Dust Effect on the Performance of Wind Turbine Airfoils

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Dust Effect on the Performance of Wind Turbine Airfoils
Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2011, 2, 606-612
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Nutritional Contribution of Some Senegalese
Forest Fruits Running across
Soudano-Sahelian Zone
Nicolas Cyrille Ayessou1*, Cheikh Ndiaye2, Mady Cissé1, Mathieu Gueye3, Mama Sakho1
2
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[email protected];E6V2 )U./<#<4<2!82W8A7."6";#82:6#T8.<E#C82=UW:FO2RE5"CE<"#C82!8/2X#"<"Y#.8/28<2G".<CZ682!8/2:6#T8.</[email protected];E6V2
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ABSTRACT
As a good food supply for the local people in various Senegalese regionsO the forest fruits are becoming very important.
They are using between foods or main condiment for dishes in many part of Africa. These fruits represent non negligible sources of vitaminsO carbohydrates and minerals. Instead of more commercialized species such as Adansonia digitata L.O Detarium senegalensis J. F.Gmel.O Saba senegalensis =A.DC.F PichonO Tamarindus indica L.O this article focused on nutritional values of other fruits with little interest or neglected. These species were Ficus gnaphalocarpaO L.O
Cordyla pinnata =Lepr. ex A.Rich.F Milne-Redh and Icacina senegalensisO harvested in soudano-sahelian zoneV while
Sarcocephalus latifolius =Sm.F E.A. Bruce belongs to Sudanese zone. The fruit pulps were isolated and freeze dried before analysis. The results showed that acidityO vitamin C and total minerals were significantly different from one fruit to
another. S. latifolius with the highest acidity content =(&)'(* mg/%&&2gF and best vitamin C content if %(002mg/%&&2g
were found. Also as resultsO S. latifolius provided high protein content nearby the )&%. The caloric contributing
=kcal/%&&2gF were %&)'1O %bb and %*) respectively for F. gnaphalocarpaO C. pinnataO and S. latifolius. The ash contents
were the same for all species =('1%FO indicating the richness in mineral elements. FurthermoreO2all species in this study
were good sources of ironO copper and zinc. HoweverO small amounts of sodium were noticed in all samples. Analysis of
total sugars and their profile showed that I. senegalensis and C. pinnata were more appreciated. These results predicted the useful incomes for forest fruits in human being. Lot of medicinal virtues has been recognized from these fruits.
The increase in value and the preservation of the biodiversity are necessary particularly for C. pinnata which presents
a serious threat because of the strong income for wood production.
Keywords: Cordyla pinnataO Sarcocephalus latifoliusO Ficus gnaphalocarpaO Icacina senegalensisO Nutritional
CompositionO Senegal
1. Introduction
U.2 @E7862 c".82 >EC<#A46EC6H2 @8.8;E6O2 !8/>#<82 >C"<8A<#".2
!#C8A<#K8V2!8K86">T8.<2>C";CET/2=S:9O2%aaaE2d%eV2_#.f2
#/<gC8O2 )&&12 d)eF2 E.!2 /"T82 !"T8/<#AE<#".2 8.!8EK"C/2
=hE6#.;E.#C8O2 i858CO2 J?ETEC#HEO2 j2 h".8O2 )&&b2 d*eV2
