fsl survival guide - Sherwood Core French

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fsl survival guide - Sherwood Core French
Paul Meggs’s
FSL SURVIVAL GUIDE
for Core French in Ontario
WHY LEARN FRENCH…………….…..……1
A SUCCESSFUL L2 LEARNER…….……...2
THE ALPHABET AND SOUNDS…………...3
QUESTIONS … …………………….……....4
AND ANSWERS………………………….….5
GREETINGS & SALUTATIONS…….….…..6
SHAPES AND COLOURS….……………...7
NUMBERS…………………………….……..8
TIMES OF DAY; TELLING TIME…….……..9
CALENDAR, DATES, SEASONS…..…….10
FRENCH HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS…11
WEATHER………………………………... 12
WeatherTalk……………………………..….13
CLOTHING…………………………..…...…14
FashionTalk…………………….………......15
CLASSROOM OBJECTS………….…..…..16
USEFUL SCHOOL PHRASES…..........17-19
SchoolTalk………………………………….20
HUMAN BODY………………………………21
ANIMALS………………………………....….22
FAMILY AND FRIENDS……………………23
HOUSE AND HOME………………………..24
DAILY CHORES AND ACTIVITIES…….25
A MONTH OF ACTIVITIES………………..26
SelfTalk……………………………………...27
FamilyTalk……………………………….….28
HomeTalk……………………………….…..29
FOOD AND EATING OUT………………....30
MenuTalk…………………………………....31
SHOPPING IN THE CITY……………….…32
ShopTalk……………………………………33
TRAVELING (à, à la, au, aux)....................34
GEOGRAPHY………………………………35
TRANSPORTATION…………………….….36
TravelTalk…………………………………...37
WORK………………….………………...…..38
TECHNOLOGY & COMMUNICATION…39
JobTalk………………………………………40
GAMES, SPORTS, AND LEISURE……...41
SUBJECT PRONOUNS & ARTICLES……….....42
MORE PRONOUNS TO………………………….43
POSSESSING THINGS......................................44
NEGATIVES: SAYING NO…………………...…..45
ADJECTIVES: COMMON PAIRS………………..46
DESCRIBING MOOD & APPEARANCE……….47
DESCRIBING PERSONALITY, ETC……………48
THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE…………………..……49
PRECEDING ADJECTIVES…………………...…50
COMPARATIVE & SUPERLATIVE ……….…..51
ADVERBS: COMMON PAIRS………………..….52
ADVERBS FROM ADJECTIVES……………..…53
DIRECTIONS & LOCATIONS CHART………....54
DIRECTIONS & LOCATIONS PAIRS………...55
CONJUNCTIONS – JOINING THOUGHTS…....56
VERBS
THE BIG 4 VERBS…………………………….…57
EXPRESSIONS WITH THE BIG 4…………..….58
PRESENT TENSE REGULAR VERB ENDINGS……..…..59
COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS………........60-62
THE FUTURE TENSES………………..…….…..63
LOTS OF INFINITIVES…………………..…...64-66
REGULAR PAST TENSE WITH AVOIR .……..67
IRREGULAR AST TENSE WITHAVOIR ……...68
PAST TENSE WITH ÊTRE…………………..…..69
THE IMPERATIVE: GIVING ORDERS…….……70
COMMON VERB PAIRS FOR PRACTICE……..71
WRITING RULES
VOWELS AND APOSTROPHES……………..…72
ACCENTS……………………………………….…73
PUNCTUATION RULES………………………….74
CAPITALIZATION RULES……………………….75
TYPING IN FRENCH……...……………….…76-77
TEXTING IN FRENCH……………………..…78-80
REFERENCE LEVELS OF ABILITIES……81-85
I CAN DO LISTS…………………………….86-100
1
WHY LEARN FRENCH?
Education:
In Ontario, in order to get a high school diploma, one must pass one French language credit
course in Grade 9. That's it. It’s not too much to ask.
Historical Reasons:
Canada was colonized by France in the 16th century, and French became one of the main
languages of our country' protected by law, the official language of Quebec, and one of the
official languages in New Brunswick and Nunavut. French education is a protected right for
Francophone minorities in Canada. There are still pockets of Francophone communities found
in all provinces and territories. The Canadian population is roughly 23% French speaking.
It’s Global Use:
20 million + speakers in the Americas;
200 million French speakers
number 9 of the top 10 most widely used world languages
second most popular second language taught in the world
taught in every single country
525+ French language universities in the world
An official language of: IOC, UNESCO, Interpol, WTO, WHO, NATO, ISO, United Nations,
etc.....
Employment:
You are more marketable as an employee if you are multilingual, especially in business, tourism,
education, service industry, marketing, the military, law enforcement, government, and
communications... And you'll earn more, too!
World Travel:
It's spoken on every continent, and is a lingua franca of dozens of countries all over the world,
from Africa, Asia, parts of the US and South America, to the Pacific Islands, and Islands in the
Indian Ocean...
Neurological Heath / intelligence:
Research shows that a bilingual brain is more robust, better at problem-solving, less likely to be
affected by Alzheimer’s, dementia, etc.. And learning an extra language makes the next other
language easier to learn.
A valuable Life Skill
Learning to speak and think in another language makes one more tolerant, a better
communicator and listener, helps you see the world in different ways, and able to learn more
about the world in general. The skills you use in learning another language help you improve
your mother tongue language skills.
2
A SUCCESSFUL L2 LEARNER….
1.
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3.
4.
5.
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laughs at his mistakes
talks positively about himself
responds positively to a learning opportunity
looks for immersion opportunities
analyzes his individual learning problems
practices on his own, reads additional items, listens to radio, music, TV,
internet,
creates a situation with a native speaker
doesn’t worry about accuracy, but focuses on fluency
doesn’t hesitate to speak
overcomes his inhibitions
initiates conversations
self-corrects his errors in pronunciation, vocabulary, spelling, grammar,
invents his own mnemonic devices
writes down words words memorize with memorizing texhiques
groups words and compares native and target language
relates new dictionary words to other in the same category
experiments with new sounds
listens carefully and tries to imitate
repeats sentences until pronounced easily
uses synonyms and cognates
reads aloud alone to hear sounds
uses what he already knows
uses rules to generate possibilities
finds sociocultural meanings and contexts to clarify meaning
uses formulaic interaction to get started
looks for patterns to make inferences
guesses meanings from key words, pictures, contexts,…
repeats words to clarify understanding
masters a core list of phrases and words
understands the need for a structured learning environment
3
L’ALPHABET ET DES SONS
les lettres avec le même son qu’anglais
f, l, m, n, o, s, z
les letters qui rhyme
b, c, ç, d, é, g, p, t, v, w
i, j
a, k
u, q
les lettres uniques
h, r, x, y,
les voyelles…
e, è, ê,
é, ez, ey, er, eille, ai
oi, io,
au, eu, à,
en, an, on
euille, ille,
muet
h, ( homme, hôtel, …)
finale t, s, x (e.g. met, dans, peux, doit,..)
lettre c
ce, ci, and ç sounds like an 's'
ca and co sound like a 'k'
ch sounds like 'sh'
4
QUESTIONS / LES QUESTIONS....
• Do..does...is…are… ? (literally “Is it that…..?”)
Est-ce que…..?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
what? Qu'est-ce que
what!? Quoi!?
how? Comment
why? Pourquoi
where? Où
when? Quand
Who? Qui
How much/many? Combiens
Which…? / quel, quelle, quels, quelles…
• to ask demander
• question la question
• to answer répondre
• answer la réponse
5
... and ANSWER CLUES…
Question Word
Qu’est-ce que – What?
Comment – How?
Où – Where?
Pourquoi – Why?
Quand – When?
Qui – Who?
Combien – How much?
How many?
Quel – Which or what?
What to look for
Examples
Specific information about
something or some action. This
requires some inferential skills.
Descriptions of states of being, how
someone feels and appears. Must
know your adjectives and adverbs.
Qu'est-ce que Paul fait?
Paul joue de la batterie.
Look for a place name, a
prespostion showing location, or
adverb of place.
Look for 'parce que', and the
information following it.
Look for a time, or adverb of time.
Look for a name, or subject of a
verb, the doer of an action.
You'll need some knowledge of
grammar – the direct or indirect
object – receiver of an action.
Look for a number, amount, or
adverb of quantity.
Tricky, in that it is often translated
as 'what'. E.g. What time is it?
What's the weather? Look for what
you would for Qu'est-ce que...
Look also for demonstrative
adjective and demonstrative
pronouns.
Comment est-il?
Paul est très méchant.
Comment vas tu à l'école?
Je vais à pied.
Où est Paul?
Il est à côté de Marie.
Il habite à Toronto.
Pourquoi Paul aime les gâteaux?
Il les aime parce qu'ils sont
chocolat!
Quand est-ce que Paul arrive?
Il arrive à 05h00 ce matin.
Il arrive après Marie.
Qui aime Marie?
Paul aime Marie.
Combien d'étudiants y a-t-il?
Il y a plusieurs.
Il y'en a cinq.
Quel bon bon est-ce qu'il veut?
Il veut celui-ci
Quel bon bon est-ce que tu veux?
Je veux ce bon bon.
6
GREETINGS AND SALUTATIONS
Hello! Good Day!
Hi! So long!
Welcome!
How are you?
Pleased to meet you.
Bonjour!
Salut !
Bienvenue !
Comment ça va?
Enchanté!
Thank you!
You’re welcome! No problem! It was
nothing!
Merci !
de rien, pas de quoi, je vous
remerçie
Good bye!
Have a good day !
See you soon!
Have a good weekend !
See you later! So long!
See you tomorrow!
See you on Monday!
Good evening!
Good night!
Until next time!
au revoir!
Bonne journée!
À bientôt !
Bonne fin de semaine!
À tout à l’heure ! à plus !
À demain !
À Lundi !
Bonsoir !
Bonne nuit !
À la prochaine!
Good luck!
Please (when talking to a child or friend)
Please (when talking to an adult or more than one
Bonne chance !
S’il te plait !
S’il vous plaît !
person)
Pretty well.
Happy Birthday!
Excuse me.
I’m sorry.
So-so
Assez bien.
Bonne fête ! Joyeuse anniversaire !
Pardon !
Je m’excuse !
Comme-ci, comme-ça
7
SHAPES / LES FORMES
rectangle – un rectangle
circle – un cercle
triangle – un triangle
cube – un cube
cone – un cône, un cornet
sphere – une sphère
oval – un ovale
square – un carré
diamond – un losange
Face cards
diamond – un carreau
heart – un cœur
club – un trèfle
spade – un pique
star – une étoile
point – une pointe
line – un ligne
curve – une courbe
COLOURS / LES COULEURS
Red – rouge
Pink - rose
orange – orange
yellow – jaune
green – vert
blue – bleu, azure
dark brown – brun
brown - marron
purple/violette – violet
black – noir
white – blanc
grey – gris
Gold - or
silver – argent, gris métallisée
bronze - bronze
brunette - châtain
blond - blonde
red head – roux
hazel - noixette
rainbow – arc en ciel
8
NUMBERS /
LES NOMBRES, LES CHIFFRES…
Zero zero
one un
two deux
three trois
four quatre
five cinq
six six
seven sept
eight huit
nine neuf
ten dix
thirty trente
forty quarante
fifty cinquante
sixty soixante
seventy soixante-dix
eighty quatre-vingt
ninety quatre-vingt-dix
eleven onze
twelve douze
thirteen treize
fourteen quatorze
fifteen quinze
sixteen seize
seventeen dix-sept
eighteen dix-huit
nineteen dix-neuf
twenty vingt
hundred cent
thousand mille
million million
billion milliard
number numéro
first le premier
second le deuxième
third le troisième
fourth le quatrième
fifth le cinquième
Quel est ton adresse?
Quelle heure est-il?
Quel est ton numéro du téléphone?
Dans quelle maison habites-tu?
9
TIMES OF DAY
Morning – evening
le matin – le soir
Noon – midnight
midi – minuit
Daytime – night-time
le jour – la nuit
Afternoon – après midi
The day – la journée
have a good day – bonne journée, bonjour
Good morning – bon matin
good afternoon – bon après midi
good evening – bon soir
good night – bon nuit
TELLING TIME
a.m.
1 o’clock
2 o’clock
2 :10
3 o’clock
3 :15
4 o’clock
4 :20
5 o’clock
6 o’clock
7 o’clock
7:45
(quarter to 8)
8 o’clock
9 o’clock
10 o’clock
11 o’clock
12 o’clock
Noon
avant-midi
1 h 00 –une heure
2 h 00 –deux heures
2 h 10 –deux heures dix
3 h 00 –trois heures
3 h 15 –trois heures et quart
4 h 00 –quatre heures
4 h 20 –quatre heures vingt
5 h 00 –cinq heures
6 h 00 –six heures
7 h 00 –sept heures
7 h 45 –huit heures moins
quart
8 h 00 –huit heures
9 h 00 –neuf heures
10 h 00 –dix heures
11 h 00 –onze heures
12 h 00 –
midi
p.m.
après-midi
1 o’clock
2 o’clock
14:30
3 o’clock
15:40
4 o’clock
16:20
5 o’clock
6 o’clock
7 o’clock
13 h 00 – treize heures
14 h 00 –quatorze heures
14 h 30 –quatorze heures trente
15 h 00 –quinze heures
15 h 40 –quinze heures quarante
16 h 00 –seize heures
16 h 20 –seize heures vingt
17 h 00 –dix-sept heures
18 h 00 –dix-huit heures
19 h 00 –dix-neuf heures
8 o’clock
9 o’clock
10 o’clock
11 o’clock
12 o’clock
Midnight
20 h 00 –vingt heures
21 h 00 –vingt et une heures
22 h 00 –vingt-deux heures
23 h 00 –vingt-trois heures
24 h 00 –
minuit
Qu’est-ce que tu vas regarder à la télé ce soir? Quelle matière as-tu? Quand est-ce que
le train arrive?
