Chapter 9 - Goodfellow Publishers

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Chapter 9 - Goodfellow Publishers
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Geotourism:
The Tourism of Geology and
Landscape
9
Edited by
David Newsome, Murdoch University, Australia
and Ross K. Dowling, Edith Cowan University, Australia
Contents
Introduction
2
The Hawaiian Islands – a hotspot
2
Hawaii’s economic lifeline: tourism
3
Who is Hawaii’s geotourist?
3
Diversity of volcanic-based geotourism activities
in the Hawaiian Islands
5
Case studies
6
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Conclusion
(G)
11
Published by Goodfellow Publishers Limited, Woodeaton, Oxford, OX3 9TJ
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Design and setting by P.K. McBride
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9
Geotourism in the Hawaiian
Islands
Lisa M. King, James Cook University, Cairns, Australia
Introduction
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one of the most isolated places in the world (Juvic and Juvic, 1998), but also one of
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– tall mountains deeply eroded by tropical rains and waterfalls into rugged gorges and
valleys, a spectacular backdrop for world-class beaches, dramatic volcanic landscapes
and forests. The state consists of six main islands: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai
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and Kahoolawe, are not open to conventional tourism. Tens of smaller, much older
islands, northwest of the main island chain, are protected by-and-large within the Papa}88Š‘†Â8†b88²€b8½€‘8‡‘ÂŠb½¢
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Geotourists are especially drawn to the islands to witness their past volcanic history and
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landscape while the second reports on how the Park rehabilitated the Sulphur Banks
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where visitors learn about the active volcanic processes being experienced. The last case
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foreseeable future.
The Hawaiian Islands – a hotspot
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(Wegener, 1912, cited in Kious and Tilling, 1996) offers a different scenario. The theory
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formation of volcanic islands thousands of kilometers from the edges of tectonic plates.
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9: Geotourism in the Hawaiian Islands
3
a slowly moving tectonic plate intercepts a narrow stream of hot magma rising upward
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of the ocean as an island. As the tectonic plate continues to move, the hotspot occurs
beneath a new portion of the plate and repeats the island building process. For example,
Kure Atoll, approximately 2100 km northwest from Oahu (Juvic and Juvic, 1998), is
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directly over the hotspot (Anderson and Schram, 2005). Recent research is calling into
question aspects of the popular hotspot paradigm (see Foulger et al., 2005) and facets of
the hotspot theory may undergo revision in the future.
Hawaii’s economic lifeline: tourism
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nine days (Dept. of Business, Economic Development and Tourism [DBEDT] 2008a).
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‘8µ½8Y½}bȑ‡O8‘bµÉ€½}€8É8€€2‘‡O8‘bµ8½€‘8‡(8²†j88‘88Y€lauea, are all highly popular visitor attractions. These famous sites and landscapes help
sell millions of dollars worth of tourist merchandise and memorabilia such as post cards,
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art and real estate. Thus, geotourism is a tremendous contributor both directly and inY€²bO½‡Ë½‘½}b8É8€€8bO‘‘ŠË¢
Who is Hawaii’s geotourist?
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every island visitor participates in at least one geotourism-related activity during their
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lens. Table 9.2 shows the percentage of total visitors in various lifestyle/lifestages par½€O€8½€u€8²½€O‡8²8É8€€8ub‘½‘²€µŠ²b‡8½bY8O½€È€½€bµ8YȀµ€½8½€‘µ½8½Âµ¢‘²
example, newlyweds and honeymooners provide a solid market for helicopter and plane
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landforms. Self-guided geotourists literally stop everywhere with their travel guidebook
‘²É€½}8·b½½8YˍYŠ8¯µŸ˜ŽŽ¹ Roadside Geology of Hawai’i €}8Y¢€†b²µV
campers and backpackers may conduct such activities to gain a more intimate connection with the land and its values, to take in less accessible views or spend a longer period
of time immersed in the landscape and its contents. Public and commercial parks and
gardens are often developed nestled against rugged mountains or with sea views as an
additional enticement to pull visitors to the attraction.
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4 Geotourism: The Tourism of Geology and Landscape
Table 9.1: Visitation to some of Hawaii’s iconic geologic features (2007).
Island
Total no.
of visitors
Oahu
4,694,750a Hanauma Bay
Nature Preserve
Maui
Geosite
Description of geologic feature
Approx. no.
of visitors
to geosite
Flooded volcanic crater with one side open 1,088,660a
to the sea forming a curved beach with a
protected coral reef and stunning views
from the crater rim.
Diamond Head
Iconic volcanic crater adjacent to Waikiki.
State Monument
584,909a
Nuuanu Pali
State Wayside
Park
Deeply eroded cliffs with panoramic
coastal views immediately off a major
tourist route.
905,300b
Dormant volcano with colourful cinder
cones and dramatic volcanic landscapes.
1,322,817a
Eroded caldera of the West Maui volcano
covered with lush vegetation.
