A Study of the effectiveness of teaching French pronunciation to

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A Study of the effectiveness of teaching French pronunciation to
University of Massachusetts - Amherst
[email protected] Amherst
Masters Theses 1896 - February 2014
Dissertations and Theses
1936
A Study of the effectiveness of teaching French
pronunciation to young pupils by means of the
phonetic symbols of the International Phonetic
Alphabet and by direct imitation
Ione K. Flower
University of Massachusetts Amherst
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MASSACHUSETTS
STATE COLLEGE
DATE DUE
UNIV. OF MASSACHUSETTS/AMHERST
LIBRARY
LD
3234
M268
1936
F644
cop. 2
A Study of
the Effectiveness
o f
Teaching French Pronunciation
t o
Young
Pupils
by means of the
Phonetic
Symbols
of the
International Phonetic Alphabet
and
Direct
by
Imitation
lone K.Flower
Thesis Submitted for Degree of
Master of Science
Massachusetts State College
Amherst Massachusetts
June 1936
C0KTS1TTS
Introduction
Page
Review of Literature
1
7
Procedure
Conditions
24
The Experiment
35
Treatment of Data
53
Summary
68
Appendix
II
Y A
Tine
Difference
Vignettes de Klle.&isa
70
74
Bibliography
102
Acknowledgments
105
III7RQDTTCTT0N
At the beginning of the present writer's teaching experience in Indiana University, she was not left to her own
devices as to teaching French pronunciation to Freshman students. She was required to teach the French sounds of the In-
ternational Phonetic Alphabet, the physiological position of
vocal organs producing these sounds, and lists of French words
illustrating such sounds in conventional spellings. This study
was intensive, covering the six beginning weeks of the first
semester. At the end of this period, certain desirable results
were apparent* the procedure had reduced French pronunciation
students felt no
to such a graphic and logical system that
inhibiting fear of foreign sounds of speech; they were able
manner
to read passages of phonetic transcription in such a
as to be readily comprehensible to a listener understanding
of the
French, altho the students themselves were ignorant
various poorly grasped pronunciations which years
meaning j
for the teachof study by imitation had failed to elucidate
of underlying
er herself, were explained by the exposition
the* , became a mainPhonetics
principles involved.
stay in this teacher's instruction method
:
that is
,
a
symbols of the Inteaching of pronunciation by means of the
combinations
ternational Phonetic Alphabet and the letter
these symbols.
producing the various sounds represented by
2
At first consideration, the concept appears too abstruse
for other than adult minds; for immature ones
it would
,
seem to present elements of possible confusion. Therefore,
when a later teaching experience brought the writer into contact with the pupils of elementary grades in a private school
•she
did not contemplate the possibility of using "phonetics*
in teaching French pronunciation. She relied on the "Imitat-
ion Method", trusting that her young pupils would imitate her
pronunciation of French words. The trust was fated to disappointment. The children were untrained to listen to speechsounds ;they did not hear accurately what was Raid, and so
were refailed to imitate, altho usually they believed they
presented
peating the teacher's pronunciation. 3ome letters
imitalittle difficulty, while others presented impossible
the nasals were
tion J the vowel £ always fared uncertainly;
matter of
usually failures; consonant pronunciations were a
repeat pronunchance. It is unreasonable to expect pupils to
differentiations
ciations which they do not hear, to utter
distinguish by ear. It
of speech which they are unable to
became evident that imitation was not reliable.
When one baffled little pupil exclaimed
,
"If I could
could say it rig^t"
,
the writer
see the pronunciation,
I
symbols of the I.P.A.
began to wonder whether the use of the
minds. Tentatively,
would be possible in teaching immature
between the four nasal
in the effort to show extinctions
children the four
sounds , she taught to a group of young
various vowelphonetic symbols,^, C«,L^^J. and the
3
consonant combinations producing each nasal; she then Bhowed
the effect of nn
,
of mm
,
and of a vowel following th* com-
bination. This exposition required time, repetition, frequent "nasal sound hunts", examples of the vowel- consonant
combinations as nasals, examples of the same as not nasals.
Across the top of a sheet of paper, these pupils wrote the
four symbols, always in a scale order
t
lSJ
,
E^J
,
iJ J;
the teacher read from an easy French text. At first it was
necessary to stress the nasal sounds so that the pupils
took note in order to decide
,
by the sound, under which
phonetic symbol the word in question should be written
Soon, the children
.
distinguished between the four nasals,
not only by sound, but by a knowledge of the composition
of each nasal. This ear- and eye- training certainly re-
quired time; however
enjoyed the
"
,
it was not difficult, and the pupils
sound hunts ». Eventually the teacher seldom
heaida mispronounced nasal in that group of pupils
.
It is evident that the sounds of all thirty-six symtaught
bols of the International Phonetic Alphabet cannot be
simultaneously. Selection is necessary, progress from the
familiar, as represented by the approximately same articulFrench;
ation in English, to the less familiar sounds of the
include
lists of examples are necessary, and these should
the new
only sounds already learned in combination with
illustrates.
sound in process of assimilation which each list
4
In order to present this step by step progression, the
writer prepared a Manual of French Sounds which formed the
outline of study during eight months for those pupils desig-
nated in this experiment as the "Phonetic Group.
Various reasons beyond the teacher'
s control
*
prevented
her from developing the method with another group of pupils
of a corresponding grade level. They were taught by the
"Imitation method
•
and form, in this report, a contrast-
ing group, the "Non-phonetic".
At first there was no defin-
was superite belief in the teacher's mind that one method
ior to the other. "Phonetics
"
were employed in an attempt
French by young
to better unsatisfactory pronunciation of
group was
pupils. In the course of time the experimental
producing more satisfactory results
than these obtained by
The two groups
the group instructed by the imitation method.
pronunpresented the elements of an experiment in method of
ciation instruction.
experimental
As the teacher came to understand the
words of Prof.
aspect of her teaching, she sought, in the
matters that
light from recognised sources on
Coleman,
"Phonetic Method «
give trouble." Articles discussing the
who, like the writer,
abound; they are written by teachers
results of the new
have experimented, and recorded the
been attained in
method. These results, however , have
students. In an attempt
classes of high-school and college
experiment adapted to the
to find some account of such an
various in
teaching of young pupils, the writer addressed
-
College of
quiries to recognised sources, such as Teachers'
AssocColumbia, Middlebnry College, the National Educational
iation in Washington
,
the Modern Language Association in
no account was
Chicago. Invariably the reply came back that
then seemed
known of any experiment of such a nature. It
the Phonetic
worth while, in order to form some estimate of
to evaluate the
Method as a device for subsequent teaching,
instruction which
results of the two manners of pronunciation
pupils. These
teacher had followed with two groups of
this
it would then
results once definitely fixed for examination,
method produced rebe possible to decide whether this new
nature as those
sults with young pupils of as satisfactory
recorded in the case of older students.
6
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The
Unas "phonetic method
"
nnd "phonetics* are used
words
in this experiment in the sense usually attached to the
in pronunciation -method discussion! that is speech-sounds
are represented by devised characters or letters or symbols,
irrespective of what may be the conventional spellings of
those sounds.
In view of the fact that speech-sounds are eoiamon to
several modern languages, it was possible for a group of
scholars, interested in the teaching of foreign-language
pronunciation, to arrange an alphabet of characters or
seversymbols representing speech-sounds, those common to
al languages
,
and those particular to some one language.
AlphaTnis alphabet is known as the International Phonetic
sounds of
bet, Its symbols are said to represent the speechIN TEACHING
some 400 languages( THE USE 0? PHONETIC SYKBOLS
Review,
FRENCH PROimTCI ATT ON , by Anna W.Ballard in School
symbols varies
Dec. 1920,Vol.5,p.l35). The number of these
kind of speechfrom language to language, as the number and
French, whida
sounds vary. English has a greater number than
recognizable sounds of
is composed of thirty-six distinctly
speech.
sound always
Each symbol represents a certain speechmatter how spelled
the same, no matter in what language, no
symbols are written
by the letters of that language. These
some are
as letters, mostly Latin
:m,s,f,ifO,uf
differentiated by slight irregulatities of formation:
-d
two are copied from the Greek
;
from the Danish
"a-
c&
$
ets^
J
»
J
to
,
•
:
J&
i
:
y
,
«
;
=>_*
£.
i
one comes
some borrow diacritical marks
t
I
%
These symbols are enclosed in square brackIt must
distinguish them as p honeti c symbols.
remembered that they represent sound, not spelling,
always
pitch.
just as notes on a staff of music represent
Various symbols occur in several languages : CsJ
03
,
L63
.
t
[XJ
»
from lanThe spellings of such sounds may differ
the other hand, has
guage to language? every language, on
the theta sound of Engits own particular speech sounds—
from the French; the naslish, Spanish, German, but absent
al sounds of French
and Portugese.
I.P.A. symbols are reThe sounds represented by these
and combinations of
presented in French by various letters
symbol may represent a sound
letters, with the result that a
the sound of mais ,
spelled variously ICnwffJ, representing
mets .Therefore it is necessary
(je) mets , (il)met , (le.)
the symbol together with the
not only to learn the sound of
recognize
manner of production, but also to
physiological
inversely , to assoc*hat letters produce that sound; and ,
portrayed by the symbols.
iate with such letters the sounds
means of the IntemaWhen pronunciation is taught by
understood in respect to physionational Phonetic Alphabet,
with instruction as to convenlogical production, together
the method employed is
tional spellings of these symbols,
8
organized "body of inthe Phonetic Method. It comprises an
struction which pupils may investigate independently of the
teacher' s
constant attentance
•
The Imitation Method consists in an attempt on the part
students to imitate the pronunciation of the teacher, of
some visiting speaker
,
or of some recording machine. It
trusts to the aural apprehension of the foreign speech and
the vocal reproduction thereof
"by
the student
.
9
a state of confusion
For some years there has existed
he the objective in French
among teachers as to what should
one point is there any unanimlanguage instruction. On only
which Coleman states is , -the ability of pinion as to aim,
fair degree of accuracy" (EX
ity to pronounce French with a
LANG-WAGE TEACHING ,by Prof.
PERIMENT3 AMD STUDIPS IK MODERN
Chicago ?ress,Chicago ,1924,
Algernon Coleman. University of
pronunciation is now generally
p.13.) -The value of a good
is the aim. But there
ability
conceded whenever speaking
merely the need of a good pronunciai8 a deeper need than
The sense.
understood
tion in order to make ourselves
upon
understanding, of a *ord depends
and consequently the
even if it is pronounced only
its correct pronunciation,
find that the student
As a proof of this we
B entally
soon as the teacher pronounces
often gets the meaning as
even unHence, pronouncing properly
correctly
word
the
meaning of many words
sown .ords is possible and the
and will
has heard pronounced, can
which he [t*e student]
properly. Or to
they are pronounced
oe called up again when
aural impsychology, pronunciationexpress it in terms of
means of forming associapressions- serves as an added
cases
the meanings in those
up
call
images
tions. Sound
MODERN
(METHOD* OF TEACHING
fail' . fUFTHODS
associations
other
where
inkers, V*T*
chin. World Book Co..
Hands
Ch.H.
,by
LANGUAGES
1925, pp
.
89 and 90.)
10
in the opinion
"But scholars seem to he unanimous
use the spoken language
that whether or not pupils are to
acquire a sound knowledge or
in after life, they can never
of a foreign speech unless they pro-
delicate appreciation
nounce it correctly.
If this were not the case,
the task of the teacher of
no attention need
French would he greatly simplified, for
complicated part of it,
be given to the most difficult and
the teaching of pronunciation."
MB
M
OF Wfc*E*f<5S I*
in School Review,
TRACHISG SOTSKBTAftV FHTJfCH.by E.B.Babobck
Nov. 1913, Vol.21, p. 608.)
quotes (p.609) Oeorge
In the same article the author
study of pronunciation inHempl, who devoted years to the
fact
- It is a well known psychological
struction methods t
in pronouncing a word fixes
that the mental activity involved
processes infirmly in the mind than do the
it much more
it. It is therefore true
volved in simply seeing and hearing
use of a language, even when
economy to practice the oral
of a power to read."
primary aim be but the acquisition
the
to
and pedagogically sound
-It is both psychologically
through a mwtery of the proobtain this reading ability
and form* of the language,
nunciation ,and of the vocabulary
fix
written practice is needed to
and much oral, aural and
A*>
pronunciation, vocabulary and forms."
TKAO^, by Prof. Algernon Coleman,
XB8 IH KODKRN LA^AOF.
Chicago,1^4, p/>0.)
University of Chicago Press,
M»M
11
Altho the unanimity of opinion as to the deFirability
of a good pronunciation seems "well established at present,
it appears to he neither long-standing nor effective in re-
sults." The teaching of an accurate pronunciation in a for-
eign language is comparatively new in this country.** (TTS
TKACHIHG 07 K0E3RTI FOREIGN LANGUAGES, hy Samuel H.'axman,
Educational Review, Vol. 50, p. »2.
)
This statement
,
writ-
holds
ten in 1315 hy a language teacher of Boston University,
have been
a suggestion of promise which does not appear to
the
fulfilled hy 1931, when Coleman reports in the words of
attention."
Committee of Twelve, "Pronunciation receives scant
(TiE TEACHING OF MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES in
TSfJ
WITS®
p. 14^).
STATUS, by Algernon Coleman, Kacmillan Co., H*Y. 1971,
language teaching
In further comment u,>on the modern foreign
analyses correctstatus in this country this report perhaps
in accurate pronunly the cause for the slow progress made
(p.l?9 ) "In order to
ciation instruction. The report sa; s,
must be taken
gain the necessary time the foreign language
up earlier
Until we are willing greatly to lengthen
part of our children's educthe time given to the linguistic
idea of a full and wellation, we shall have to renounce the
rounded knowledge of French and German
"
time refer-
courses of two-years durred to is that devoted to French in
analysis is restated a
ation in high-school curricula. This
teaching of modern foryear later in another report on the
the foreign lan"The oral and aural use of
:
eign languages
j
)
)
12
time
guages, scarcely known In the American schools at the
the present requirements
[for College Board Examinations
parwere adopted, now come to play a highly important role,
students
ticularly in the better class of schools which send
to the Board examinations
b
Any revision
,
approaching more nearly the suc-
of foreign
cessful procedure and results of the best schools
of time
countries will make it imperative that the amount
granted.
asked for modern languages in this report be
While the conditions and exigencies of the American
schools, neverschool are not similar to those of foreign
demand for the more
theless there has always been a distinct
language work
tangible results that characterise the foreign
England, and France."
of the best schools of Denmark, Germany,
OF THE SECON(SECONDARY EDUCATION BOARD {REPORT OF A STUDY
DARY CURRICULUM, 1922, Milton, Mass. , p. 101.
the desirable
What is this foreign language programme
American foreign languresults of which are lacking in our
"
those schools
age work t The report explains (p.102 )
foreign language study a
have not hesitated to provide for
than is the case in our Ammuch more liberal amount of time
nine consecutive years are deerican schools. In many cases
or other foreign languages."
voted to the study of English
made of teaching
Germany the experiment is being
»Xb
OF MOD-
kindergarten."^, TEACHING
foreign languages in the
M.Waxman. Educational Review,
ERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES ,by Samuel
1915, Vol. 50, p. 84.
)
13
There appears to he no lack of appreciation of the psychological and pedagogical reasons for *uch a procedure.
