the farmer’s perspective in order to
evaluate the severity of the damage experienced by the farmers. Nearly 50% of summer diet was composed of
fruits including several cultivated species along with important vegetative parts. The mean annual percent eaten
or damaged by the macaques was 30%. The macaques have a preference for walnuts, plums and apples, yet
these differences are likely a result of the frequency and abundance in which the preferred crops are grown as
well as time of harvest. Interviewed farmers view the amount of damage caused by macaques to be substantial
for the most important items in the local economy. Setting up a local reforestation plan to plant palatable trees for
macaques and possibly multiple kind of fruit trees, could possibly shift the macaques ranging patterns. With
declining populations in almost all known ranges, Barbary macaques are not usually seen as pests. Thus
mitigating the issue of crop damage is needed in order to keep the image of this species in a positive light, as
viewing a species negatively will undoubtedly lead to less conservation support.
Barbary macaque, Ourika valley, diet, crop-raiding, Morocco
Pst_291: Manatee Protection through Community-Led Action in Lake Piso Multiple Use Reserve (LPMUR),
Farmers Associated to Conserve the Environment (FACE), Paynesville, Liberia
Liberia’s third protected area and only wetland of International importance is home to a diversity of marine and
mangrove species, including the West African Manatee (Trichechus senegalensis). However, manatee
populations in this area have declined greatly as a result of livelihood activities including fishing, hunting and
collection of mangrove for firewood and commercial charcoal production. The status of manatees in Liberia is
unknown and although protected under the Liberian law, little or no measures are in place for its long-term
protection. This project aimed to investigate the threats to the manatee and to activate its protection in the
LPMUR through awareness-raising, training, production of fuel-efficient stoves and establishment of communityled management schemes including a biomonitoring programme. Awareness was carried out in 14 communities
and community members were trained in sustainable fishing practices. Some locals previously trained to produce
eco-stove were re-trained and evaluated and trainees were able to produce eco-stoves themselves and train
other youths to produce the stoves. Capacity of five local community youths was built in biomonitoring and use of
basic field equipment and those trained are currently monitoring the sites for manatees. All the communities
visited confirmed the presence of the manatee in the area and their support for the project may promote
conservation and protection of the species.
Lake Piso Multiple Use Reserve (LPMUR)
Pst_293: Historical record of population decline and range contraction of the Northern bald ibis
Geronticus eremita in Morocco
Mohamed AOURIR, Mohammed ZNARI, Mohamed RADI, Jean-Michel MELIN
Université Ibn Zohr, Agadir, Morocco
Understanding the ecological and biogeographic characteristics of population decline is a key area of research in
conservation science. Extinction events typically represent extended processes of decline that cannot be
reconstructed using short-term studies. Long-term archives are necessary to determine past baselines and the
extent of human-caused biodiversity change. Information on historical environmental conditions and extensive
records of Northern Bald Ibis, Geronticus eremita, which have a restricted present-day distribution but formerly
occurred across much of Morocco. The species showed a twentieth century range contraction, with significant
fragmentation by the mid-1950s and population loss escalating in the late twentieth century. Isolated populations
persisted for about 30 years before local extinction. Populations persisted for longer at higher elevations, and
disappeared earlier from northern and eastern regions, with the biogeography of population loss consistent with
the contagion model of range collapse in response to human demographic expansion spreading directionally
across Morocco. This long-term Moroccan historical record can track extinction events and human interactions
with the environment, contributing novel baselines for conservation and an increased understanding of extinction
dynamics and species vulnerability or resilience to human pressures. Potential conservation actions that may halt
and reverse population declines are proposed.