h".LO2 hE6#.;E.#C8O2 j2 N"4T5#EO2 )&&a2 d(eFV2 <782 .E<4CE62
-"C8/<8!2>6E.<#.;/2EC82A"./<E.<6H2!8;CE!8!2E.!2<7828!#5682
C8/46<8!2 >C"!4A</2 EC82 58A"T#.;2 CEC82 =S:9O2 %aaa52 d1eV2
38C8CE2j2XE6!?#.O2)&&%2d+eF'2W782C8E/"./2"-2<7#/24.4/4f2
E6.8//2#/28//8.<#E66H2!482<"2E.<7C">";8.#A2>C8//4C82=SEH8O2
N#E<<[email protected]"6HO2)&&a2dbeF'2k"?8K8C2#[email protected];E6O2
/"T82 C8/46</2 /7"?8!2 <7E<2 <782 E..4E62 C8;C8//#".2 C7H<7T2
!4C#.;2%aa%f%aaa2?E/2E<<8.4E<8!2=:668TE.!8O2)&&12d0eF'2
_E.H2 /<4!#8/2 /7"?8!2 <782 KEC#"4/2 >"<8.<#E6#<#8/2 "-2 -"C8/<2
>6E.</2 #.2 <782 A"4.<CH2 >6E..#.;2 =SEH8O2 N#E<<EO2 @ET5EO2 j2
R8D"6HO2 )&&a2 dbeFO2 /"#6/2 -"C<#-#AE<#".2 =]#.8C2 et al.O2 )&&&2
[email protected]'2GET#C8O2j2_EC;"6#/O2)&&%2d%&eFO2A"T54/f2
<#568/2 /"4CA82 =:668TE.!8O2 )&&1F2 d0eO2 -#86!2 /"?.2 ?#<72
-"!!8C2AC">2/"[email protected]'2GET#C8O2j2_EC;"6#/O2)&&%F2
d%&eO2 >7ECTEA"6";#AE62 4/82 =h8#<EO2 :C.E/".O2 XE4TO2 j2
_EC68/O2%aaa2d%%eV2\[N#EH8O2hL#<EO2j2_EC<#.O2)&&*2d%)eV2
@"6"K#8KO2\#E.;O2]EH8O2j2W"<<8O2)&&(V2JUG\O2)&&+2d%*eF2
E.!2-""!2=S:9O2%aaa2d%eO2%aaa2d1eF'2
W78/82 -"C8/<2 >6E.</2 EC82 /"A#"f8A"."T#AE66H2 #T>"C<E.<2
G">HC#;7<2I2)&%%[email protected]#B8/'FNS
\4<C#<#".E62G".<C#54<#".2"[email protected]"[email protected];E68/82S"C8/<2SC4#</2B4..#.;2EAC"//[email protected]"4!E."[email protected]#E.2l".82
E.!2 .".f.8;68A<8!'2 W782 T"/<2 8Y>6"#<8!2 "C;E./2 EC82 <782
-C4#<'2 U.2 @8.8;E6O2 <EM#.;/2 -C"T2 -"C8/<2 -C4#</2 #.2 %aa&2 C8>f2
C8/8.<8!2*&mO2E5"4<2(1bO&&&2P4C"/2=U<8-O2%aa%F2d%(e'2
W7826#/</2"-2-"C8/<2-C4#</2/>".<E.8"4/6H24/8!2E.!2A"Tf2
T8CA#E6#c8!27EK82588.2;#K8.2#.2TE.H2/<4!#8/2E.!2>C"<8A<f2
<#".2 >C";CET/2 -"C2 -"C8/<2 >6E.</2 =:T5LO2 )&&%2 d%1eV2
\[N#EH8O2hL#<EO2j2_EC<#.O2)&&*2d%)eV2JUG\O2)&&+2d%+eF'2
\8K8C<7868//O2 <782 .4<C#<#".E62 #.<8C8/<2 #/2 ."<2 />8A#-#8!2 8Yf2
A8><8!2 -"C2 /"T82 TED"C2 -C4#</2 "-2 7#;72 8A"."T#A2 #T>"Cf2
<E.A82 #.A64!#.;2 Adansonia digitata2 =G#//L2 et al.O2 )&&a2
d%beV2 ]E5ECO2 @EM7"O2 N"C.#8CO2 G#//LO2 j2 B8H.8/O2 )&&+2
d%0eFO2Ziziphus mauritiana2=_4A74?8<#O2l8.!EO2\!76E6EO2
j2 hE/#HET74C4O2 )&&12 d%aeV2 J;8/8O2 XE#H8C#O2 j2 _5E7O2
)&&02d)&eFO2Vitellaria paradoxa2=J;8/8O2XE#H8C#O2j2_5E7O2
)&&0F2 d)&eO2 Balanites aegyptiaca =:5!86fBE7#TO2 [email protected]
!E.HO2j2iE/#O2%a0+F2d)%e2E.! Tamarindus indica2=J;8/8O2
2
2
+&b
XE#H8C#O2j2_5E7O2)&&0F2d)&e'2 2
:.H2 C8/46<2 ".2 .4<C#<#".E62 E/>8A<2 "-2 <782 -"C8/<2 -C4#</O2
/4A72E/2Ficus gnaphalocarpa R.O Cordyla pinnata2=R8>C'2
8Y2:'2B#A7'F2_#6.8fB8!7O2Sarcocephalus latifolius [email protected]'F2
P'2 :'2 XC4A82 E.!2 Icacina senegalensis :!C. `4//'O2 A".f2
A8C.#.;2 <7#/2 EC<#A682 7E/2 588.2 >456#/78!2 "C2 C8>"C<8!'2 W782
E#T2 "-2 <782 EC<#A682 >E>8C2 #/2 <"2 =%F2 /<4!H2 <782 .4<C#<#".E62
KE648/2"-2<78/82-"C8/<2-C4#</25H25#"A78T#AE62E.E6H/#/O2E.!2
=)F2;#K82"--2/"T82>"//#5682E/AC#5E5682E>>6#AE<#"./'2
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Biological Materials
_E<4C8!2 /ET>682 -C4#</2 =Table 1F2 ?8C82 7ECK8/<8!2 !4C#.;2
<78#C2TE<4CE<#".2>8C#"!/2E.!2?8C82TE!824>2#.<"2!#--8C8.<2
5E<A78/'2 @>8A#8/2 "-2 -C4#</2 4/8!2 ?8C82 Ficus gnaphalo-2
Table 1. The different samples used in this work.