10
THE CALENDAR / LE CALENDRIER
January - janvier
February- février
March- mars
April -avril
May -mai
June -juin
July -juillet
August -août
September -septembre
October -octobre
November -novembre
December -décembre
(see placemat)
Monday –lundi
Tuesday –mardi
Wednesday –mercredi
Thursday –jeudi
Friday –vendredi
Saturday –samedi
Sunday - dimanche
Today- aujourd'hui
Yesterday- hier
Tomorrow- demain
the next day- le lendemain
the day before yesterday- avant-hier
the day after tomorrow- après-demain
Day- le jour
Week- la semaine
month -le mois
year- année
SEASONS / LES SAISONS
Spring- le printemps
Summer- l'été
autumn -l'automne
winter - l'hiver
Quelle est ton saison favorite?
J’aime l’hiver parce que…
Saying the date:Quelle est la date aujourd’hui?
today
+ it is
+ day
+ number
+ month
aujourd’hui c’est lundi
le 3
décembre
…for actions happening repeatedly (mondays –le lundi; tuesdays –le mardi,
etc…) Que fais-tu le mardi?
11
FRANCOPHONE FESTIVALS AND HOLIDAYS
DATE
FESTIVAL
JAN 1
Jour de l’an (New Year’s Day)
FEB
Le Carnaval de Québec (Quebec Winter Carnaval)
Mardi Gras (New Orleans)
MAR
APR 1
Le poisson d’avril (France)
Paques (Easter)
MAY 1
Fête du premier mai (Labour Day)
National Patriotes day (Quebec) – coincides with Victoria Day in English Canada
Fête des Mères (Mother’s Day)
JUNE 24
Fête nationale – (st jean babtiste day Quebec)
JULY 14
Fête nationale (BASTILLE DAY – end of King’s rule in France, beginning of French Revolution)
AUGUST 15
Assomption (Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary – France)
National Acadian Day
SEPT
OCT
Action de grace (Thanksgiving)
Hallowe’en (31 oct)
NOV 1
NOV 11
La Toussaint (All Saints’ Day)
Jour d’armistice (Armistice Day)
DEC 25
Noêl (Christmas)
12
THE WEATHER / LE TEMPS
It’s nice out. – Il fait beau.
It’s bad weather. – Il fait mauvais.
It’s humid. – Il fait humide.
It’s hot. – Il fait chaud.
It’s cold. – Il fait froid.
It’s cool – Il fait frais.
It's mild – Il fait doux.
It’s sunny. – Il fait soleil. Il y a du soleil. C’est ensoleillé
It’s windy. – Il vente. Il y a du vent. C’est venteux.
It’s overcast. – Il fait gris.
It’s cloudy. – C’est nuageux.
It's muggy – Il fait lourd.
It’s raining. – Il pleut.
It’s pouring – Il pleut à verse.
It’s snowing. – Il neige.
It’s freezing. – Il gèle.
It’s foggy. – Il y a / Il fait du brouillard.
It’s stormy. – Il y a de l’orage. Il fait orageux.
the outdoors – en plein air
forecast – la météo
Quel temps fait-il?
Quelle est la météo pour cette semaine, demain, le
week-end….?
13
WeatherTalk
I can talk about the weather
I can :
1.
recall and use the main vocabulary for climate and weather
2.
ask what the weather is outside
3.
describe what the weather is outside
4.
read a weather report in the newspaper
5.
research the weather on the internet
6.
report what has been said on a radio/tv weather forcast
7.
advise what one should wear in different weather
8.
describe the driving conditions
9.
describe the skiing conditions
10. describe what weather occurs in different seasons
11. describe the climate of different geographical regions
14
CLOTHING / LES VETÊMENTS
cap –la casquette
helmet –le casque
hat –le chapeau
toque –la toque
hard hat –le casque
scarf –une éscarpe
mittens –les mitaines
gloves –les gants
sun glasses –lunettes de soleil
eye-glasses –lunettes
purse –le sac à main
briefcase –la serviette
coat –le manteau
sweater –un pull, un pull-over, un
chandail
tie –la cravate
blouse –un chemisier
bath robe –le peignoire
umbrella –un parapluie
ring –une bague
t-shirt –un t-shirt
shirt –une chemise
shirt for sports –un maillot
vest –une veste
wristwatch –une montre
(see placemat)
men’s suit –un complet (jacket
and pants), un costume
woman’s suit –un tailleur
jacket –un veston
skirt –une jupe
pajamas –un pyjama
swimming goggles –lunettes de
natation, lunettes de plongée
bathing suit –un maillot de bain
shorts –le short
boxer shorts –le caleçon
underwear –les sous-vetêments
pants –le panatalons
jeans –le jean, le blue jean
overalls –les salopettes
shoes –les chaussures, les
souliers
necklace –le collier
dress –la robe
bracelet –le bracelet
high heels –haut talons
slippers –pantouffles
boots –les bottes
sneakers –le tennis
socks –les chausettes
running shoes –le tennis,
sandals –les sandals
Qu’est-ce tu portes quand il fait chaud?
Qu’est-ce que vous portez en hiver?
Qu’est-ce qu’elle va porter pour la soirée?
15
FashionTalk
I can discuss fashion and clothing.
I can :
1.
- recall and use the main vocabulary for fashion and clothing
2.
- describe what I am wearing
3.
- describe what someone else is wearing
4.
- advise what others should wear for various occasions
5.
- design and describe an outfit for an athlete, super hero, movie star....
16
THE CLASSROOM / LA CLASSE
classroom / la classe
chair / la chaise
desk / le pupitre
table / la table
board / le tableau
chalk / la craie
brush / la brosse
marker / le marqueur
pen/ le stylo
pencil / le crayon
pencil case / un coffre à crayons
pencil sharpener / un taille-crayons
eraser / la gomme
scissors / les ciseaux
glue / la colle
paper / le papier
stapler / une agrafeuse
hole punch / une perforatrice
bookshelf / les étagères
file cabinet / le classeur
door / la porte
window / la fenêtre
wall / le mur
lights / les lumières
clock / une horloge
bell / la cloche
office, teacher’s desk / le bureau
subject – la matière
history – l'histoire
french - le français
math – les maths
science – les sciences naturelles
social studies – les sciences
humaines
health – la santé
gym – l’éducation physique
overhead / un rétroprojecteur
computer / un ordinateur
cd player / un lecteur de disque
compact
calculator / une calculatrice
screen / un écran
television / le télé
dictionary / le dictionnaire
text book / un manuel
book / le livre
notebook, workbook / le cahier
back-pack / un sac à dos
homework / les devoirs
work / le travail
to learn / apprendre
to teach / enseigner
to ask / demander
to answer / répondre
to study / étudier
to work / travailler
to take attendance / prendre les
présences
teacher / le professeur, un(e)
enseignant(e)
student / un(e) élève, un(e)
étudiant(e)
caretaker / le concierge
principal / le directeur, la directrice
vice principal / le directeur-adjoint, la
directrice-adjointe
secretary / le, la secrétaire
17
USEFUL PHRASES IN SCHOOL…
Questions from students…
May I sharpen my pencil?
May I leave the classroom?
May I get a drink of water?
May I go…to the office ?
…to the washroom?
…to the library?
…to my locker?
…to the fountain?
…to the gym?
What is the date?
What day is it?
What do we need?
What are we doing today?
I have a question.
I don’t have any….
Darn it!
Not so fast!
Really?
Just a moment, please.
I’m sorry.
Excuse me.
I have lost my….
Present!
He is absent. She is absent.
I have to study.
What page are we on?
Do we have to skip a line?
Isn’t there any homework?
That’s enough.
That’s all.
Puis-je tailler mon crayon?
Puis-je quitter la salle de classe?
Puis-je boire de l’eau?
Puis-je aller…au bureau?
…aux toilettes?
…à la bibliothèque?
…à mon caisier?
…à la fontaine?
…au gymnase?
Quelle est la date?
Quel jour sommes-nous?
De quoi avons-nous besoin?
Que faisons-nous aujourd’hui?
J’ai une question.
Je n’ai pas de….
Zut!
Pas si vite!
Vraiment?
Un moment, s’il vous plaît.
Je suis désolé(e).
Excusez-moi. Pardonnez-moi.
J’ai perdu mon/ma/mes…..
Présent(e)!
Il est absent. Elle est absente.
Je dois étudier.
À quelle page sommes-nous?
Faut-il sauter une ligne?
Il n’y a pas de devoirs?
C’est assez. Ça suffit.
C’est touts.
18
Common Teacher Commands…
Say it in French.
Speak French.
Open your books.
Close your books.
Say that again, please.
Please give me your book.
Listen to the instructions.
Speak up, please.
Read out loud.
Answer the question.
Take out your homework.
Memorize the dialogue.
Bring your workbooks.
Sit down.
Stand up.
Pay attention.
I want to make an announcement.
Are you ready?
Let’s check the homework.
Dites-le en français.
Parlez en français.
Ouvrez vos livres.
Fermez vos livres.
Répétez, s’il vous plaît.
Donne-moi ton livre, s’il te plaît.
Écoutez les instructions.
Parlez plus fort, s’il vous plaît.
Lisez à haute voix.
Répondez à la question.
Sortez vos devoirs.
Apprenez le dialogue par coeur.
Apportez vos cahiers.
Asseyez-vous.
Levez-vous.
Faites attention.
Je veux faire une annonce.
Êtes-vous prêts?
Corrigeons les devoirs.
Expressions of praise….
Very good!
Great! Cool!
very well written!
quite good, good enough
Fantastic!
Sensational!
Great!
perfect!
magnificent!
well done!
superb!
marvellous!
congratulations!
much better!
Très bien!
Génial! Cool!
très bien écrit!
assez bien
Fantastique!
Sensass!
Formidable!
parfait!
magnifique!
bien fait!
superbe!
merveilleux!
félicitations!
beaucoup mieux!
19
Asking for help…
How do you say…?
What does…….mean?
What does this word mean?
Slowly, please.
I don’t know
I don’t understand…
…the word.
…the sentence.
…the answer.
…the question.
…the homework.
…the exercise.
…the problem.
Comment dit-on……?
Que veut dire…….?
Que signifie ce mot?
Lentement, s’il vous plaît.
Je ne sais pas.
Je ne comprend pas…
…le mot.
…la phrase.
…la réponse.
…la question.
…les devoirs.
…l’exercice.
…le problème.
Giving corrections and advice
be careful!
don't forget to …
too short
Spelling
be careful!
It’s not correct.
You’ve made a mistake.
It’s not correct.
You’ve made a mistake.
use your resources!
to be completed!
first of all
to start with
especially
I agree
I don't agree
for example
in my opinion
in other words
I think that
according to
so
finally
fais attention!
n'oublie pas de …
trop court
l'orthographe
Faites attention!
Ce n’est pas correct.
Tu as fait une faute.
Ce n’est pas correct.
Tu as fait une faute.
utilise tes ressources!
à compléter!
d'abord
pour commencer
Surtout
je suis d'accord
je ne suis pas d'accord
par exemple
à mon avis
en d'autres mots
je pense quex
selon
donc
finalement
20
SchoolTalk
I can discuss common classroom events.
I can:
1. …say today’s date in the proper order
2. …describe how I get to school and how long it takes
3. …name my teachers
4. …list what subjects I take and which are my favorites
5. …name my school administration, custodian, and secretary
6. …identify 10-20 objects in the classroom
7. …ask for help in 3 different ways
1. …I don’t understand
2. …How do you say…
3. …Please repeat…
8. …Praise my classmates 5 different ways
9. …ask 5 common questions used in the classroom
1. permission to go to the bathroom
2. permission to get a drink
3. permission to go to your locker
4. ask for a pencil or pen politely
5. ask for help with a task
10.
…Ask 4 questions about the timetable
1. Where is …class?
2. When is…. At what time is….
3. What is….teaching?
4. Who is teaching……?
21
THE BODY /
LE CORPS
face le visage
head la tête
hair les cheveux
bald chauve
ears les oreilles
eyes les yeux
eye un oeil
cheeks les joues
lips les lèvres
teeth les dents
tongue le langue
nose le nez
moustache le moustache
forehead le front
chin le menton
mouth la bouche
beard - la barbe
throat –la gorge
cough –tousser
shout –crier
spit –cracher
vomit –vomir
whisper –chuchotter
lisp –zozoter
blink –cligner des yeux
wink –cligner de l’oeil
sneeze –éternuer
snot –la morve
to blow your nose –se moucher
sniff –humer
shave –se raser
neck le cou
shoulders les épaules
arm le bras
hand la main
fingers les doigts
thumb le pouce
elbow le coude
chest la poitrine
back le dos
buttocks les fesses
belly le ventre
belly button le nombril
leg la jambe
knee le genou
ankle la cheville
foot le pied
toe un orteil
shrug - hausser les épaules
stretch –s’étirer les bras
point –montrer, indiquer du doigt
punch –donner un coup du poing
shake –secouer
kick –donner un coup du pied
trip, stumble –trébucher
run –courir
walk –marcher, se promener
scrape –écorcher
kneel –aux genoux
Où as-tu mal? J’ai mal à la, au, aux….