Northern bald ibis, historical distribution, vulnerability, conservation, Morocco
Pst_294: Current bioclimatic distribution of Morocco’s amphibians and reptiles and potential effects of
climate change: implications for conservation
Mohammed ZNARI; Soumia LOULIDA ; Safaa BENDAMI; Mohamed NAIMI; Nawal HICHAMI
Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Science - Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco
Because of their ectothermy and relative low dispersal ability, amphibians and reptiles have ecologies and
geographic distributions that are highly dependent on climatic conditions. They will be then affected by the future
climate change due to synergic effects with other abiotic and biotic conditions. We analyzed current bioclimatic
distribution of Morocco’s amphibians and reptiles and known and possible impacts of climate change, and made
mitigation recommendations. Present-day distribution and ecology of amphibians and reptiles reflect current
climate models and we predict adaptation to changes in these parameters is too slow compared to their expected
rate of change, and widespread modifications occur in the assemblages of populations, species and ecosystem
functions and services. On the basis of known and hypothetical physiological and ecological thresholds, we
estimate that in a few decades, Morocco’s amphibians and reptiles will reach or exceed most limits of their
capacity to adapt to climate change and that temperature dependent sex determination, higher metabolic rates
and lower water availability, will have serious and irreversible effects on these organisms. For effective mitigation,
and if we want to avoid the devastating loss of biodiversity and a total collapse of ecosystem services, we should
save a maximum of populations and species, and implement strategies to buffer synergic effects in areas where
populations and species would be highly vulnerable.
Bioclimate, herpetofauna, climate change, conservation, Morocco
Pst_303: Microplastics and metals interaction in the aquatic environment
University of Abdelmalek Essaadi, Tanger-Tetouan, Morocco
In recent decades there has been a significant increase in the presence of plastics in the aquatic environment.
The Mediterranean Sea is a significant example of pollution of the marine environment by plastic due to its nature
as a semi-enclosed sea.
Under environmental conditions these plastics can be fragmented in microplastics, which can be ingested by the
biota. In this case, microplastics can affect directly to the biota due to the obstruction of the digestive tract or they
can act as an entrance for other contaminants, as metals, due to their high adsorption capacity. Therefore, this
study evaluates the capacity of microplastics to adsorb metals depending on the physicochemical conditions of
the environment and the exposure time. Two types of micro-plastics were used: polypropylene and polyethylene.
The results shown in this presentation are those corresponding to the preliminary adsorption studies for Zn, Cu,
Cd and Cu. The influence of interaction time between microplastics and metals was studied. In this case, the
same weight of microplastics was immersed and stirred in an aqueous solution with a known metal concentration.
After exposure time (2, 4, 12, 24, 48h and 1 week) the microplastics were separated and the metal concentration
remained in the solution was evaluated. In addition, microplastics were digested to extract and quantify the
adsorbed metal. After, the influence of different environmental conditions, as pH or salinity, was also evaluated.
Microplastics, adsorption, heavy metals, marine environment
Pst_306: Distribution, status and major threats impacting West African Chimpanzee population in Sapo
National Park, Liberia
Matthew VARNEY, Mary MOLOKWU-ODOZI, Benedictus FREEMAN, Shadrach P KERWILLAIN, Morris JAH,
Fauna and Flora International, Monrovia, Liberia
The West African chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, is highly threatened and has lost about 75% of its
population in the last 30 years. Sapo National Park (SNP) holds one of the largest remaining populations of the
species in West Africa. This study assesses the population status, distribution and threats impacting the Chimps
population in SNP in the last two years (2014-2015). Surveys were carried out along a system of 90 line transects
(2km each) established across the 180,365 ha park. We used QGIS to map the distribution of the species across
the park. Presence of Chimps was detected by identifying nests, vocalization, dungs, tracks and deployment of
camera traps. 74 out of 90 transects surveyed in 2014, show high abundance of the species in the south-western
and eastern parts of the park compared to the north. Conversely, results from 62 out of 90 transects surveyed in
2015 show a decline in the abundance of the species in the eastern part of the park compared to the west. There
was also high encounter rate of anthropogenic activities in the north-eastern parts of the park compared to the
south-western parts. Liberia contains the second highest population of the Chimps, and has been identify as
having the most suitable environmental conditions for chimps in West Africa. Therefore, understanding the threats
that they face in SNP is important to inform the design and implementation of an effective law enforcement
strategy to protect this population of the species.
