Romantic Classicism

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Romantic Classicism
702132/702835 European Architecture B
Romantic Classicism
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authenticity
reductionism
NEOCLASSICISM
sublimity
neoclassicism
ROMANTIC CLASSICISM
innovation/radicalism
Aristotle
[in poetry] the structural union of the parts
should be such that if any one of them is
displaced or removed, the whole will be
disjointed or disturbed.
Cordemoy (1706)
architecture should be reduced to simple
independent elements, none of which possess
merely decorative functions
Fénelon (1714)
a Grecian structure has nothing in it that is
merely ornamental
Laugier (1752)
the rustic hut justifies the use use in
architecture of only columns, entablature and
pediment
the Primitive Hut:
frontispiece from
Laugier, Essai sur
l'Architecture, c
1753
primitive
hut, by
William
Chambers
John Harris, Sir
William Chambers:
Knight of the Polar
Star (University Park
[Pennsylvania] no
date [c 1970]), pl 4
'Plans for two designs for
a Dairy in the primitive
manner of building' by
John Soane, 1783
Pierre du Prey, Sir John Soane
(London 1985), frontispiece
FRENCH EXAMPLES
St-Germain l'Auxerrois, Paris, choir redecorated with fluted
columns, by Claude Baccarit and Louis-Claude Vassé, 1756
Miles Lewis
St-Sulpice, Paris, by Le Vau (1655-1670 original design, east chapel built), Daniel Gittard
(1670-?c 1677 eastern part) and G-M Oppenord (1719-1736 balance except west front)
MUAS 10,664
St-Sulpice,
interior
Hermann,
Laugier, p 7
St-Sulpice, Paris, project for the west front by Juste-Aurèle
Meissonier, c 1730; second design by J-N Servandoni
Blunt, Baroque and Rococo, p 139; MUAS 6,965
St-Sulpice, Paris, second and final
designs by J-N Servandoni
MUAS 6,965; Reginald Blomfield, French
Architecture from the death of Mazarin, II, pl CLXI
facing p 112
St-Sulpice, as built with
Servandoni's towers modified and
the north one rebuilt by Chalgrin,
1777
detail with Servandoni's tower only
exposed
MUAS 25,146;Miles Lewis
Francesco Milizia, Le Vite de' piu celebri architetti, 1786
The rules set out so far are more negative and destructive
than positive and constructive. This is only as it should be.
To clean a piece of ground overgrown with wild thorns, one
needs iron and fire. The ills of architecture arise out of
over-abundance. Therefore, in order to perfect
architecture, one must rid it of those superfluities and tear
out those frills with which stupidity and caprice have
disfigured it. The simpler architecture is, the more beautiful
it is. It would be about time now, after some twenty
centuries, that it were purged of every defect and thus
reached perfection.
five principles of neoclassicism
to bypass the Renaissance and return directly to Roman
sources, and in due course to Greek ones
to seek out the fundamental principles of classical architecture
rather than simply to copy it
to be concerned more with abstract form and mass, and with
clarity of expression, and less with detail and ornament
to aim for effects of sublimity, rather than humanity
Associationism: the idea that buildings should contain
meaningful reference
Petit Trianon,
Versailles, by A-J
Gabriel, 1761-8
east & west fronts
Miles Lewis; Diapolfilm
5438 JH-10
STYLE GABRIEL
Place Louis XV, Paris, by A-J Gabriel (1755) 1757-75
Blomfield, French Architecture 1661-1774, II, pl clxxii, p 124
STYLE GABRIEL
Place Louis XV
Kalnein & Levey, Eighteenth Century France, pl 246
Place Louis XV (Place de la Concorde), view of the two wings
Miles Lewis
La Madeleine, Paris, as designed by Pierre Contant d'Ivry, 1757-1764