22
ANIMALS / LES ANIMAUX
(see placemat)
mammals –le mammifére
dog –le chien/la chienne
cat –le chat, la chatte
pig –le cochon
wolf –le loup
cow –la vache
sheep –le mouton
lamb –l’angeau
goat le bouc/la chèvre
lion –le lion
tiger –le tigre
cheetah –le guépard
bat –le chauve-souris
zebra –le zebre
giraff –le giraffe
horse –le cheval
rhinoceros –le rhinocéros
elephant –un éléphant
leopard –le léopard
antilope –une antilope
bear –ours/ourse
bull –le taureau
gorilla –la gorille
monkey –le singe
sloth –le paresseux
mouse –le souris
rat –le rat
skunk –la moufette
squirrel –un écureuil
walrus –le morse
seal –le phoque
camel –le chameau
fox –le renard
rabbit –le lapin
bird –un oiseau
duck –la cane/le canard
goose –l’oie
turkey –le dindon
owl –le hibou
seagull –le muelle
rooster –le coq
chicken –la poule
ostriche –l’autruche
eagle –l’aigle
penguin –le penguin
crow –le corbeau
vulture –l’urubu
swan –le cygne
humming bird –le colibri, le oiseaumouche
peacock –le paon
bug, insect –l’insecte
moth –le papillon de nuit
butterfly –le papillon
ant –la fourmi
wasp –la guêpe
bee –une abeille
fly –la mouche
reptiles and amphibians –
les reptiles et les amphibies
lizard –le lézard
turtle, tortoise –la tortue
crocodile –le crocodile
alligator –l’alligator
frog –la grenouille
toad –le crapaud
snake –le serpent
dinosaur –le dinosaur
dragon –le dragon
Spots –les taches (f)
Stripes –les rayures (f)
Fur –des poils (mpl)
Feathers –le plumage
shark –le requin
whale –le cétacé, la baleine
dolphin –le dauphin
fish –le poisson
snail –un escargot
worm –le vers
beetle –le scarabée
mosquito –le moustique
cockroach –la blatte
spider –une araignée
23
FAMILY AND FRIENDS /
LA FAMILLE ET LES AMIS
father / le père
mother / la mère
sister / la soeur
brother / le frère
cousin / un cousin, une cousine
uncle / un oncle
aunt / une tante
step dad / un beau-père
step mother / une belle-mère
step brother / une demi-frère
grandfather / le grand-père
grandmother / la grand-mère
daughter / la fille
son / le fils
baby / le bébé
adult / un adulte
adolescent / l'adolescent
young / jeune
old / vieux, vieille
nephew / le neveu
neice / la nièce
wife / une épouse, la femme
husband / un époux, un mari
child / un enfant
parent / le parent
grandson / le petit-fils
granddaughter / la petite-fille
boyfriend / un ami
girlfriend / une amie
friend / un copain, une copaine
Qui habite avec vous?
Qui habite chez vous?
Qui est le plus …?
Qui est le moins…?
Décrivez les membres de ta famille.
24
HOUSE AND HOME /
LA MAISON ET LE LOGEMENT
House –la maison
Garden –le jardin
floor –le plancher
stairs –un escalier
rug, carpet –le tapis
ceiling –le plafond
wall –le mur
window –la fenêtre
door –la porte
lawn –le gazon, le pelouse
porch –le porche
roof –le toit
flowers –les fleurs
tree –un arbre
laudry room –la laverie
laundry –le linge
dryer –la sécheuse
washer-dryer –lave-linge/seche-linge, la
machine à laver
basement –le sous-sol
attic –le grenier
storage space –l’espace de rangement
bedroom –la chambre à coucher
bed –le lit
pillow –un oreiller
blanket –la couverture
bedsheet –le drap
poster –une affiche
stuffed animal –le jouet en peluche
closet –le cabinet
shelf –une étagère
desk –un bureau, pupitre, secrétaire
chair –la chaise
computer(laptop) –un ordinateur(portable)
dresser –une commode
bathroom –la salle de bain
shower –une douche
shower curtain –une rideau de douche
toilet –la toilette
toilet papier –le papier toilette
mirror –le miroir, la glace
sink –la lavabo
bath tub –la baignoire
(see placemat)
kitchen –la cuisine
sink –un évier
table –la table
dishwasher –le lave-vaisselle
cupboard –le placard
counter –le plan de travail
oven –le four
stove –la cuisinière
microwave –le four à micro-ondes
tap –le robinet
refrigerator –le féfrigérateur
freezer –le congélateur
knife –le couteau
fork –la fourchette
spoon –la cuillère
cutlery –les couverts
dishes –la vaiselle
mug –la grande tasse
cup, glasse –la tasse
pots and pans –les casseroles
frying pan –la poêle à frire
cutting board –une planche à découper
clock –une horloge
living room –le salon
couch –le divan
armchair –une armoire
TV –une télévision
coffee table –une table basse
lamp –la lampe
curtains –les rideaux
vase –le vase
radio –la radio
stereo –le baladeur
garage –le garage
car –une voiture
bike –un vélo, une bicyclette
lawnmower –une tondeuse à gazon
tools –les outils
workbench –un établi
garbage can –une poubelle
recycling bin –un bac de recyclage
garbage bag – un sac poubelle
soap –un savon
shampoo –le shampooing
towel –une serviette de bain
toothbrush –une brosse à dents
toothpaste –le dentifrice
25
DAILY CHORES /
LES TÂCHES QUOTIDIENNE
Wake up –se reveiller
Get up –se lever
Check the computer –verifier mon
ordinateur
Check my cellphone –verifier mon
cell
Get dressed –s’habiller
Make the bed –faire le lit
clean the room –ranger la chambre
take a shower –prendre une douche
wash my face –se laver le visage
wash hands –se laver les mains
brush teeth –se brosser les dents
floss teeth –passer le soie dentaire
brush hair –se brosser les cheveux
comb hair –se peigner les cheveux
shave beard –se raser la barbe
have breakfast –faire le déjeuner
go to school –aller à l’école
go to work –aller au travaille
study my subjects –étudier les
matières
have a snack –manger la collation
(see placemat)
do the vacuuming –passer l’aspirateur
put out the dog –sortir le chien
feed the dog –nourire le chien
walk the dog –promener le chien,
shovel the driveway –pelleter l’entrée
cut the grass –tendre le gazon
recycle –faire le recyclage; sortir le bac
de recyclage (recycling bin)
put out the garbage –sortir les déchets
do the dishes –faire la vaiselle
put away the dishes –ranger la vaiselle
sort the laundry –trier le linge
do the laundry –faire le lessive
do the ironing –faire le repassage
do the gardening –faire le jardinage
water the lawn –irriger le gazon
rake the leaves –ratisser les feuilles
clean the windows –nettoyer les
fenêtres
wash the car –nettoyer, laver l’auto
do the dusting –enlever la poussière
sweep –balayer
do homework –faire le devoirs
make supper –préparer le souper
get undressed –deshabiller
go to bed –se coucher
go to sleep –dormir
Qu'est-ce vous faites dans la journée?
26
A MONTH OF ACTIVITIES AND EVENTS
(see placemat)
mercredi le premier –étudier les maths
jeudi le 2 –aller au théatre, regarder une pièce
vendredi le 3 –aller à la banque, le guichet automatique, déposer, aller chercher l’argent
samedi le 4 –faire le shopping
dimanche le 5 –aller à l’église, prier
lundi le 6 –aller au bibliothèque, étudier pour un test
mardi le 7 –prendre l’autobus
mercredi le 8 –faire le devoir, faire l’écriture
jeudi le 9 –aller au coiffeur
vendredi le 10 –regarder la télé
samedi le 11 –aller à la fête, une anniversaire
dimanche le 12 –un pique-nique, pique-niquer
lundi le13 –aller à mon casier, à l’école
mardi le 14 –aller à l’optométriste
mercredi le 15 –à la stade, à l’arène, un jeu de football, baseball
jeudi le 16 –jouer au hockey
vendredi le 17 –aller au cinéma, voir un film
samedi le 18 –aller au musée d’art, à la galerie d’art
dimanche le 19 –aller au zoo
lundi le 20 –prendre un taxi, aller en taxi
mardi le 21 –aller au médecin
mercredi le 22 –patin à roulettes, faire du roller
jeudi le 23 –aller au funèbres, enterrement, funérailles
vendredi le 24 –aller à la mosquée, prier
samedi le 25 –faire du camping
dimanche le 26 –faire de la natation, nager
lundi le 27 –avoir un entretien
mardi le 28 –jouer au basketball
mercredi le 29 –faire le vélo
jeudi le 30 –faire du ski alpin, skier
vendredi le 31 –voyager, aller à l’aéroport
Qu’est’ce que tu vas faire le…? …le lendemain?
Qu’est’ce que tu as fait le….? Qu’est-ce que tu fait le….?
27
SelfTalk
I can talk generally about myself.
I can:
1. …greet someone politely 3 different ways
2. …say my name
3. …say my age
4. …say my birthday (day, month, year)
5. …give my address and phone number
6. …say where I’m from
7. …describe who lives with me
8. …describe how I look (hair colour, eye colour, height,…)
9. …say how I feel (5 different adjectives)
10. …describe my pass-times, favorite food, etc..
11. …describe what I’m wearing (5 clothing items)
12. …close a conversation politely
28
FamilyTalk
I can talk about my family and living situation.
I can:
1.
...list the people I live with (siblings, parents,…).
2.
...give my address or addresses and describe what kind of building (house,
apartment,)
3.
... give information about my grandparents
4.
...give information about my uncles, aunts and cousins (where they live,
names)
5.
...give information about my parents or step-parents
6.
...talk about my various family members’ interests.
7.
... list what pets I have, if any.
8.
...describe visits to other relatives and what we do
29
HomeTalk
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
I can list the names of rooms in my home.
I can list the main furniture items in my home.
I can list the chores done in my home…
…when they are done….
….and who does them.
I can describe the outside of my home.
I can describe the neighborhood
I can give simple directions to get there from school
I can describe the layout of my home.
30
FOOD
/
LA NOURRITURE
to eat –manger
to be hungry –avoir faim
to be thirsty –avoir soif
Meal –le repas
Breakfast –le déjeuner
Lunch –le lunch, le diner
Dinner –le souper
Dining room –salle à manger
restaurant –le restaurant
Menu –la carte, le menu (fixed price)
Snack –la collation
Cocktail –un apéritif
Main course –entrée
Main course –le plat principal
Dessert –le dessert
After dinner drink –un digestif
Daily special –le plat du jour
fork –la fourchette
spoon –la cuillère
knife –le couteau
plate –une assiette, le plat
Free –gratuit, offert
Tip –le pourboire
Tip not included –service non compris
Waiter –serveur, serveuse
Allergic to –allérgique à
Diabetic –diabétique
Vegetarian –végétarien
Vegan –végétalien
salt –le sel
pepper –le poivre
Bread –du pain, baguette
meat –la viande
beef –le boeuf
roast beef –le rôti de beuf, rosbif
veal –le veau
chicken –le poulet
turkey –la dinde
steak –le biftek
sausage –la saucisse
bacon –le bacon
pork –le porc
ham –le jambon
Rare –rosé
Medium rare –à point
Well done –bien cuit
eggs –les oeufs
fish and seafood –poisons et fruits de mers
salmon –le saumon
tuna –le thon
mussels –la moule
oysters –la huitre
lobster –un homard
crab –le crabe
Octopus –le poulpe
Squid –le calmar
(see placemat)
flavors / saveurs
vanilla –la vanille
chocolate –le chocolat
vegetables / les légumes
lettuce –le laittue
salad –la salade
tomato –la tomate
potato –la patate, la pomme de terre
french fries –le frites, le chips
cauliflower –le chou-fleur
broccoli –le brocolis
asparagus –l’asperge
onion –l’oignon
garlic –l’ail
green pepper –poivre vert
beans –les haricots
peas –les pois
carrot –la carotte
celery –le céleri
corn –le maïs
rice –le riz
mushroom –le champignon
cucumber –le concombre
spinach –les épinards
dairy –lelaitier
milk –le lait
cream –le crème
butter –le beurre
yogurt –le yaourt
cheese –le fromage
fruit / les fruit
mango –le mangue
strawberry –la fraise
watermelon –melon d’eau
canataloupe –le cantaloup
pinapple –l’ananas
coconut –le noix de coco
kiwi –le kiwi
pomegranate –la grenade
apple –la pomme
banana –la banane
grapes –le raisin
blueberry –la myrtille, le bluet
blackberry –la mûre
raspberry –la framboise
orange –l’orange
lemon –le citron
lime –le citon vert
Desserts / le dessert
Pie –la tarte
brownie –le carré
Pastry –le pâtisserie
Ice cream- la glace
drinks / boissons
beer - la bière
wine - le vin
juice –le jus
pop - boisson gazeuse
coffee –le café
I’m full –je n’en peux plus; j’ai trop mangé
Good eating !, Enjoy your meal! –bon appétit
I would like –Je aimerais… I’ll have –je prends…
31
MenuTalk
I can use the food vocabulary in practical ways.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
I can describe various foods in the main food groups
I can say what I eat regularly for various meals (snacks, breakfast, etc…)
I can describe my favorite dinner.
I can order a pizza
I can order a meal on a menu
I can ask for the bill and calculate the tip
32
SHOPPING IN THE CITY /
FAIRE LE SHOPPING DANS LA VILLE
Downtown –la ville
Suburbs –le banlieue
small grocery store – une épicerie
farmer's market –le marché
supermarket –le supermarché
superstore, giant supermarket –un
hypermarché
department stor –un grand magasin
butcher –la boucherie
baker –la boulangerie
candy store – la confiserie
dairy – la crémerie, la laiterie
cheese shop –la fromagerie
greengrocer –magasin de fruits et
légumes
pastry shop –la pâtisserie
fish store – la poissonnerie
laundromat –la blanchisserie
newsstand –le kiosque
Pharmacy –la pharmacie
Restaurant –le restaurant
Coffee shop –le café
Small shop –la boutique
Office building –le bureau
Shopping centre/mall –le centre
commercial
Supermarket –le supermarché
stationer's –la papeterie
book shop - la librarie
jeweller's –la bijouterie
florist's - le magasin de fleuriste
Corner store –dépaneure
Subway –le métro
Fire hall –le caserne de pompier
Hospital –l’hôpital
Bank –la banque
Post office –la poste
Library –la bibliothèque
City hall –l’hôtel de ville
Museum –le musée
hardware store –la quincaillerie
tobacco shop –le tabac
opening hours – les heures d’ouverture
on special offer –en promotion
sale (bargains) –les soldes
self serve –libre service
open –ouvert
closed –fermé
entrance –l’entrée
exit –la sortie
cash desk –la caisse
Apartment building –l’immeuble
Street,Road –la rue
Highway –une autoroute
Sidewalk –le trottoire
Forest –la forêt
Country –la compagne
River –la rivière
Park –le parc
Bus depot –la routière
Airport –l’aéroport
Train station –la gare
Cinema –le cinéma
Theatre –le théatre
Factory –l’usine (m.)