Vocalisation, encounter rate, distribution
Pst_313: Off-reserve conservation funding strategy for the Giba Gorge Environmental Precinct, South
Chuma B. CHINZILA; Fathima AHMED; Urmilla BOB
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Innovative approaches to fund biodiversity conservation have been adopted among which is the biodiversity
stewardship programme that specifically focus on off-reserve biodiversity conservation. The processes of
management of projects implemented under the stewardship programme have seldom been documented. Our
study examines stakeholder willingness to fund a biodiversity stewardship project using the Special Rating Area
instrument. We also determine the factors influencing landowner willingness to fund the project. Data was
collected using a questionnaire survey, focus group discussion, and in-depth interviews. Descriptive analysis,
Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMS) and thematic analysis were used to analyse data. Results show that
majority (88.9%) landowners were willing to fund the GGEP project using the SRA instrument though only 22.2%
had no reservation as to how much they were to contribute. Level of education and income were statistically
significant determinants of landowner willingness while perceived long-term financial burden, motives for
conservation and perceived benefits influenced unwillingness. Funding based on landowner contributions through
the SRA instrument is currently unsustainable for the GGEP project. It is recommended that beyond the pilot
phase, part of the funding be out-sourced through sustainable ventures and that periodical research be
conducted to assess stakeholder perceptions for adaptive management.
Special Rating Area; Landowner willingness; off-reserve; funding strategy
Pst_315: A propos de la présence dans le barrage Bin El Ouidan (Maroc) d’une espèce de méduse
allochtone: Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester, 1880
Faculté des Sciences, Agadir, Morocco
Les barrages marocains constituent un écosystème aquatique spécifique et unique vu les caractéristiques
climatiques et la position géographique. Cet écosystème, peut abriter des espèces indigènes ou/et introduites :
algues, poissons, invertébrés, etc. Toutefois, malgré leur intérêt écologique, et aussi socioéconomique (tourisme,
pêche et irrigation, etc.), peu de travaux ont porté sur l’étude de la biodiversité faunistique aquatique et sa
relation avec les conditions écologiques. Dans le cadre de son activité, le comité scientifique de la Fédération
Royale Marocaine de Plongée et Activités Subaquatiques (FRMPAS) a réalisé une prospection par plongée
sous- marine dans le barrage Bin El Ouidan (Province d’Azilal, Maroc). Cette prospection nous a permis
d’inventorier une espèce de méduse: Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester, 1880 (Cndaria, Hydrozoa,
Limnomedusae). Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester, 1880 est un petit cnidaire d’eau douce, son origine
potentielle est Yangtze valley (Chine). Cette méduse colonise tous les continents en dehors de l’Antarctique, et il
est donc considéré comme l’un des plus envahisseurs d’eau douce répandus. La présence de cette espèce
allochtone et cosmopolite: Craspedacusta sowerbyi dans le barrage Bin El Ouidan peut s’expliquer par les
activités liées à l’aquaculture (introduction des espèces des poissons dans les barrages peut être un vecteur
d’introduction d’autres espèces à savoir Craspedacusta sowerbyi).
Craspedacusta sowerbyi, Méduses d’eau douce, Barrage Bin El Ouidan, Maroc
Pst_333: Endemic and threatened species in unprotected forests: conservation prospects of Mount
Mbam forests (Cameroon), important site for Tauraco bannermani
Alain Senghor K. NGUTE, Mark F HULME, Taku AWA II
University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Many African Important Bird Areas, such as Mount Mbam, have no legal recognition or protection status.
Increasing evidences suggest that they are in danger of losing their ecosystems and species diversity. Mt Mbam,
good example of ornithological richness of the Cameroon Line, is a bastion for many bird and mammal species of
global conservation concern. It hosts the second huge population of the endemic Bannerman’s Turaco (EN), after
Mt Oku, and 4 primate species including the rare threatened Black Colobus (VU). In this course, bird species
were sampled in Mt Mbam forests area, using point counts and MacKinnon lists to describe species richness,
diversity and distribution, and estimate densities of species of global conservation concern in habitat types.
Totally, 168 species were recorded, with 3 of global conservation concern and 12 endemic to the Cameroon
Mountains EBA. These endemic species and some forest species had higher abundances than widespread ones,
with densities values being greater in near primary montane and gallery forests. This result is additional evidence
supporting the importance of the site in Conservation; it was made available to stakeholders, on which basis
informed decisions on the designation of the site as a Protected Area (‘wildlife Sanctuary’) can be made. Locals
were made aware of the threats faced by species and habitats, and then educated on the conservation needs.
Conservation actions are thus necessary to secure such African IBA in the future.