X"<E.#AE62.ET8/2
SC4#<2E>>8ECE.A82
<CE./K8C/E682/8A<#".2"C2?E6.4<2
%. Icacina senegalensis2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
). Ficus gnaphalocarpa
*. Cordyla pinnata
(. Sarcocephalus latifolius
2
G">HC#;7<2I2)&%%[email protected]#B8/'FNS
\4<C#<#".E62G".<C#54<#".2"[email protected]"[email protected];E68/82S"C8/<2SC4#</2B4..#.;2EAC"//[email protected]"4!E."[email protected]#E.2l".82
+&02
2
carpa,2 R., Cordyla pinnata2 =R8>C'2 8Y2 :'B#A7'F2 _#6.8f2
B8!7'2 E.!2 Icacina senegalensis :!C'2 `4//V2 E662 7ECK8/<8!2
#.2 hE--C#.8[/2 C8;#".2 =A8.<8C2 "-2 @8.8;E6FO2 #.2 /"4!E."f/Ef2
7L6#8..82 c".8'2 W782 />8A#8/2 "-2 Sarcocephalus latifolius
[email protected]'F2 P':'2 XC4A82 ?8C82 -C"T2 hL!"4;"42 E.!2 l#;4#.A7"C2
C8;#"./O2/"4<72"[email protected];[email protected]!E.8/82c".8F'2
Sample Preparations
:A#!#<H2 !"/E;8O2 K#<ET#.2 G2 !"/E;8O2 >C"<8#./2 !"/E;8O2 E.!2
<"<E62 T#.8CE6/2 !8<8CT#.E<#".2 ?8C82 C8E6#c8!2 ".2 >46>/2 #/"f2
6E<8!2 #.2 AC4!82 /<E<8'2 9<78C2 /ET>68/2 ?8C82 4/8!2 E-<8C2 C8f2
T"K#.;2 <78#C2 >8C#AEC>/2 E.!2 <782 8!#5682 >EC</2 ?8C82 -C88c82
!CH#.;2 -"C2 6#>#!/2 !"/E;8O2 /"645682 /4;EC/2 !"/E;8O2 /#T>682
/4;EC/2E.!2<CEA82868T8.</[2!8<8CT#.E<#".'2 2
2.2. Methods
2.2.1. Volumetric Dosages
W782EA#!#<H2?E/2!8<8CT#.8!2EAA"C!#.;2<"2<782."CTE6#c8!2
T8<7"!2\S2n&1f%&%2=:-."CO2%a0)F2d))e2<782K#<ET#.2G25H2
4/#.;2 <782 T8<7"!2 "-2 N#A76"C"f)O+2 378."62 U.!"2 378."62
C8-8C8.A8!2 \S2 n2 b+f&&12 =:-."CO2 %a0)F2 d))e'2 W782 .#<C"f2
;8.2!"/E;825H2<782T8<7"!2"-2hD86!7E62\S2&*f&1& =:-."CO2
%a0)F2d))e2E.!2>C"<8#./2?8C82AE6A46E<8!24/#.;21'b2E/2A"f2
8--#A#8.<'2 W782 <"<E62 T#.8CE6/2 ?8C82 !8<8CT#.8!2 E-<8C2 *2
7"4C/2 #.A#.8CE<#".2 E<2 11&!G2 EAA"C!#.;2 <"2 nb+f%&%2 T8f2
<7"!2=:-."CO2%a0)F2d))e'2 2
2.2.2. Sugar Composition
W782 /4;EC2 A"T>"/#<#".2 ?E/2 !8<8CT#.8!2 5H2 N#".8Y2
No+&&2k3RGO2E-<8C24/#.;2E2K"64T82"-20&m28<7E."62-"C2
8Y<CEA<#".'2:2GEC5"3EA2_:%2=(2p2)1&2TTV2b'12ȝTF2A"f2
6".2?E/24/8!O2E.!2&'+2<"2&'02"-2\E9k2/"64<#".O2?#<72E2&'(2
TR,T#.2A"./<#<4<8!2<782T"5#682>7E/8'2
2.2.3. Minerals Determination
:-<8C2!CH2?EH2T#.8CE6#cE<#".2E<21&&!GO2<78.2!8/#6#AE<#".2
?#<72-64"C#7H!C#A2EA#!2"-2/ET>682?8#;7</O2<782!8<8A<#".2"-2
/"!#4TO2 >"<E//#4TO2 AE6A#4TO2 TE;.8/#4TO2 >7"/>7"C4/O2
A">>8CO2 c#.A2 E.!2 #C".2 ?8C82 C8E6#c8!2 5H2 4/#.;2 E2 />8A<C"f2
>7"<"T8<8C2 "-2 >6E/TE2 CE!#E<#".2 ?#<72 #.!4A<#K82 A"4>6#.;2
"-2nEC#E.fK#/<E2<H>8'2 2
2.2.4. Statistic Analysis