Pool –la piscine
Arena –un arène
Stadium –la stade
Zoo –le zoo
Farm –la ferme
33
ShopTalk
I can buy something.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I can identify which store I need to go to.
I can identify at least 5 items in my wallet.
I can list at least ten different places to shop.
I can ask when the store opens and when it closes.
I can ask how much something costs
I can use at least 5 adverbs of quantity
I can say what I would like and how much I would like.
I can use money amounts with dollars and cents.
I can politely ask for assistance in at least 3 different ways.
I can politely say thank you in at least 3 different ways.
34
TRAVELING / FAIRE LE VOYAGE
where is the? –où se trouve…? Où
est…?
Help! –au secours! Aidez-moi!
I am lost –je suis perdu
I can’t find… - Je ne peux pas trouver…
How much does….cost? –Combien
coûte…?
pack your bags –faire ses valises
travel agent –un agent de voyages
airline –une compagnie aérienne
airplane –un avion
airport –un aéroport
arrivals – les arrivées
departures –les départs
baggage –les bagages
baggage claim –la livraison des
bagages
boarding pass –la carte
d’embarquement
carry-on –bagage à main
customs –la douane
immigration – l’immigration
duty free –une boutique hors taxes
early –en avance
late –en retard
economy class –la classe touriste
first class –la première classe
flight –un vol
gate –une porte
one way –aller-simple
return trip –aller-retour
passenger –un passager
pilot –un pilote
steward, stewardess –un steward
ticket –un billet
reservation –faire une reservation
declare –déclarer
take off - décoller
land - atterrir
board –embarquer
stopover –une escale
terminal –aérogare
passport –un passeport
subsay –le métro
station –la gare
bus –l’autobus
train –le train
platform –le quai
taxi –un taxi
map –la carte
forbidden –interdit
do not enter –défense d’entrer
out of service –hors service
accommodations –le logement
no vacancy –complet
1st, ground floor –le rez-de-chaussée
room –la chambre
highway –une autoroute
driver –un conducteur
to drive –conduire
to pass –doubler
traffic jam –un embouteillage
on the way –en route
gas –l’essence
trip –une excursion
fill up with gas –faire le plein
stop light –le feu rouge
motorbike –une moto
gas station –une station-service
to park –stationner
to cross –traverser
bike –un vélo
35
GEOGRAPHY / LA GÉOGRAPHIE
Nearly all countries that end in e are feminine and the rest are masculine. There
are just a few exceptions:
•
le Belize
•
le Cambodge
•
le Mexique
•
le Mozambique
•
le Zaïre
•
le Zimbabwe
All continents end in e and all are feminine.
Preposition rules for geographical terms:
If country is:
To / In
From
au
du
en
en
aux
d'
de/ d'
des
To / In
From
dans le / au
du
dans l' / en
en
de l' / d'
de
Cities and Islands
To / In
From
city or singular island
à
de / d'
aux
des
masculine and starts with
consonant
masculine and starts with vowel
feminine
plural
If State/Province is:
masculine and starts with
consonant
masculine and starts with vowel
feminine
plural islands
36
TRANSPORTATION
(see placemat)
skateboard –un planche à
roulettes
rollerblading –faire du roller,
running –courir, faire une course
scooter –un scooter
dog team –un attelage des chiens
snow board –un surf des neiges,
une plance à neiges
cross-country skiing –ski du fond
canoing –faire du canoë
kayak –faire du kayac
sailing –voilier, un bateau à voile
row boat –un bateau à rames
submarine –un sous-marin
motorboat –un bateau à moteur
parachute –faire du parachutisme
motorbike –un moto, une
motocyclette
unicycle –un monocycle
car –une voiture
bus –un autobus, un bus
taxi –…en taxi, un taxi
glider –un planeur
flying saucer –une soucoupe
volante
bike –un vélo, une bicyclette
scooter –un motor scooter
snowmobile –un scooter de neige
transport truck –un camion,
transporter par camion
subway –le metro,
hang gliding –un deltaplane
helicopter –un hélicoptère,
héliporter
blimp –un saucisse, un dirigeable
camel –un chameau, une
caravane de chameaux
horse –à cheval
tour bus –un autocar
train –un train
airplane –un avion
air liner –un avion de ligne, un
avion commercial
balloon –faire de la montgolfière
rocket –un vaisseau spatial
Comment y aller?
Comment est-ce que tu vas à …?
TravelTalk
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
I can use a map to get from one place to another.
I can ask for help.
I can identify compass directions
I can use common preposition to identify locations
I can tell where I want to go
I can read a timetable
I can give directions
I can identify map icons
I can read simple messages at the bus depot, train station,
I can find a travel agent in the phone book, internet….
I can rent a car
38
WORK / LES CARRIÈRES ET LES METIERS
(see placemat)
actor / un acteur
actress / une actrice
artist / un(e) artiste
baker / un boulanger une
boulangère
builder / un maçon
butcher / un boucher
carpenter / un charpentier
cashier / un caissier, une
caissière
civil servant / un(e) fonctionnaire
cook / le chef, un(e) cuisiner,
cuisinière
dentist / un(e) dentiste
doctor / un médecin
electrician / un électricien
employee / un(e) employé(e)
engineer / un ingénieur
fireman / un pompier
hairdresser / un coiffeur, une
coiffeuse
lawyer / un avocat, une avocate
jobless –sans emploi
fire –renvoyer, virer
work overtime –faire des heures
supplémentaires
overtime pay –heures
supplémentaires
interview –faire passer un
entretien à…
resumé –un résumé, un
curriculum vitae
maid / une femme de chambre
manager / un gérant
mechanic / un mécanicien
nurse / un infirmier, une infirmière
painter / un peintre
pharmacist / un(e) pharmacien(ne)
plumber / un plombier
police / un policier, une policière
secretary / une secrétaire
receptionist / un(e) réceptionniste
student / un étudiant, une
étudiante
high school teacher / un(e)
professeur(e),
teacher – un(e) enseignant(e)
technician / un(e)technicien(ne)
waitress / une serveuse
waiter / un serveur
writer / un écrivain
boss –patron/patronne
job –un emploi, un poste
task –un travail
manual laborer –ouvrier/ouvrière
white-coller worker –employé(e)
hire –engager
pay –payer
wage –le salaire
Don’t use un,une with a profession. Je suis acteur.
Qu’est-ce que tu vas être? Je vais être médecin.
It pays well. –C’est bien payé
39
TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION
texting –le texto
turn on –allumer
to type –taper
click –cliquer
to send –envoyer
email –le courrier,
smartphone –le mobile, le
portable,
gps –le GPS
computer –un ordinateur
keyboard –un clavier
key –une touche
download –télécharger
icon –un icône
font –la police
browse –naviguer
web browser –navigateur
screen –un écran
disk –une disquette
printer –une imprimante
software –un logiciel
save/backup –sauvegarder
the net –la toile
to crash –planter
switch off –éteindre
mouse –une souris
website –un site web
webpage –la page web
the web –le web
the Internet –l’Internet
USB key –la clé USB
Link –un lien
Drag and drop –glisser et déposer
File –un fichier
Folder –un dossier
Spreadsheet –un tableur
Home page –un page d’acceuil
40
JobTalk
I can apply for a job and do a job interview.
I can :
1.
...fill out a job application form
2.
...call an employer for an interview
3.
...look for a job in the want ads.
4.
...describe my strengths and weaknesses
5.
...tell my interests to the interviewer
6.
...research a job for wages and benefits and working conditions
41
GAMES, SPORTS, ENTERTAINMENT
LES JEUX, LES SPORTS, LES
DIVERTISSEMENTS, LES LOISIRS
to play a game or sport. jouer à la, au,
aux...,
Jouer au base-ball
Jouer au basketball
Jouer au football
Jouer au golf
Jouer au hockey
Jouer au tennis
Jouer au volleyball
jouer aux échecs (chess)
to play a musical instrument –
jouer de la, du, des…
jouer de la clarinette
jouer du saxophone
jouer des battries (drums)
jouer de la guitare
jouer du trompet
jouer de la basse
stadium –la stade
arena –l’arène
faire de la boxe
Horseback riding –Faire du cheval
Faire du cyclisme
Faire du jogging
Swimming –Faire de la natation
Skating –Faire du patin, faire du
patinage
Roller skating –Faire du patin à
roulettes
Diving –Faire de la plongée
Faire du ski
Cross-country skiing –Faire du ski de
fond
Water skiing –Faire du ski nautique
Archery –Faire du tir à l’arc
Sailing –Faire la voile
Faire du parachutisme
biking –faire du vélo, faire de la
bicyclette
hunting –faire la chasse
reading –faire la lecture
wrestling –faire de la lutte
go fishing –aller à la peche
cooking –faire la cuisine
dancing –la danse
42
SUBJECT PRONOUNS
MEMORIZE!!!!!!
singular
plural
1st person
I –je, j’
2nd
You –tu
You –vous
Singular and familiar mode
Plural and also singular polite mode
person
3rd person
We - nous
Takes the place of “X and me…”
He/it –il
She/it –elle
One/we –on
who –qui
They –ils,elles
Takes the place of “name”…; le…, la…, ce…”
Takes the place of « les… » « names… »
« ces… » etc..
ARTICLES : THE, A, SOME....
There are three articles, just like in English.
The definite article is ‘the’and it comes in four forms.
The indefinite article is ‘a’, and comes in two forms, and
The partitive artice, meaning ‘some’or ‘any’comes in four forms.
English
the
a
of, some / any
Masculine
Form
Vowel form
Feminine form
Plural form
le
un
du
(de + le)
l’
la
une
de la
les
de l’
Changing with the negative._ SAYING “NOT ANY”
I have some candy. J’ai des bonbons.
I have no candy. I haven’t any candy. Je n’ai pas de bonbons.
des
(de + les)
43
MORE PRONOUNS
INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS (replace the people in a sentence
to/for whom the action of the verb occurs.)
to me / me, m'
to us / nous
to you / te, t'
to you / vous
to him, her, it / lui
to them / leur
I am talking to Paul. Je parle à Paul.
I am talking to him. Je lui parle.
I give candies to the students. Je donne des bonbons aux etudiants.
I give candies to them. Je leur donne des bonbons.
DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS (replace the people or things that
receive the action of the verb in a sentence.)
Me / me, m'
us / nous
you (s) / te, t'
you (pl) / vous
him, it / le, l'
them / les
her, it / la, l'
I love you. –je vous aime.
I love them. –Je les aime.
I love her/him/it. –Je l’aime.
He loves us. –Il nous aime.
ADVERBIAL PRONOUNS
Y replaces a noun with ‘to’or ‘à’in
front of it. It means ‘there’.
EN replaces a quantity. It means one,
some,or any.
I go to Toronto. Je vais à Toronto.
I go there. J’y vais.
I want candy. Je veux des bonbons.
I want some. J’en veux.
There are a lot of candies. Il y a
beaucoup de bonbons.
There are a lot of them. Il y en a
beaucoup.
44
POSSESSING THINGS...
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
These adjectives are placed in front of the noun you are describing, just like you do
in English. E.g. my brother = mon frère, my sister = ma soeur,
Possessive Adjective
Masculine form
For all nouns
beginning with a
vowel, or silent ‘h’
Feminine form
Plural form
My
Your
His/her /its
Our
Your
their
mon
ton
son
notre
votre
leur
mon
ton
son
ma
ta
sa
mes
tes
ses
nos
vos
leurs
Note: the vowel beats the gender. So, even if you are describing a feminine noun, if it starts with a
vowel, use the masculine form. E.g. mon ami, mon amie
A lot of learners get mixed up with his/her. Notice that there are four ways of saying his, and four ways
of saying her. It is the noun’s gender that dictates which adjective to use, not the owner. So, in French,
if you want to say ‘her dog’, you don’t say ‘sa chien’, you say ‘son chien’, because chien is a maculine
noun. If you want to say ‘his mother’, you would say ‘sa mère’, because mère is feminine (la mère)
As you may recall from learning about ‘de’(see page….) , there is the ‘de’method of showing
ownership or possession, similar to the English use of ‘s at the end of a noun. (e.g. )
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS – YOURS AND MINE...
English
Masculine sing.
Feminine plural
Masculine plural
Feminine plural
Mine
Le mien
La mienne
Les miens
Les miennes
Yours (singular)
Le tien
La tienne
Les tiens
Les tiennes
His/hers/its
Le sien
La sienne
Les siens
Les siennes
Ours
Le nôtre
La nôtre
Les nôtres
Yours (plural)
Le vôtre
La vôtre
Les vôtres
Theirs
Le leur
La leur
Les leurs
45
NEGATIVES – SAYING NO
This is a list of the ways French uses the negative. Always sandwich
these words around the verb. ne becomes n’ in front of a vowel. (tu
n’aimes pas, Vous n’allez pas….)
not
never
any more
nothing
no one
not at all!
not any, none
only
ne...pas
ne...jamais
ne...plus
ne...rien
ne...personne
pas du tout !
aucun
ne…que
Remember these formulas:
present tense:
pronoun + ne/n’ + verb + pas
je ne vais pas. Je n’est pas
past tense :
pronoun + ne/n’+ avoir/être + pas + past participle
Je n’ai pas vu. Ils n’ont pas
future tense :
pronoun + ne/n’+ aller + pas + infinitive
il ne va pas regarder?
asking negative questions (inversion method) :
ne/n’+ verb-pronoun + pas?
Ne sont-ils pas? N’avez-vous pas?
add a ‘t’between vowels with il and elle
Ne parle-t-il pas?
ne/n’+ avoir/être + - + pronoun + pas + past participle
n’avez-vous pas vu?
46
ADJECTIVES – COMMON PAIRS
bon –mauvais
triste –content
fort –faible
riche –pauvre
froid –chaud
court –long
grand –petit
intelligent –stupide
méchant –gentil
fatigué –excité
même –différent
lourd –léger
calme –nerveux
tranquille –inquiet
fou –sérieux
intéressant –ennuyeux
sec –mouillé
occupé –paresseux
dur –mou, doux
propre – sale
vite –lent
vieux –jeune
possible –impossible
meilleure –pire
gros –maigre
bien rangé –en désordre
facile –difficile
beau/belle –laide
jolie –vilain
How are you feeling? –Comment tu te sens?