"It is an established fact that young children possess
a faeulty for acquisition of language which is weakened in
adolescence, even in those children in whom the study of other
languages besides their own has tended to maintain it; this
faculty may have completely disappeared in adolescents who
have never learned any language besides their mother tongue.
The present-day scheme of education in America takes no ac-
count of these well-known facts, and regularly postpones the
study of modern languages to an age when the language -acquiring faculty is greatly weakened or completely atrophied inthe
majority of pupils, and when the gifted minority can learn to
master the language only with undue expenditure of work and a
great waste of ti»e."( gHI USE OF PHONETICS IN TEACHING FRENCH,
by C.J.Cipriane, School Review, 1912, Vol. 20, p, 516.)
"In direct ratio as a child ages, the more difficult
be-
comes the acquisition of new sounds because the muscles of tie
vocal organs are not as flexible and the assimilation faculty
is weaker
"(THE TEACHING OF MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES , by
Samuel li.Waxman, Educational Review,1915,Vol.50,p.84.
The desirable results in foreign language work obtained
period of
in European schools are due not wholly to a longer
.Rosset,
study but in part to method of study and instruction
the stuwhose concern is with method, is quoted thus; "Of all
certainly the
dents of Teutonic origin who learn Frenoh, it is
difficulties,
Germans who, in spite of more numerous and greater
both teachers
succeed most quickly in speaking correctly because
)
)
14
and pupils have received a theoretical and practical phonetic
education." (THE USE OF PHONETICS XI TBAGHXW5 FRENCH, by E.3.
Babcock, School Review, 1913, Vol.21,p,617.
"The activities of French phoneticians for more than a
generation past in adopting phonetic alphabets to teach pronunciation have been reflected in this country and in Bngland...
"France, the classical land of experimental phonetics, con-
tinues to be prolific in efforts to creat a sharply standardized form of instruction in the fields of articulation and syl-
labication, and French manuals for these are not lacking. .. .It
is worthy of note, however, that also in Germany in very recent
years [1934] there is recognition of the necessity for carefully systematized books devoted especially to guiding the foreigner
to a standardized pronunciation by means of a rational, pedagogi-
cal procedure. In America it is mostly teachers of French who
show an active interest in devices for training in pronunciation.
(KXPERIMEHTS AND STUDIES IN MODERN LANGUAGE TEACHING, by Algernon Coleraan 9 University of Chicago PreBS, Chicago, 1934, p. 17.
This interest is echoed and re-echoed. In this report of
experiments, Coleman remarks( p .17.
}
:"The interest in phone-
tics has continued to be an out-standing feature of modern lan-
guage methodology during recent years."
(jL9?ll "
• • • -
7o U8 *
a
phonetic alphabet, or not to use it, still remains a question
of lively discussion in pamphlet and periodical."
The report of the Secondary Curriculum speaks impartially
of phonetics as a teaching device, but it insists that
the
"
teacher be equipped with a thorough
knowledge
of
£
.
)
15
teachthe science of phonetics whatever nay be his method of
:RE?ORT OF A
ing prommciation" ( SECONDARY EDUCATION BOARD
,p.l2C )
STUDY OF THE SECONDARY CURRICULUM, 19 ?4, Milton, Mass.
the use
Other writers stress the educational advantages in
some phonetics
of phonetics for the -pupil. "We want to have
has convinintroduced into our schools because the theory
that by means of
ced us, and experiment has proved to us,
certainty and in
this science we can, with decidedly greater
an absolutely better pronunan assentially easier way, give
time than would be possible
ciation in a much shorter space of
FOREIGN LANGU^B.hy O.Jeswithout phonetics." (HOT TO TEACH A
Danish, Macmillan
person, translation from the original
Co.,
1904, p. 142.)
the education value
"There can he no question but that
greatly enhanced by the use
of the ^tudy of French will be
classes. It cannot fail to foster
of phonetics in elementary
true
precision and accuracy. If it is
in the pupils habits of
must first observe, then comthat the student of language
phonetic method will
conclusions,our
pare, and finally draw
him. The hit-or-miss method
furnish excellent training for
harm
pronunciation does positive
that is often used to teach
that
will teach them L students]
to the listener. Phonetics
an
with sounds .not letters,
in languages we are dealing
USE OF PHONEbe new to them."(THE
probably
will
that
idea
School
FRENCH, by E.B.Babcook.
ELEMENTARY
TEACHING
IN
TICS
Review, 1923, Vol. 21, p. 616.
)
16
This appreciation of the value of phonetic* to impress
the student with the importance of sound in language study
finds expression in other writers, "Language and sound must
go together, and the ear is an indispensable aid to the eye."
(TTF.
USR 0? PHWCSTICS IN TRACKING SirKSNTARY FRKNCH, by E.B.
Sabcook, school Review, Vol.f>l,p.608.
3ovee expands this same idea at some length. "The object of the phonetic training which the student receives is
two-fold slst
,
the acquisition of a good pronunciation;2nd,
and by no means the least important, the learning of the written values of the various sounds with a view to establishing
finally such an exact relation between the spoken and the
written word that the sound will very nearly indicate the correct spelling. This second result of the phonetic training
buildhas been found to be a very definite aid in vocabulary
the ear through
ing. For by constantly developing the memory of
attained
continual oral drill, a degree of efficiency is
ei-iily rewhereby not only words but whole sentences are very
great speed
The result is a combination which produces
tained.
with unusual accurin the acquisition of vocabulary coupled
acy in spelling.
we have developed
"By constantly appealing to the ear
that the sound is
the memory of the ear to such an extent
easily retained." (
ti&M
#BSO&n*i TRACING IN
M
TTTV^SI-
Review, Vol.?2,p.679.)
TY HIGH SCHOOL, by A.G. Bovee, School
lanhis very earnest writing about foreign
Coleman, in
)
17
same point;
guage teaching in the United States dwells on the
we wish to impart a good pronunciation, we must ac«jf
sounds are
quaint out pupils with the way in which foreign
vocal ormade and must exercise systematically both their
( SECONDARY
gans and their ears until the goal is reached."
SECONDARY CURRICUEDUCATION BOARD :RE?ORT OF A STUDY OF THE
LUM, Milton, Mass., p. 235.)
method as
Other writers feel the value of the phonetic
he pardoned if we feel cona scientific procedure. "We may
treating French provinced that the modem scientific way of
to the old-fashioned
nunciation is in every respect superior
THE TEACHING- OF
combination of guess work and error." (ON
School Review,Vol.22,
FRENCH PRONUNCIATION, by ?. H. Churchman,
involves nothing more terrifying
p. 546.) "The new method
facts
than an accurate analysis of the
-
decides Church-
teacher agrees, finding
man. With his conclusion another
of learning a foreign pronunciathat «.... this hard work
scientific method." (r* USE
can be simplified by the
tion
C.J.Cipriani, School Review, Vol.
OF PHONETICS IN FRENCH, by
20, p. 516.)
language is then both a science
"The pronunciation of a
be
phonetics pronunciation can
and an art. By means of
•
THE
more accurately. . • " (
learned
and
efficiently
taught more
LANGUAGES , by Samuel K.-axman.
TEACHING OF MODERN FOREIGN
Educational Review, Vol. 50, p. 84.
to
phonetic training appeals
Still another aspect of
18
written extensively on this method.
Miss Anna Ballard who has
present writer's
Her enthusiasm is constant, hut not, in the
She
experience, are the results she records overstated.
own
says, in part
:
"But what are we to do about French
?
My only
of teaching that
answer is phonetics. There is an easy way
pronunciation. As far as I know,
difficult subject of French
good results for the whole
it is the only way to produce
the correct pronunciation of
class. Each sound is taught by
in which it is easy to pronounce
a word containing it, a word
METHOD AND ITS APPLICAthat sound correctly." f*tt
Anna Ballard, Educational ReTION IN AFRICAN SCHOOLS, by
stresses (p.453 ) a further point
view, Vol.51,p.451.) She
experience of the present
completely in accord with the
reaction to this method, -he
writer in regard to pupils'
pronunciation is little short of
rapid improvement in their
to dilit is a fresh incentive
marvelous; their pleasure in
that
depends. From the moment
igent practice. On that all
their pronunciatext, pupils study
they open the phonetic
tion at home."
meconsideration of the phonetic
After some lengthy
modem language
a series sf.dy of
in
Handsohin.
thod .
.sine
In vis. of the
conclusions,
teaching. sums up his
ta*e
teachers in eerrice to
counsel
would
„f phonetics, we
XHK. L«(METHODS F TEACHIKG
study."
the
an interest in
venders. ».Y.
*orld Boo* Co..
Ch.H.Handechin.
by
M.
19
an. ther teacher sets forth his
1923, p. 93.) In more detail
method :
reasons for using the phonetic
not give satisfac* 1. The old v/ay of teaching does
tory results
«
2.
.
of the teacher
Here imitation of the pronunciation
is not sufficient.
«
3. The only
way in which the correct pronunciation
explanation of the formation of the
can he taught is by an
sounds of French.
«
4.
combinations of
Much time is saved by shoeing the
script, in the beginning.
these sounds in speech by phonetic
teaching of pronun« 5 . The educational value of the
is very great." (THE tISB OP
ciation by the use of phonetics
FRENCH, by E.B.3ABC0CE , in
PHONETICS IN TEACHING ELEMENTARY
School Review, Vol.21 ,p.617.)
'
view of such favorable exWhy then, one may ask, in
is that method so restrictposition of the phonetic method,
of Kr.
may be found in the words
ed in use. One explanation
new
we to accept anything
Babcock * And yet so loath are
the pracin Germany and France,
that,inspite of extensive use
slow
teaching has received but
tical value of phonetics in
OF PHONETICS IN
in America.- (THE HSE
recognition
Review,
by E.B.Babcock, School
FRENCH,
ELEMENTARY
TEACHING
Vol. 21, p. 610.)
-ore prohibitive than
There may he another reason
teaching of proto change. The
disinclination
natural
ere
B
20
time at the benunciation by the phonetic method requires
slowing up an approach
of the study, thus apparently
ginning
itself, since students usualto the study of the language
expense of speech. But this
ly seek a reading ability at the
of the fundamendelay in order to acquire an understanding
made up, thanks to the
tals of foreign pronunciation is soon
vocabulary more thoroughly by aural mem-
ability to acquire
ory. However
,
is reat the beginning, time, plenty of time,
Palmer, in his exquired for phonetic exposition and drill.
recommends that "the
cellent volume on foreign language work,
duration of at least one
first, or elementary stage, of the
with all writbe devoted to ear and speech training
term
TIE BOXnTZnO
ten material in phonetic transcription. (
Harold E.Palmer, World
STUDY AND TEACHING OF LANGUAGES, by
Furthermore, he proBook Co., Yonkers, N.Y. 1917, p.138.)
minimum of two years
poses (p.197): "We would expect that a
use of the phonetic transhould be accorded to the exclusive
scription."
Two years
many American echocle
But the whole French course In
WOD(EXJT^IWEKTS MD STTPTSS
consist, of hut two years
VniTereiProf. Algernon Coleman,
EKM LUKWMB TEACHING , hy
and IS.) Thl. con1034.
of Chicago Prese, Chicago,
consideration hy the Committee
dition is fuily taken into
In discussCol«ma»,»h. writes
of Twelve ae reported hy
that
the Committee recognises
ing the -phonetic method
procedure
do not allow of this
American school conditions
*
„
».U
21
as practiced in Germany unless more time is allotted to the
modern language course.- (THE TEACHING OF KODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN THE UNITED STATES, by Algernon Coleman, i;acmillan
Co., N.Y.1931,p.l30.)
Advocates of the phonetic method realise that time is
fundamenrequired to build-in this comprehension of phonetic
together with
tals. The actual presentation of the symbols,
the
explanation of the physiological manner of production of
time. "After
sounds represented, does not demand the extended
pupils know
six or seven lessons of fifteen minutes each,
texts, " writes
all the sounds and can begin their phonetic
Teachers' College.
Miss Ballard of her students of French in
FRENCH, by A.V.Bal(THE USE OF PHONETIC SYM30L3 IN TEACHING
Prof. Cole)
lard, Modem Language Joumal,1920,Vol.5.p,136.
to the teaching of the
man devoted three periods of one hour
PHOBSTIOf IN JUNIOR
sounds and symbols of vowels. (PRACTICAL
Vodern Language Journal,
COLLEGE FRENCH, by Algernon Coleman,
needed in the applicaVol.l ? p.l55.) The lengthened time is
above
• All the work done, as outlined
tion of the system.
will be comparativeCphonetic and physiological analysis!
up by diligent repetition
ly useless unless it is followed
perleast 125 to 150 recitation
and practice throughout at
(p.200.).
iods, "continues prof. Coleman
the effectiveness of the
Such are the opinions as to
learning pronunciation.
phonetic method as a device for
point of view
What of it from the teacher's
?
j
22
They are
•There la no magic in phonetics
"
an ex-
tremely useful supplement to the physiological explanation..."
(PRACTICAL PHONETICS IN JUNIOR COLLEGE FRENCH, sy Algernon
Coleman, Modern Language Journal, Vol.1, pp.155 and 156.
)
The "difficulty of teaching pronunciation with the aid of
phonetic symbols has been greatly exaggerated....." asserts
Hiss Ballard. "The method is simple, the results sure......"
(THE USE OP PHONETIC SYMBOLS IK TEACHING FRENCH PFONTTfCIATION, by A .V* .3ALLARD » Modern Language Journal, Vol. 5, p. 137.
"she
"Let no teacher be afraid to use the phonetic alphabet,
diffiurges. "This method of teaching pronunciation is more
it decult than the old imitation process in the sense that
his
mands more time and thought of the teacher in planning
presentation, as well as seeking light from recognised
is certainsources on matters that give him troubles but it
his intelligence and
ly more interesting, as it appeals to
IN JUNIOR
exercises his ingenuity." (PRACTICAL PHONETICS
Language JourCOLLEGE FRENCH, by Algernon Coleman, Modern
nal, Vol. l,p. 200.)
are the most
Perhaps Miss Ballard and Prof. Coleman
the use of
prolific and enthusiastic writers advocating
phonetics in pronunciation work
;
certainly they leave no
Comparunexamined as to practical application.
and Imitation Methods, Miss
ing the results of the Phonetic
in classes of phonetic
Ballard writes of her investigation
in the case of pupils relyand non-phonetic training that,
one-third of the class pronounces
ing on imitation, "half or
question
23
badly and has no hope of improvement."
(
TEACHING FRENCH PRO-
JourNUNCIATION BY PHONETICS, by A.W.Ballard, Modern Language
nal, Vol.3
,
p. 327.)
And again
,
she asserts,
In
Interme-
coupled
diate French, those who have had phonetic training
pronounce betwith practice in the use of symbols invariably
ter than any one else
.
"
(
THE USE OF PHONETIC SYMBOLS IN
Ballard, Modern lanTEACHING FRENCH PRONUNCIATION, by A.W.
guage Journal, Vol.5, p. 137.)
writers have formed their
It is true that these various
demonstrations of desirable results
favorable opinions from
high-school and college studobtained in the instruction of
does not provide for modem
ents. The American school system
grades. Only in private
foreign language study in elementary
children be found engaged in
schools might classes of young
of
came under the observation
such study. One such school
teacher who recorded impressions.
an interested and curious
children in
were being used by the
The symbols of the I.P.A.
they were .uite
- It was obvious that
learning pronunciation.
alphainstead of conventional
interested in using a new code
always ready
at ten and eleven are
betic characters. Children
by
PHONETICS IN THE CLASSROOM,
ON
NOTE
tools.»U
to use new
October 1931.Vol.XII .p.25.)