W782E.E6H/8/2?8C82C8>8E<8!2<7C882<#T8/'2W782<7C882/8</2"-2
2
!E<[email protected]:@2/"-<?EC82=K8C/#".20'%O2)&&&V2
@:@2U./<#<4<8O2U.A'O2GECHO2\GF'2 2
3. Results and Discussion: Nutritional
Composition of Different Fruits Samples
3.1. Total Soluble Sugars and Simple Sugars
Table 22 /7"?/2 <782 ET"4.</2 "-2 <"<E62 /"645682 /4;EC/2 #.2
!#--8C8.<2-"C8/<2-C4#</[2/ET>68/24/8!2#.2<7#/2?"CM'2
W782 A".<8.</2 "-2 <"<E62 /"645682 /4;EC/2 #.2 <78/82 TE<4C8!2
-C4#</2 EC82 KEC#E5682 E.!2 /#;.#-#AE.<6H2 !#--8C8.<2 =p2 q2 &'&1F'2
@>8A#8/2"-2I. senegalensis2E.!2C. pinnata2"?.27#;72A".f2
<8.<2"-2/4;EC/2+&'a*2;,%&&2;2E.!21&'a*2=Table 2F2C8/>8A<f2
<#K86H2 #.2 !CH2 TE<<8C2 A"T>EC8!2 <"2 F. gnaphalocarpa2
=%0'0*2;F2E.! S. latifolius =)('1*2;F'2W782/ET82<C8.!2?E/2
"5/8CK8!2 -"C2 -C4A<"/82 E.!2 /EAA7EC"/82 8YA8><2 -"C2 ;64A"/82
#.2?7#A72<782A".<8.<2#/2/<E<#/<#AE66H2#!8.<#AE62#.2C. pinnata2
E.!2 S. latifolius2 />8A#8/2 =1'b&2 E.!2 1'ab2 ;,%&&2 ;2 #.2 !CH2
TE<<8CF'2W782/ET82A".A64/#".2#.2F. gnaphalocarpa2E.!2S.
latifolius2-"C2<782-C4A<"/82A".<8.</2"-2a'0b2E.!2a'0&2;,%&&2
;2#.2!CH2TE<<8C2C8/>8A<#K86HO2?E/2"5/8CK8!'2\8K8C<7868//O2
#<[/2 #T>"C<E.<2 <"2 T8.<#".2 <7E<2 /EAA7EC"/82 C8>C8/8.</2 <782
8//8.<#E62 <"<E62 /"645682 /4;EC2 #.2 C. pinnata2 =0&'%&mFO2 S.
latifolius2 =(*'+)mF2 E.!2 I. senegalensis2 =*+'b%mF2 A"Tf2
>EC8!2 <"2 F. gnaphalocarpa2 #.2 ?7#A72 ".6H2 ('&1m2 "-2 <7#/2
!#/EAA7EC#!82?E/2-"4.!'2U.2<7#/26E/<O2-C4A<"/82E.!2;64A"/82
C8/>8A<#K86H20'02r2&'b&2;,%&&2;2#.2!CH2TE<<8C2=#-21)'(%m2
"-2<"<E62/4;ECF2E.!2a'0b2r2&'+b2;,%&&2;2#.2!CH2TE<<8C2=#-2
(+'b*m2 "-2 <"<E62 /4;ECF2 ?8C82 "5<E#.8!'2 S4C<78CT"C8O2 C.
pinnata2 E.!2 S. latifolius A".<E#.2 7#;72 ET"4.</2 "-2 <"<E62
/4;EC/2A"T>EC8!2<"2Adansonia digitata2/>8A#82=)&m2E.!2
*)mF2 d)*e'2 _"C8"K8CO2 A"T>EC8!2 <"2 Ziziphus mauritiana
d)(eO2<782-C4#<2"-2I. senegalensis2>C"K#!82<782/ET82ET"4.<2
"-2 /4;EC2 =58<?88.2 1+2 E.!2 +1mF'2 k"?8K8CO2 /EAA7EC"/82
E5/8.A82 AE.2 582 ."<#A8!2 #.2 Z. mauritianaO2 C8>6EA8!2 5H2
;E6EA<"/82 d)1e'2 SC"T2 <78/82 C8/46</O2 Cordyla pinnata2 AE.2
582 /868A<8!2 E/2 E2 ;""!2 /"4CA82 "-2 /EAA7EC"/82 -"C2 -""!2 #.f2
!4/<CH2#.2A"T>EC#/".2<"2/4;EC2AE.82E.!2588<'2S4C<78CT"C8O2
I. senegalensis2 A"./<#<4<82 E.2 E!KE.<E;82 "-2 !#K8C/#-#8!2
C8!4A#.;2 /4;EC/[2 >C"!4A<#".2 =;64A"/82 E.!2 -C4A<"/8F2 E/2
?8662E/2.".2C8!4A#.;2/4;EC/2=/EAA7EC"/8F'2
Table 2. Total soluble sugars in different samples.