What’s wrong? –Qu’est-ce qu’il y a?
How’s is going? –Comment ça va?
47
DESCRIBING MOOD AND APPEARANCE
Mood
Happy –heureux / heureuse
Content, satisfied –Content/contente
Sad –Triste
Unhappy – Malheureux/malheureuse:
Sick Malade
Sick (with a cold or flu) Enrhumé/enrhumée:
Tired Fatigué/fatiguée:
Broken (literally): extreme exhaustion or extreme physical
feelings of malaise, Cassé/cassée
Able (to do something or in general) –Capable
Unable (to do something or in general) –
Incapable
Rushed – Pressé/pressée
Depressed (either in the clinical or non clinical
sense) –Déprimé/déprimée
Angry –Fâché/fâchée
Furious – Furieux/furieuse
In love – Amoureux/amoureuse
anxious – anxieux/anxieuse
apprehensive – inquiet/inquiète
busy - occupé(e)
compassionate – compatissant(e)
awkward – maladroit(e)
alert – alert(e)
frail –frêle
lonely - solitaire
miserable - malheureux/malheureuse
nervous - nerveux/nerveuse
pensive - songeur/songeuse
restless - agité(e)
surprised–surpris/surprise
impressed–impressionné
interested–intéressé
proud–fier/fière
confused–confus/confuse
frustrated- frustré
Appearance
attractive - attrayant(e)
bald - chauve
beautiful - beau/belle
big - grand(e)
bloody - sanglant(e)
blonde - blond(e)
bony - osseux/osseuse
brunnette - brunette
chubby - pôtelé(e)
curly - bouclé(e)
cute/pretty - jolie
fat - gros(se)
haggard - exténué(e)
tall - grand(e)
short - petit(e), court(e) (hair)
slender - mince
ugly - laid(e)
48
DESCRIBING PERSONALITY, ETC...
Personality, Character
generous - généreux/généreuse
gentle - doux/douce
impolite - impoli(e)
intelligent –intelligent(e)
jealous –jaloux / jalouse
loving - affectueux/affecteuse
mean - méchant(e)
merciful miséricordieux/miséricordieuse
nice - sympathique
obnoxious - odieux/odieuse
obstinate - obstiné(e)
organised –organisé(e)
petty - mesquin(e)
quiet - tranquille
reasonable - raisonable
selfish –égoïste
academic - intellectuel(le)
active - actif/active
acrimonious - acrimonieux/acrimonieuse
affectionate - affectueux/affectueuse
aggressive - agressif/agressive
agreeable - agréable
aloof - distant(e)
amicable - amical(e)
approachable - abordable
athletic,sporty - sportif/sportive
bad - méchant(e)
bitter - amer/amère
blunt - brusque
bossy - autoritaire
brave - courageux/courageuse
candid - franc/franche
carefree - insouciant(e)
sensitive - sensible
careless - négligent(e)
serious –sérieux/sérieuse
chatty - bavard(e)
competent or capable - compétant(e)
stodgy - lourd(e)
conceited - vaniteux/vaniteuse
strong - fort(e)
despicable - méprisable
terrible –térrible
dumb –bête
wise –sage
evil - malfaisant(e)
fashionable - à la mode
funny - drôle
insane - fou/folle
Religious Faith
Social class
Buddhist –bouddhist
Poor –pauvre
Catholic –catholique
Rich –riche
Christian –chrétien
Moslem/Islamic –musulman
49
THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE….
Demonstrative Adjectives
These behave the same way as the English equivalent. These go
before the noun being described. They must agree in gender and
number with the noun they modify:
E.g. this dog = ce chien, that guy = cet homme
English
This, that,
Masculine
Masculine vowel or
mute h
ce
cet
Feminine
(and feminine
vowel)
Plural
cette
These,those
ces
Demonstrative Pronouns :
Each of the four demonstrative pronouns can refer to something nearby
or far away. That is, celui and celle can both mean "this one" or "that
one," while ceux and celles can both mean "these" or "those." Your
listener can usually tell by the context which you mean, but if you want
to stress one or the other, you can use a suffix (see below).
English
this, that
these, those
Masculine
Feminine
celui
ceux
celle
celles
You can distinguish between this one and that one, these and those by adding ci (here) and -là (there)
Which girl did it, this one or that one?
Quelle fille l'a fait, celle-ci ou celle-là ?
I don't know if I want these or those.
Je ne sais pas si je veux ceux-ci ou ceux-là.
50
ADJECTIVES THAT GO BEFORE THE NOUN
some mnemonic devices to help you remember...
B eauty (pretty, beautiful, ugly )
Age (old, young, new)
Goodness (good, bad, kind)
Size (big, small, tall, fat, short, long)
Or this French acronym… bâton
B (beauty: beau, belle, joli)
Âge (age: jeune, nouveau, vieux, )
Taille: (size: grand, petit, gros, court, long)
BOnté (goodness: bon, mauvais, vilain, gentil)
Nombre (number:un, deux…plusieurs, quelques)
Other adjectives that go before the noun...
Other
Each,every
Last
such
All, whole, every
autre
chaque
dernier
Tel
Tout, tous
This poem of the same
adjectives will also help you
remember.
vieux, jeune, nouveau
vilain, joli, beau
court, long
mauvais, bon
grand, petit, gros
51
COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE
BETTER AND BEST
To make a comparison between two nouns, equivalent to the English –
er than…. use this formula:
X is –er than Y
Paul is smarter than Bill.
Bill is less intelligent than Paul.
X + est + plus/moins + adjective + que + Y
Paul est plus intelligent que Bill
Bill est moins intelligent que Paul.
X is the –est
Paul is the smartest.
Bill is the least smart.
X + est + le/la/les + plus/moins + adjective
Paul est le plus intelligent.
Bill est le moins intelligent.
the best – le meilleure
better than – mieux que…
the worst – le pire
worse than – plus mal que…
52
ADVERBS - COMMON PAIRS
TIME (when?)
FREQUENCY (how often?)
Aujourd’hui – demain
Jamais – souvent
Demain – hier
Tous les jours – rarement
avant-hier – après-demain
Toujours – jamais
Tôt – tard
À temps – en retard
QUANTITY (how many?)
Avant – après
Un peu de – beaucoup de
Premièrement – enfin
Moins de – plus de
Tout de suite – tout à l’heure
Trop de – assez de
Maintenant – plus tard
Vide – plein(e), complet(e)
depuis – il y a
d’abord - enfin
PLACE (where?)
Ici – là
Partout – quelque part
Dedans – dehors
Devant – derrière
En haut – en bas
Dessus – dessous
Près de – loin de
Sur – sous
Droite – gauche
MANNER (in what way? how?)
Mal –bien
Rapidement –lentement
53
ADVERBS FROM ADJECTIVES
The French have a simple method of making adverbs by adding the
ending 'ment' to adjectives, similar to the English method of adding
adding 'ly' to adjectives.
1. If the adjective ends in a vowel, just add ‘ment’
Absolutely – absolument
Politely – poliment
Comfortably - confortablement
Truly - vraiment
2. If the feminine version ends in a consonant – add
‘ment’ to the feminine form
Softly – doucement
actively Activement
easily Facilement
probably Probablement
Seriously - sérieusement
Rapidly – rapidement
Firstly – premièrement
Courageously - courageusement
3. Sometimes the finale ‘e’ changes to ‘é’
Precisely – précisément
profoundly Profondément -
Enormously – énormément
4. Adding –amment or –emment to adjectives ending in –
ant or -ent
Loud –bruyant Loudly – bruyamment
Constant – constant Constantly – constamment
Intelligent – intelligent Intelligently - intelligemment
54
DIRECTIONS AND LOCATIONS CHART
55
DIRECTIONS AND LOCATIONS - PAIRS
Giving Directions…
To – from
Left – right
straight ahead
North – south
East – west
Toward – by,through
à –de
à gauche –à droite
tout droit
au nord –au sud
à l’est –à l’ouest
vers –pars
Telling Locations…
Here – there
close to – far from
On – under
Above – below
High – low
in front – behind
Inside – outside
Before – after
Between – beside
Facing – back of
Ici – là
près de – loin de
sur –sous
Au-dessus – au-dessous
en haut – en bas
Devant – derrière
Dedans – dehors
Avant – après
Entre – à côté de
en face de – à l’arrière de
Qu’est-ce vous trouvez…?
Où est-ce vous trouvez le….?
56
CONJUNCTIONS – JOINING THOUGHTS
and
because
or
But
that...
if…
et
parce-que
ou
mais
que...
si…
also
so…
so/therefor
like, as
then…
aussi
donc
alors
comme…
puis
however
and yet,
though
cependant
pourtant
57
THE BIG 4 (être, avoir, faire, aller)
être –to be
J’/ Je
suis
Nous
am
Tu
es
are
Vous
are
Il, elle, on, qui
est
sommes
êtes
are
Ils, elles,…
is
sont
are
avoir –to have
J’/ Je
ai
Nous
have
Tu
as
have
Vous
have
Il, elle, on, qui
a
avons
avez
have
Ils, elles,…
has
ont
have
faire –to make, to do
J’/ Je
fais
Nous
do
Tu
fais
do
Vous
do
Il, elle, on, qui
fait
faisons
faites
do
Ils, elles,…
does
font
do
aller –to go
J’/ Je
vais
Nous
go
Tu
vas
go
Vous
go
Il, elle, on, qui
va
allons
allez
go
Ils, elles,…
goes
vont
go
58
EXPRESSIONS WITH THE BIG 4
EXPRESSIONS WITH ÊTRE
We are Canadian
Nous sommes canadiens
He's good looking.
Il est beau.
I'm in Oshawa.
Je suis à Oshawa.
I'm a student.
Je suis étudiant.
It's true, isn't it?
C'est vrai, n'est-ce pas?
This is my book.
Ce livre est à moi.
EXPRESSIONS WITH AVOIR
I'm hungry – J'ai faim
I'm thirsty – J'ai soif.
I'm right – J'ai raison
You're wrong – Tu as tort.
I'm hot – J'ai chaud.
I'm cold – J'ai froid.
I'm afraid of spiders. - J'ai peur des araignées.
He's lucky – Il a de la chance.
I need money. - J'ai besoin de l'argent.
He seems smart. - Il a l'air intelligent.
EXPRESSIONS WITH FAIRE
It's hot outside – Il fait chaud
I cook – je fais la cuisine
I read – je fais la lecture.
I go hunting – je fais la chasse
I garden – Je fais du jardinage.
I do an internship – je fais un stage.
I go on a picnic – je fais un pique-nique.
I do my best – je fais de mon mieux.
I play drums – Je fais de la batterie.
I study geography – Je fais de la géographie.
EXPRESSIONS WITH ALLER
I'll get it. - Je vais le chercher.
Go ahead! - Allez-y!
Let's go! - Allons-y!
How are you? - Comment ça va?
I walk – Je vais à pied.
I go fishing. - Je vais à la pêche.
I'm taking off! - Je m'en vais!
That goes without saying. - Ça va sans dire.
59
PRESENT TENSE
REGULAR VERB ENDINGS
Present Tense ER verb endings…
J’/ Je …
Nous , X et moi…
…e
…ons
Tu …
Vous
…es
…ez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
…e
…ent
Present Tense RE verb endings…
J’/ Je …
Nous , X et moi…
…s
…ons
Tu …
Vous
…s
…ez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
…
…ent
Present Tense IR verb endings…
J’/ Je …
Nous , X et moi…
…is
…issons
Tu …
Vous
…is
…issez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
…it
…issent
60
COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS
Vouloir – to want
J’/ Je …
Nous , X et moi…
veux
voulons
Tu …
Vous
veux
voulez
Il, elle, on, qui
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
veut
veulent
Pouvoir – can, be able to
J’/ Je …
Nous , X et moi…
peux
pouvons
Tu …
Vous
peux
pouvez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
peut
peuvent
Devoir – should, must
J’/ Je …
Nous , X et moi…
dois
devons
Tu …
Vous
dois
devez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
doit
doivent
Voir – to see
J’/ Je
Nous , X et moi…
vois
voyons
Tu
Vous
vois
voyez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
voit
voient
61
Savoir – to know a fact
J’/ Je …
Nous , X et moi…
sais
savons
Tu …
Vous
sais
savez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
sait
savent
Connaitre – to be aquainted with
J’/ Je …
Nous , X et moi…
connais
connaissons
Tu …
Vous
connais
connaissez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
connait
connaissent
Prendre – to take
J’/ Je
Nous , X et moi…
prends
prenons
Tu
Vous
prends
prenez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
prend
prennent
Mettre – to put
J’/ Je
Nous , X et moi…
met
mettons
Tu
Vous
mets
mettez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
met
mettent
62
Dire – to say
J’/ Je
Nous , X et moi…
dis
disons
Tu
Vous
dis
dites
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
dit
disent
Partir – to leave (implies a specific destination)
J’/ Je
Nous , X et moi…
pars
partons
Tu
Vous
pars
partez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
part
partent
Sortir – to go out (exit generally, take something outside)
J’/ Je
Nous , X et moi…
sors
sortons
Tu
Vous
sors
sortez
Il, elle, on, qui, le…, la… ‘name’…
Ils, elles, les…, ‘names’… ‘name et name…’
sort
sortent
63
THE FUTURE TENSE
Formula for future proche –the ‘going’to… method
Take aller in present tense and add the infinitive.
pronoun
+
je
I
tu
you
Il, Elle, On, Qui
He, she,
Nous
we
Vous
you
Ils, Elles
they
aller
vais
am going
vas
are going
va
is going
allons
are going
allez
are going
vont
are going
+
infinitive
(verb with er, ir, re ending)
finir
to finish
attendre
to wait
regarder
to watch
étudier
to study
partir
to leave
jouer
to play
Formula for future simple –the ‘will’… method
pronoun
+
je
tu
il,elle,on,qui
nous
vous
ils,elles
infinitive
+
regarder
attendr
finir
choisir
écouter
descendr
endings
AI –i will watch
AS –you will wait
A –he will finish
ONS –We will choose
EZ –You will choose
ONT –They will choose
64
LOTS AND LOTS OF INFINITIVES…..