Languages.
Modern
j.J.Findlay,
writer s
exactly with the present
accords
statement
ThiB
experiment
the basis for the
constitutes
which
experience,
pages.
detailed in the following
24
PROCEDURE
Conditions
:
1. The groups engaged in the experiment consisted of
three small classes, the Non-phonetic group, the Phonetic
group A
,
and the Phonetic group B. The first two groups
stood in a relationship of comparison in this experiment;
Phonetic group B was not connected with these two groups,
hut offered data as to progress in improvement in pronunciation over a period of six months during which the group
made a serious and continuous study of phonetics. The results of the experiment in the case of the Non-phonetic
group and Phonetic group A are to he compared with each
other at the heginning of the experiment and at the end
six months later. In the case of Phonetic group B
,
the
results of the experiment offer comparison as of the be-
ginning and of the end of the six months period.
Hon-phonetic group and Phonetic group A were comprised of four pupils each; Phone tic group 3
consisted of three
having
children, all of good scholastic ability, and each
over into
some speech difficulty in English which carried
French language study
«
studying
2-. The pupils of these three groups began
one exception
French before the age of eight years, with
in Phonetic group A
,
age of
in which case the girl at the
of phonetics during
twelve engaged in an intensive study
25
throe months and tutoring in grammar with the present teacher during summer vacation. In the case of Non-phonetic group
and Phonetic group A
»
the first two years of study were
sira-
ilar, and consisted of reading and translation in "Colette
et Ses Freres
%
of acquiring vocabulary and simple expres-
sions, of memorizing short verses and lines of simple dram-
atizations. In all this study pronunciation depended on im-
itation of the teacher's speech.
Beginning in October 1930, however, a definite cleavage
in type of study occurred, and the formation of two groups
began} these groups eventually developed into the ITon-pho-
netic and Phonetic groups.
In Phonetic group A were includ-
ed those children whose course of study was unbroken. During
eight months, 19.^0-1931, they engaged in a study of phonetics
consisting of learning the symbols, the sounds of the same,
production of
the physiological position of vocal organs for
the
these sounds, the French spelling of such sounds, and
study was
reading and writing of phonetic transcription. This
altho it was
continuous according to a pre-arranged manual,
study, such
interwoven with various other kinds of language
work was slow
as reading, memorising, dramatization. The
tiresome. The childbut thorough and not at all difficult or
course, altho
ren of this group followed an uninterrupted
together as during
they were not all continuously grouped
characteristic of
the last year of study. The distinguishing
phonetics in pronunciation
their study was a constant use of
and application
workf this phase of study, the acquisition
five years.
of a knowledge of phonetics, covered some
HonIncluded in the group which developed into the
study was
phonetic were those children whose course of
with the
interrupted for long periods , and then resumed
children represent teacher. During those periods the
other teachers. Three
ceived instruction in French from
hut none were drillreceived some instruction in phonetics,
use of such learning . In
ed in application so as to make
pupils French was spoken by one
the homes of three of the
more or less frequently; at
or the other of the parents
The course of study of this
least so reported by the pupils.
as in the case of Phonetic
group is of the same duration
with
years;b«t it lacks continuity
group A, that is of seven
the same teacher.
reading,
received instruction in
in common, both groups
conversation, dramatisation.
translation, grammar exercises,
Course
used, 'Longman's French
were
texts
grammar
Different
Book
'Smith and Koberte French
group!
Kon-phonetic
for the
elementary
The same general
- for the Phonetic group A.
One
covered
lifted in scope, were
principles of gram^r, very
et See Freres".
same reader, - Colette
The
groups.
both
hy
groups
.
dramatization work the
ai»«**
In
in
rrom)a
fc
groups,
was used by both
_
sometimes intermingled.
1954-1955, that
year of study,
jwi
xas*
last
iv
the
in
It was only
.
the course of study
„ Q+nre or
f xn
nature
and
grouping
the definite
oiiow of the designation
as to allow
manner
a
such
in
developed
«
27
groups, and to permit the exof Phonetic and Hon-phonetic
pronunciation.
in phonographic recording of
perimentation
comprise the entire class
Uor did these rarious groupings
however, comprise
reciting at all given periods; they did ,
a distinctive kind of
a nucleus for each group receiving
instruction
•
of one half hour
Glass periods for both groups were
year of eight months, with
three times a week for a school
long Christmas and Spring vacations.
pupils with special and
Phonetic group B consisted of
the study of French at the
similar needs. Two of them began
oral and imitative of the
age of five when all work was
third child began at the age
teacher' s pronunciation. The
ability.eager
of high scholastic
of seven. All three were
grades.
been pushed ahead in school
at lessons, and they had
prevented good
in English, which
defect
speech
some
All had
of
had received any training
enunciation in French; no one
translation,
Study consisted in
sounds.
speech
for
ear
the
for comof simple French texts
reading (by the teacher )
and
pupils, memorizing verse
prehension on the part of the
results,
and poor pronunciation
dramatization with much labor
4vi- for
enr the teacher to bring
possible
was
It
in October 1934,
the.eel.ee.Sh,
ether in a group by
theee three children to e
for play-wor*.
children, too advanced
tired
b.
to
found the*
therefore.
The entire year,
gra-ar-test.
for
a
too U-t-r.
28
was devoted to pronunciation work
t
learning phonetios, ear-
training and speech drill. There was practically no home work,
Besides
all study being carried on in class with the teacher.
the
a manual of French sounds which the pupils composed under
teacher* s guidance, they used
man' &
•
Que Fait Gaston?- and Church-
-Phonetic Gateway to French"
.
The teacher felt that the
in improved
the year of specialized work had justification
French pronunciation.
undetgone , at varThe pupils of all three groups had
kind and another. Only
ious periods, standard tests of one
common, the Pintner ideaone test had all experienced in
intelligence is rated as
tional Achievement Test, in which
3.
must perforce he used in
an Educational Quotient, which
been made in a few cases
intelligence scoring . Kote has
recorded.
*here a pupil had an I.n. scoring
group A had been tested
Hoa-phonetic group and Phonetic
years
each pupil attained twelve
for English vocabulary as
Test,
in English Vocabulary
of age, and all had a scoring
This
Institute of Technology.'
Stevens
.'Connor,
hy Johnson
of definichoice (four choices )
multiple
of
consists
test
for the age
the normal scoring
words;
English
150
of
tion
definition.
06 correct choices of
at
reckoned
is
twelve
of
the same time, as
not take the test at
did
pupils
these
All
upall did take the test
but
considerably,
their ages varied
scorings
that the resulting
so
years,
twelve
on arriving at
29
pupils as of twelve years
do constitute a comparison between
of age.
in October,
Record is made also of the ages of pupils
tests were made. For
1934, when the first phonographic
begun four years before,
Group A the study of phonetics had
non-phonetic group also had
of French six years before. The
previously, so that when
begun the study of French six years
formed a part of their curthis experiment ended French had
riculum during seven years.
K.Q.
i.q.
^ng.
Voc.
14
102
in
69
13*
109
119
42
13
107
76
12
117
50
14
105
54
14
109
123
133
104
12*
12
120
126
67
10
137
143
Phone-
10
124
tic B
10
117
Group
Kon-
phonetic
Phonetie
A
Age
Table I
39
30
4.
well-to-do
All the pupils in this experiment came from
knew ahomes, where physical needs received attention;all
in the inbout the same social experience; all were included
Terman (l).
telligence grouping of "Superior - as scored by
No one of them presented -behavior problem
disturbances.
for study,
They were alike in having no great inclination
on the other hand
with two exceptions , brother and sister;
when extra-curricular
they were not disinclined to study
time for preparaactivities and social engagements allowed
case of brother and sister,
tion of lessons. Excepting in the
to continue schooling into
there was no expression of desire
present writer believes, is incollege. This attitude, the
and constitutes a much
duced mainly by parental influence,
academic attainments than the
larger factor in a pupil' s
seem that between home attitude
-home- realises. It would
achievement there exists a detoward study and scholastic
this
which it is not the aim of
cided positive relationship
scorings
but which does influence
experiment to investigate,
following facts as to indivThe
experiment.
the
recorded in
of
the individual scorings
with
read
histories,
idual case
correlation.
seem to indicate such a
Table III and Table VI
foreign respoken Prench during
had
mother
The
Ellen I
pronunciation^ comgood
a
retained
eidence as a child and
inactive
written word; vocabulary
prehension of spoken and
phrases.
and pat social
expressions
common
1B all but very
by S.L.Pressy.
and the >Tew Education",
-Psychology
)
Harper &Brother,H .Y.l933,p.
U
of
grammatical foundation, no background
Y ery little solid
withdrawn from the present
academic training. Ellen was
tutored by the mother during two
teacher' s instruction and
to the class with which, howyears; she was then returned
since during her absence, the
ever, she was unable to work,
phonetics.
class had begun the study of
course was taken under
Janet : Janet' s whole French
instruction, but she was transfered
the present teacher's
years.
several times during the seven
into different classes
but prevented her presence
These changes were unavoidable,
pronunciation by the phonetic method.
in a group studying
reflecttoward study on Janet's part
An easy-going attitude
background of academic attainment.
ed a rather meager
home of wealth
These sisters came from a
Judy, Alice .
aspiration for academic
where there flickered a vague
followed no definite programme,
achievement; however , it
anothfrom one private school to
moved
were
children
and the
required. Their course in
peregrinations
family
the
er as
father was
several teachers. The
under
pursued
was
French
frequently.
French with the children
reported as conversing in
group preof the Non-phonetic
All these case-histories
the situation
in Phonetic group A.
courses,
irregular
sent
is markedly different.
v , arg Jane
jane studied with
years
For seven consecutive
group with
of the original
v,.t
<?vm was 01
She
the present teaoher.
..thod.Th.
by the phonetic
« h ioh wae begun inBtruetlon
onto
experiment ana prodded
the
in
intereeted
mother .as
Jane
:
32
who eventually
achievement a rather easy-going daughter,
good pronunciation .
took pride in striving for a
Grace when she
Grace t The French course began for
years later than in the case
*as twelve, some three or four
to study with the., and thereof her companions. She wished
of tutoring in phonetics
fore undertook an intensive course
summer vacation she conwith the present teacher; during a
work and phonetic transtinued studying, especially grammar
the advanced class. Her
cription .In the fall she entered
by her mother and by
interest and ambition were .ustained
success.
a family tradition of academic
also possessed in her
Cherry t With a high I.Q. Cherry
Both
for scholastic excellence.
home a background of respect
the father a Phi Beta Kappa
parents were college graduates,
She received every encourageand a secondary school teacher.
slight speech difficulty in a
ment in her study. She had a
which
upon phonetics as a tool with
spasmodic lisp. She seised
thle handicap.
to help her oreroome
to study for Holly
JMB prorlded the approach
her
Preach oour.e. I»>ature for
during the flret part of her
years
attitude only in th. last
age. she shoeed a serious
that she
almost inspit. of herself
of the course. It was
she
Prenoh sounds, erentually
of
understanding
an
acquired
insuccess and edition for
„as inspired with pride of
ardent parinto one of th. met
dereloped
and
crement,
to ocThis change appeared
experl».nt.
this
in
ticipant,
llolly
.
33
cur when success freed her, at least in her own mind, from
a rather adverse critical attitude about the course on the
part of her aether.
Phonetic group 3 consisted of three children of ten
years of age when the present teacher undertook a leisurely study of phonetics as a means of improving pronunciation
in pupils of high scholastic ability, each of whom had a
speech difficulty in English
Jeff
•
Jeff was brother to Cherry and came from a
:
milieu offering every encouragement. He had a decided
speech defect, apparently of nervous origin. He sought to
master his difficulty, and was disinclined to pronounce
any word about which he was uncertain. Phonetics offered
him an opportunity to know how to pronounce without dependattempting
ing upon hearing the word repeated often before
it himself. Sttth this reassuring aid
Mary
i
,
he was unafraid.
her
To Judge from Mary' s English pronunciation,
She had
first speech patterns had been set by Irish maids.
not hear what
no definite sense of speech sounds i she could
Written charsounds she herself, or other persons, uttered.
to associate
acters had no aural counterpart. She learned
particular sounds.
with the phonetic symbols definite and
phonographic recordShe refused to take part in the first
phonetics, her interest
ing, but after six months study of
of the second
was aroused so that she wished to be a part
recording
•
34
Betsy
:
Betsy* s speech in English was Barred by a
rapidity which allowed no enunciation. She was a wide reader with an unusually large reading vocabulary, which, how-
ever
,
did not enrich her speech. Words interested her as
to meaning, but not as to sound. It was necessary to en-
gage her active mind in an appreciation of enunciation, of
speech sounds
.
By phonetics, this sense was developed. In
fact a very keen
discrimination developed, and a pride in
good French pronunciation.
Much drill remains to be done with this small group,
but a means of overcoming their speech difficulties in
French has been presented to them.
s
35
The ExperiBient:
several yeare.al1. This experiment covers, in truth,
the use of two diftho the full implications involved in
were not
ferent methode of teaching French pronunciation,
course taken by
realised until the last year of the French
participants of both groups extwo groups of children. The
during the first
perienoed teaching by an identical method
this period, the unsatisfactwo years of the course. During
Kethod induced the teacher to
tory results of the Imitation
.
beyond the teacher'
organise another method. For reasons
new, phonetic, method,
control, one group did not use the
pronunciation by imitation. For
out continued the study of
French sounds was prepared.it
the other group, a manual of
of the phonetic symbols,
taught the sounds and the script
sounds? the teacher explained
and the spellings of those
adjustments necessary in
and demonstrated the physiological
succeeding year., proproduction of those so*nds. During
the
phocorrected by application of
nunciation was studied and
netics.
In the
ual, It 13
edition
P..1W.
f
phonetl. annof .peach .ounds by th.
Cert8ln 80n8 °n"
i»troeuo. O" st"<* by
Enelieh pronunciation of
"ant eounda efficiently
»U,iUr
to
oalled th.
thoa. ooneonante to be
e».
bo™,*, the lnerea.ee
doKonarticulation can he eaelly
tenaenee. of the French
Introduce,
th. ro«le »ay he
atrated, and imitated. Then
ualng the known oonaonant
order,
alphabetical
in their
For
ahort and ea-y to recall.
.onnd. to for. French .orde.
36
instance, the letter
ciation of
Cd] is
& has
two sounds,
acquired in the words ma
,
CoJ
;
the pronun-
,
J&
,
sa ,1a, va
,
simplest reading;
words which the pupil will find in even the
pas . Sfts • aS ain com"
the pronunciation of CoJ occurs in chat,
reading. The teacher
mon, frequently found words in simple
sounds oecured, the puread from the text, and as these two
the sounds, and from
pils laade lists of the words containing
spellings of each sound.
these lists discovered the French
since few pupils hare
This work was slow; necessarily slow ,
must be trained to hear
ever listened to speech sounds, and
consonants, should
distinctions. Haver, after the few initial
approximations of English sounds;
French sounds he taught as
in a French word. This is
the French sound should he taught
more than one new sound be
invariably possible. Kever should
from the familiar to the new
taught at a time. The old rule of
should be adhered to.
firmly recognised, the
These two sounds of the letter a.