IBA; Forests; Birds; legal status; Cameroon
Pst_334: Ethnobotany survey in the regions Ain Hhiar and El Mallah (El Tarf Algeria)
Besma DECHIR, Guenaoui NAWEL, Bourafa YAMEN, Touarfia MONDJI
University Mohamed Cherif Messaadia, Souk Ahras, Algeria
Ethnobotany business survey on medicinal and aromatic plants has allowed us to obtain information regarding
their therapeutic uses from respondents, and compare well with study area 'Ain Khiar ""and"" El Mellah "" of the
Wilaya El Tarf. A parallel survey was conducted among herbalists to obtain enough details about the use of these
medicinal plants. These data made it possible to see that traditional medicine in the province of Ain Khiar is not
only active but close to that of the town of El Mellah, view their approximate geographical positions. Indeed, the
inhabitants of the province are moving increasingly towards herbalists to find a cure for their diseases. The
herbarium has investigated 50 medicinal plants including 11 herbs. It is in the strengthening and enhancement of
biodiversity and preservation of local knowledge there is no reason to further develop herbal medicine to the
Algerian traditional medicine with modern medication tool like other medicines traditional recognized worldwide.
Ethnobotanical survey, medicinal plants, traditional medicine, herbal medicine.
Pst_342: Diversité floristique du peuplement à Phillyrea latifolia dans la forêt de Bissa (Chlef Nord- Ouest
Fatima BELHACINI, Fettah MOHAMMED, Aoufi FARIDA, Zemmar NABILA, Babali BRAHIM, Bouazza
Hassiba Benbouali, Tlemcen, Algeria
La forêt de bissa situé au Nord- Ouest Algérien, ont été choisis comme modèle pour une étude phytoécologique
des groupements à phillyrea latifolia. Dans notre cas, les familles représentés sont variables, 02 familles sont les
plus importants la famille Astéracée13, 01% et la famille Fabacée 12,20%. Du point de vu morphologique, les
formations végétales de la zone d’étude sont marqué par l’hétérogénéité entre les ligneux et les herbacées, et
entre les vivaces et les annuelles. Les herbacées annuelles sont les dominants avec un pourcentage de (40,65
%) par rapport aux herbacées vivaces (34,15 %) et ligneux vivaces (25,20 %). L’étude des types biologiques
montre que les thérophytes sont les plus abondants avec (38.21%) de l’effectif total. Les chamaephytes et les
hémicryptophytes gardent une place particulièrement importante. En effet, la proportion des chamaephytes
augmente dès qu’il y a une dégradation des milieux forestiers car ce type biologique semble être mieux adapté
que les phanérophytes à la sécheresse. La répartition biogéographique marque la dominance de l’élément
méditerranéen avec 40.52%, suivie par les éléments eurasiatique avec 9.48%. L'importance de l'indice de
perturbation est proportionnelle à la dominance des thérophytes qui trouvent ici leur milieu favorable pour leur
développement sur substrat ciliceux, ce qui reflète un milieu ouvert.
Forêt de Bissa, Phillyrea latifola, Biodiversité, Floristique, Chlef.
Pst_350: The occurrence of the marine amphipod Ampelisca lusitanica (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the
Atlantic northwestern coast of Morocco
Faculty of Sciences, University of Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
Ampeliscids are known to be among the dominant species in many communities inhabiting marine ecosystems.
Ampeliscid populations are generally composed of several species belonging to 3 dominant genera: Ampelisca,
Byblis, and Haploops. The genus Ampelisca is the most speciose, with 150 valid species. One of these marine
Ampelisca amphipods, Ampelisca lusitanica (Bellan-Santini & Marques, 1987) inhabits a wide variety of rocky
intertidal habitats. In this work, the eastern Atlantic marine amphipod A. lusitanica (Crustacea: Amphipoda:
Ampeliscidae) was reported from the north-west coast of Morocco (North Africa) for the first time. Individuals were
collected from the littoral of El Jadida in winter 2015. They were associated with the brown algae Bifurcaria
bifurcata and Sargassum muticum on intertidal rocky pools. This amphipod differed from the other Ampelisca
species by many distinguishing morphological characters (antenna, head size, pereiopod 7, uropods, epimeral
plate). This new record suggests that A. lusitanica may also be present in other localities of Moroccan shores.