431,400a
2,463,594a Haleakala
National Park
Iao Valley State
Monument
Big Island
of Hawaii
Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes along
1,622,359a Hawaii
1,467,779a
Volcanoes
with cinder cones, pit craters, active lava
National Park
ÜRZVDQGRWKHUYROFDQLFIHDWXUHV
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Kauai
Mauna Kea
State Park
Mauna Kea, Hawai’i’s tallest volcano at
4025m, partially protected within this park.
64,600b
Akaka Falls
State Park
Two large waterfalls, Akaka and Kahuna,
along with several smaller waterfalls are
easily viewed by visitors.
189,400b
Lava Tree State
Monument
Impressive lava tree molds standing where
a forest once was before taken by lava.
44,400b
Deeply eroded sea cliffs resulting from of a
FDWDVWURSKLFODQGVOLGHIURPWKHQRUWKÜDQN
of the Wai‘ale‘ale volcano.
423,100b
1,200,045a Na Pali Coast
State Park
Waimea Canyon A gigantic volcanic erosional feature
430,700b
State Park
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oxidized from black to bright reds.
a
DBEDT (2008b); b OmniTrak Group Inc, 2007.
Table 9.2: Breakdown of the total number of Hawaii’s visitors participating in some
geotourism-related activities ( %) (compiled from DBEDT, 2008c).
Lifestyle/lifestage segments
Activity
Wedding/
Honeymoon
Family
Young
Middle
age
Visitor status
Seniors
Firsttimers
Repeat
visitors
Helicopter or plane tour
19.5
10.7
10.6
13.8
13.1
14.0
11.4
Tour bus excursion
35.1
22.3
21.9
25.2
37.5
38.9
20.6
Private limousine/van tour
11.2
11.1
9.3
11.0
12.8
11.1
9.5
Self-drives
72.3
79.0
78.5
74.5
68.1
69.0
75.8
hiking/camping/backpacking 25.9
17.2
35.0
20.7
10.6
23.3
17.2
Parks/gardens
58.0
60.0
59.0
56.9
59.7
58.1
57.9
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9: Geotourism in the Hawaiian Islands
5
Diversity of volcanic-based geotourism activities in the
Hawaiian Islands
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the geotourist. Active volcanoes, steam vents, lava tubes, waterfalls, thermal tide pools,
ocean blowholes and overlooks with panoramic cliff, sea, mountain or valley views are
just a few of the features around the State for geotourists. Actually, spectacular scenery
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Survey found scenery (61 percent) as the most important factor for the self-drive visitor
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Figure 9.1: The spectacular Waimea Canyon, often referred to as ‘the Grand Canyon of the
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Kim.
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have more holiday dollars to spend. Bus and van tours provide geotourists the chance to
view scenic landscapes and take pictures from overlook spots. Many geotourists choose
to combine their special interests, during a holiday. For example, those geotourists hik€u8Š‘uµ½½}bO€Yb²O‘bµÉ€½}€8‡b8†8‡88½€‘8‡(8²†8²bO‘ŠF€€u½}b€²€½b²bµ½€ub‘‡‘uËɀ½}½}b€²8no€½Ën‘²ŠÂ‡½€Y8ËF8O†8O†€u½²€µŸ€u²bŽ¢Á ¢
Cavers can undertake tours through a limited number of lava tubes open to the public
(King, forthcoming), to add them to their mental tally sheet of collected places (King
and Prideaux, forthcoming). Others geotourists may opt for less strenuous options such
8µµ€Š‡ËF‘8²Y€u8µ}€8YO²Â€µ€u8²‘Y½}bµ‡8YµV½8†€u€½}bÈ8µ½È‘‡O8€O
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night.
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6 Geotourism: The Tourism of Geology and Landscape
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Figure 9.2: Geotourists hiking in the backcountry of Haleakala National Park on Maui.
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Case studies
With the wide range of geologic features and ongoing geomorphological processes in the
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,}b½}²bbO8µbµ½ÂY€bµ²bµb½bYFb‡‘Én‘Oµ‘ub‘½‘²€µŠ€µµÂbµ‘8É8€€µ‡8Y¢
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study illustrates how the Park redesigned the Sulphur Banks site to reduce impacts on
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a small tour operator carefully balances visitor numbers with a strong conservation ethic
in order to conserve one of the most important lava tubes in the world.
Case study 1: Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
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²‘½bO½µ bYbŠ€O 8Y bY8ub²bY q‘²8 8Y n88 €O‡ÂY€u }8Ë n8Ob µ€Yb²µ (Theridion grallator), ½}b 8É8€€8 u‘‘µb (Branta sandvicensis) 8‡µ‘ †‘ɍ 8µ ½}b bbV
and the Mauna Loa silversword plant (Argyroxiphium kauense).,}b(8²†¯µ‘½µ½8Y€u8½Â²8‡8YF€‘‡‘u€O8‡²bµ‘²Obµ‡bY½‘€½µYbµ€u8½€‘8µ8½b²8½€‘8‡€‘µ}b²b
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