Cej , LU ,
three pronunciations of
vo«el e. was studied in its
greatest difficulty, but the
L*J i the first presents the
establishes a mpeech distinction
teacher will be repaid if she
in her pupils between
and c^J
.
difficulty!
sounds ,« alone offer,
Of the remaining vowel
pronunciation
induce satisfactory
TOOh ar iil is required to
however, pupil,
sound. Once heard,
of this utterly foreign
it.
are able to articulate
recognise its quality and
sends.
to other consonant
introduction
follows
There
understanding of
that a thorough
believes
writer
present
The
sounds is of greatest
the nasal group of
of
pronunciation
the
37
aid in acquiring a good French pronunciation. The sounds of
t
the series are not in thmeselves difficult, hut the differen-
tiation by ear and by speech requires oareful drill, as does
a recognition of each sound when spelled in French. Further-
more drill is required to distinguish, and pronounce correctly, these
sarnie
rowel-consonant combinations when not nasalized.
In the teaching of every new sound
,
there must be ele-
sounds;
ments in the illustrating words of familiar and learned
when
sounds when first encountered seem difficult, but
some
after all, so
presented with old acquaintances they are not,
pupils can best
hard to come to know. It happens that some
word, others in some
hear and enunciate a given sound in one
teacher to recognise
other example. It is the duty of the
and to help the pupil to
each pupil 1 s "best-fitting" word,
syllables less easily
transfer the correct pronunciation to
articulated.
speech sounds must be
It is true that initially all
explanation of
the teacher' s pronunciation, but
learned from
Once the elements of
position of vocal organs is necessary.
pronunciation no longer
any speech group are comprehended,
recognition of the phonetic
depends on imitation, but on
pronunciation is thus possible
elements involved. Correct
meaning of which is ignored.
of printed passages the
methods of
the results of the two
2 . By October , 1934,
who
to two groups of pupils
teaching French pronunciation
preof instruction with the
were then finishing their course
comparison
nature as to provide a
sent teacher, were of such
38
deliberate exdata, there had heen no
this
to
Up
methods.
of
comparison of methods, chance
perimentation for the purpose of
oy the imitation method, which
decided which pupils were taught
this point on, a deliberate ex*y the phonetic method. ?rom
to coyer a period of six
periment was undertaken, intended
the
fully aware of the nature of
months. All participants were
to special effort in proexperiment, and en S ag ed themselves
nunciation study.
fifty words was selected,
A passage of Wench of some
vocawith the passage, altho the
neither group was familiar
were alknown to both groups. They
bulary, very simple, was
before making a phonographic
lowed to read It to themselves
lists Inwas followed with word
reo ord. The sams procedure
pronunciation of the vowel-oonsonant
volving , first, the
sometimes not nasalised,
combinations sometimes nasalised,
three
containing examples of the
as
chosen
words
secondly,
* phonographic
"a*
.
pronunciations cej . C6J .
after
selections, .1* months later,
three
these
of
reo ord
second
during the inter!., a
pronunciation
of
study
special
by the
of the sams selections
phonographic record was made
^
^
same pupils, (l)
^—
for both
interval, study consisted
the si, months
based readupon which was
text,
grammar
gr0 ups. of work in a
was not used with
dictation, the earn, text
conversation,
ng .
phoneused a text with a
group
phonetic
both classes, as the
39
tic transcription of vocabulary and
phonetic exercises,
which the Non-phonetic group could not understand. Each text
developed the same elementary principles of grammar with
much similarity of simple And usual vocabulary. At regular
periods of four or fiv* weeks interval, tests were given to
of
each class; a dictation test and a test of comprehension
previousspoken word. These tests were based on vocabulary
the
ly studied; they all consisted of ten sentences each,
dictation
time allowed being of about twenty minutes. The
in succession
tests consisted of French sentences read twice
by the pupil.
by the teacher and written down as understood
sentences read
The comprehension test consisted of French
writing by the pupil.
twice by the teacher and translated in
consisting of ten
Phonetic group A had also a third test
be written into
sentences printed in phonetic script to
of tests for each group
French. There were four or five sets
during the six months interval.
record of a
Phonetic group B also made a phonographic
reader, and from the two
short passage from their French
The first trial
word lists used in the other recordings.
unsatisfactory in that
.records of Phonetic group 3 were
the microphone. After six
cne pupil refused to speak into
of
gaVe a full set of records
months study, another trial
a more satisfactory nature.
a
.
.
4<0
Reading Test for ITon-phonetic Group
1 su 11
-
]
J
V
r\
2
o
j j
Jv
1
X
3
i
t
J
et
de la V2 .lie de Pari s sc nt bleu
>uleui
j6 S
o
o
1
n
u
i/
f
/
ZLL
ro\ie:e
.
I
3
endant la
«h m * 4
rs
t*
o
-
nublicains
/
A
4
E
Too
-r
•z
A
D
Jy O
Jt
r
/
o
<d
/
1
X
A
\J
iZ
/
/
V
1/
V
&
on' v H
d« 5
III
ari
le draneau de Paris et le
fir
/
v\
TP
//
!
/
ill
Jy o
X
A
T
<s
Jt u
X
n.
u
dr< vpe au
m
o
ill
<c-
des rois
11
c-
1
t
nnt.
fait- et les Prancais
>
o
dj
jy 5
1
A
2
Jt 3
3
V
/
/
/
/IT
\/
1/
on t
£
an ourd'
nu;L
1e
le
— —
c
rl
ranfia u
f
1/
E
<^
3
Jy 2
If
A
Jt O
u
w
01 eu
E
1
Jy
2
A
3
2
2
2
i/
,
UXcU hj
et ro ug< 2 que nous
a von: 3
Vu
1
//
J-t
~~if
p
Black /
:
Red
5
1/
errors of first trial record.
errors of second trial record.
Chart
I
.
41
1
1
I
l
1
—
.
T.ut Wo.
for Non-nhonetic Group
Tp«t.
t^r-A
m
'V
-I-
Li st No .2
1
E Jy A Jt
f aim
lecon
enfant
Ej Jy A Jt
.
"
bete
J
le
ne
v
jeune
v
v
v
"
verte
nom
ami
chez
oeine
J
lait
cheval
v/
pied
homme
temps
humeur
singe
^
/
\£
^^
V
v
v
honi
devant
chacun
bee
/
annee
humble
17
chere
aller
_
MjH
immense
v
i/
^
^
/
'
n
.
«
est-ce
que c' est
cm'
1st
3 7
6-4
lst
2nd
1 4
3
3
2bd
m^.k
flpri
n"7i
y
fc
les
i/
v
11 10
=errors of first tri al
zerrors of second trial.
Chart II
.
.
42
n.A~A*~.* T P = t
lst2nd
t
—
ore
rifi
fnr Phonetic Group A
la ville de Paris sont "bleu et
/
M
1
G
1
/
V
1
Je
G
Ponrin.nt
la Revolution les repuhlicains
is
Ml
G 1
Je
A
l
GO
MM
(/
et le
„I* d/cid/de marier le drapeau de Paris
Ml
GO
Je o
GO
drapeau des rois. lis
1'
ont fait, et les Francais
M
COO
G
1/
1/
•
Je2
tricolore, le irapeau
ont aujourd'hui le drapeau
(
-i
1
2
G 1
1
Je 9
1
V
1
/
G
2
^00
^
o
Je x
o
15
5
n
V
lieu
V
V
,
avons vu.
blanc et rouge que nous
GOO
Black
Red
/=
^ ~
record
errors of first trial
record
errors of second trial
:
43
Word Test for' Phonetic Group A
T
-i
r,
List No. 2
+
U
G Je G
p
hit
To
n.
A.
f aim
"bete
lecon
le
enfant
j eune
ne'
nom
je
ami
Seine
chez
verte
/
\i
homme
cheval
1
V
ViuTneur
chere
i
f
aller
singe
v/
i
honi
chacun
immense
/
devant
/
Vve> t\
rnrfi
/ V / V
les
annee
qu?
humble
que
7
2nd
/
pied
1/
temps
/
lait
1/
12
2 1
est-ce
c
1
1st
2
Pnri
^ u
3
111
oooo
errors of the first trial.
trial.
J = errors of the second
Black ^
Red
est
=
Chart IV
44
Teats
Phonographic
Test
Reading
Trial
1st
1st -word list
2nd
1st
2nd
2nd word list
1st
2nd
Totals
Non-phonetic
Ellen
16
6
3
1
5
1
32
Judy
15
5
7
2
4
1
34
Alice
18
9
6
3
4
1
41
Janet
12
5
£
1
£
25
To tale 61
25
20
9
14
3
132
1
7
2
3
18
1
1
1
6
1
6
Phonetic A
Molly
5
Cherry
3
Grace
2
1
2
Jane
5
Z
2
2
&
Totals 15
5
12
5
6
Table
II
1
pronunciation made by
Table II: Number of errors of
A groups
pupils of Non-phonetic and Phonetic
of a reading
in first and second trials
French, and word
test of fifty-two words of
French words.
lists of sixteen and fifteen
43
45
Table III
Phonetic A
Non-phonetic
E.Q.
En
8herry
123
6
24
Holly
120
16
107
34
Grace
109
6
102
30
Jane
105
13
E.Q.
Errors
Alice
117
39
Janet
109
Judy
Ellen
Table III: Educational Quotient scores and
number of pronunciation errors in
phonographic record tests of Nonphonetic and Phonetic A groups.
Table IV
Phonetic A
Non-phonetic
Home
Errors
Home
Irrors
Janet
1
24
Cherry
1
6
Judy
2.5
34
Grace
2
6
Alice
2.5
39
Molly
3
16
Ellen
4
30
Jane
4
13
Table IV «
Home ranking in respect to attitude toward pupil's study, and
number of Pronunciation errors
in phonographic record tests of
Non-phonetic and Phonetic A groups.
46
Table V
Phonetic A
Non-phonetic
iji X
EtrorB
vi O
104
6
Kolly
67
16
39
Jane
54
13
24
Grace
39
6
Judy
72
34
Cherry
Ellen
69
30
Alice
59
Janet
42
Table V» Number of correct choices of defi-
nit ion of 150 English words of the
Johnson
0*
Connor English Vocabulary
Test, and of the number of pronunci-
ation errors in phonographic record
tests of Non-phonetic and Phonetic
A groups.
47
Table VI
Eng.Voc.
Humber of Pronunciation Error*
Test
Phonographic
Comprehension
Dictation
Correct
Definition
Non-phonetic
Ellen
30
54
85
69
Alice
39
61
43
59
Judy
34
49
49
72
Janet
24
58
70
42
16
18
31
67
Cherry
6
11
11
104
Grace
6
30
20
39
Jane
13
23
34
54
Phonetic A
Kolly
Table VI
s
Number of pronunciation errors in
phonographic record, comprehension,
and dictation tests as compared
*ith number of correct definition
choices in English Vocabulary Test.
8
48
Table VIII
Test
Comprehension
Trial
1
2
3
4
Dictation
5
2
1
4
3
5
Total
Non-phonetic
Total
Ellen
14
8
16
16
54
34
22
22
7
85
Alice
11
15
20
15
61
21
c
11
6
43
Judy
11
13
13
12
49
25
10
11
3
49
8
12
mam
22
lo
58
36
_8
g|§
R
9
Total 44
48
71
oy
222 116
45
Jane t
9A7
Total
Total
Phonetic A
10
4
3
5
31
2
1
1
11
1
18
9
1
XX
X
7
4
30
9
10
1
3
5
w
23
8
12
4
4
6
34
8
16
82
27
38
11
8
12
96
8
22
5
8
3
5
7
3
3
18
7
4
43
Molly
5
10
Cherry
1
4
Gra^e
8
9
2
Jane
6
3
Total 20
26
1
1
Phonetic Transcription
Molly
tests for Phonetic A
Cherry
Grace
Jane
5
,
Total 21
56
20
20
43
8
15
112
Comprehension
Table Villi Number of errors in four
for Spoken Word tests, four Dictation
tests given to lion-phonetic group; and
to
five of each of these two tests given
Phonetic A; four phonetic transcription
tests for Phonetic A group.
.
;
49
rP
Vr.
-i
Thb
Gas tc >n
ao
Grfl.fi
•
-T
+•
rvr
"DVi
nno+i
m
ton est
r»
n-r cm i y
pa: rco n
i
B
)
'
ri
e
slisne de
1'
oeil.
w
B
v- _ n
^ ^ VI aft
J * iais
UVUJV
J-
-
il nl
i
1' oei.
d.e
i
gauche. 11
1
<>
B
3
J
2
^ n r f o un nVinnrln.il- Le chandail est rave .La raie
B
1
J
K
2
i/
noire est etroi te
B
3
J
4
1
J
2
n
st large. Sa Cu-
l/
ses Das sunt blancs
es
]
Jniirmio
i
clisne-t- -il
d« 3
l
1/
ac
1
piniil
i
era
1/
oe il?Il a une
i/
3
1/
1/
i rl
J
;
e
\v
J
3
raie blanche
v
i/
•
B
lc i
i/
i/
lotte es t noire
B
;
PP
arm, sa.nte
i
f
2
is
,<
1/
Quelle est cette idee?
u
/
,
J
Black / - errors
fVl Q
V+
V
of
a
1
'Irst trial record.
1
,
;
50
Te St for I >honei Ac Grou] ? I is
R-«s.d ins:
rayons
T)
jJ
<
it
ri
eux nlume sit In deux, trois quat re
1
,
B
xi
T
u
M
1
If
RUT.
•-9
B
t ,ro: is,
d< 3UX
quatre Les
P' is
s< >nt
p Lumes ne
:
;
A
\J
T
1
tJ
X
M
1
Iff
c
sur
rsravons .Elles
1 3S
3
ne
s
son 1
>as
si ir
les
i
deu3 i
-Q
J5
T
K
1
1
J.
<J
,
J
o
M
era ,yons. Le s
Jo
o
w
JT
I
X
H
o
2
M
IT
d .eu: s
pa:S
ae
c
E
lur
le S
/
>as sur les
»
plumes .lis sont sur 1 e Livre,
!
s
B
T
1
o
/
\/
.ea
le m
plumei 9.C !om; ote z Les
'.
)
i
crayon s.
a
T
o
liT
JUL
o
J
"R
o
J A
HI
olumei 3.
/
lis
T
]
8
Red
-
enuio
0J r
Char' t V b
•
s econd
ti *ial.
1
51
B
Word Test for Phonetic Group
List Ho. 2
List No. 1
B J M
B J
/
faim
lecon
S
enfant
1/
jeune
nom
bete
'
le
1/
ne
v
verte
i/
je
/
chez
ami
lait
Seine
cheval
V
honmie
pied
i/
temps
chere
humeur
V
aller
devant
singe
1/
honi
chacun
1/
V
beq
les
t
qu'
i
que
iiamense
annee
humble
/
est-ce
c'
1st
1st' 8 13
2nd
14
est
2nd
4
Black ^
^
Red
2
7
Oil
=
errors of first trial.
=
errors of second trial.
Chart
VI
5?.
Phonographic
Test
Reading
Trial
1st
Teats
1st word list
2nd word list
B-<4»
2nd
2nd
1st
8
1
2
4
13
4
7
1
137
8
—
2
-
1
124
2nd
1st
Phonetic B
Betsy
17
Jeff
20
Mary
117
Table VII
pronunciation made by
Table vil:Number of errors in
and
pupilB of Phonetic group B in first
test,
second trials of a French reading
E.q.'s of
and of lists of French words;
members of the group.
53
TREATIES T
DATA
OF
group
The phonographic reading teste for Hon-phonetic
revealed certain errors common to all participants, vis,
of
ChartB I and II. It ie evident that there was a lack
sounds
aural appreciation of the differentiation in rowel
in the words les
Talues ofcej and
,
le
.