This finding extends the geographical range of the species A. lusitanica into the north-eastern Atlantic and adds a
new contribution to the macrofauna diversity thriving in the seaweed beds and yields a substantial contribution to
the growing body of knowledge of the Moroccan and North African Atlantic biodiversity.
Ampelisca lusitanica, Amphipoda, epifauna, Atlantic coast, Morocco
Pst_352: Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the brown seaweed Cystoseira
Faculty of Sciences, University of Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
Seaweeds are known to be a good source of healthy food due to a natural richness in minerals and vitamins as
well as bioactive molecules content. In this study the brown seaweed Cystoseira humilis harvested from the
Atlantic coast of Morocco has been investigated for fatty acid (FA) composition as well as for antioxidant and
antibacterial potentials. The results revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of C. humilis represented
47.67% of total FAs where arachidonic acid C20:4 (n-6) was the most abundant PUFA (18.1%) followed by
eicosapentaenoic acid C20:5 (n-3) (11.79 %). C. humilis showed a low ω-6/ω-3 ratio, high unsaturation index
(UI=191.42) and low atherogenicity and thrombogenic indices (AI=0.55 and TI= 0.04). Moreover, methanol extract
of C. humilis exhibited high DPPH radical scavenging activity (82%) and a moderate Ferrous Ion-Chelating (FIC)
ability (68%). The antibacterial activity was limited to Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus among all
tested pathogenic bacterial strains. In conclusion, C. humilis exhibited promising a FAs profile and antioxidant
activities which could be further enhanced by isolating these constituents in pure form for nutraceutical and
pharmaceutical purposes.
Fatty acids, DPPH scavenging and FIC ability, antibacterial activity, Cystoseira humilis, Morocco.
Pst_353: The impact of land use on the edaphic resources of the matorrals with Chamaerops humilis of
Western Algeria
University Abu Bekr Belkaid - Faculty of Nature and Life and Earth Sciences and the Universe Tlemcen, Algeria
The intervention of the man and his cattle unevenly key components of the environment but biotic elements are
those most visible among them the floor. Knowledge of the evolution of the use and land use is an important
issue for any sustainable development of natural or modified spaces. Any use of soil unplanned and uncontrolled
bit easily encourage and subsequently accelerate degradation and result in profound consequences for both
socioeconomic and environmental aspects. In our country human activities have shaped spaces and a print
cutting based mainly on production. This anthropogenic structure does not support the natural potential. Animal
burden know the ecosystem of the Algerian west part is important, and it is causing disturbance of soil structure in
place. Address the impact of the pastoral care in the ecosystem dynamics is of great importance. To deepen
knowledge on the behavior of chamaeropaies face of anthropogenic pressures and to provide elements for
solutions that contributes to the conservation of natural resources. The present research with for objective to
study and compare the physicochemical characteristics of degraded soils in matorrals with Chamaerops humilis.
Camaerops humilis, Soil, Human activity, Matorral
Pst_359: Répartition du lamantin (Trichechus senegalensis) dans la Lagune Ndougou (Gabon)
LAGRAC / Omar Bongo University, Libreville, Gabon
La lagune Ndougou partie intégrante du Complexe d’Aires Protégées de Gamba, est l’un des plus anciens sites
de conservation au Gabon. Ce qui lui confère de rencontrer en ce lieu une biodiversité faunique diverse telle que
le lamantin. Le lamantin africain (Trichechus senegalensis) est le sirénien le moins étudié de son genre. Se
rencontrant le long des côtes du golfe de Guinée de la Mauritanie jusqu’à l’Angola, sa distribution au Gabon est
mal connue n’ayant fait l’objet de très peu de recherche. L’objectif de ce travail est à partir des enquêtes auprès
des riverains puis les observations directes par bateau de cartographier les sites de répartition de lamantin et
d’estimer l’abondance. Le taux de rencontres global est de 2.56. La forte proportion de rencontres se localise
dans la zone à mangrove à l’embouchure de lagune.
Pst_378: The Decision-Making Process of Managing Wildlife in Northern Botswana
Samantha GARVIN
Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States (USA)
This poster will present preliminary findings on the research question: how do various institutions and individuals
involved in wildlife management define, articulate, and address human-wildlife conflict in Northern Botswana?