Easy cognate verbs to play with. Practice with a partner to guess meanings.
Abandoner – to quit, abandon
Abolir - to abolish
Abominer – to hate
S’absenter – to leave,
Absorber – to absorb
Abstenir – to abstain
Abuser – to abuse
Accepter – to accept
Accompagner – to accompany
Accomplir – to accomplish
Accumuler – to accumulate
Acquérir – to aquire
Adapter – to adapt
Admettre – to admit
Adopter – to adopt
Adorer – to adore
Adresser – to address
Affirmer – to affirm
Aggraver – to aggravate
Aider – to help, aid
Ajuster – to adjust
Allumer – to alluminate, turn on
Amasser – to pile up, amass
Amputer – to amputate
Amuser – to entertain
Animer – to animate, give life to
Annihiler – to destroy
Annoncer – to announce,
Annuler – to annul, cancel
Apparaître – to appear
Applaudir – to applaud
Appointir – to appoint
Approcher – to approach
Appliquer – to apply
Apprécier – to appreciate
Assembler – to assemble
Assassiner – to murder
Assoccier – to associate
Attaquer – to attack
Argumenter – to argue
Arranger – to arrange
Autoriser – to authorize, allow
Balancer – to balance
Boxer – to box
Brosser – to brush
Calculer – to calculate
Calmer – to calm
Caractériser – characterize
Cataloguer – to list
Centrer – to center
Chaîner – to chain
Challenger – to challenge
Changer – to change
Chasser – to chase, hunt
Circuler – to circulate
Civiliser – to civilize
Coexister – to coexist
Collaborer à – collaborate with
Collecter – to collect
Colorer – to color
Combiner – combine
Communiquer – communicate
Comparer – compare
Compléter – complete
Concentrer – concentrate
Conditionner – to condition
Confesser – to confess
Confirmer – confirm
Considerer – to consider
Consister – to consiste of
Consulter – to consult
Continuer – to continue
Contribuer – to contribute
Copier – to copy
Correspondre – to correspond
Couvrir – to cover with
Craquer – to crack
Créer – to create
Critiquer- to criticize
Croquer – to crunch, munch
Cultiver – to cultivate
Cumuler – accumulate
Damner – to damn
Danser – to danse
Décider – to decide
Déclarer – to declare
Décorer – to decorate
Décrire – to describe
Défendre – to defend
Démolir – demolish
Démontrer – demontrate
Désarmer – disarm
Désobéir – disobey
Déterminer – determine,
establish
Détester – hate
Détruire – destroy
Discontinuer – discontinue
Discuter – discuss
Disputer – fight for, dispute
Diviser – to divide
Distribuer – to distibute
Divorcer – to divorce
Dominer – to dominate
Doubler – to double
Driller – to drill
Droguer – to drug
Dynamiter – to dynamite
Embarrasser – to embarrass
Embrasser – to embrace
émigrer – to emigrate
Employer – to employ, use
Encourager – to encourage
Engager – to engage
Engraver – to engrave
Enricher – to enrich
Entraîner – to train, coach,
Enveloper – to wrap up,
épicer – to spice
éroder – to erode
éstammer – to estimate
exagérer – to exaggerate
examiner – to examine
exciter – to excite
excuser –to apologise
executer – to execute
exercer – to exercise
exister – to exist
expliquer – to explain
explorer – to explore
Exploser – to explode
Exporter – to export
65
Falsifier – to falsify
Famliariser – to get used to
Favoriser – to favour
Fertiliser – to fertilize
Fixer – to fix
Flamber – to blaze
Flatter – to flatter
Flotter – to float
Forcer – to force
Former – to form
Fortifier – to fortify, make strong
Frapper – to knock
Fumer – to smoke, steam
Galoper – to gallop
Garantir – to guarantee
Garder – to keep, guard,
Généraliser – to generalize
Gesticuler – to gesticulate
Glouglouter – to gurgle
Gouverner – to govern
Grouper – to group
Hésiter – to hesitate
Honorer – to honour
Hospitaliser – to hospitalize
Humilier – to humiliate
Hypnotiser – to hypnotize
idéaliser – to idealize
Identifier – to identify
Ignorer – to ignore
Iluminer –to illuminate
Imaginer – to imagine
Imiter – to imitate
Implorer – to implore
Imposer – to impose
Incliner – to incline, lean
Indiquer – to indicate
Informer – to inform
Injecter – to inject
Insister – to insist
Inspirer – to inspire, breathe in
Installer – to install
Interpéter – to interpret
Interroger – to interrogate
Interrompre – to interrupt
Introduire – to introduce
Inventer – to invent
Inviter – to invite
Irriter – to irritate
Isoler – to isolate
Jalouser – to be jealous of
Japper – to yap
Jeter – to throw
Joindre – to join
Juger – to judge
Justifier – to justify
Kidnapper – to kidnap
Lacer – to lace up
Lancer – to throw
Libérer – to free, release
Mâcher – to chew
Maintenir – to maintain
Manager – to manage
Manipuler – to manipulate
Marier – to marry
Marquer – to mark, note, score
Matcher – to match
Mémoriser – to memorize
Mesurer – to measure
Minimiser – to minimize
Moquer – to mock, make fun of
Négliger – to neglect
Nommer – to name
Obéir – to obey
Obliger – to oblige
Observer – to observe
Organizer – to organize
Parachuter – to parachute
Parfumer – to scent, flavour
Participer – to participate
Passer – to pass time, go past,
Payer – to pay, pay for
Peindre – to paint
Percer – to pierce
Permettre – to permit, allow
Persuader – to persuade
Photographer – to photograph
Piloter – to steer, pilot
Pique-niquer – to picnic
Piquer – to sting, bite, prick
Placer – to place
Planter – to plant
Plonger – to dive, plunge
Plumer – to pluck
Porter – to carry, wear
Posséder – to possess, own
Pousser – to push
Préférer – to prefer
Projeter – to project
Promettre – to promise
Protester – to protest
Prouver – to prove
Publier – to publish
Questioner – to question
Quitter – to leave, vacate,
desert
Ranger – to tidy, arrange,
Raser – to shave
Rassembler – to reassemble
Réaliser – to realize
Recevoir – to receive
Réciter – to recite
Recommander – to recommend
Recycler – to recycle
Refuser – to refuse
Regretter – to regret
Rejeter – to reject
Remplacer – to replace
Réparer – to repare
Répéter – to repeat
Répondre – to respond, answer
Représenter – to represent
Respecter – to respect
Respirer – to breathe
Resemmbler – to ressemble
Retourner – to return
Roter – to belch
Rôtir – to roast
Ruiner – to ruin
Sacrifier – to sacrifice
Satisfaire – to satisfy
Séparer – to separate
Siffler – to whistle
Signaler – to signal
Signer – to sign
Snober – to snub
Souper – to have supper
Splitter – to spl
66
Sprinter – to sprint
Stabiliser – to stabilize
Stimuler – to stimulate
Stripper – to strip
Suggérer – to suggest
Supposer – to suppose
Suspecter – to suspect
Suspendre à – to suspend
Swinguer – to swing
Tatouer – to tatoo
Taxer – to tax
Téléphoner – to phone
Terminer – to end
Terrifier – to terrify
Terroriser – to terrorize
Toaster – to toast
Toiletter – to groom
Torturer – to torture
Toucher – to touch
Tourner – to turn
Tousser – to cough
Transformer – to change into
Transplanter – to transplant
Transporter – to carry
Traverser – to cross
Trembler – to tremble
Tripler – to triple
Troubler – to disturb
Twister – to twist
Ululer – to hoot (owl)
Unir – to unite
User – to use, wear away
Utiliser – to use
Vacciner – to vaccinate
Vaseliner – to coat with
Vaseline
Vomir – to vomit
Voter – to vote
Voyager – to travel
Vibrer – to vibrate
Violenter – to batter, assault
Vocaliser – to vocalize
Visualiser – to visualize
Zébrer – to stripe, streak
Zozoter – to lisp
67
THE REGULAR PAST TENSE WITH AVOIR
MEMORIZE THIS.....
ER verbs change to é
e.g. regarder –regardé
IR verbs change to i
e.g. finir –fini
RE verbs change to u
e.g. attendre –attendu
Here is the formula for past tense with avoir…
pronoun
tu
il
Nous
+ avoir
as
a
avons
+ verb stem
regard
fin
attend
+ ending
é
i
u
68
IRREGULAR PAST TENSE WITH AVOIR
Unfortunately there are always exceptions. The following list of irregular verbs
should be mastered, along with their past participles.
Être –to be
Avoir –to have
Prendre –to take
Lire –to read
Devoir –should, must
Savoir –to know
Pouvoir –can, be able to
Voir –to see
Vouloir –to want
Couvrir –to cover
Ouvrir –to open
Offrir –to offer
Comprendre –to
understand
Mettre –to put
Dire –to say, tell
Faire –to make, do
été
eu
pris
lu
dû
su
pu
vu
voulu
couvert
ouvert
offert
compris
mis
dis
fait
69
PAST TENSE WITH ÊTRE
There are several verbs that don’t use avoir in the passé compose, but use être instead. In
grade 8 you should memorize this list of verbs using the following mnemonics. There are others,
but I find this the easiest….
There are several mnemonic devices, but I find this the easiest...
THE ADVENT R VERBS
These are laid out in pairs of opposites.
to arrive –Arriver
to go down –Descendre
to come –Venir
to enter –Entrer
to be born –Naitre
to fall –Tomber
to stay –Rester
to leave –partir
to go up –monter
to go –aller
to exit –sortir
to die – mourir
to return –retourner
Here is the formula for past tense with être…
pronoun
je
tu
il
Nous
+ être
suis
es
est
sommes
+ verb stem + ending
arriv é(e)
all é(e)
sort i
descend u(e)s
not-so-tricky spelling rules for gender and plurality
1. an extra ‘e’if the pronoun is feminine
e.g. elle est arrivée
2.add an ‘s’if the pronoun is plural
e.g. vous êtes arrivés
3. add an ‘es’if the pronoun is feminine plural
e.g. elles sont arrivées
70
GIVING ORDERS – THE IMPERATIVE
To give a command you only use three (TU,VOUS,
NOUS) forms, and you don’t use the pronoun
For example: faire – to do
Faisons le travaille!
Va au bureau!
Fais le travaille!
Do the work!
(Let’s) do the work!
Faites le travaille!
Do the work!
(polite version, or plural version)
(familiar version, or singular version)
Note : When writing the imperative in singular tu, the final
‘s’ is dropped.
Irregular imperatives
These require special study. You will spend more time on these in high school.
avoir
(tu) aie = have !
(nous) ayons = let’s have…!
(vous) ayez
savoir
(tu) sache
(nous) sachons
(vous) sachez
être
(tu) sois = be
e.g. sois patient = be patient!
(nous) soyons
(vous) soyez
vouloir
(tu) veuille
(nous) n/a
(vous) veuillez
71
COMMON VERB PAIRS FOR PRACTICE
I have written these verbs in the imperative form,
but you can change them to third person singular or
first person plural to hear the patterns.
dites –parlez
levez-vous –asseyez-vous
sautez –arrêtez
commencez –finissez
buvez –mangez
vas –viens
allez –venez
oubliez –se rappelez
volez –tombez
dansez –chantez
mettez –enlevez
cherchez –trouvez
ouvrez –fermez
restez –bougez
traversez –restez
marchez - courez
sortez –entrez
gagnez –perdez
dormez –réveillez
arrivez –partez
donnez –prenez
gardez –laissez
écrivez –effacez
montez –descendez
criez –chuchotez
aimez –détestez
pleurez –riez
passez –ramassez
levez –baissez
poussez –tirez
lancez –attrapez
enseignez –apprenez
demandez –répondez
apparaissez –disparaissez
construisez –détruisez
jouez –travaillez
72
WRITING IN FRENCH –
THE APOSTROPHE
Whenever you come across an apostrophe, pretend it’s not there and blend
the sounds together as one. Do not stall or stop while reading the word with an
adjoining apostrophe. It is simply there to disallow two short vowel sounds from
‘banging’ into each other.
e.g. que + il = qu’il, que + elle = qu’elle, je + ai = j’ai,….
Note: this rap will help you….
Deux voyelles ensemble comme ça
Se cognent et ça ne marche pas!
Enlève le ‘e’, met l’apostrophe après
Et maintenant ça marche, c’est vrai!
73
FRENCH ACCENTS
The French language has accents for a reason; to distinguish the sound of the
letter, and to distinguish homographs (words that sound and spelled the same)
French evolved over a long time as a dialect of spoken Latin, called Romance.
Other Romance languages include: Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Portugese. And,
like other languages, the writing/spelling evolved over time to show the specific
sounds particular to the language of a particular region.
Here is a quick and dirty explanation of the French accents.
1. The acute accent, accent aigu (é) sounds like an ‘ay’ sound. Always!
2. The grave accent, accent grave (è), sounds like an ‘eh’ sound.
Accent grave is also used on the u, such as où. Où (meaning ‘where’)
sounds like ou (meaning ‘or’). The accent is added to tell the otherwise
identical words apart. Other homographs are ‘a’ and ‘à’
3. The circumflex accent, accent circonflexe, is found on e, a, i, u, and o. It
looks like ê, â, ô î, û. It was used as a shortcut to spelling words that originally
had an ‘s’ after those letters. (e.g. fenêtre, used to be fenestre, forêt used to
be forest, etc…)
It is also used to distinguish homographs apart from each other.
du is different in meaning from dû.
la is different in meaning from là
ou is different in meaning from où
4. The cedilla, accent cédille, is only found on c’s, like this: ç, and always
sounds like an ‘s’. e.g. garçon . If a c is followed by and e or an I, is always
sounds like an ‘s’. e.g. Cedric…. But also be aware that c can be pronounced
like a hard k, such as café
5. ï , the two dots above the vowel, called a trema, are designed to separate
two consecutive vowels sounds. e.g. naïve, not naive
74
PUNCTUATION RULES
1. When typing numbers and money, a space replaces the comma, and
a comma replaces the decimal point. Put a space after the last
number and the dollar sign goes at the end. English: $1,343.57
French: 1 343,57 $
English: 2,000,500 French: 2 000 500
2. When writing the time, use the 24 hour clock, and place a space
before and after the „h‟
English: 3:30 p.m.