,
des
,
de
,
la
— that
is in the
Invariably, the sound of the vowel
&
to English
was incorrect. Since this sound is unfamiliar
apparentthe pronunciation must be remembered, and
speech,
needed to fix it in
ly some other aid than aural memory is
of ill , even
mind. Confusion existed as to the pronunciation
as an exception to
in a word which had served repeatedly
this difficulty had
the cp sound. Even in the second trial
there was small apnot been cleared up. In the first trial
of linking, as in
preciation of the euphonic desirability
avons ; repeated drillthe phrases ont auiourd'hui and nous
time of the second trial.
ing developed this sense by the
in the second trial
The number of errors of pronunciation
half J of this half, it
was reduced by a little less than
mistakes. The great part
was noticeable that few were new
were established mispronunciations.
with vowel- consonant comList No.l presented words
nasalized, sometimes not.
binations, which are sometimes
the exexisted confusion as to
It is evident that there
well as to the pronunciation
ception- to nasalisation, a.
fact
and second trials, the
first
In
sounds.
nasal
of the
A
sound was uniformly ignored.
that the letter h has no
54
phonetically trained group becomes conscious of this absence of sound because of the absence of a symbol for the
consonant h
.
Again the rowel u caused confusion, whether
by itself or in combination with other vowels.
ue]
List No. 2 reiterated uncertainty as to valueB of
LfcJ
t
C^J
»
,
as was s howi» in the reading test. These three
sounds, and the French spellings producing the sounds,
There
were not dearly differentiated in the pupils' minds.
was no aid possible by the recall of graphic representation
been removed
of the distinctions. Some of this confusion had
Chart II.
at the time of the second trial, as is evident in
the phonographIn the reading tests for Phonetic group A
errors of pronunic records showed a tendency to individual
revealing no lack
ciation rather than to typical ones, thus
The one excepof understanding of any definite fundamental.
which apparenttion occurred in the unusual word tricolore.
familiar word couleur.
ally suffered from confusion with the
CXI and l<*j as ocThe class had been drilled on the sounds
pronunciation of a word; ncvercur ing as final or medial in
some uncertainty as to
the less the word couleur presented
The euphonic need of linkthe sound of the diphthong eu .
expression nous avons , but
ing was uniformly sensed in the
because of less frequent
not in ont au.1ourd*hui , perhaps
the pupils listened to
occurence in speech. However, when
errors of each trial, it was
the records and checked the
should count as an error
decided that the failure to link
55
because of the more pleasing sound resulting from linking.
In the seoond trial the improvement was effected.
As in the reading test
,
the errors in the word-list
of
tests were individual. No general lack of comprehension
fundamentals was revealed, except in the word immense, in
which imm and en
,
non-nasalized and nasalized combinations,
caused confusion, persisting even into the second trial.
inSuch continuous confusion emphasizes the necessity of
sistence on distinction between the nasalized and non-nas-
alized combinations.
A possible criticism of the validity of such tests as
in the first
to pronunciation ability became evident when,
the group
trial of the first word-list, Molly was confused by
of final consonants of the word temps
,
pronounced the
p_,
which
realized her mistake at once with an emotional reaction
Practice
distracted her in several following pronunciations.
of
before the microphone might diminish the liability
e
no-
that all partional disturbance. It may be said, however,
with reticipants in these trials were equally unacquainted
cording experience.
errors of the two
In analysing the pronunciation
tests as compared with
trials of each group, and of the two
apparent. The second
each other, certain results became
after the first trials,
trial results, occurring six months
improvement in pronunciaall showed consistently a marked
(See Tabdecrease of errors being roughly by half
tion, the
56
tend to imle II). Special attention to pronunciation does
provement in pronunciation, especially in the correction of
errors which are recognized and analysed
•
The errors of the
Non-phonetic group apparently were due to a lack of compre-
hension of fundamental phonetic elements; the errors were
typical in the pronunciation of the group as a whole. On
the other hand, the pronunciation errors of the Phonetic
misgroup A were not made in common; they were individual
comprehension
takes, and hence they revealed no failure of
The
of general underlying fundamentals of pronunciation.
was much
sum of the errors of all the phonographic tests
being
smaller in the case of Phonetic group A, the ratio
errors in
43 errors in the Phonetic group as against 132
held generally
the Non-phonetic group. The same proportions
total of
throughout the various trials of the tests. The
by the emotional
the Phonetic group A was unduly increased
of errors
disturbance of one pupil, whose usual contribution
was small in a test scoring.
as compared with
Table III shows Educational Quotients
made by pupils of both
the number of pronunciation errors
be any positive correlagroups. There does not appear to
by tests, does not appear to
tion, intelligence, as scored
pronounce French correctly. It
be a measure of ability to
smallest
of the pupil making the
i3 true that in the case
errors throughout this entire
total number of pronunciation
puthe highest among all the
experiment, her E.Q. was also
Phonetic A groups. It is also
pils of the Non-phonetic and
57
true that she had a slight speech defect in English, not
great enough to mar her speech, hut sufficient to require
effort to overcome.
This matter of effort on the part of the pupil is, in
the present writer s opinion, one of much importance and,
1
attitude.
in her observation, is closely allied with the home
the home has
In order to show such a relation, a ranking for
comparison
been tabulated in Table IV ;it is to be read in
is
with the number of pronunciation errors. This ranking
the home and
based on the writer* s subjective evaluation of
with school-work}
parents as known socially and in connection
of educational aims, an
it includes an intelligent direction
background of
attitude of enlightened encouraging, and a
scholastic achievement.
scholastic training or appreciation of
the home attitude toward
The writer believes that it shows
may be an indication of
school-work, and that such a ranking
scholastic achievement to be exthe degree of interest in
home. The all important facpected from the child of such a
and to that the home can
tor in achievement is incentive,
contribute largely.
eueh a relatiowhip in a
Table IV, then, doee reveal
pronuncie*l.t. bet,.« B.<U and
m0 re po.itiTe degree than
pronunciation
Engli.h Vocabulary and
ation error., or between
Table V)
(See Table III and
tabulation.
which
in
errore.
to .uoh
no correlation. Added
there e*i.t. practically
58
statistical evidence as Table IV presents, the writer wishes
to state that during the whole course of seven years, the pu-
pils participating in this experiment, and others whose records are not included, were markedly influenced by the at-
titude of the home towards this rather unusual subject of
an elementary school curriculum. A favorable attitude is
the home's contribution to the pupil's achievement. Occasion-
ally a pupil may fare well without it or may free himself
attitude
from the handicap of an indifferent or unsympathetic
;
most children find in the home's interest and encouragement
in attaina necessary incentive. This incentive culminates
ment of the goal. If only the home would heed
'.
experimenAs a further note on phonographic recording
that the resulting scores
tation, the writer wishes to remark
for this report, were
in the present case, while important
point of view. The priof secondary interest from a teaching
mary value of phonographic recording consists in a stimulus
to the study of pronunciation. After the first trials, each
pupil prepared a chart similar to Chart
I
and Chart III
each group heard its four records played on the phonograph,
and checked the pronunciation errors of each record. Close
attention was required and frequent repetition
,
but interest
never flagged until every error was detected and checked
on the charts. Such study provided excellent ear- training, all
to
the more interesting because these pupils were listening
their own and their companions' voices. For the first time
and unthey were actually hearing their own speech, pleasant
,
59
pleasant qualities, good and poor articulation, correct and
incorrect pronunciation. Criticism of a phonographic record
has no personal implication; it loses a sting and possible
cause of embarassement. Owners of voices may be quite critical of their own speech habits. Such was the reaction of
the present writer s pupils. The interest was so lively,
1
the ear- training so valuable
,
that she felt that such hap-
py results alone justified the experiment. As a frequent occurance in speech study phonographic recording cannot but
be an aid
60
During the six months interval between the first and
second phonographic trials, two sets of tests, four in number, were given to the Non-phonetic group to test ability
to understand the spoken word; these tests consisted of
written French sentences dictated by the teacher, and of
written translation of spoken French sentences. The four
sets of tests were spaced over the six months period. Pho-
netic group A had the same type of tests, five in number,
during the name six months period. In addition this group
had a phonetic transcription test
,
^hioh the other group
was unable to take.
Four out of five of these tests showed an improvement
the spoken
during the six months in ability to understand
means regular;
(French) word, but this improvement is by no
It is the present
and in one instance there was the reverse.
to understand
writer's belief that improvement in ability
fashion during
foreign speech dbes not progress in orderly
by plateaux and
intervals over a given period. It increases
if , at «*« end of
leaps of uncertain extent and incidences
is marked, pupil and
six months study, some improvement
teacher may well feel encouraged.
results of these tests for
In comparison between the
A again made a better showthe two groups, Phonetic group
VIII) stood, for Kon-phonctio
ing. The totals (See Table
in Dicdomprehension test,
group, number of errors in
group A, Comprehension
tation test: 2471 for Phonetic
61
test,82jin Dictation teat, 96. It seems permissible to conclude from such acores that detailed and intensiTe study of
the phonetic elements of apeech results in a better under-
standing of the apoken( foreign
)
word. Imitation does not
reduce speech- sounds to elements which can be studied and
memorized.
These teats would seem to contribute
corroboration to
George Hempl* a proposition that the mental activity involword
ved in acquiring a clear idea of the pronunciation of a
helps to fix the meaning of the word in the mind, that actpronunciaive vocabulary is increased by knowledge of the
group did not
tion of the words. Apparently the Non-phonetic
of the leshave a sufficiently firm hold on the vocabulary
the word or
sons they were studying to be able to recall
reliably as did
the meaning when spoken by the teacher as
the Phonetic group A.
experiment
The reaction of the participants in this
As the pupils of
offered commentary upon the two methods .
in pronunciPhonetic group A became aware of difficulties
sound of syllables and
ation, of uncertainties as to the
themselves by reindividual letters, they knew how to help
and by composing from
studying a manual of French sounds,
to illustrate the conreading texts lists of word examples
consideration. All
ventional spellings of the sound under
teacher seldom pronounced
such analysis was encouraged; the
the latter had reduced
a doubtful word for a pupil until
elements, and was thus able to
the word to its phonetic
•
62
pronounce it without the teacher
1
s
assistance
,
except as
corroboration
Such analysis was impossible for the Non-phonetic
group, who depended upon repetition by the teacher and by
themselves to fix the pronunciation in mind. There was
profrequent complaint that there was no way to recall a
that
nunciation, except to remember. The teacher was aware
studying pronuncithe members of the Phonetio group A were
Hon-phoneation with efficient tools, and that among the
sentiment of grievance that
tic group there existed a vague
themselves appeared
tools for study were lacking. The pupils
method of teaching pronunciato hare no doubt as to which
tion was the more effective.
these tools is illusThe use which pupils can make of
tests, Table VIII,
trated by the Phonetic Transcription
of this set of four teste
page 59. The ten sentences of each
order to transcribe
*ere written in phonetic characters.In
to
was necessary for the pupil
the words into French, it
which thus uttered
pronounce mentally the phonetio symbols,
the French word, and refor aural comprehension formed
Grammatical mistakes may
called the conventional spelling.
but
in tests of this nature,
occur, and in fact did occur,
errors,
numbered as pronunciation
such mistakes should not be
is inphase of language study. It
they belong to another
phonepupils find this work of
that
teacher
the
to
teresting
simiit seems to have a lure
intriguing;
transcription
tic
lure very
and cross-word pussies, a
jig-saw
of
that
to
lar
63
profitable for pronunciation drill, whether putting French
into transcription or the latter into French spelling.
The writer iB conscious that the results obtained
in teaching French pronunciation h$ two different methods
to these two groups
are based on small numbers of parti-
,
cipants. However, there is a uniformity of superiority in
all results obtained by one method over those obtained by
the other method. These results conform with those obtained
by the phonetiG method in language work with high-school
and college students
•
The method, then, seems adapted to
all levels of language teaching. That the presentation of
the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet must be
effected in a somewhat different manner for young pupils
is not objection to the method itself . In view of the re-
cognized greater physiological ease of acquiring new speechsounds during childhood, the sounds of the symbols are learned with surprisingly little effort by young pupils. It has
been markedly noticeable in the present writer's experience
that much less resort to detailed explanation of physiolo-
gical adjustments of vocal organs has been necessary in the
case of young pupils than that required by Freshman students.
Once speech-sounds are actually heard and distinctions truly
recognized, young children experience little difficulty in
reproducing these sounds, without any great insistence on
the physiological aspect of articulation; except in a few
instances, such as the sound of r,gn,l, and the nasale.
6A
The symbols then fix these recognized sounds in the pupil's
Kind; they do not introduce confusion, but hold steady the
memory of each sound no matter what the confusing conventional Trench spelling may be. At this level of elementary
learning, a good many other symbols are fixing sounds and
meanings in the pupil's mind :mathematical signs, quotation
marks, punctuation marks, the dollar sign, musical notation.
Willingly and easily are these speech-sound symbols accepted
along with other new learning. Hone of these symbols can be
taught hurriedly, not on account of their meaning, but because the young mind requires time to absorb the new. And
still more time, with constant drill, is necessary in learning how to use these new tools. Learning to apply is no
quick performance, but a patient repetition. Once a correct
pattern of the elements of speech-sounds is memorized at
this age, and an understanding of how to use the pattern
serves as
is built into pronunciation habits, this pattern
all the
a valuable aid in foreign language study during
subsequent years of schooling.
65
The phonographic record tests of Phonetic group B,
(pp. 49,50, 51
)
presented less of detailed interest than
those of the other older groups. In the first place
,
the
tests themselves are not so well organized. One child re-
fused to make the first record. The text of this reading
was chosen from a reader, "QUE FAIT GASTOF,?
the pupils were familiar from a year 1
s
",
with which
use; it seemed an
appropriate selection in view of the fact that at that
moment the vocabulary was known to the pupils, and the
story fresh in their minds
.
Such was not the case six
months later when other material was in use. The constant
reference text was "PHOFETIC GATE?' AY TO FRENCH," by P.H.
Churchman. From this text selection was made for the second
phonographic record trial. The teacher now believes that the
matter of familiarity with text is less important than that
both trials be made on the same text in order to measure accurately pronunciation improvement.
The first trial presented more varied speech- sounds,
and thus offered more opportunities for mispronunciations,
which revealed a general vagueness about the phonetic elements of French speech- sounds.
In the second trial errors
of an inin pronunciation were fewer, and such errors were
fault,
dividual nature. Final re still caused trouble; a
poor unwhich in the present writer's opinion, i« due to
failure to
derstanding of syllabi izat ion, whence derives a
utter the re with the preceding consonant
.
66
A characteristic of Mary'
s
usual pronunciation was a
failure to distinguish between the sounds cej
C^J
;
,
d£3
,
and
they were all one to her, and any one served. She
failed to hear differentiations* and she produced none
in speech.
This inability marked the same vowel sounds in
English. When and then she "paddy- ised" into whin and
thin
,
altho she did understand a difference in pronuncia-
tion of thin
(
her pronunciation of then
)
and thin (not bulky).
She was conscious of no difference between les and le
[l^J, llG
$
Ll^J
t
;
offered choice which she took without
attention to the French spelling. In taking dictation of very
simple sentences, she made many grammatical errors because
of this inability to distinguish vowel values.