Northern Botswana is a huge hub of tourism, and is currently facing rapid development as the tourism industry
expands, leading to development of more lodges, pressure on the nearby national park, and migration of people
from the South to the North. These migrants who have never lived with wildlife before, are now interacting with
them more frequently, leading to greater incidence of conflict. Non-governmental organizations address this
problem by monitoring wildlife populations and educating community members on how to protect themselves and
their property. The government has been involved with implementing mitigation strategies inside and outside
parks. How all of these actors perceive the problems of living with wildlife influences what kinds of solutions are
proposed and carried out, which has huge implications on conservation. While formal networks and policy
processes exist for decision-making, many outside factors and interactions lead to decisions being made in other
ways. Using social science techniques and the policy sciences meta-framework, interviews with individuals from
these institutions and participant observation are assessed to draw conclusions about decision making around
wildlife management. Analysis is ongoing.
Human-wildlife conflict, decision making, policy sciences
Pst_379: The celtic sea-slug Onchidella celtica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): New occurrence on Atlantic
rocky shores of Morocco
Abdellatif CHAOUTI; Abdellatif BAYED
Faculty of Sciences, University of Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
The relationship between macrobenthic communities and environmental parameters in the subtidal area of the
Oum Er Rbia estuary was investigated during the summer season. Salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and
granulometry showed spatial trends throughout the estuary. Significant spatial differences in the community
structure and composition were demonstrated along the estuarine gradient, however salinity and granulometry
seemed to be the major parameters controlling the differences in the assemblages’ composition. A total of 30
taxa were identified, most of which were typical of brackish and marine waters. Species richness ranged from 1 to
21 species, whereas abundance ranged from 1 to 2501 ind. Diversity values were generally low (<3 bit) indicating
a high degree a few dominant species. Cerastoderma edule presented the highest number of individuals (70.3%
of the total specimens gathered), followed by Hediste diversicolor (7.4%). Four assemblages were grouped in
three communities. The Melita palmata community lived in the lower section of the river with a stronger marine
influence and a sandy bottom. The middle section was occupied by the C. edule community on sandy-muddy
substrates and was identified by two sub-communities dominated by M. palmata and H. diversicolor respectively.
The upper section with a muddy substrate was the habitat of the H. diversicolor community and was also
characterized by the lowest species number and individuals of the entire estuary.
Macroinvertebrates, soft bottoms, spatial patterns, community structure, structuring factors
Pst_380: First finding of Paranthura nigropunctata (Isopoda: Paranthuridae) from the Atlantic coast of NW
Abdellatif CHAOUTI; Abdellatif BAYED
Faculty of Sciences, University of Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
The littoral pulmonate gastropod Onchidella celtica (Cuvier, 1817) known as celtic sea-slug is reported from two
locations from the Atlantic coast of Morocco for the first time. The species was gregariously found in the shelter of
rock crevices protected from both strong wave action and sunlight and also on algal holdfasts. This new record
from the littoral locations of Mrizika (32°43'55.8"N 9°02'57.6"W) and Oualidia (32°43'56.7"N 9°02'60.0"W), allows
the known geographical distribution range of the species in the Northern hemisphere to be extended to the
southern latitudes (North African Atlantic coasts). It contributes to knowledge of the biogeography of this rare
species found, to date, only on Atlantic European coasts between British shores (Great Britain) in the North and
the western Mediterranean in the South, including the Azores and Madeira islands. The present investigation is
the first report on the occurrence of O. celtica on Moroccan Atlantic rocky shores and suggests that this species
may also occur in other localities from the Mediterranean and North Africa and may represent the first non-native
Onchidiacea species for western Atlantic coasts of Morocco as southern limit of the species. Some data on the
distribution and auto-ecology of the species are provided.
Transitional waters; Macrofauna; Univariate indices; Multimetric indices; Ecological quality
Pst_397: Determinants of Indigenous Strategies for Adaptation to Climate Change: A Multinomial Choice
Mohammed T. SHAIBU; Issah S ALHASSAN; Christopher GORDON; Elaine T LAWSON; Adelina MENSAH;
Franklin K. AVORNYO
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research - Animal Research Institute, Nyankpala, Tamale, Northern Ghana
This paper used multinomial logit model to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of indigenous
adaptation strategies to climate change among livestock farmers in North-West Ghana. A semi-structure
questionnaire was used to interview 200 randomly selected livestock farmers in two districts of Upper West
region. Four categories of indigenous adaptation strategies were identified. These are Feed, health, housing and
breed related strategies. The health related strategy was used as a based category. The empirical results show
that the factors that statistically and significantly influence the indigenous adaptation strategies were varied.