French: 15 h 30
3. Quotation marks, called guillemots, are different and have a space
after opening and before closing. See the section on Typing in
French. « bonjour ! »
4. Always type two spaces after the colon (:), called deux points.
5. One space after a semi-colon, point-virgule (;). Don’t put a space
before it.
6. The period, point (.), has the same rules as in English. Type two
spaces after you’ve ended a sentence.
As a student you should be able to:
•
recognize and utilize the editing marks (see editing chart)
•
edit written text
•
remember the spacing rules when using punctuation marks.
75
CAPITALIZATION RULES FOR FRENCH
1. Don’t capitalize seasons, days, months
été, en hiver, jeudi, mardi, septembre, mai, ...
2. Don’t capitalize compass directions unless it is the proper name of a
place.
nord (le Nord), est (l’Est)...
3. Don’t capitalize religions (unless you are describing a follower of a
religion)
chrétien, catholique, musulman, bouddhisme,
4. Don’t capitalize nationalities or languages (unless you are describing
a human being)
canadien, italien, allemande, anglais, français....
5. Don’t capitalize geographical words (street, mountain, ocean, sea,
avenue...)
rue, avenue, mont, mer, océan...
7. Don’t capitalize je unless it’s at the beginning of a sentence.
76
TYPING IN FRENCH:
USING THE COMPUTER KEYBOARD SETTINGS
Go to your Control Panel and set the language and keyboard to the
following settings…
1. Change language US to French (Canada)
2. Use Keyboard English (Canadian Multilingual Standard)
3. Set keyboard control to be visible on task bar or on desktop for
changing between language settings
…all keys are the same as usual except the following, which are easy to find…
To make a…..
é, É
è, È
ô, î, ê, â….
ç
à
ù
French quotation
marks « …. »
?
’ (the apostrophe)
Type….
/
left shift then /
’
left shift then ’
[ then the letter o,i,e,a
]
\
Right alt then [ then u
Left shift and > (it will
automatically point in the correct
direction at the beginning and
end of the quote
Right shift then 6
Left shift then , (comma)
77
TYPING IN FRENCH:
USING THE ALT KEY AND ASCII CODES
An alternative way to typing in French, or other foreign languages, when you don’t want
to go through the bother of changing the keyboard and language settings, is to use the ASCII
(American Standard Code for Information Interchange )codes with the ‘alt’ key with the numeric
keypad. Make sure you turn on the “Num Lock” key, press Alt, hold and press the desired
numbers on the numeric keypad, not the numbers in the top row, then release the ‘Alt’ key. Note
that capital letters have separate code numbers.
A
à - 133
À - 0192
â - 131
 - 0194
æ - 145
Æ - 146
E
é - 130
É - 144
è - 138
È - 0200
ê - 136
Ê - 0202
ë - 137
Ë - 0203
I
î - 140
Î - 0206
ï - 139
Ï - 0207
O
ô - 147
Ô - 0212
U
ù - 151
Ù -0217
û - 150
Ü - 154
C
ç - 135
Ç - 128
œ - 0156
ΠР0140
When typing oe, and ae, the computer keyboard often joins them together,
such as in œuf, sœur, œil. I haven’t found this to be very consistent. It is
not mandatory that these letters be squished together, though it is
recommended to join them when handwriting in French.
78
TEXTING IN FRENCH / LES TEXTOS
(compiled from www.cpf.on.ca and french.about.com )
General Rules: phonetic short forms…
• É replaces c’est, s’est, sais, etc…
• C replaces ai, ais
• K can replace QU (koi)
• O replaces AU, EAU, AUX, etc.
• T replaces T’ES, etc..
• 1 replaces UN, EN, IN
• 2 replaces DE
TEXT
12C4, A12C4
2 ri 1
6né
A+, @+
A2m1, @2m1
AMHA
AP, APLS
ASV
ALP
A tt
Auj
B1sur
BCP
Bi1to
Biz
Bjr
C
C1Blag
CAD
Cb1
C Cho
Cé
Ché
Chu/chui/chuis
C mal1
C pa 5pa
CPG
Ct
D100
D’ac, dak
DSL
DQP
EDR
ENTK, EntouK
FRENCH
Un de ces quatre
De rien
Ciné
À plus
À demain
À mon humble avis
À plus,
Âge, sexe, ville
À la prochaine
À tout à l’heure
Aujourd’hui
Bien sûr
Beaucoup
Bientôt
Bisous
Bonjour
C’est
C’est une blague
C’est-à-dire
C’est bien
c’est chaud
C’est
Chez
Je suis
C’est malin
C’es pas sympa
C’est pas grave
C’était
Descends
D’accord
Désolé
Dès que possible
Écroulé de rire
En tout cas
ENGLISH
One of these days
You’re welcome
Movie theater
L8R Later,
CU2moro Til tomorrow,
IMHO In my humble opinion,
TTFN, L8r, later, Tata for now
ASL , Age, sex, location
TTFN, Tata for now,
See you soon
Today
Of course
A lot
Real soon now, RSN
XXX, Kisses
Hello
It is
It’s a joke, just kidding
That is, i.e.
That’s good
it’s hot
It is
At the home of…
I am
That’s clever, sneaky
That’s not nice
INBD, it’s no big deal
It was
Get down
OK
IMS, I’m sorry
ASAP, as soon as possible
LOL, laughing out loud
IAC, in any case
79
TEXT
FAI
FDS
G
GHT
G la N
GspR b1
Gt
Je c
Jé
Je le saV
Jenémar
Je t’M, JTM
Je vé, j’vé
JMS
JSG
KDO
Kan, Kand
Ke
Ké
Kel
Keske
Ki
Koi29
L’s tomB
Lut, SLT
MDR
mr6, M
MSG
Now
NSP
O
Ok1
OQP
Oué
P2k
Parske, PK
p-ê
Pkoi
Po, pô
q-c q, queske
QDN
Qq
Qqn
raf
Rdv
RE
ri1
Savapa
SLT, lut
SNIF
FRENCH
Fournisser d’assès internet
Fin de semaine
J’ai
J’ai acheté
J’ai la haine
J’espère bien
J’étais
Je sais
J’ai
Je le savais
J’en ai marre
Je t’aime
Je vais
Jamais
Je suis genial
Cadeau
Quand
Que
Qu’est
Quel, quelle
Qu’est-ce que
Qui
Quoi de neuf
Laisse tomber
Salut
Mort de rire
Merci
Message
Maintenant
Ne sais pas
Au
Aucun
Occupé
Ouais
Pas de quoi
Parce que
Peut-être
Pourquoi
Pas
Qu’est-ce que
Quio de neuf?
Quelques
Quelqu’un
Rien à faire
Rendez-vous
(je suis de) retour, rebonjour
Rien
Ça va pas
Salut
J’ai de la peine
ENGLISH
ISP, internet service provider
Wknd, weekend
I have
I bought
H8, hate
I hope so
I was
I know
I have
I knew it
I’m sick of it
ILUVU, I love you
I’m going
NVR, never
I’m (doing) great
gift
When
That, what
What is
Which
What
Who
What’s new?
Forget it
Hi
ROFL, rolling on the floor laughing
Thx, thanks
Msg, message
ATM, at the moment
dunno
In the, at the
None, not one
Busy
Yeah
URW, you’re welcome
COZ, because
maybe
Y, why
Not
what
What’s new?
some
Someone
Nothing to do
Meeting, date, appointment
I’m back, hi again
0, nothing
Is something wrong
hi
I’m sad
80
TEXT
ss
STP, SVP
T
Tabitou
tata KS
Tds
ti2
Tjs
Tkc
TLM
T nrv?
TOK
TOQP
Tps
Tt
V1
Vazi
VrMan
X
XLnt
Y a , ya
FRENCH
(je) suis
S’il te/vous plait
T’es
T’habites où
T’as ta casse
Tout de suite
T’es hideux
Toujours
T’es cassé
Tout le monde
T’es énervé?
T’es OK?
T’es occupé
Temps
Tout
Viens
Vas-y
Vraiment
Crois, croit
Excellent
Il y a
ENGLISH
I am
PLS, please
You are
Where do you live?
You have a car?
Right away
You’re hideous
Always
You’re tired
Everyone
You irritated, annoyed?
RUOK?, are you ok
RUBZ?, are you busy
Time, weather
All, every
Come
Go
Really
Believe
XLNT
There is, there are
81
CEFR REFERENCE LEVELS OF BILINGUAL ABILITY
Proficient User
C2
C1
Independent User
B2
B1
Basic User
A2
A1
Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can summarise
information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing
arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation. Can express him/herself
spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of
meaning even in more complex situations.
Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without
much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, wellstructured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.
Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract
topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. Can
interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction
with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. Can produce
clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a
topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters
regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most
situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is
spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics, which are familiar, or of
personal interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes &
ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.
Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas
of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information,
shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and
routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar
and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her
background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic
phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. Can introduce
him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal
details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she
has. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and
clearly and is prepared to help.
82
BASIC USER LEVELS A1 and A2
ORAL COMMUNICATION
A1
A2
Fluency
I can manage very short isolated, mainly prepackaged phrases and words, with much
pausing to search for expressions and
articulate less familiar words and repair
communication.
I can make myself understood in very short
utterances, even though pauses, false starts
and reformulation are very evident.
Interaction
I can ask and answer questions about
personal details. I can interact in a simple
way but communication is totally dependent
on repetition, rephrasing and repair.
I can use the simplest everyday polite forms
and greetings and farewells; introductions;
saying please, thank you, sorry, etc…
I can answer questions and respond to
simple statements. I can indicate when I am
following the conversation, but am rarely
able to understand enough to keep
conversation going of my own accord.
Vocabulary Range and Control
I have a basic vocabulary repertoire of
isolated words and phrases related to
particular concrete everyday situations (i.e.
family and personal details)
I have a sufficient vocabulary for coping
with simple survival needs; for the
expression of basic communicative needs; to
conduct routine, everyday transactions
involving familiar situations and topics.
Grammatical Accuracy
I show only a limited control of a few simple
grammatical structures and sentence patterns
in a learnt repertoire. I can communicate very
basic information about myself and my
family, my job in a simple and direct
language, and I can join simple phrases with
‘and’, ‘then’, ‘but’, ‘because’.
I use some simple structures correctly, but
still systematically make basic mistakes –
for example tends to mix up tenses and
forget to mark agreement; Nevertheless, it is
usually clear what he/she is trying to say.
Phonological Control
My pronunciation of a very limited repertoire
of learnt words and phrases can be
understood with some effort by native French
speakers used to dealing with French Second
Language speakers.
My pronunciation is generally clear enough
to be understood despite a noticeable foreign
accent, but conversational partners will need
to ask for repetition from time to time.
83
READING COMPREHENSION
A1
A2
Overall Comprehension
I can understand very short, simple texts a
single phrase at a time, picking up familiar
names, words and basic phrases and
rereading as required.
I can understand short, simple texts
containing the highest frequency
vocabulary, including a proportion of
shared international vocabulary items.
I can understand short, simple texts on
familiar matters of concrete type, which
consist of high frequency everyday
language, or language related to my
knowledge and experience.
Conditions and Limitations
I read a single phrase at a time, re-reading
part of text.
I am restricted mainly to common everyday
language and language related to a field of
my knowledge and experience
WRITING PRODUCTION
A1
A2
Overall Written production
I can write simple isolated phrases and
sentences. Can ask for or pass on personal
details in written form.
I can write a series of simple phrases and
sentences linked with simple connectors
like “and”, “but”, and “because”. I can
write short simple formulaic notes relating
to matters in areas of immediate need.
Orthographic Control
I can copy familiar words and short phrases
(e.g. simple sings and instructions, names
of everyday objects, names of shops and set
phrases used regularly. I can spell my
address, nationality and other personal
details.
Apart from the most common words an
expressions, I need to consult a dictionary
I can copy short sentences on everyday
subjects (e.g. directions how to get
somewhere. I can write with reasonable
phonetic accuracy, short words that are in
my oral vocabulary, but not necessarily full
standard spelling
I write only on familiar and routine matters.
Writing continuous coherent text is
difficult.
Conditions and Limitations
84
INDEPENDENT LEVELS B1 and B2
ORAL COMMUNICATION
B1 Threshold
B2 Vantage
Fluency
Can keep going comprehensibly, even
though pausing for grammatical and lexical
planning and repair is very evident,
especially in longer stretches of free
production.
Can produce stretches of language with a
fairly even tempo: although he/she can be
hesitant as he/she searches for patterns and
expressions. There are few noticeably long
pauses.
Interaction
Can imitate, maintain and close simple faceto-face conversations on topics that are
familiar or of personal interest. Can repeat
back part of what someone has said to
confirm mutual understanding.
Can initiate discourse, take his/her turn when
appropriate and end conversation when
he1/she needs to, though he/she may not
always do this elegantly. Can help the
discussion along on familiar ground
confirming comprehension, inviting other in,
etc.
Vocabulary Range and Control
Has a sufficient vocabulary to express
him/herself with some circumlocutions on
most topics pertinent to his/her everyday life
such as family, hobbies and interests, work,
travel, and current events. Shows good
control of elementary vocabulary but major
errors still occur when expressing more
complex thoughts or handling unfamiliar
topics and situations.