The two word-list tests offered better comparison as to
pronunciation improvement than did the reading tests. The first
word-list, especially, showed a great improvement in under-
standing of vowel- consonant combinations nasalized and not
nasalized. Here
,
as well as in the second word-list, errors
were due to lack of ability to differentiate fundamental
phonetic elements. Even six months of repeated, altho only
occasional, drill did not fix these sounds any too accur-
ately in memory.
It is interesting to note in this group that E.Q. does
(See Tabnot denote Superior ability in pronouncing French
E.q.*8,
le VII,p.52j. Jeff and Mary both surpass Betsy as to
but the latter had a far more satisfactory pronunciation.
67
She has indeed developed a definite language ability, keenly
enjoying the mere sound of foreign words. On the other hand,
Jeff has as high an E.Q. as any pupil of the present teacher,
hut this high intelligence scoring does not carry with it high
ability in French pronunciation.
The writer feels that the six months study of phonetics
improved the pronunciation of the three children
,
and she
observes after another year's further work that the study
is still bringing forth good results in language work.
68
SUMMARY
This study was und e r tak
e„ in the attempt
to evaluate
the respective effectiveness
of two methods of
teaching
trench pronunciation to
young pupils. The methods
under
observation were the "Imitation
Method - and the "Phoneti,
Method*. Numerous tests,
devised to examine the
results
of instruction obtained
in groups of pupils,
showed a
constantly smaller number of
pronunciation errors and a
uniformly greater ability of
comprehension in that group
which had been taught
pronunciation by the "Phonetic Method-. The scorings in these
tests remained so consistently . and by such a wide margin,
in favor of the latter
group'
s performance, that a conclusion seems well founded
to the effect that that
method employed in the instruction of the group proves more
effective at this level of
French language teaching than does
the "Imitation Method".
Such findings, moreover, are in
accord with the results obtained in similar experimentation
in foreign language study among high-school and college
students.
.
69
APPENDIX
In order to provide very simple material with which to
carry on instruction in French, the present teacher wrote
various short dramatizations which her pupils enacted. These
plays served as a means of presenting easy and fluent French
with the rhythm of usual speech. They were written in play
form, rather than as reading, in order to produce the feeling
of the spoken language, to provide material for memorizing
and to respond to children'
s
ever-present desire
"
,
to give
a play"
Pronunciation errors were studied and corrected thru
application of phonetics. In "lines
sounds were found, and listed
,
n
examples of Bpeech-
linkings were noted, and the
euphonic qualities of speech patterns appreciated. Common
phrases and grammatical constructions became familiar from
repeti tion.
Two of this series of plays are appended to this
report to illustrate completely the method employed by the
writer in the instruction of French to classes of young
children.
70
IL Y A HKE DIFFERENCE
Personnagee
:
Pierre
Henri, ouvrit?rs quelcon-iues en
j
blousea; Jean
mecanicien en blouse; Mi-
,
chaud en tablier blanc et coiffe'd'un bon-
net de ooton; deux jeunes dmaee en costumes de voyage,
ocene
t
Un coin de rue de village. A droite un pan
de la devanture d*une auberge dont on voit
f
la porte ouverte audessus de laquelle s e-
tale une enseign:
"CRATOE ATI3KRGE DU T0URISKB WMVWtSK.
A.MICHAUD, Prop.
Touring-Club de Prance,
f
Une petite table ronde sur le devant de la
scene; deux petits verres la-dessus; deux
chaises a cote. Pierre est assisjHenri va
s'asseoir. II vient de parler aux deux Jeunes
dames qui
e*
nn vont du cote droit. Au moment
present* sur
ou Henri se rassied .Mlchaud se
dames,
le seuil en regardant apres lee
Henri
?
Qui sent ces dames?
Michaud
i
De quoi s'agit-il
Henri
,
Kicheud.(Il boit.)
Je ne risque pas de vous le dire.
i
Etrangeres
»
Que voulaient-elles
Michaud
,
,
a leur facon de parler.
?
71
Henri
Eh ma foi, je ne risque pas de vous dire ca,
:
non plus
Michaud
Leur facon de parler. Elles diaaient
:
cherchaient "du pont
w
qu'
elles
.
Pierre
:
II n'y a pas de pont par ici.
Henri
:
C est
ce que je leur ai dit. Pas de pont
dames
,
,
mes-
pas de pont par ici. Et puis l'une d f elles
a insiste', "du bon pont".
Michaud
Ce sont peut-etre des touristes qui cherchent le
t
Tieux pont de Vaison, plus loin sur la route. On
dit qu' il vaut la peine d'etre visite.
Pierre
Mais pourquoi est-ce le "bon pont"
:
?
II est vieux
comme je ne sais quoi.
Michaud
C est
:
bien pour ca qu 1 il est bon. II date de loin,
des temps des Romains. II faut qu' il soit bon pour
durer deux mille ans.
Henri
Alors
;
,
si ce sont des touristes,
qu'
elles aillent
trourer le "bon pont M .
Michaud
Mais, royons, si ce sont des touristes peut-etre
:
est-ce d'une panne qu elles voulaient parler.
1
Pierre
:
Et arec ca
',
Elles parlaient de quelque chose
de rond... rond... rond comme ca.(ll fait un rond
des bras.)
Michaud
:
Ah, un pneu de creve'. (Criant par la porte)Jean,
il y a de rotre affaire ici.
(Jean se pre'cipite par la porte, et
regarde autour de lui.)
Jean
:
Q,u'
est-ce qu' il y a
?
72
Mi chaud
Une panne.
Jean
Une panne
Mi chaud
(Confus) Ah.... Baa foi... je ne sals trop....Il
?
Ou
,
ca ?
est renu des dames touristes qui disaient cher-
cher du pont.... des pannes.... on ne sait trop..
Jean
Des dames qui cherchent des pannes'. Ca,
quelque chose de nouveau
J*
Pour les dames une panne,
ter plutot qu'a chercher
Hneri
c'
c'
est
aimerais le voir
est une peine a evi-
;
II n'j a que les meoaniciens qui les cherchent,
hein
?
Jean
Et encore chez autrui.
Pierre
Comme les peines, on les prefere chez les autres.
Mi ohaud
On ne cherche pas de peine, mais, mon dieu, comme
on se donne de la peine quelquefois
Henri
Surtout les aubergistes, hein
seigne.
)
.)
Et pour faire payer les petits verres aux blagueurs
Pierre
(II montre 1' en-
lis se donnent de la peine pour attirer
le monde touriste'. (On rit
Mi ohaud
?
',
',
(On rit plus fort
Et puis Henri, tu sais
.
)
toi, tu n'as pas
,
compris. Elles ont dit
Men
dou pont."
Mi chaud
Doux pont
Jean
Deux pannes
Henri
Messieurs, donnez-vous la peine de regarder
par- la.
?
quel pont est-ce, celui-la.
?
A la fois
?
Pas de chance
?
'.
)
73
lis regardent a la cantonade droite; puis ils
(
se regardent etonnes. A ce moment les deux
jeunes dames traversent la scene au fond, du
droit au gauche. S3 les portent un grand pain
rond. L* une
d*
elles dit d'un accent anglais
tres prononce, "Merci"
Mi chaud
:
(
•
Avec beaucoup de f aeons, en veritable aubergiste de la Grande Auberge du Tourisme Universel) II n*y a pas de ouoi, madame. II n'y a
vraiment pas de quoi.
(Elles sortent.)
Henri
s
Du pain
s
C'est ma panne
*•
Pierre
Jean
pa
',
I
Tout de meme
hein
?
Rond.... rond comme
(II fait un rond des bras.)
Sapristi
<
A
Mi chaud
,
,
(RIDEAU
il y a une difference
)
.
74
VIGNETTES DE KLLE. MI 33
Scene
t
Personnagea
:
k'ere
i
Le salon chez une famille bourgeoiae
francaise.
La mere ;Laure, qui a dix ana} Oamille
qui a
douze ana j une jeune fearae anglaiBe.
II faut avoir beaueoup de patience
avec Mias.
Voua Stea petits et elle eat une
grande peraonne. Pourtant, il ne faut pas oublier
qu'
elle ne aait paa parler francaia comme
voua.
Laure
:
Ne sait-elle rien, maman
?
I*
Mere
:
Si, elle connait beaueoup de mota. Elle
salt
aaaez bien prononcer les sons franeaia.maia.
Oauiille
Here
Laure
I
Kaia quoi
t
Kile fait beaueoup de fautea
I
Kxprea
,
maman
?
.
?
Mere
Oh non, non I Aaaurement que non
Oamille
Ne aait-slle pa8 mieux
Mere
i
Non,
.
iaon
I
?
enfant. Elle aporend. Voila pour quoi
il faut etre tree polis et trea obligeanta.
Oamille
Oui, maman, noua le serona.
iiere
Alor8
,
courses.
Oamille
C»
je voua quitte pour aller faire dea
(Kile sort.)
est drole qu» on peut ne paa aavoir le francaia,
75
Laure
Comment peut-on penser si
t
noms des choses
1'
on ne connait pas les
?
Camille
:
On lee pense en anglais,
Laure
t
Est-ce Ja meme chose que de s'asseoir sur une
chaise en anglais qu' en francais
Camille
Mais
s
oui
,
?
On plie les genoux, on se baisse,
*,
et voila, on est as sis.
(II accompagne ses mots ayeo des ac-
tions.
Mile. Miss entre portant chapeua,
manteau et gants. Camille se lere.
les deux enfants la saluent poliment.)
les
Mademoiselle. Bonj our, Miss.
enfants
:
Bonjour
,
Miss
:
Bon jour
,
Laure
:
Chacun
Miss
:
Oui, vous
Camille
;
Nous sommes
Miss
:
°Le monde
Camille
:
Pas
Miss
:
Duex sont
Camille
t
Deux
Miss
:
Bien
Laure
:
C est
Miss
s
Bonne promenade, longue promenade, rite.
Camille
:
Eh oui, parce
ohaqu'un.
?
,
Laure
tout le monde
"
vous
le monde
"
,
"
,
Bonjour
«,
"
The world
*,
.
tout le monde", Miss.
Mais
tout le monde
vingt
ca
et tous, Camille.
,
cent,
,
c«
"
?
est toujours "tout le monde".
tout le monde
',
Avez-rous fait une bonne promenade
qu' il fait froid ce matin.
?
76
Miss
Beaucoup froid'. Une poele pour chauffer
:
.
(Les enfants ne comprennent pas.)
Laure
t
Une poele pour chauffer
Miss
J
Oui, en Angleterre une poele pour chauffer.
Camille
*
Mais nous avons des poeles en Prance
Miss
:
En France
Camille
t
Mais oui, Mile. Miss.
Miss
s
Je ne regarde pas ici.
Camille
i
Mais non, Miss. Vous ne royez pas la poele au
salon
,
aussi
?
,
aussi.
1
•
Elle est^a la cuisine.
Laure
:
Camille
:
Je vals la chercher
Laure
:
Eh oui, allez la chercher
.
.
(Camille sort
II faut etre obligeant,
•
)
Est-oe que les poeles en Angleterre sont gr«ad««?
Miss
Oh oui, et rondes comme ca.
%
(Elle fait un grand rond des bras.)
Laure
t
3i grandes que ca
Miss
t
Oui
,
et haut comme pa.
Elle se touche a
(
Laure
s
quel appetit chez les Anglais'.
;
Si hautes que ca
,
Mile. Miss
1'
epaule
. )
?
(Camille rentre en courant
.
II
porte une petite poele en fonte.j
Mile. Miss'.
Camille
:
Voila
Miss
i
Ca, une poele ?
Camille
x
Mais, oui, Miss
,
.
Pourouoi pas
?
77
Hiss
t
Pour chauffer lea pied 8 et lea mains
Laure
t
Pour chauffer les pieds
\
Mais non
*,
?
Pour fairs
ouire de la riande, le filet et les cotelettes.
Caaille
*
ISlle
Miss
»
Poele
n*
Casille
reut dire un poele
,
oui
Tr
•
*,
n...une.. quelle difference. II
imports.
Oh si, Miss, il importe beaucoup. Bn francais,
*
on ne ohoislt pas un ou une
1*
Laure
G 1 est toujour*
un ou l f autre, raais pas par choix
Une poele
t
.
,
voila
;
(
',
Bile fait semhlant de pas-
ser la poele au feu pour faire euire.fr
Camille
Un poele est pour le oharbon, pour tenir ohaud.
x
(
II fait semhlant de aanier une pelle
a charhon, et de tisonner un feu.)
(tristesient
CoHsaent salt-on ?
Miss
*
Laure
s
Mais... .on sait...
Caaille
t
On apprend. II faut toujour* chercher un true
}
pour se rappeler si le substantif est du feminin
ou du masoulin. Tne poele, o'est du feminin (en
designant Laure
)
et e'est une feaaae qui la tient
(Lat«re fait semblant de
pour euisiner.
passer la
poele au feu.)
Tin
c'
poele
,
c*
est du maaculin (en se designant) et
est le maticulin qui
s*
en oceupe.
(II fait semblant de rpnimer
le feu.)
Laure
»
Compreneat-rous
,
i^iss ?
78
le eras; elle
(Miss attrape Camille oar
se met
attrape Laure par le bras; elle
s' incline
entre les deux enfants; elle
d'un cote
Toujour* un ou
une'.
puis de
,
autre.)
(S'inclinant a Camille
>
a Laure
•
)
(Meme action
Toujours le ou la
Bonjour, M.le poele
1'
\
.)
(Meme action.
)
(Kerne action
Bonjour, Mme. la poele'.
Adieu
,
action.)
M. le poele'. (*«ae
Adieu
,
Mme. la poele'. (Meme action.)
(Rideau)
.
)
,
puis
79
II
(Kile. Kiss est assise a la table,
et etudie? Laure entre, suivie
de Camille.)
Nous voila de retour de
1'
ecole, File. Miss.
Et Miss fait tou jours ses etudes.
II faut. II faut apprendre "le" et "la"
H
un
"
J
et "une
Pourquoi dites-rous presque toujours "uny Kiss?
(tristement
Je ne sais pas. En anglais il y a
}
"
•
Mors.
Est-ce que "un
"
est plus facile que "une
toujours "un
(
.)
M
un......une
une
?
Miss repete les deux mots plusieurs
fois
Un
"
"un
ni -
"
»une n n' est plus facile. To^s deux sont des sons
tres francais et diffioiles.
>
^st-ce que ces sons ne sont pas en anglais
Hon
,
Mors
?
Laure.
,
il n'y a pas de choix, n* est-ce pas ?
Vous dites
,
Camille
,
qu« il
faut toujours cher-
cher un true pour se rappeler si
c'
est du mascu-
lin ou du feminin. Qu* est-ce que
c'
est qu'un true?
Un true
,
c'
est une association
d»
idees qui fait
feminin,
rappeler. Vous sarea que "mere" est du
n'
est-ce pas ?
80
HMM
est du feininin, la, une.
kiss
t
Oui, je sals oela.
Laure
t
La mere-chatte, et la mere-chienne, et la mere
"
V
a
nous'.
s
Camilla
Mors
:
true
t
La mere garde la maison pour la
s
famille,
Mi S3
Garni lie
i
La mere
j
? r «8 bien
la maison
,
*,
la famille, tout enserable.
,
Kt encore
t
Une femme ports une robe;
un hoKme porte un pan talon et un gilet et un habit,
s
Je corap rends.
Caraille
j
Cherchez une association, ous-meme
Miss
t
(lentement) Une maitrewee dans une ecole apprend une
Kiss
Kiss.