Noticed climate variability, number of extension contacts, time to market and access to credit by smallholder
livestock farmer were the factors that influence the decision to adopt feed related strategies. Also, flock size
positively and household size negatively influence the decision to adopt breed related strategies, and finally
noticed climate variability, time to market, number of livestock types diversified are the factors that influence the
adoption of house related strategies. Based on these findings, policies that will enhance farmers’ knowledge on
climate variability should be encourage. Also, farmers are encouraged to intensify the diversification of the
livestock species they rear.
Indigenous adaptation strategies, multinomial logit
Pst_403: Which conservation for desert bat species? Insight for north-western Sahara
Stéphane AULAGNIER, Fabrice CUZIN, Michel THEVENOT
CEFS - INRA, Université de Toulouse, Castanet Tolosan cedex, France
Over the 70 bat species of the Western Palearctic only 12 partly or mainly range within the Saharan desert
boundaries. These bats may support harsh conditions of temperature (very hot in summer days, cold in winter
nights), low hygrometry inducing water evaporation loss, reduced water and food availability. As a consequence,
most of these species are restricted to the vicinity of oases where they concentrate at water bodies for drinking
and foraging. They roost in caves, mines, boulders, rock crevices, underground irrigation tunnels, wells, and
possibly inhabited or ruined buildings according to species. Local specific richness and densities are usually low,
however some large colonies, mainly of Asellia tridens, were recorded in southern Morocco and Algeria. Bats are
legally protected in the whole area, however the implementation of this conservation measure suffers from lack of
information and distance to the main cities. Protected areas cannot host significant populations. Some roosts
important for bats such as underground irrigation tunnels are progressively abandoned and collapse. The main
conservation tool remains rising awareness of local population on the weakness of bat populations and the
ecological benefits supplied by these insectivorous mammals.
Chiroptera, desert, ecology, distribution, water
Pst_425: Rôle de la colonie d'Héron garde-boeufs Bubulcus ibis du parc Mohammed V d'El Jadida dans
l'épidémiologie des salmonelloses (Maroc)
Faculty of Sciences, University of Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
Les oiseaux sauvages peuvent constituer des réservoirs et des vecteurs de transmission d’agents pathogènes
menaçant la santé humaine et animale notamment les bactéries. Nous avons étudié le portage des salmonelles
chez la population d’une colonie d’Héron garde-bœufs Bubulcus ibis au niveau du parc Mohamed V d’El Jadida.
Il s’agit d’une première étude sur ce thème à l’échelle nationale. Notre objectif est d’évaluer le rôle éventuel de
cette espèce dans la dissémination des salmonelles et l’identification des sérotypes concernés. Ceci permettra
de mettre à la disposition des décideurs et des gestionnaires un plan d’action de maîtrise des populations
d’Héron garde-bœufs pour une bonne gestion tant sur le plan écologique que sanitaire. A cet effet, 30 poussins
d’hérons ont été capturés pendant le mois de mars 2016, les cadavres ont été autopsiés et une recherche
bactériologique complète de salmonella sp sur des prélèvements de foies et reins a été réalisée selon la norme
AFNOR NF U47-101 suivi d’un sérotypage des souches isolées. Les résultats de cette étude ont montré que la
présence de salmonelles dans 17 échantillons sur 30 soit une prévalence de 56,66%. Le sérotypage des isolats
de salmonelles a permis d’identifier les séroypes suivants: Salmonella Give (01), Salmonella Reading (01), et
Salmonella typhimurium (03), Salmonella enterica sbsp salamae (02), Salmonella Thmpson (01), Salmonella
Kentucky (04), Salmonella enteritidis (01) et Salmonella Lindenberg (01). Ces résultats indiquent que la
population d’Héron garde-bœufs du parc Mohamed V peut porter et diffuser différents sérotypes de salmonelles
aussi bien pour l’homme que pour les animaux. De ce fait, leur rôle dans la diffusion de cette infection ne peut
être négligé.
Bubulcus ibis, épidémiologie, salmonelloses,