Has a good range of vocabulary for matters
connected to his/her field and most general
topics. Can vary formulation to avoid
frequent repetition, but lexical gaps can still
cause hesitation and circumlocution. Lexical
accuracy is generally high, though some
confusion and incorrect choice does occur
without hindering communication.
Grammatical Accuracy
Uses reasonable accurate a repertoire of
frequently used ‘routines’ and patterns
associated with more predictable situations.
Communicates with reasonable accuracy in
familiar contexts; generally good control
though with noticeable mother tongue
influence. Errors occur, but it is clear what
he/she is trying to express
Shows a relatively high degree of
grammatical control. Does not make
mistakes which lead to misunderstanding.
Good grammatical control: occasional slips
or non-systematic errors and minor flaws in
sentence structure may still occur; but they
are rare and can often be corrected in
retrospect.
Phonological Control
Pronunciation is clearly intelligible eve if a
foreign accent is sometime evident and
occasional mispronunciations occur.
Has acquired a clear, natural, pronunciation
and intonation.
85
READING COMPREHENSION
B1 Threshold
B2 Vantage
Overall Comprehension
I can read straightforward factual texts on
subject related to my field and interest with
a satisfactory level of comprehension
I can read with a large degree of
independence, adapting style and speed of
reading to different tests and purposes, and
using appropriate reference sources
selectively. I have a broad active reading
vocabulary, but may experience some
difficulty with low frequency idioms.
Conditions and Limitations
I have an ability to identify main
conclusions and follow arguments
restricted to straightforward texts.
There is only a minor limitation in my
access to a range of different types of texts.
I can read different types of text at different
speeds and in different ways according to
the purpose and type of text. I require a
dictionary for more specialized or
unfamiliar texts.
WRITING PRODUCTION B1 and B2
Overall Written production
Orthographic Control
Conditions and Limitations
B1 Threshold
B2 Vantage
I can write straightforward connected texts
on a range of familiar subjects within my
field of interest, by linking a series of
shorter discrete elements into a linear
sequence. I can convey information and
ideas on abstract as well as concrete topics,
chick information and ask about or explain
problems with reasonable precision. I can
write personal letters and notes asking for,
or conveying, simple information of
immediate relevance, and get across the
point I feel to be important.
I can produce continuous writing which is
generally intelligible throughout. My
spelling, punctuation and layout are
accurate enough to be followed most of the
time.
I can write clear, detailed =texts on a
variety of subjects related to my field of
interest, synthesizing and evaluating
information and argument from a number
of sources. I can express news and views
effectively in writing, and relate to those of
others.
The range of texts can be limited to more
familiar and common ones, such as
describing things and writing about
sequences of actions. Writing for
argumentation and contrasting issues are
difficult for me.
I can produce clearly intelligible
continuous writing, which follows standard
layout and paragraphing conventions. My
spelling and punctuation are reasonably
accurate but my show signs of English
influence.
Expressing subtle nuances in taking a
stance or in telling about feeling and
experiences is usually difficult for me.
86
I CAN DO LISTS
Descriptor…
A1 Listening Comprehension:
1. I can understand basic vocabulary about myself and my family
2. I can understand basic vocabulary related to my surrounding
(e.g., school, classroom, or workplace
3. I can understand numbers, prices, and times
4. I can understand questions and follow short simple
instructions in class, to find objects in class, house, mall, city
map, etc…
5. I can understand simples directions, to get from A to B, by foot
or public transport
6. I can understand some simple messages and stories by
identifying some words and expressions
A1 Spoken production:
7. I can briefly describe my family and where I live
8. I can express my basic needs (washroom, food, drink, etc…)
9. I can state a list of items (e.g. hobbies, animals, food,
classroom objects…)
10. I can state my likes and dislikes about food, clothing, animals,
sports, etc…
11. I can give my name, age, address, and telephone number
12. I can say when I don’t understand
13. I can very simply ask somebody to repeat what they said
14. I can ask somebody to speak more slowly
15. I can describe objects’ size, shape, colours, (suit, animal, face)
16. I can describe what I, or others, can or cannot do
17. I can simply describe my family members (who they are, how
old they are, and what they do)
A1 Spoken interaction:
18. I can introduce somebody and use basic greetings such as
‘hello’ and ‘good bye’
19. I can ask and answer simple questions and make simple
statements about basic needs or very familiar topics
20. I can ask people for things and give people things
21. I can ask people questions about where they live, people they
know, things they have and answer similar questions
addressed to me provided they are spoken slowly and clearly
22. I can make simple purchases by pointing or using other
gestures to support what I say
23. I can make statements involving numbers, quantities, and cost
24. I can ask and give the time and can use such phrases as ‘next
week’, ‘last Friday, ‘in November, 3 o’clock’
1
not ready
yet
2
Somewhat
3
Partially
4
Fully
mastered
87
25. I can provide the date including the day of the week, month
and year, as well as my birthdate
26. I can make myself understood in a simple way with the other
speaker being prepared to repeat more slowly and rephrase
what I say and to help me to say what I want
27. I can buy things in shopw ehre pointing or other gestures can
support what I say
28. I can use and understand simple numbers in everyday
conversations (e.g. prices , telepohone numbers>
29. I can answer the phone, give my name, and answer basic
questions
30. I can use basic greattging and leave-takeing expressions
31. I can ask how people are
A1 Reading
32. I can understand basic questions of standardized forms to give
the most important information about myself
33. I can understand information about people (place of residence,
age)
34. In everyday situations, I can read short, simple message and
notes
35. I can decipher posters, signs and labels everyday life to
determine times, dates, costs and locations
36. I can understand some newspaper headlines with familiar
words
37. I can read short text with familiar words and very simple
sentence s and grasp the overall meaning of the text
(comptines, rhymes, greeting cards)
38. I can understand import words relating to computer programs
such as save, copy and print
39. I can follow simple written directions
A1 Writing
40. I can write a postcard or greeting card describing how I am
feeling and what I am doing using short simple phrases
41. I can fill in a form or questionnaire giving basic personal
information (e.g. job application, hotel registration, etc…)
42. I can write short simple sentences about myself and what I do
Descriptor…
A2 Listening Comprehension:
1. I can understand simple information and questions about
family, people, homes, work, and hobbies
2. I can understand what people way to me in simple, everyday
conversation, if they speak clearly and slowly and give me
help
3. I can understand short conversations about family, hobbies
and daily life, provided that people speak slowly and clearly
4. I can follow changes of topic in TV news reports and
understand the main ideas
5. I can understand short, clear, and simple messages at the
school, bus depot, airport, train station if spoken very clearly
1
not ready
yet
2
Somewhat
3
Partially
4
Fully
mastered
88
6. I can understand enough of what people say to be able to
meet immediate needs, provided people speak slowly and
clearly as long as I can ask for help
7. I can generally identify change in the topic of discussion
around me which is conducted slowly and clearly
8. I can understand short, simple stories when told clearly and
slowly
9. I can follow the main points of TV news, if people talk slowly
and clearly, if I can familiar with the subject and if the images
help me to understand the story
10. I can understand the main point in short, clear, simple
messages, announcements and instructions (e.g. public
transit, airport…)
A2 Spoken production:
11. I can describe myself, family and other people
12. I can describe my education, present or last job
13. I can describe my hobbies and interests
14. I can describe my home and where I live
15. I can describe what I did ant the weekend or on my last
holiday
16. I can talk about my plans for the weekend or on my next
holiday
17. I can explain why I like or dislike something
18. With time to prepare, I can give basic information about
something I know well (i.e. country, sports team, musician,
etc…)
19. I can describe place I line (i.e. town, resorts, stores, etc)
20. I can say what I do in my free time
21. I can describe plans, arrangements and alternatives
22. I can describe past activities, events, and personal
experiences
23. I can describe a job or study experience, daily chores
24. With time to prepare, I can briefly explain and give reasons for
my actions
25. I can briefly present a country, sports team, musician, etc…
26. I can summaries simple stories I have read, relying on the
language used in the story
A2 Spoken interaction:
27. I can ask people how they feel in different situations (e.g. are
you hungry, OK, )
28. I can say how I feel (e.g. various adjectives of mood, etc…)
29. I can ask and answer simple questions about home and
country, work and free time, likes and dislikes
30. I can ask and answer simple questions about the past event,
(e.g. time and place of party, who was there, what
happened…)
31. I can make and accept invitations, or refuse invitations politely
32. I can make and accept apologies
89
33. I can discuss plans with other people (e.g. what to do, where
to go, when to meet…)
34. I can ask for and give directions using a map or plan
35. I can communicate in everyday situations, (e.g. order food and
rink, shopping, using post offices, banks, etc…)
36. I can use the bus, train, taxi, …ask for basic information about
travel and buy tickets
37. I can use standard phrases to answer the phone, exchange
simple information, have a short telephone conversations with
someone I know (e.g. arrange a meeting, etc…)
38. I can have short conversation with friends and ask and answer
simple questions about familiar topics (e.g. weather, hobbies,
pets, music, sport, etc…)
39. I can ask and answer simple questions about things in the
past (e.g. yesterday, last week, last year, last summer, etc…)
40. I can ask for and give opinions, agree, and disagree, in a
simple way. I can discuss different things to do, place to go,
etc…
41. I can give and follow simple directions and instructions (e.g.
explain how to get somewhere…)
42. I can handle most everyday situation (e.g. shopping, eating
out and checking travel times)
43. I can get simple information about travel, buying tickets and
finding out and passing on information on places, times, costs,
etc…)
44. I can phone friends to exchange news, discuss plans and
arrange to meet.
A2 Reading
45. I can understand short simple texts containing familiar
vocabulary including international words
46. I can find the most important information in advertisements,
brochures, Web pages, catalogues, timetables, etc
47. I can understand the main points in short, simple news items
and descriptions if I already know something about the subject
(i.e. sports, pop culture, school, etc.)
48. I can understand clear instructions (how to use a telephone,
cash machine, vending machine, etc…)
49. I can understand the main points of short, simple, everyday
stories, especially with visual support
50. I can understand short simple messages from friends (i.e.
emails, IM, postcards, short letters…)
51. I can understand short, simple texts on familiar subjects, which
consist of high-frequency, everyday or job-related language
52. I can use the phone book, other reference books to find what I
want and understand the most important pieces of information
(e.g. price and size of apartment, cars, computers, etc…)
53. I can understand main points in short newspaper/magazine
stories, especially when illustrated
54. I can understand instructions expressed in simple language
(public telephones, public transport ticket machines, safety
information, directions,.)
55. I can understand short everyday stories about familiar subject
if the text is written in simple language
56. I can understand simple texts, emails and letters from friends
or colleagues, for example saying when we should meet for
lunch/dinner or asking me to be a t work early…)
90
A2 Writing
57. I can write about myself using simple language, (e.g. my
family, at school, job, hobbies, )
58. I can write about my everyday life in simple sentences (e.g.
people, places, job, school, family, hobbies…)
59. I can write very short, basic descriptions of past activities, and
personal experiences, (e.g. recent holiday, etc)
60. I can write about things and people I know well in simple
language, (e.g. descriptions of friends, events of the day, etc)
61. I can complete a questionnaire with information about my
education background, job, interests, skills
62. I can complete a simple questionnaire or standardized report
form using short sentences
63. I can write a simple message (e.g. make or change invitation
or appointments)
64. I can write a short message to friends to give them persona
news, ask a questions (e.g. text message, postcard)
65. I can write messages, short letters, emails, making
arrangements or giving reasons for changing them
66. I can write short letters or e-mails, telling about everyday
things to people I know well
CORE 4-8 FRENCH CURRICULUM VOCAB AND GRAMMAR
Descriptor…
Survival Vocabulary 4-8
1. I can recite all letters randomly, including accented vowels
2. pronounce cognates properly
3. colours
4. Question words
5. numbers zero to 10
6. numbers 11 to 20
7. numbers 30 to 99
8. large numbers over 100
9. common shapes
10. tell time 12 hour clock to the hour
11. tell time 24 hour clock to the hour
12. tell time to half hour and quarter to, quarter past the hour
13. times of the day and night
14. days, months, seasons, calendar terms (yesterday, today,
etc…)
15. transportation vehicles
16. clothing
17. body parts
1
not ready
yet
2
Somewhat
3
Partially
4
Fully
mastered
91
18. animals
19. food, meals
20. menu items
21. dollar amounts and shopping
22. household items and rooms
23. classroom objects
24. weather and climate
25. school courses, subjects,
26. family members
27. daily chores
28. shopping
29. common greetings, phrases,
30. sports and leisure activities
31. physical geography, city, provinces, countries
32. jobs and careers
33. technology and communication
34. common expressions
Grammar Grade 4
35. definite and indefinite articles
36. common regular adjectives of mood
37. être present tense, common expressions with être
38. avoir present tense, common expressions with avoir
39. faire present tense, common expressions with faire (sports,
music, weather…)
40. aller, common expressions with aller
41. subject pronouns
42. regular ER verbs
43. common prepositions
Grammar Grade 5
44. using aimer and infinitive (double verb introduction)
45. adverbs of quantity
46. more common expressions with être
47. more common expressions with avoir
48. more common ER verbs in present
49. common RE verbs in present
Grammar Grade 6
50. partitive article
92
51. expressions with faire
52. IR verbs in present
53. Imperative / giving commands
54. possessive adjectives mon, ma, mes…..
55. adverbs and expressions of quantity
Grammar Grade 7
56. future tense with aller and infinitive
57. adjectives preceding nouns
58. regular adjective spelling patterns
59. using ne…pas with partitive article
60. demonstrative adjectives
61. irregular adjectives
62. conjunctions and compound sentences
63. inversion questions
64. possessive adjectives continued
65. irregular verbs vouloir, devoir,….
66. double verbs with vouloir, devoir,
67. contractions of à + le, de + le, ….
Grammar Grade 8
68. pronouns y and en
69. past tense regular ER with avoir
70. past tense regular RE with avoir
71. past tense regular IR with avoir
72. past tense irregular with avoir
73. comparative adjectives
74. superlative adjectives
75. making adverbs with adjectives using ‘ment’
76. past tense with être

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