@ET>68/2
W"<E62/"645682/4;EC/2=;,%&&;sF2
]64A"/82=;,%&&;sF2
SC4A<"/82=;,%&&;sF2
@EAA7EC"/82=;,%&&;sF2
F. gnaphalocarpa
%0'0*2r2%'(&!2
0'02r2&'b&52
a'0b2r2&'+b52
&'b*2r2&'&+!2
I. senegalensis
+&'a*2r2%O))E2
%+'0&2r2%'b(E2
%a'&&2r2%'b*E2
))'*b2r2)'**52
C. pinnata
1&'a*2r2*'1+52
1'b&2r2&'%bA2
b'%b2r2&'%*A2
(&'0&2r2%'*bE2
S. latifolius
)('1*2r2%')bA2
1'ab2r2&')%A2
a'0&2r2&'((52
%&'b2r2&'0)A2
s
2U.2!CH2TE<<8CV2nE648/2#.2A"64T./26E5868!2?#<72!#--8C8.<268<<8C/2EC82/#;.#-#AE.<6H2!#--8C8.<2=p2q2&'&1F'2
G">HC#;7<2I2)&%%[email protected]#B8/'FNS
\4<C#<#".E62G".<C#54<#".2"[email protected]"[email protected];E68/82S"C8/<2SC4#</2B4..#.;2EAC"//[email protected]"4!E."[email protected]#E.2l".82
2
3.2. Proteins Content, Minerals, Vitamin C and
Acidity
+&a
#.!88!2C8!2;6"546#./278T">7#6#EA2d*(e'2 2
3.3. Mineral Contents
Table 32/7"?/2<782ET"4.</2"-2>C"<8#./O2K#<ET#./2GO2EA#!f
#<H2=8Y>C8//8!2E/2A#<C#A2EA#!F2E.!2T#.8CE6/'2
G"T>EC#/".2 58<?88.2 >C"<8#.2 A".<8.</2 /7"?/2 <7E<2 S.
latifolius2 >C8/8.<2 <782 58/<2 A".<C#54<#.;2 "-2 >C"<8#./2 5H2
%b'&)m'2W7#/2CE<82#/2/#;.#-#AE.<6H27#;78C2?78.2A"T>EC8!2
<"2C. pinnata2=%%'%1mF2E.!2F. gnaphalocarpa2=%&'*+mF'2
U.2 -EA<O2 <782 >C"<8#.2 A".<8.<2 "-2 S. latifolius =586".;#.;2 <"2
"4C2 -C4#</[2 <EC;8<F #/2 /4>8C#"C2 8."4;72 A"T>EC8!2 <"2 A"Tf2
T".2/<CE?58CCH2-C4#<2=&'b*mF2d)+eO2Z. mauritiana2=%%'0m2
[email protected])(eO2A. digitata2=58<?88.2%'02E.!2)'bmF2d)*e'2k"?f
8K8CO2<7#/2ET"4.<2"-2S. latifolius2>C"<8#.2C8TE#./2C86E<#K86H2
6"?2 A"T>EC8!2 <"2 Maerua pseudopetalosa2 =))'&+mFO2 E2
-"C8/<2-C4#<2d)be'2C. pinnata2E.!2F. gnaphalocarpa >C"<8#.2
A".<8.</2EC82/#;.#-#AE.<6H2#!8.<#AE62=p2q2&'&1F'2 2
W782T#.8CE62A".<8.</2EC82#.K8C/86H2>C">"C<#".E62<"2<782
>C"<8#.2 A".<8.</'2 W74/O2 S. latifolius2 >C8/8.</2 <782 6"?8/<2
KE6482=*'*0mF2A"T>EC8!2<"2F. gnaphalocarpa E.!2C. pinnata C8/>8A<#K86H2 ('+*2 E.!2 ('a%'2 W782 EA#!#<HO2 K#<ET#.2 G2