,
leeon d'une langue etrangere a une classe.
Laure
:
Hiss
i
Encore
Tres bien
Kile. Vise,
,
un garcon prend un crayon pour eorire un devoir
dans un cahier*.
Camille
Miss
Camille
Ca y est
x
Camille
ca y est
,
eat-oe que
est
c'
*,
Voici une autre association:
une serviette
une assiette
,
une fourchette.
Les choses de la table pour manger
:
n' est
Ce sont les choses du couvert, mais cela
1*
wu»
?
%
pas
Laure
,
,
•
association.
t
Sites encore d'autres mots, Camille,
:
Une casquette
,
s'
il vous plait.
une noisette, une etiquette, une
lunette.
yy
Laure
i
J»y suis,
Miss
,
V association
suis
,
c'
;
Et tous
est le son
,
liss
e_tfce,
?
n'est-ce pas?
81
Camille
i
C est
Laure
t
J*
Camilla
t
3h bien
Laure
:
Une association* une education, une instruction,
ca
.
en connais, j'en connais.
,
allez-y.
une occasion
,
une na....
je sals.
Miss
i
Je sais
Laure
i
Une nation
Camille
s
Attends
Miss
t
C est
Camille
t
La terminal son "tion
,
»
une....
Laure. Visa y est. qu'est-ce
,
ue
c'
est?
au bout,
le son "tion
"
et
*
sion" est tou jours
du feminin.
Laure
*
Mi 88
,
A yous
,3'iss
•
Trouvea un autre true.
(tout en oherchant) Une aaitresse, une oomtesse,
une duehesse, une jaesse, une masse, une clause.
Camilla
t
Tres bien.
Laure
:
Mais qu* est-ee
Caaille
i
Encore
Miss
x
Je n'en sais plus. A yous
Camille
I
Une tigresse, une ogresse, une tas*e de the,
,
?
Je
n'y suis
pas'.
Mile. Kiss.
,
Camille.
(Laure rit et bat des mains.}
une hotesae
,
une care»se, une chasse aux fees.
Laure
t
J'y suia a present'.
Camille
t
A la bonne heure
Miss
i
Bravo, bravo',
Laure
*
32t
1'
Camille
s
',
France,
Je connais une autre association. La
independence,
La chance
,
1'
experience
la medisance...
,
la dense...
•
}
82
Ila
(
»*
inter romp tent en orient tou-
joura l'un plus fort que l autre.
1
Law re
:
La penitanca...
Camilla
I
L' esf?ence
Laure
:
La science ....
Kiaa
i
La silence...
(
pour le Renault***
La mere ouvre la porta
Mere
Kaia quel bruit
Camilla
Oh
,
mai'ian,
(
)
touB ces mots
,
mascuiin eat
"
F.t
est la silence au feminin
La mere regard e Kiss*
,
t
eat-ce qu' il y a
done
?
.
Les enfants rient et battent des mains.
Mies
Halas
Camilla
o*
Q,u'
•)
silence
pour bonne rai son
(Rideau
)
,
•
maman
\
le aeul au
)
83
III
Mile. Miss
(
,
debout
"a
regarde a I exterieur
1
la fenetre
:
,
son cha-
peau et son manteau reposent au
dossier d'une chaise; ses gants
et son porte-monnaie sont sur la
table a cote d'une lettre depliee.
Miss se retourne au moment ou
Camille entre en scene. II voit
qu' elle
1*
air decourage'
•
etes-vous pas encore prete, Mile. Miss
Camille
t
N'
Miss
:
Pas prete
Vous n'allez pas en promenade?
:
(surpris
Miss
:
Non, Camille
Camille
:
Et pourquoi pas
Miss
:
Pensez-vous
)
?
Je ne vais pas.
.
Camille
Camille
a
pas en automobile. Je ne peux pas.
,
?
On vient vous chercher.
?
cheroher. Mais,
Si Je crois qu' on Tient voua
*
Je le sais.
t
Comment est-ce que Je sais ce que
Camille
:
Comment
kiss
%
(
Miss
?
Mais
,
la lettre
ramassant la lettre
(cherchant l'endroit
)
)
,
c'
est
?
Miss....
La lettre dit....
Voici
*"a ir «
M
:
une promenade en automobile pendant
1'
Laure entre en scene.
apres-midi.'
Camille
:
Eh bien
Laure
:
deux heures.
Miss, maman dit qu' on vieitt vers
?
(
II est mo ins le quart a present.
)
84
Camille
t
Miss ne part pas
Laure
t
Ne part-elle pas faire une promenade
Camille
:
II paraft que non
Laure
:
Mais une si belle promenade en auto jusqu'a
Himes
.
C est
•
?
.
au moins cinquante kilometres
de belle route.
Miss
avec conviction
:
(
Camille
:
Justement ca
Laure
:
Mais quoi done
Miss
;
Je comprends
)
C est
justement ca
•
?
?
e'est une promenade de beau-
<iue
de "milles
a peu pres.
Camille
s
Cinquante kilometres
Miss
:
Pas cinquante
Camille
:
Je crois qu'un kilometre est moins qu'un "mille".
Miss
:
Kais
Camille
:
Assez.
Laure
:
Pas trop
Kiss
:
II faut longtemps pour aller, n' est-ce pas
Camille
:
Pas trop longtemps
Miss
:
Combien est un apres-midi
Laure
:
Combien de temps
Miss
:
Oui,
:
Mais.... de midi a ... je ne sais trop...
c'
,
milles "?
H
est loin.
.
en auto
?
.
s
Camille
?
?
combien de temps est un
\
?
-A
jusqu'a cinq heures
,
peut-etre
Miss
:
Et combien de temps est une
Camille
:
Mais
,
apres-midi
Miss,
c'
.
apres-midi
est toujours le meme
V
midi, un aprt:s-midi.
.
?
Une apres-
ss
Miss
t
Toujours le memo temps
?
Camille
t
?ou jours Is meme temps
•
Laure
l
Toujours les heures de
Miss
s
(
en riant un pen
apres-midi
raidi
Mors
)
a six heures.
un apres-widi, une
,
e'est dans le jour
,
est pendant le jour
et pas pendant la nuit.
Camille
t
C*
Laure
%
Cela dure cinq ou six heures
gouter au milieu
Miss
t
i
ig;:
»
:
et l*on prend 1«
,
*.
Sst-oe qu'on va dans une automobile ou dans un
automobile
Camille
»
?
Mais
(
,
?
Miss
,
quelle est la difference
arec conviction
Je ne sais pas
}
saroir avant de partir
•
?eut-etre
?
•
Kt je veux
c'
est eomwe
?eut-etre une automobile marche der-
•poele
riere les boeufs
;
Alors il faut une semaine pour
aller cinquante kilometres
(
Les enfant s rient, et Kiss aourit.)
Camille
*
Huit jours pour aller
Laure
t
TTne
V
quinssaine pour aller-reteur par automobile
aux beeufs..... comme une char rue avec un laboureur comme chauffeur
Camille
*
tfon
,
Miss
»
*•
une automobile
,
un automobile,
N
c'
toujours une Toiture a quatre roues de pneu qui
X
/
V
marche a moteur a essence de petrole.
Miss
t
Alors .... je sais ce que je vais faire.
Laure
t
Qu'est-ce que
c*
est
%
Hiss
?
est
.
86
Miss
Je vais faire une promenade dans une automobile
:
pendant une apres-midi
Camille
Tres bian
:
Miss
,
(
Laure
Elle arrive
;
est
,
.
Vous y etes.
.
On entend
V
d'appel d'une auto. Laure court
^a
la fenetre; elle agite la main
.)
Miss va arriver
.
Miss. On vous attend
promenade
la cantonade la oorne
.
.
(
a Miss
Au revoir
.
On y
)
3onne
*,
(Miss attrape son manteau et son cha-
peau qu'elle met en sortant.
Tous
Au revoir
:
V
Bonne promenade'. & tantot
(
Les enf ants vont a la fenetre et
font signe
Laure
:
Une promenade
,
d'
adieu
.)
dans une automobile pendant une
apres-midi
Camille
:
Mile. Miss apprend
,
et elle prend les choses au
serieux'.
Laure
:
des poeles
Pen«e S done, apres 1'histoire
(Rideau
)
.
37
IV
(0/
est le soir. Kile, Kiss et Gamille
sont assis a la table »Elle est en train
d'
eorire dans un cahierjlui etudie.
Laure est tres^a son alse dans un fauteuil; elle
toume les pages de
1'
Il-
lustration en regardant les images.)
Miss
<
(
se re J e tan t sur sa chaise et s'ecriant
)
Grand nigaud
Oamille
:
(un peu surpris
Mais, Mlle.Miss, qu'est-oe que
}
j'ai fait pour vous facher
Miss
s
Laure
:
(surprise) Vous
Mais alors
?
Rien.
C est
?
?
lui, le nigaud, et personne
autre que luil
Miss
i
Oh non, pas Oamille
Laure
s
Que si
Miss
s
Mais, non.
Laure
:
Vous nigaud, Klle.Kiss
Miss
5
Oh oui.
Camille
t
Et pourquoi, je vous en prie
Miss
*
J*
C*
eat moi.
?
Oh non
?
ecris :(en lisant de son cahier
)
"Un beau enfant ;un beau arbre jun beau homme;
un beau oeuf. M
Laure
i
(en riant
)
».
On beau oeuf",
c'
est un boeuf
;
88
Le boeuf pour trainer une automobile, Pans doute'.
(lis rient tous
Camille
;
Miss
;
Laure
:
Camille
Kiss
Que tu es folle
,
Laure
Mais non
n'
est pas folle
elle
,
(
tou jours tree gaie
c'
est un
)
Elle a raison.
.
Et puis un "beau homme",
}
baume pour les bobos
',
:
Mais sois serieuse
:
Elle me fait bien comprendre pourquoi il faut
dire "un bel oeuf
Laure
.
$
Et
H
un
petite sotte
,
',
"
et "un bel homme".
"
plutot que
b— arb» e
"
j'y suis pour beau et tel
\
bel arbre
pour
le bel homme
Miss
:
Oh oui, Laure
Camille
t
Je crois bien que oui, Kiss
,
Mais pas pour nigaud
Laure
s
Car de nigaud
pour beau et bel.
,
.
il n'y a que Camille
,
.
Koi, Kiss,
etant du feminin, je suis nigaude.
(
Miss
:
Elle fait explosionner le "d".)
Aha, et moi, aussi, nigaude
(
•
Elle imite bien le "d" de Laure.)
Laure
:
Alors
Miss
:
(
Laure
s
Comment ne pas
Miss
:
Eh oui, comment ne pas
Camille
:
Ajoutez
:
Commencez avec un pour Camille, un garcon, et
Laure
,
ne soyons plus nigaudes
tristement
ajoutez
e
_e
)
Comment ne pas
1*
etre
',
?
?
1*
etre
?
pour le feminin de l'adjeeti.f.
pour moi
,
une fillette.
89
fcise
*
(cherchant lentement
)
TTn
,
une; petit, petite
f
grand, grande
Camilla
:
Faitea exploaionner la oonaonne, Kiss. Petite,
verte, mechante, content*.
ti»8
*
(repetent avec attention au t
}
verte, contente, interessante
,
Kechante,
ouverte,
C est
joli, n* eat-ce pas ?
Camille
t
Male out, Mies
,
c*eat gai comme le staccato
quand Laure Joue au piano
Kiaa
:
.
prononcant toujoura tree nettement
(
}
5otte,
verte, porte, chante, toute, tante...
Laure
:
C*
eat covme lea chaloupes a wo teur
tante, toute
,
toute,
tante. (r.lle continue a repeter
cea mots de plus en plus
rap idem en t en produiaant
une succession de petite
sona exploaifa semblables
a ceux d'un moteur qui ae
met en mar eh e.
La mere entre en scene, regarde tont le wonde d'on
7
air e'tonne .
Je fais
voirV Kile. Kiss
)
que le son te au bout
dea mots eert de moteur au francais.
(Laure off re aon fauteuil
a sa mere, et commence a
.
90
circuler en accelerant les sons explosifs.)
Chante
,
vente
,
lente, mechante, oontente, inte-
ressrante, totite, tante
Mere
x
(
assise
,
toute
,
tante....(0n rit.)
lie est Trai que ces mots donnent de la
)
vivHcite et de la force a la langue.
Ce sont les petites explosions qui font marcher.
Camille:
(Pendant ce temps, Laure continue a circu-
ler autour de la piece en repetant a mi-
voix des mots qui se terminent en te
Laure
tais-toi
Mere
:
(en riant
)
Mais
Laure
:
(espiegle
)
Aha... on s'arrete
,
,
*.
Keureuse, en-
nuyeuee, honteuse, francaise, anglaise.
(Elle fait bien resonner le
ou' il
.)
. .
de sorte
j|
ressemble au sifflement de la va-
peur nui
s*
echappe d'une locomotive en
train de s'arreter.)
Hollandaise
Camille:
Laure
:
,
Marseillaise, mayonnaise...
.
Mais tu es folle
(
de plus en plus enjouee)t' aeroplane prend son
vol',
(
Elle fait chanter le 1 de
des mots qu* elle repete
"
vol" et
en produisant
un son de trille qui fait penser aux
tressaillements des toiles des ailes
d 1 un aeroplane.
J
Folle, molle, cruelle, duel, elle, belle, tel, sel.
Mere
:
Oh
,
cette enfant
\
)
.
.
91
(Camille se met de la partie an
rep et ant lea mots en se
;
Uiss
fait de meme pour les mots en t*
lis parlent tour a tour.
C est
un
bourdonnement,
Cacdlle
t
Heureuse, malheureuBe, ennuyeuse.
Laure
s
Kile, reelle
Ml SB
t
Kechante
Laure
j
Sel, belle, appelle
Camille
t
Hon ten se
Miss
t
Verte, raorte, chante
,
,
contents, absente. .
. .
• . .
Chinoise,
(
II faut que ceoi aoit enjoue^
enfantin, mais pas ennuyeux.)
kere
t
(en se bourrant les oreilles) De grace
fin a toutes ces terminal sonsV
(Rideau
)
I
ette«
,
)
92
(C&mille et Laure se troinrent
au salon en train de causer.
Bar la table ae trouyent lee
livres de Miss, un cahier, une
grammaire
Laure
,
un dictionneire.
Vila. Miss ra renir dans un moment. Juons a
;
cache-objet, veux-tu
?
Garni lie
t
Je veux bien, si Miss a le temps.
Laure
:
ISlle
Garni lie
»
Kile travaille bien. Kile ne perd pas son temps.
Laure
t
Mais on apprend en jottant. Ce
va avoir le temps.
n'
est pas temps per-
du.
Garni lie
s
Kile apprend rite.
Laure
s
Kais elle fait des fautes droles,
t
nuelquefois.
Laure
:
Elle dit sourent "gele". ou'ent-ce que
Jamil le
:
Je ne nais pas
Laure
»
Elle ne gele pas assurement par le temps
G ami
He
n*
est-ee pas
o'
est
?
•
qu* il
fait a present.
Gamille
t
Je pense bien
dire
G'
;
est autre chose qu« elle veut
.
Laure
s
Peut-etre est-ce anglais.
Gamille
:
Peut-etre bien
Laure
j
Cherchons
Gamille
j
Cherchons
?
•
Ca se peut
Mais ou
?
•
?
93
Laure
Mai b dans son dictionnaire.
(Caffille s'assied a la table, ou-
vre le dictionnaire et commence
s
a chereher. Laure regarde pardessus son epaule.)