Blomfield, French Architecture 1661-1774, II, pl CLXXIX, p 144
La Madeleine, plan
Blomfield, French Architecture 1661-1774, II, pl CLXXX
La Madeleine, interior
Hermann, Laugier, p 31
La Madeleine, as completed by Alexandre Vignon, 1807-42
Toman, Neoclassicism, p 93
Ste-Geneviève,
Paris, by
Germain
Soufflot,
1757-1790
Toman,
Neoclassicism, p 69
Ste-Geneviève, plan as conceived in 1757
Kalnein & Levey, Eighteenth Century in France, pl 320
Ste-Geneviève
Toman,
Neoclassicism, p 68
Ste-Geneviève, interior
Miles Lewis
Ste-Geneviève,
detail at the
crossing
Miles Lewis
Ste-Geneviève, section of the pediment masonry, showing the reinforcement
R I M Sutherland, 'Pioneer British Contributions in Structural Iron and Concrete: 1770-1855', in C E
Peterson [ed], Building Early America (Radnor [Pennsylvania] 1976), p 113
Ste-Geneviève, view under the dome
MUAS 28,389
Ste-Geneviève, view
under the dome
Kedlestone Hall, the
dome of the Salon, by
Robert Adam, c 176070
MUAS 28,389 ; Rickitt
Encyclopedia of Slides, 33708 (6)
LE HAMEAU
Versailles: Jardin Pittoresque de Petit Trianon, by Richard Mique with Antoine
Richard & the Comte de Caraman, from c 1774
Pierre-André Lablaude, The Gardens of Versailles (London 1995), p 147
Pavillon de la Musique or Belvedere, in the gardens of the Petit Trianon, by Richard Mique, 1780-82
Miles Lewis
Pavillon de la Musique
B H Dams & Andrew Zega, Pleasure Pavilions and Follies
in the Gardens of the Ancien Regime (Paris 1995), p 110
Pavillon de la Musique: detail
Miles Lewis
Versailles: artificial
rockwork near the
Petit Trianon
Miles Lewis
Versailles, le Hameau de Trianon, by Richard Mique, 1782-5: view across the lake
George Tibbits
farm near the Petit Trianon
Miles Lewis
le Hameau, view
Miles Lewis
Queen
Charlotte's
Cottage,
Kew Palace,
Surrey,
1749
Roy Strong, Royal
Gardens (London 1992),
p 67
le Hameau, the Queen's house
Toman, Neoclassicism, p 83
the Marlborough Tower, le Hameau, by Richard Mique, 1783-5
Miles Lewis
the Marlborough Tower
Dams & Zega, Pleasure Pavilions, p 106
Toman, Neoclassicism, p 83
the Queen's Mill, le Hameau
Dams & Zega, Pleasure Pavilions, p 112
le Colombier, le Hameau, 1783
Miles Lewis
Palace of Versailles, from the garden
La Goélette
Marie Antoinette
(1755-1793), by
Vigée-Lebrun
La Goélette
RUSTICISM
Temple of Modern Philosophy, Ermononville, by the Marquis of Girardin, c 1775
Dams & Zega, Pleasure Pavilions, pl 143
the Pyramid at Maupertuis, by A-T Brogniart, c 1780
Dams & Zega, Pleasure Pavilions, pl 162
house in the shape of
a column, Desert du
Retz:, 1771, built for
François Racine de
Monville
Dams & Zega, Pleasure
Pavilions, pl 39
column house, Desert du Retz
Mosser, 'Paradox in the Garden', in Mosser
& Teyssot, The History of Garden Design
(London 1991), p 271
CLAUDE-NICOLAS LEDOUX
Music Pavilion, Louveciennes by C-N Ledoux, 1770-1
Country Life, 14/17 September 1972, p 644; Dams & Zega, Pleasure Pavilions, p 99
ice house in the
park at
Louveciennes,
by C-N Ledoux,
mid-1770s
Dams & Zega, Pleasure
Pavilions, p 100
Hôtel d'Uzes,
Paris, by C-N
Ledoux, 1764-7:
courtyard façade
Hôtel d'Hallwyl,
Rue Michel le
Comte, Paris, by
C-N Ledoux, c
1764-6
Kalnein & Levey,
Eighteenth Century
France, pl 274
C N Ledoux
l'Architecture considerée
sous le rapport de l'Art,
des Mœurs et de la
Législation, vol I (Paris
1804)), p 99
Hôtel d'Hallwyl
Miles Lewis
Hôtel Guimard, Paris, by C-N Ledoux, 1773
Ledoux, Architecture, pl 176
Kenwood House: screen in the Library
Parissien, Adam Style, p 92
Théatre, Besançon, by C-N Ledoux, (1774) 1775-85
Ledoux, Architecture, pl 76
Théatre, Besançon: longitudinal section
Ledoux, Architecture, pl 77