E.!2 <"<E62 T#.8CE6/2 EC82 /#;.#-#AE.<6H2 !#--8C8.<2 -"CT2 ".82
/ET>682<"2E."<78C'2k"?8K8CO2S. latifolius2?#<72<7827#;78/<2
EA#!#<H2A".<8.<2=(&)'(*2T;,%&&2;F27"6!/2<78258/<2K#<ET#.2
G2A".<8.<2=%(002T;,%&&2;2-C"T2Table 3FV2<7#/2C#A7.8//2#/2
A6"/82<"2:A8C"6E2Malpighia2punicifolia2=%0&&2T;,%&&2;F2
d)0e2A6E//#-#8!2E/2<782/8A".!2-C4#<2?#<727#;78/<2K#<ET#.2G2
E-<8C2 AET4fAET42 Myrciaria dubia2 d)ae'2 U.2 TE.H2 6"AE62
-C4#</2#.A64!#.;2l. mauritianaO2A. digitataO2Hibiscus sabdariffa2AE6HYO2E.!2Detarium senegalensisO2<782K#<ET#.2G2
A".<8.</2EC82C8/>8A<#K86H2(&12 T;,%&&2;2d)(eV2%)12<"2*%)2
T;,%&&2;2d)*eV2102<"2+*2T;,%&&2;V E.!2a+b2T;,%&&2d*&e'2
W782 A"./4T><#".2 "-2 <78/82 -C4#</2 AE.2 A"K8C2 <782 !E#6H2 #.f
<EM82 "-2 K#<ET#.2 G2 =58<?88.2 ()2 T;,!EH2 E.!2 a*F2 d)0e2 E/2
/7"?.2#.2?#6!2W7E#6E.![/2-C4#</2d*%e'2SC"T2<7826E<8C2C8-f
8C8.A8O2?82 EC82 68E!#.;2 C8/8ECA78/2 ".2 <782 E.<#"Y#!E.<2 EAf
<#K#<#8/2 ?7#A72 AE.2 582 #T>C"K8!2 5H2 AC4!8/2 -#58C/O2 <"<E62
>"6H>78."62A".<8.<O2<"<E62-6EK"."#!/2#.2<78/82-"C8/<2-C4#</'2
k"?8K8CO2<782T"!8CE<8!2A"./4T><#".2"-2S. latifolius27E/2
588.2/4;;8/<8!258AE4/8O2E.28YA88!2A"./4T><#".2"-2K#<Ef
T#.2G28.;8.!8C/2/"T82;4/<2#.<8/<#.82<C"4568/2d*)eO2/"T82
"YE6E<82 ACH/<E62 -"CTE<#".2 #.2 <7824C#.ECH2 /H/<8T2 d**e2 E.!2
2
W782 C8/46</2 "-2 T#.8CE62 A".<8.</2 #.2 !#--8C8.<2 /ET>68/2 EC82
T8.<#".8!2#.2Table 4'2
PYA8><8!2 -"C2 >"<E//#4T2 =#.2 Table 4FO2 S. latifoliusO2 F.
gnaphalocarpa2 E.!2 I. senegalensis2 "?.2 7#;72 A">>8C2
A".<8.<2 =58<?88.2 0')2 <"2 a'(2 T;,M;FO2 #C".2 A".<8.<2 =-C"T2
CE.;82"-21('b2<"20%'02T;,M;2#.2!CH2TE<<8CF2E.!2c#.A2A".f2
<8.<2=58<?88.2%&'%2<"2)1'+2T;,M;F'2G"T>EC8!2<"2C. pinnataO2 E2 ?8EM2 >C"-#682 "-2 AE6A#4T2 868T8.</O2 TE;.8/#4TO2
A">>8CO2 #C".O2 E.!2 c#.A2 ?E/2 "5/8CK8!'2 \8K8C<7868//O2 ".2
".82 7E.!2 E5."CTE62 KE648/2 -"C2 #C".2 ?8C82 ."<#A8!2 #.2 C.