Cherche dans la parti e anglaise.
Camille
:
C'est ce que je fais,
(
II murraure inoomprehenBiblement
en suivant 3on doigt du haut en
bas de la page.
Laure
:
Dans les £.
Camille
:
a'
Laure
:
Camille
:
Mais peut-etre est-ce un
Laure
:
C*
)
abord, oui.
"D*
abord "? Pourquoi
abord
d'
j_
?
aulieu d'un
£
est vrai. Qu' ils ont un drole d'air, ces mots
anglais'. Comment arrive- t-on a les prononcer
Camille
:
II n'y a pas de
Laure
i
Bh bien, cherche aux
Camille
:
C est
Laure
*
II n'y a pas beaucoup de
pas
Camille
t
Laure
:
1
e
.
j_
ce que je vais faire ,(
£
en cherchant),
en anglais,
n'
est-ce
?
Voici bien
(
£
?
1
«
1
£
1
.
prononcant a la francaise
eat-ce cela
.
"Jelly
Peut-etre
Qu' est-ce que e' est ?
Camille
:
(
Li&ant
Laure
s
[
etonneej Quoi done
)
)
Une confiture de jus de fruits.
?
)
94
Camille
:
Une confiture de jus de fruits.
Laure
:
Mais.... pourquoi Kiss veut-elle toujours meler
de la confiture a son parler
Camille
:
Demande -le-lui.
Laure
:
La voila qui arrive
(
Camille
s
?
.
Kiss entre en scene; Camille se leve.)
Ne le lui demande pas maintenant, Laure. Attends
qu' elle le dise.
Laure
j
Bon
*
Mile. Kiss
jet avec vous
,
voulez-vous jouer a cache-ob-
?
Mi'ss
i
Je veux
Laure
:
St toi, Camille
Bamille
s
Je veux
Miss
:
Ah oui, je sals, je me rappelle. Je veux
Camille
:
3ien rappele
,
Kile. Miss
Miss
:
est-ce pas
?
Laure
Laure
:
Je veux
•
Men
?
.
,
Men
.
.
voulez-vous cacher l'fibjet?
Men, merci, Kiss
.
Regardez,
c'
est la
gomma rouge de Miss. Fermez les yeux. Camille,
ne triche pas
(Camille et Miss se cachent la figure
dans les mains en se retournant contre
le mur. Laure circule en cherchant une
caehette, et cependant Kiss et Camille
comptent jusqu'a, dix. Laure cache la
gomme sous le dictionnaire.
Ca y est ?
Camille
:
Dix'.
Laure
i
Oui, ca y est
',
Ouvrez les yeux. Cherchez
95
(Les actions de
et de Camilla en
cherchant doiTent s'aceorder avec
les exclamation b de Laure.}
Laure
ay«
Vou 8
,
froid,
Ki«. Ne toub
ea
»n„
pa
18 eowaencesa avoir chaud, Camille.Fais
attention.
Kiss aussi
Ah
1*1
,
(Wile
a froid a present
a chaud..... tres chaud.... Oh,la-lal
ss
Bile brule*.
Kiss
i
J*al 1«
*.
(
Les enfants se regardent, puis ils
eclatent de rire.)
Camille
:
La Toila
Miss
t
Quelle confiture
Laure
t
]?on,
du
Kiss
;
Caaille
:
Miss
n
la confiture
,
,
?
'.
C est
ma gowme rouge.
nous ne parlons pas de la gomme, male
gele".
"Gele
"
?
Kais oui, Kiss. Vous area dit "gele
pas une confiture anglaise
Kiss
t
K»est-ee
?
Uoi, j'ai parle d'une confiture
?
J*ai parte' que
J*ai la goimne rouge.
Laure
t
Vous
Kiss
j
J»»i parte'. ... non, je veux dire, J'ai dit,
•
Camille
i
Ah
avest dit,
"
gele
".
J*ai leS J'ai la gomme.
,
Je coiaprends
;
"Je 1'ai *. Le pronon pre-
cede le verbe. 'Je l*ai
Miss
t
Ah
,
,
je les ai."
j'oublie cela toujours
les ai
*
"
Je les ai, je
. .
.
9C
Laure
t
•Nous lee avona,
Camille
t
*Koua ne lea avona paa, voiia ne lea aTast paa."
Kiaa
i
•
Houa lea avona, voua ne lea area paa
Laure
t
w
L'avez-voua
Ki8B
•
"
J« ne 1'ai paa
Camille
j
Bon, oontinuona le jeu.
:
La voila, Camille
Kiaa
la caches.
?
owb
He l'avez-voua paa
Hon, non
Kia8
t
La aprea le verbe
Camille
i
Sh oui, cette foia
:
Alora
s
A
Caaille
1'
.(
?
"
j*y auis, je oroia.
Elle lui donne la gomme.)
(Lea enfantu eclatent de rire.
»
.
Je l'ai
.
Caaille
Kiaa
lea area, il B lea ont."
Kiaa
,
.
On dit
"Cachez-la"
,
?
e*
eat aprea le verbe
comment aavoir
...
.
?
iaperatif , le pronon vient avant
gatif, et il vient aprea a
1'
an ne-
affirmatif
Laure
t
Caiaille
s
Kiaa
5
"Regardez-le, ne le re^ardona paa
Camille
t
Voua y etea
Kiaa
:
Oui, je croia que je 1'ai.... lay me down to
"Cachez-la
,
)
ne la cachez paa.
"
Trouvona -lea, ne lea trouvona paa
,
Kiaa.
alegp.
Laure
t
*iaia..... que ditea-voua
kiaa
:
Oh, ce n* est rien.
ciation.
Laure
s
TTn
,
Kiaai
true a moi pour la pronon-
"He la cachez paa. Cachez-la."
N'oubliez paa, Kiaa, qu*il y a toujoura un trait
d*
union pour relier le, la,
C*
eat un tout petit mot, tout «eul a la fin de
l ea
,
au verba
97
la phrase. Peut-etre ae pardrait-il sans
o« bout
da trait d* union pour la rattaeher.
kiss
|
Cor-
Camilla
j
Contlnuona
Mi ae
i
Caches-la, Camilla,
Laura
t
Adieu la confiture da
i
;
*
gala»l
(Le jeu recommence,
(
ddeau
)
j
98
VI
(Laura et Gamille etudient Na la
table de travail.)
Men
Laure
:
Tu aais, je aula
Camille
:
Beaucoup de jeunes filles le sont.
Laure
i
Je fais des fautes idiotes. Je eonfonds toujours
bSte pour lea mathematiques.
7 fois 9 qui font 63 avec 8 fois 8 qui font 64.
Camille
:
C eat
pourtant trea simple.
grand que 63 par un
7
Laure
:
par un
,
Vols, 64 est plus
et 8 eat plus grand que
.
Mais 9 est plua grand que 8 par
Tree simple
C e8t
un auasi.
la faute que j'ai faite dans
oe probleme. Ou eat la gomme ?
(
Elle cherohe
la gomme sur la ta"ble.)
Camille
:
Je ne sais paa. Par ici quel que part. Cherche-la.
Laure
:
C e8t
ce que je fais.
(Mile. Miss entre en scene.)
La gomme
,
ou est-elle ?
(Camille se leve
Camille
t
Ou l'avez-vous miae, iSademoiselle
Mias
t
(etonaee
)
Ou
?
t
Eon, non ,Misa
Elle
n*
?
... Mais.... Je ne comprends
dans la salle de bain.
paa. Je lare
Camille
.)
,
paa laver*.
Mais la gomme rouge!
eat paa ioi sur la table. Arez-roua mia
cette gomme quelque part? Ou l'avez-vous mise,Miss?
(Miaa rit gentiment.)
t
99
Je 1* ai mis dans...
kiss
x
Que je suis nigaude
Camilla
i
Kise.
Miss
t
Je l*ai ciise dans mon eahier.
Laure
t
Et le eahier, ou est-il
Mies
s
II est sous le dictionnaire. Je les ai mises...
Camille
x
Honl
C*
?
est mis oette fois, car il y en a deux,
l*un au masculin
,
1*
autre au feminin.
masculin qui de'cide conanent
Miss
s'
C*
est le
aceorde le participe.
Je les ai mis la en jouant^a cache-objet, et Je
i
les ai completeraent ou lies.
(Laure les trouYe.)
Elle commence a effacer.)
Laure
:
Je les ai trouyes.
IfiM
:
Alors
Laure
x
Si J'en fais
Garni lie
x
Et etemeliement la
Laure
x
Corabien de fois ne l'ai-je pas faite, cette faute'.
Camille
x
C*
,
(
Yoimaussi, yous faitec des fautes
*,
Et des betes
?
ContinuellemenU
meme*.
est la faute que tu as apprise au lieu ds la
bonne reponse.
Laure
;
Preei semen
Miss
*
"Apprise, apprise ?" Qu* est-oe que
Camille
x
C*
MiM
x
"Apprendre, apprise *.
Laure
*
Ou pas apprise,
Miss
x
Surprendre, surprise j oomprendre, comprise.
Camille
x
C*
Laure
x
Mettre
c'
est ?
est ce qu'on apprr-nd.
est bien
,
s'
il s'agit de ma lepon
ca*.
mise
;
permettre, pernise: commettre,
100
commiee."
Kiss
j
C*
est compris, merci bien. (F.lls ouvre non oahier.}
Garni lie,
voule»-vous bien corriger lea pages de
francaia que j'ai... que I'ai.... attendez, ne me
elites pas«...
j'ai ecriaes.
que
(Les enfanta eclatent de rire.)
Hon, non, Visa.
Gaisille
s
Uias
t
(faus.se ient lugubre
Camille
:
Oui, l.iss, eette fois
Laure
:
St les phrases
**£ue
)
j'ai ecrites."
"Eorites "?
c*
est "eerites
youb avez dites, et les fautea
;ua
que yous avez produites'.
Camille
t
Kt
qw' on
Kiss
%
Oh
jr.on
a decouvf rtes*.
dieu*,
Je rais ton jours me servir des Verb es
Rejimliers qui ont le parti cipe passe prononce le
meme au manor. 1 in et au f eminin, au aingulier et
Comme ca, je ne ferai pas de fautes.
au piurielV
Camille
i
est plus embetant de char char incessam-
Mais
c'
raent
a eViter une forme <ue de
1'
apprendre une
fois pour totitee. Trourez toujours une resaem-
blanee dana un groupe; ou bien une dissemblance*
Lire, luejrire.ri
Laure
x
Voir
«
,
t
j
avoir
,
dire
,
dite.
eu
;
boire
,
buj receroir,
reeu.
Camille
*
Ouvrir
,
ourerte
;
courrir, courerte
;
deeouvrir,
/
decourerte.
Miss
s
Pour me donner la patience
d1
apprendre tout ca.
•
101
il me faut repeter
"broke,
broken
;
go, went, gone
"
:
:
break,
speak, spoke, spoken; run
run; swim, swam, swum
,
ran,
"
(Pendant qu'elle chantonne ces formes
les enfants la regardent etonnes.)
Camille
t
Mais qu' est-ee que
Miss
:
Ca
?
c'
est que ca
Ge sont les verbes anglais qui sont
ment irreguliers
ou'
"
I
tene-
on se trorape quelquefois.
Je ne sais rraiment pas si
si
?
"
I
have swum
"
hare swam"
Laure
t
Est-ce une langue
Miss
:
luais oui,
qu' on
parle veritablement
Laure, eouramment
(Rideau
)
\
ou
102
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
t
Churchman, Philip H. PHONETIC GATEWAY TO FRENCH,
Heath and Co., New York,
Coleman, Algernon, EXPERIMENTS AND STUDIES IN MODERN
LANGUAGE TEACHING,
University of Chicago Press, 1934,
THE TEACHING OF MODERN FOREIGN LANGU-
AGES IN THE UNITED STATES,
Maomillan Co., New York, 1931
Handachin, Charles H. METHODS OF TEACHING MODERN LANGUAGES
,
World Book Co., Yonkers,N.Y.1923.
Jesperson,0. HOW TO TEACH A FOREIGN LANGUAGE, translated
from the Danish,
Macmillan Co., New York, 1904.
Nyrop, Kr. MANUEL PHONETiqjJE DU FRANCAIS PARLE, traduit
en francais par E.Philipot,
Alphonse Picard & Fils, Paris, 1902.
Palmer .Harold E.
Tlffi
SCIENTIFIC STUDY AND TEACHING
OF LANGUAGES,
World Book Co., Yonkers,N.Y.1917.
Passy, Paul, EDITORIAL CRITIC, in International French-
English Dictionary,
Hinds, Noble & Eldredge,N.Y.1904
•
:
103
Passy, Paul
,
LECTURES VARIEES MISES EH TR ANSCRIPTI OH
PHONETiq,UE,
Socitfttf"
des Traite's, Paris.
Grammars
FRENCH FOR BEGINNERS, Warner and For tier,
Ch. Scribner & Sons, Hew York, 1931.
FRENCH GRAMMAR, Fraser and Squair,
Heath and Co., New York, 1909.
MODERN FRENCH GRAMMAR, Mathurin Dondo,
Heath and Co., New York, 1929.
LANGUAGE, LITER ATTIRE AND LIFE, Book One, Smith and
Roberts, Scott, Foresman & Co.,
Chicago, 19 30.
NEW CHARDENAL, W.H.Grosj ean,
Allyn & Bacon, Boston, 1929.
Secondary Education Board, REPORT OF A STUDY OF THE
SECONDARY CURRICULUM, Milton, Mass., 1932.
104
Periodicals
:
Educational Review
:
THE TEACHING OF MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES, Samuel
M.Waxman, Vol 50, pp. 82-91.
THE DIRECT METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION, Anna W.
Ballaed
Modern Languages
,
Vol 51, pp. 447-456.
:
A NOTE ON PHONETICS IN THE CLASS ROOM, J.J.Finaley, Vol.XII.pp. 23-26.
Modern Language Journal:
PRACTICAL PHONETICS IN JUNIOR COLLEGE FRENCH,
Algernon Coleman, Vol. I
:
pp. 155-162 andl93-20l.
TEACHING FRENCH PRONUNCIATION BY PHONETICS, Anna
W.Ballard, Vol.3, pp. 325-330.
THE USE OF PHONETIC SYMBOLS IN TEACHING FRENCH
PRONUNCIATION, Anna W.Ballard, Vol. 5. pp. 134-158
School Reviews
FRENCH PHONETIC TRAINING IN THE UNIVERSITY HIGH
SCHOOL, A.G.Bovee
,
Vol. 24, pp. 675-679.
ON THE TEACHING OF FRENCH PR ONUNCI ATI ON, Churchman,
Vol. 22, pp. 545-554.
THE USE OF PHONETICS IN TEACHING ELEMENTARY FRENCH,
E.B.Bahcock, Vol. 21. pp. 608- 617.
THE USE OF PHONETICS IN FRENCH, C. J.Cipriane,
Vol.20, pp. 516-522.
105
ACKHOWLRIXJKKNTS
The writer wishes to express her thanks to those
persons whose help made possible the completion of
this study: To the pupils who willingly took part in
the experiment; to Krs. John Bagg, who kindly allowed
the use of her phonographic recording machine; to Mr.
R,D.3nively, who assisted in the mechanical manipulation of the microphone; and to the teachers whose sug-
gestions served as guides in developing the experiment
and in securing data.
Approved by
//
Date )22
Graduate Cctoiittee
'

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