Théatre, Besançon: interior reflected in the pupil of an eye
Ledoux, Architecture, pl 72
design for a gaol at Aix-en-Provence, by C-N
Ledoux, 1787
Ledoux, Architecture, pl 64
Newgate Prison, by George Dance II, from 1769
Margaret Richardson, Soane: Connoisseur & Collector (
(London 1995), no 29
Saline of Chaux, Arc-et-Senans, 1775-9: plan]
Ledoux, Architecture
Saline de Chaux: exterior entrance
George Tibbits
Saline of Chaux, Bâtiment de Graduation
Ledoux, Architecture, p 112
Saline de Chaux:
Evaporation
Building
George Tibbits
Saline de Chaux, Arc-et-Senans, 1775-9
director’s house and thorn houses
Toman, Neoclassicism, p 150
Saline de Chaux: a perimeter storage hall
George Tibbits
Saline de Chaux: perimeter storage hall: detail of rusticated window;
Place de la Concorde, Paris, by A-J Gabriel (1755) 1757-75: detail of rusticated door
George Tibbits; Miles Lewis
Saline de Chaux:
another storage building
George Tibbits
S Francesco della Vigna,
Venice, façade by
Palladio, c 1570
L H Heydenreich & Wolfgang Lotz,
Architecture in Italy 1400 to 1600
(Harmondsworth [Middlesex] 1974), pl 132
Saline of Chaux: administration building
Toman, Neoclassicism, p 150
cannon foundry, Chaux: aerial perspective
Ledoux, Architecture, p 150
Town of Chaux, Arc-et-Senans: aerial perspective
Ledoux, Architecture, p 116
the Barrières d'Enfer, Paris, by C-N Ledoux, 1785-9
Ledoux, Architecture
Barrière de
l'Étoile, by
C-N
Ledoux,
1785-9
Kalnein & Levey,
Eighteenth Century
France, pl 295
Barrière du
Trône, by CN Ledoux,
1785-9
Toman, Neoclassicism,
p 78 France, pl 295.
Barrière de la Villette, by C-N Ledoux, 1784-7
Diapofilm 5439 JH-12
Barrière de la Villette: detail of the plinth
George Tibbits
Barrière at the Parc de Monceau
Miles Lewis
house for the surveyors of the river, Chaux, by C-N Ledoux
Ledoux, Architecture, pl 110
ÉTIENNE-LOUIS BOULLÉE
Hôtel de Brunoy, Paris, by E-L Boullée, 1774-9
Kalnein & Levey, Eighteenth Century France, pl 276
design for a national library, by E-L Boullée, 1780s
Toman, Neoclassicism, p 85
stadium, and monument of the 'architecture ensevelie' [buried] type, by Boullée
Guinness & Hall, 'Reveries', p 100; Kalnein & Levey, Eighteenth Century France, pl 299
design for a monument by E-L Boullée, 1783
Kalnein & Levey, Eighteenth Century France, pl 299
design for a monument to Newton, by Boullée, 1784
Toman, Neoclassicism, p 66
section of the monument to Newton, by Boullée, 1784
Toman, Neoclassicism, p 66
conical cenotaph, by E-L Boullée, 1790s
J M Pérouse de Montclos, Etienne-Louis Boullée 1728-1799: Theoretician of
Revolutionary Architecture (New York 1974), pl 107
design for a
spherical house,
by A L T
Vaudoyer, 1784
Emil Kaufmann,
Architecture in the Age of
Reason: Baroque and
Post-Baroque in England,
Italy, and France (New
York 1975 [1955]), p 170
JEAN-JAQUES LEQUEU
design for a
Palace of Justice,
by J J Lequeu,
1794
Architectural Review, CV!,
?632 (June ?1985), p 9 115
design for a tomb for the most illustrious and wisest
men, by J J Lequeu, c 1780
Duboy, Lequeu, p 231
'Le Rendezvous de Bellevue est à la pointe du rocher,’ by J J Lequeu
Duboy, Lequeu, p 83
'Indian pagoda',
by J J Lequeu
Emil Kaufmann, 'Jean-Jaques
Lequeu', Art Bulletin, XXXI
(1949), facing p 132
dairy and henhouse by J J Lequeu
Desmond Guinness & Dinah Hall, 'Reveries', The World of Interiors (November 1983), p 104
Gate of the
Arch of the
People, by
J-J Lequeu
Guinness & Hall,
'Reveries', p 107
Prince's
Hunting Gate,
by Lequeu
Guinness & Hall,
'Reveries', p 97
Southern view of a Cow's stable in a cool meadow, by J J Lequeu
Guinness & Hall, 'Reveries', p 98
'He is Free', by J-J Lequeu, 1798-9
Duboy, Lequeu, p 97