pinnata2/ET>68/2=%a2T;,M;2#.2!CH2TE<<8CF2E.!2S. latifolia2
=%0(T;,M;2#.2!CH2TE<<8CF2/ET>68/V2".2E."<78C27E.!27#;72
!8K#E<#".2"-2c#.A2A".<8.<2#.2C. pinnata2=*'a2T;,M;2#.2!CH2
TE<<8CF2 ?E/2 E6/"2 "5/8CK8!'2 W782 /ET82 C8/46</2 ?8C82 "5f2
<E#.8!2E-<8C2TE.H2C8>8<#<#"./2=<7C88F'2
Sarcocephalus latifolius -C4#</2A".<E#.2T"C82>7"/>7"Cf2
C4/2=&')%(2;2<"2&')&a2;F2A"T>EC8!2<"2"<78C2-C4#</2#.2<7#/2
/<4!H'2W7827#;72A".<8.</2"-2>"<E//#4T2?8C828.A"4.<8C8!2
#.2 Cordyla pinnata2 E.!2 Ficus gnaphalocarpa2 =C8/>8Af
<#K86H2 )'(b%2 ;2 E.!2 )'***2 ;F'2 Ficus gnaphalocarpa E.!2
Sarcocephalus latifolius2 A".<E#.2 <782 7#;78/<2 KE648/2 "-2
GE6A#4T2A".<8.</2=&'+%)2;2E.!2&'(a+2;F2E.!2_E;.8/#4T2
=&')%&2;V2&'%112;F'2S"C2/"!#4TO2<782T"C82#T>"C<E.<2A".f2
<8.<2 ?8C82 "5/8CK8!2 #.2 Ficus gnaphalocarpa2 =&'&)02 T;F
E.!2 Icacina senegalensis2 =&'&%02 T;F2 54<2 /<#662 6"?2 A"Tf2
>EC8!2<"2<782C8-8C8.A8'2S#.E66H2-"C2<782A">>8C2=G4FO2".6H2
Cordyla pinnata ;EK82C86E<#K86H26"?2KE648/O258<?88.2*'(2
E.!2 ('%2 T;'2 W782 A"T>ECE<#K82 <E5682 ?#<72 "<78C2 M."?.2
-"C8/<2-C4#</2=Table 5F2E66"?/2;6"5E66H2<"2!8!4A82<7E<2E662
-C4#</2 #.2 <7#/2 /<4!H2 EC82 ;""!2/"4CA8/2 "-2 T#.8CE62 A".<8.</2
A7ECEA<8C#c8!2 5H2 <78#C2 C#A7.8//2 #.2 A">>8CO2 #C".2 E.!2 c#.AV2
".6H2/"!#4T2>C8/8.<2E26"?2A".<8.<'2
4. Conclusions
W782 C8/46</2 -C"T2 <7#/2 /<4!H2 /7"?2 <782 #T>"C<E.<2 C"682 8Yf2
>8A<8!2-C"T2<78/82-"C8/<2-C4#</2#.2<782-""!28Q4#6#5C#4T2"-2
6"AE62>">46E<#".2#.2<782!#--8C8.<28Y>6"#<8!2c".8/'2U.2-EA<O2
<78/82-C4#</2AE.2A"K8C2<782!E#6H2#.<EM82"-2K#<ET#.2G28/>8f2
Table 3. Amounts of proteins, vitamins C, acidity and minerals in the different samples.
@ET>68/2
3C"<8#./2\2p21'b2=mN_F
:A#!#<H2=T;,%&&;Fs2
n#<ET#.2G2=T;,%&&2;Fs2
_#.8CE62A".<8.</2=;,%&&2;Fs
F. gnaphalocarpa
%&'*+2r2&'&052
b&')2r2&')+A2
(0b2r2&'&%A2
('+*2r2&'%)52
I. senegalensis
.!2
.!2
.!2
.!2
C. pinnata
%%'%12r2&'&(52
0b'**2r2&')a52
a+12r2&'%*52
('a%2r2&'&0E2
S. latifolius
%b'&)2r2%'0(E2
(&)'(*2r2&'(&E2
%(002r2&'**E2
*'*02r2&'%%A2
N_$2!CH2TE<<8CV2.!$2."<2!8<8CT#.8!V2nE648/2#.2A"64T./26E5868!2?#<72!#--8C8.<268<<8C/2EC82/#;.#-#AE.<6H2!#--8C8.<2=p2q2&'&1FV2sB8/46</28Y>C8//8!2E/2<782"C#;#.E62
TE<<8C'2
G">HC#;7<2I2)&%%[email protected]#B8/'FNS
\4<C#<#".E62G".<C#54<#".2"[email protected]"[email protected];E68/82S"C8/<2SC4#</2B4..#.;2EAC"//[email protected]"4!E."[email protected]#E.2l".82
+%&2
Table 4. Minerals contents.
P
K
Ca
Mg
Na
Cu
;,%&&2;s2
Samples2
Fe
Zn
T;,M;s2
F. gnaphalocarpa
&'%b)2
)'***2
&'+%)2
&')%&2
&'&)02
a'(2
0%'02
)1'+2
I. senegalensis
&'%%a2
%'&1b2
&'*&a2
&'%*02
&'&%02
0')2
b%')2
%&'%2
C. pinnata =lot %F
&'%*b2
)'(b%2
&'&(+2
&'&ba2
&'&%%2
*'12
(%'&2
0'b2
C. pinnata =lot )F
&'%)%2
%'b)a2
&'&)12
&'&112
&'&%&2
*'(2
(+'a2
*'a2
C. pinnata =lot *F
&'%*a2
%'+0(2
&'&(12
&'&b12
&'&%%2
('%2
%a'&2
b'b2
S. latifolius =lot %F
&')%(2
&'a*a2
&'(b)2
&'%1(2
&'&%*2
a'%2
1('b2
%a')2
S. latifolius =lot )F
&')&a2
&'00(2
&'1%02
&'%1+2
&'&%%2
0'a2
%0(2
))'b2
s
U.2!CH2TE<<8C'2
2
Table 5. Mineral comparison of the forest fruits in this study with other more recognized.
P
K
Ca
Mg
Na
Cu
;,%&&2;s2
samples2
Fe
Zn
T;,M;s2
F. gnaphalocarpa
&'%b)2
)'***2
&'+%)2
&')%&2
&'&)02
a'(2
0%'02
)1'+2
I. senegalensis
&'%%a2
%'&1b2
&'*&a2
&'%*02
&'&%02
0')2
b%')2
%&'%2
C. pinnata =lot %F
&'%*b2
)'(b%2
&'&(+2
&'&ba2
&'&%%2
*'12
(%'&2
0'b2
C. pinnata =lot )F
&'%)%2
%'b)a2
&'&)12
&'&112
&'&%&2
*'(2
(+'a2
*'a2
C. pinnata =lot *F
&'%*a2
%'+0(2
&'&(12
&'&b12
&'&%%2
('%2
%a'&2
b'b2
S. latifolius =lot %F
&')%(2
&'a*a2
&'(b)2
&'%1(2
&'&%*2
a'%2
1('b2
%a')2
S. latifolius =lot )F
&')&a2
&'00(2
&'1%02
&'%1+2
&'&%%2
0'a2
%0(2
))'b2
A. digitata d)ae
&'&*12
%'b()2
&')+a2
&'%*a2
1'%2
&'12
0')2
&'02
Z. mauritiana2d*&e2
&')+2
.!2
&'(bm2
&'%%m2V2
.!2
.!2
(a2
.!2
M'2pseudopetalosa d**e
&'%++2
%'%()2
&'&*a2
&'&1a2
)&12
.!2
(%')2
.!2
s
U.2!CH2TE<<8CV2\!$2.".2!8<8CT#.8!'2
2
A#E66H2 #.2 S. latifolius2 =%(002 T;,%&&2 ;FV2 8./4C82 .".2 .8f2
;68A<8!2 A".<C#54<#.;2 #.2 A">>8CO2 c#.;2 #.2 @'2 6E<#-"6#4/O2 S'2
;.E>7E6"AEC>E2E.!2U'2/8.8;E68./#/V2E.!2A"./<#<4<82E2;""!2
AE6"C#A2/"4CA82>EC<#A46EC6H2#.2G'2>#..E<E2=%bb2MAE6,%&&2;F'2
S"C2E258<<8C2E>>C8A#E<#".2"-2<782K#<ET#.2GO2<"<E62>78."6#A2
A".<8.<O2<"<E62-6EK"."#!2A".<8.<2C86E<8!2<"2<782E.<#"Y#!E.<2
>"?8C2AE.2582T8E/4C8!'2U.2E!!#<#".O2E2A"T>ECE<#K82/<4!H2
"-2 !#--8C8.<2 EA<#K#<#8/2 8Y>C8//8!2 E/2 N33k2 CE!#AE62 /AEKf2
8.;#.;2 EA<#K#<HO2 -8CC#A2 C8!4A#.;2 E.<#"Y#!E.<2 >"?8C2 KE6482
E.!2 E/A"C5#A2 EA#!2 8Q4#KE68.<2 E.<#f"Y#!E.<2 /88T/2 .8A8/f2
/ECH'2 W78C8-"C8O2 C8/8ECA78/2 #.2 <7#/2 EC8E2 EC82 A".!4A<#.;2
E.!2<782C8/46</2?#662582>456#/78!2/"".'2:>EC<2<78/82>"/#f2
<#K82 A".<C#54<#"./2 -"C2 -""!2 A"./4T><#".2 "-2 <78/82 -"C8/<2
-C4#<O2TE.H2T8!#A#.E62K#C<48/27EK82588.2C8A";.#c8!2-C"T2
C8>"C</2 "C2 >C8K#"4/2 ?"CM/'2 W74/O2 KE6"C#cE<#".2 E.!2 >C8f2
K8.<#".2"-2<7#/25#"!#K8C/#<H2EC82>EC<#A46EC6H2.8A8//ECH2-"C2
C. pinnata #.2?7#A72A6#TE<#A27EcEC!2C8>C8/8.</2E2/8C#"4/2
<7C8E<2 -"C2 <782 7#;72 E.!2 8A"."T#A2 >"<8.<#E6#<H2 #.2 ?""!2
>C"!4A<#".'2
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dbe
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